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LG/OCT 2010/BEL120/100




INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. This question paper consists of two (2) parts : PART A (10 Questions) PART B (1 Question)


Answer ALL questions from both parts in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) ii) the Question Paper an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty




This examination paper consists of 8 printed pages
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PART A: READING (15 MARKS) Read the text below and answer all the questions in the answer booklet. I Coconuts are the fruit of the coconut palm. The botanical name of the coconut palm is cocos nucifera with 'nucifera' meaning 'nut-bearing'. The coconut's name is a bit of a misnomer since the fruit is classified as a drupe and not a nut. A drupe is a fleshy fruit which usually has a single hard stone enclosing a seed. Examples of drupes are peaches, plums and cherries. In fact, the coconut has the largest seed known. The English name 'coconut' comes from the Spanish and Portuguese word 'coco' which means 'monkey face'. Spanish and Portuguese explorers had found a resemblance to a monkey's face in the three round indented markings or 'eyes' at the base of the coconut shell. 5


The fruit-bearing coconut palms are native to Malaysia, Polynesia and southern Asia. Now, they also grow successfully in South America, India, the Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Florida. The light, fibrous husk has allowed the coconut to easily drift on the oceans and propagate in these lands miles away from their original homes.



In Sanskrit, the coconut palm is known as kalpa vriksha, meaning 'tree that gives all that is necessary for living' since nearly all parts of the tree can be used in one way or another. The coconut itself has many uses as food. Its meat, milk, sugar and oil are much valued food items and the shell itself can be used as a cup and to serve all the food elements which it contains! The husk is burned for fuel and today, a fibre called coir which is extracted from the husk is used to make brushes, mats, fishnets and rope. Furthermore, from the coconut palm's sap, a strong fermented drink called toddy is made. Coconut oil, a saturated fat made from dried coconut meat, is used for commercial frying and in candies and margarine as well as in non-food products such as soaps and cosmetics. In the Nicobar Islands of the Indian Ocean, whole coconuts were once used as currency for the purchase of goods until the earlier part of the twentieth century.




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Most of us love the slightly cloudy yet almost clear, fresh coconut water. Coconut water has been found to be a natural isotonic drink with the same level of electrolytic balance as we have in our blood. Furthermore, in comparisons made between 100 ml samples of coconut water and manufactured isotonic drinks, it was shown that coconut water contains about 294 mg of potassium while most sports drinks and energy drinks have about 117 mg of the element. More importantly, coconut water has less sodium (25 mg) than sports and energy drinks (200 mg). Coconut water has 5mg of natural sugars whereas sports 35 30

drinks and energy drinks contain 10-25 mg of altered sugar. Chloride content is also much higher in coconut water (118 mg) compared to the amount of chloride in sports drinks (39mg).

To realize the health benefits of coconut water, one must relate its constituent minerals with how these minerals are relevant to the body's health. A diet low in potassium and high in sodium may be one of the factors which leads to high blood pressure. Athletes involved in hard exercise may require higher quantities of potassium than normal. In the case of sodium, a high sodium intake may lead to hypertension. A reduction in sodium helps lower blood pressure in all people with hypertension. Chloride in the diet works with sodium and potassium to control the flow of fluid in blood vessels and tissues. Chloride also regulates the acidity in the body and also forms part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. While health authorities feel that sugar intake should be kept to a minimum due to health issues, they prefer people to consume natural sugars rather than sugars altered or modified chemically or genetically. In many ways, then, coconut water proves to be a better isotonic drink than its manufactured counterparts. 50 45 40


Coconut water is even considered to be the 'fluid of life'. Malaysians who often buy their fresh coconut water from roadside stalls might laugh at this claim as an exaggeration: but how many of them know that during the Pacific War of 1941-1945, both sides (the Japanese and the Allied troops) regularly used

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LG/OCT 2010/BEL120/100

coconut water drained directly from the nut to give emergency plasma transfusions to injured soldiers? Coconut water in fact is identical to blood plasma. It is also a universal donor which means that it can be used for anyone needing it and it is compatible with any plasma type.



One other widely-used product of the coconut fruit is coconut oil. It has received much bad publicity for encouraging cholesterol build-up in the arteries when it is used for cooking. Thus, many people today avoid using it in their cooking. However, recent research has found that coconut oil does provide medical benefits. It is being praised by the medical research community as an effective antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal agent and is widely used to treat many forms of viral infections and skin problems caused by bacteria and fungus. It has been found to be one of the most effective oils for skin maintenance. 65 60


The coconut palm and the coconut itself are truly supreme gifts of nature. It is amazing that such a humble plant which grows easily even in poor soil can be so beneficial to humans.

Sources: Answer the following questions in complete sentences where appropriate. 1) What do the following words and phrase refer to?

a) eyes (line 9) b) Its (lines 17) c) this claim (line 52) d) which (line 68) (2 marks)

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2) Give the meanings of the following words as they are used in the passage.

a) propagate (line 13)

i) die in numbers

ii) increase in numbers

iii) travel in numbers

b) currency (line 26)

i) money

ii) items for barter trade

iii) gifts

c) issues (line 48)

i) problems

ii) benefits

iii) guidelines

d) exaggeration (line 53)

i) miscalculation

ii) serious statement

iii) overstatement (2 marks)

3) Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

a) Early European explorers thought a coconut looked like a monkey's face.

b) Coconut-bearing palms are originally from Malaysia, Polynesia, southern Asia and South America.

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c) The coir is found in the husk of the coconut.

d) The Pacific War involved Malaysians.

e) People now agree that coconut oil can be used more confidently for cooking. (2Y2 marks)

4) Why does the writer state that the term 'coconut' is inappropriate? (1 mark)

5) What are the ideas which are linked by 'while' in line 46? (1 mark)

6) What is altered sugar? (1 mark)

7) What is the topic sentence of paragraph VI? (1 mark)

8) List the reasons coconut water is suitable for plasma transfusions. (1!4 marks)

9) Why do you think the coconut plant is described as a 'humble plant' in line 68? (1 mark)

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LG/OCT 2010/BEL120/100

10) Fill in the blanks with information from the passage. Items Potassium Amount Per 100ml Energy drinks have a) mg Effects Prevents high blood pressure

less potassium than that found in coconut water. Thus, coconut water contains more potassium than energy drinks. Sodium Coconut water has 8 times less sodium content than that found in energy drinks. Chloride The amount water of is chloride in Chloride hebs to c) and d) b) can lead to a lower blood pressure.



higher than that found in energy drinks.

(2 marks)

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PART B: WRITING (15 MARKS) QUESTION 1 Write an essay of about 230-250 words on why the rate of absenteeism has increased among university students. You may mention the following reasons - dull subjects, negative peer influence and ignorant parents and lecturers. Elaborate your points and give examples.


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