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Measurement of Physical quantities in Physics
Introduction
You have studied in the last chapter, the fundamentals of scientific study in
relevance to the subject Physics, the science of physical phenomenon of nature. You
can now proceed to frame the hypothesis/theory/law to explain any physical
phenomenon of nature. But as we have already discussed that there is no meaning
of words until unless our theory or law is based on certain physical parameters of
study or may be called as physical quantities, those could be expressed and
measured quantitatively. These quantities are the basis of experimental validation of
the theory propounded. Now we shall try to understand the concept of physical
quantities regarding their definition and their use in interpreting the laws of Physics.
At the same time regarding measurement of these quantities, we shall glance over
the different standards of measurements prevailing world wide to quantitatively
measure physical quantities and how these standards make computations involving
physical quantities make so simple.
Unit One
Now in this unit of about half an hour you will be able to learn
a) Concept of fundamental and derived quantity.
b) System of measurements in practice.
c) System of measurements in S.I. system.
d) System of units and conversion of units from one system to another.
Concept of fundamental and derived quantity
As we have discussed that to understand the seen phenomenon of nature
theories/hypothesis/laws are framed. But there is no sense and meaning of words
until unless the laws or postulates are based on measurable quantities. The laws of
physics are expressed and experimentally validated in terms of these physical
quantities. The laws expressed in terms of these physical quantities are invariant
with space and time.
For the purpose of Physics it is very essential that quantities should be defined
clearly and precisely and should have the conceptual meaning for the postulated
law. Among these are force, time, velocity, density, temperature, charge, magnetic
susceptibility and numerous others.
Now as per the practice all the physical quantities involved in the Physics today
may be grouped in two sets. One set contains the physical quantities as a
fundamental one and other set contains quantities derived from these fundamental
one. For an example length and time may be taken as a fundamental quantities and
the quantity velocity defined as the ratio of length upon time may be termed as a
derived quantity. However which quantity will be taken as a fundamental and
which one as derived depends on system to system. For example S.I. system of units
takes length, mass and time as a fundamental quantity and the quantity force
defined as the product of mass and acceleration (length/time
2
) as a derived
quantity. While the F.P.S. system of units and measurement takes force, length and
time as a fundamental quantity and mass as a derived quantity.
Now the intention of creating physical quantities is that physical laws are expressed
in terms of these quantities and which are themselves evaluated in terms of
numerical values. These values should be such that can be characterized as intrinsic
to the experiment conducted and may be compared to the same quantity arrived in
another set of experiment.
Now the comparison of physical quantities can be done only when each physical
quantity either fundamental or derived one is based on some standard of
measurement. The standard of measurement is a set of standard where each
fundamental quantity is assigned a specific unit value. The unit value to that
quantity is such that it is invariant with space and time and is easily accessible. For
example in the S.I. system of measurement the physical quantity mass has been
given a unit value as one kilogram and defined as mass of the international standard
body preserved at Severes, France. However it certainly involves the procedure to
account the unit value of the fundamental quantity, where different objects having
different values in the same set of conditions can be compared. For example by the
procedure to obtain mass of a standard body, the spring balance in terms of stretch
of spring may be used. The stretch of spring is directly proportional to the mass of
the body. By comparing the different stretches of spring, the masses of different
bodies, may be compared.
So in final words the operational definition of fundamental quantity involves two
steps, first choice of a standard and second the establishment of procedures for
measuring the quantity in terms of standard so that a number and unit are
determined as a measure of quantity. But very important aspect of choice of
standard is that it should be accessible and invariant. For example we have selected
our standard for length to measure the distance between two points as one meter,
then by a comparison of this length with a second object three times in length as
standard, we say that second bar has a length of three meters.
However most quantities cannot be measured directly in comparison to standard
and indirect approach using some involved procedure is required and also certain
assumptions are made to ascertain the matter. For example measuring the time of
sending and receiving the electromagnetic pulse with known speed, the distance can
be measured as product of speed and one half of time interval. Here we have set half
time of sending and receiving the signals as our standard of measurement and
different distances may be compared with different times of observations. However
the speed of pulse is to be determined through the other acclaimed procedure.
Similarly, we use an indirect method to measure very small distances between
atoms and molecules by particle scattering method.
System of measurements in practice
Now so far we have studied that quantities in physics are either fundamental one or
derived one depending upon the system of measurement we are using and shall
study the different systems of measurement prevailing and used all over the world.
The fundamental quantities are defined in terms of a standard of measurement
devised in that particular system of measurement and procedure to measure the
quantity so that comparison of different objects may be done in terms of that
quantity. The derived quantities are derived from these fundamental one and for the
complete descriptions will have dimensions showing the fundamental quantities
involved and units of these dimensions involved depending upon the system of
measurement used.
Now we shall discuss the different system of measurements prevailing all over the
world and their merits and demerits.
Imperial System of units measurement
Before S.I. system of units adopted around the world, the British systems of
English units and later Imperial system of units were used in Britain, the
Commonwealth and the United States. The system came to be known as U.S.
Customary units in the United States and is still in use there and in a few
Caribbean countries. These various systems of measurement have at times been
called footpoundsecond systems after the Imperial units for distance, weight and
time. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain despite the fact that it has
officially switched to the SI system. Road signs are still in miles, yards, miles per
hour, and so on. People tend to measure their own height in feet and inches and
beer is sold in pints, to give just a few examples. Imperial units are used in many
other places, for example, in many Commonwealth countries, which are
considered metricated, land area is measured in acres and floor space in square
feet, particularly for commercial transactions (rather than government statistics).
Similarly, the imperial gallon is used in many countries that are considered
metricated at gas/petrol stations, an example being the United Arab Emirates.
Metric System of Measurement
The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement based on the metre and
the Kilogram. It exists in several variations, with different choices of base units,
though these do not affect its daytoday use. Since the 1960s the International
System of Units (SI), explained further below, is the internationally recognized
standard metric system. Metric units of mass, length, and electricity are widely
used around the world for both everyday and scientific purposes. The main
advantage of the metric system is that it has a single base unit for each physical
quantity. All other units are powers of ten or multiples of ten of this base unit. Unit
conversions are always simple because they will be in the ratio of ten, one
hundred, one thousand, etc. All lengths and distances, for example, are measured
in meters, or thousandths of a metre (millimeters), or thousands of meters
(kilometres), and so on. There is no profusion of different units with different
conversion factors as in the Imperial system (e.g.inches, feet, yards, fathoms, rods).
Multiples and submultiples are related to the fundamental unit by factors of
powers of ten, so that one can convert by simply moving the decimal place: 1.234
metres is 1234 millimetres or 0.001234 kilometres. The use of fractions, such as 2/5
of a meter, is not prohibited, but uncommon.
S.I system of measurement
The International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French language name
Système International d'Unités) is the modern, revised form of the metric system. It
is the world's most widely used system of units, both in everyday commerce and in
science. The SI was developed in 1960 from the metrekilogramsecond (MKS)
system, rather than the centimetregramsecond (CGS) system, which, in turn, had
many variants. At its development the SI introduced several newly named
fundamental units that were previously not a part of the metric system.
The S.I. system of units has the following set of standards for measurement:
Standard of Length
The first standard of length measurement conceived was a bar of platinumiridium
alloy kept at International Bureau of weights and measures near Paris. The
distance between two lines engraved on gold plugs near the ends of the bar (when
the bar was at 0.00 degree centigrade and supported in a certain mechanical
system) was defined as one meter. But the main disadvantage of the meter bar is
that it is not accurately producible at everywhere. In 1961 an atomic standard of
length was accepted by International agreement. The wavelength of orange
radiation emitted by atoms of Krypton (Kr
36
) in electrical discharge was chosen.
One meter is now defined to be 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of this light. The choice of
atomic standard has offered a great advantage that there is enough precision in
length measurements and all atoms generate light of same wavelength, at
everywhere therefore accessible and invariant with respect to space and time.
Standard of Time
For the development of the time standard there are two different aspects for the
purpose. One is for civil and another for scientific work according to the desired
accuracy in the work. We define the time to know the duration between the start
and end of events and classify them in such a sequence where precedence of start or
end of one event can be compared with other by counting number of repetitions as
the division of time phase. An oscillating pendulum, quartz crystal, oscillating
spring or digital counter can be used for the purpose. Of the many repetitive
phenomenon occurring in the nature, the rotation of earth on its own axis, which in
time span is length of day, has been used as time standard and still the basis of
determining civil time standard. One mean solar second being defined as 1/86,400
of a mean solar day and time expressed in terms of Earth’s rotation about its own
axis is called universal time (UT)
In 1956, The International Congress of Weight and measures redefined the second
for the scientific purposes requiring high precision, in terms of the earth orbital
motion about the sun and found it to be the fraction 1/31,556,925.9747 of the tropical
year 1900 and time defined in terms of the earth orbital motion is called ephemeris
time (ET).
But the main disadvantage of the above time standards is that both UT and ET must
be determined by astronomical observations extending over several weeks (for UT)
or several years (for ET) and a secondary terrestrial clock, calibrated by the
astronomical observations is needed for the purpose. Quartz crystal clocks, based on
the electrically sustained natural periodic vibration of a quartz crystal serve as a
time standard and have measured time with a maximum error of 0.02 sec in a year.
One of the most common uses of a time standard is the determination of frequencies
and for the purpose the atomic clocks using the periodic atomic vibrations as a
standard have been developed which gives accurate time estimates to a accuracy of
fraction of micro seconds and are invariant with space and time.
As per the S.I. system of units the second (s) is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods
of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the hyperfine levels of the
ground state of the Cs
133
atoms.
Standard of Mass
The kilogram (kg) is the mass of the international standard body preserved at
Severes, France.
Standard of amount of Substance (Mole)
The amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities (Avogadro
number 6.02x10
23
) like atoms if substance is monoatomic or molecules is called a
mole. For example 0.012 kg of carbon12, called as one mole substance contains
10 0 . 6
23
x
Nos of atoms of carbon12.
Standard of Current
The ampere (A) is the current in two very long parallel wires 1m apart that gives
rise to a magnetic force of
10 0 . 2
7 −
x N/m.
Standard of Temperature
The Kelvin (K) is
16 . 273
1
of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of
water.
Standard of Luminous Intensity
The candela (cd) is the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction of a surface
of a area
000 , 600
1
sq meter of a black body at a temperature of freezing platinum at
pressure of 1 atm.
Units and their conversion
We have studied earlier that all derived quantities are dependent upon the
fundamental quantities and fundamental quantities on certain standards. The
choice of standard units for these fundamental quantities determines the system of
units for all physical quantities used all over the world. For example the M.K.S.
system of units classifying fundamental quantities mass, length and time as
Kilogram, meter, second. Therefore once the choice of the system of units has been
made the derived or dependent quantities follow the same system of units and will
have both number and unit in its notification.
When such quantities are added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided in an algebraic
equation the unit can be treated as an algebraic quantity. For example we wish to
find out the distance traveled by a person traveling at a speed of 5 km per hour in
five hours than
Distance traveled = Speed x Time=
h x
h
Km
5 0 . 5
=25 km
Ex 1. 5 litre of benzene weigh more in summer or winter?
(A) Summer (B) Winter (C) Equal in both (D) None of these
Sol: Since volume increases and density decreases after rise in temperature so for a
given volume of benzene say 5 litre it will weigh more in the winter for higher
density.
Ex 2. The SI unit of length is the meter. Suppose we adopt a new unit of length
which equal to x meters the area 1m
2
expressed in terms of the new unit has a
magnitude
(A) x (B) x
2
(C)1/x (D)1/x
2
Sol: Area = 1m x 1m = (1 unit/x)(1 unit/x) = 1/x
2
unit
2
So magnitude=1/x
2
Ex 3. If the unit of length is micrometer and the unit of time is microsecond, the unit of
velocity will be
(A) 100 m/s (B) 10 m/s (C) micrometer/s (D) 1 m/s
Sol: Velocity=L/T = 1 m/s
Ex 4. If the units of length and force are increased four times, then the units of energy will
(A) Increase 8 times (B) increase 16 times (C) decrease 16 times (D) increase 4 times
Sol: E
0
= F
0
d
0
En = 16 f
0
d
0
En = 16 E
0
Hence each unit of new energy dimension is 16 times each unit of energy in old dimension
Ex 5. In a particular system, the unit of length, mass and time are chosen to be 10 cm.,10 gm,
and 0.1 s respectively. The unit of force in this system will be equivalent to
(A) 1/10 N (B) 1 N (C) 10 N (D) 100 N
Sol: unit of mass = 10 gm
Length = 10 cm.
Time = 0.10 s
Unit force in the new system with dimensions M L T
–2
have 10 (gm)(10 cm) (0.1 s)
2
And so equals to 1/10 N
OR
Since 1N = 1kg m.s
–2
= 10
3
gm.(10
2
cm)( s
2
)
Hence each unit of force = 1N/10
Ex 6. What will be the unit of time in that system in which the unit of length is ‘metre’ unit
of mass ‘kg’ and unit of force ‘kg.wt.’?
(A) 1√9.8 sec (B) (9.8)
2
sec (C)√9.8 sec (D) 9.8 sec
Sol: Force F = MLT
2
kg (9.80 m/s
2
) = kgmT
2
T = 1/√9.8 s
OR
F= M L T
–2
T=√ ML/F = √ kg . m/ kg wt
So T= √ kg . m / kgwt = 1/√ 9.8 sec
Ex7. If the velocity of light c, acceleration due to gravity g , and the atmospheric pressure p
are taken as the fundamental units , then the unit of mass will be
(A) 1 kg (B) 81 kg (C) 9x10
18
kg (D) 81x10
34
kg
Sol: M= c
x
g
y
p
z
= M
z
L
x+yz
T
–x –2y –2z
; so z=1, x=4, y=3
M=pc
4
/g
3
=81x10
34
Kg
Ex8 Is the time variation of position as shown in the fig is observed in nature? Explain.
P o s i t i o n o f P a r t i c l e ( x )
T
i
m
e
i
n
S
e
c
.
(
t
)
Sol: The answer is clearly NO because at any instant of time the particle can’t have two
positions and time doesn’t decreases.
Ex9. The normal duration of physics practical period in Indian colleges is 100 minutes.
Express this period in micro century. 1 micro century =106 x 100 year.
Sol: T= 100 minutes =100/60x24x365x10
–4
= 1.9 Microcenturies;
Ex 10. The SI and C.G.S. units of energy are joule and erg respectively. How many erg are
equal to one joule.
Sol: In M.K.S. system of units Energy =Kg m
2
/s
2
= 1 joule= 10
7
grams cm
2
/s
2
= 1 Erg in
C.G.S. system
Ex 11. Young’s modulus of steel is 19x10
10
N/m
2
. Express it in dyne/cm2. Here dyne is the
C.G.S. unit of force.
Sol: 19 x10
11
Dyne /cm
2
;
Ex 12. The density of a substance is 8 g/cm
3
. Now we have a new system where unit of
length is 5 cm and unit of mass 20 g. Find the density in the new system.
Sol: Density of substance = 8 g/cm
3
; Unit of length = 5 cm ; Unit of mass = 20 g.
Since dimension of density ρ = ML
3
T
0
ρ
2
/ρ
1
= (M
2
/M
1
) (L
2
/L
1
)
3
= 20 (5)
3
= 4/25; Density of substance in new system = 50 units
Exercise 1
Q1. If the units of force, energy and velocity in new system be 10 N, 5 J and 0.5 m s
1
respectively, find the units of mass, length and time in the new system.
Which gives M=E/v
2
=5J/(0.5)
2
= 20 Kg; L=E/F=0.5 m; T=E/FV=1 sec
Q2. The radius of proton is about 10
9
microns and the radius of the universe is about 10
28
cm.
Name a physical object whose size is approximately half way between these two on a
logarithmic scale.
Q3 Assuming that the length of the day uniformly increases by 0.001s in a century. Calculate
the cumulative effect on the measure of time over twenty centuries. Such a slowing down of
the earth‘s rotation is indicated by observations of the occurrences of solar eclipses during
this period.
Q4. The unit of length convenient on the nuclear scale is fermi ; 1 f=10
15
m. Nuclear sizes
obey roughly the following empirical relation; r=r
0
A
10
where r is the radius of the nucleus.
A its mass number and r
0
is a constant equal to 1.2 f. Find out whether mass density is nearly
constant for different nuclei.
Solutions Exercise 1
Ans1. Let M = F
x
E
y
v
z
and so x=0, y=1 and z=2
Ans2: On logarithmic scale the exponent value= 15+(15+26)/2= 15 + 41/2=5.5
Hence the size of object=10
5.5
≅ 1x10
6
( Radius of moon)
Ans3: Increase in length of day in 20 centuries = 20 x 0.001s
Average increase in length of day = 0.001x 20/2 = 0.01s
Cumulative error in time measurement = cumulative error in day length increase in 20
centuries = 20 x100 x 365 x 0.01/3600 h= 2.03 h
Ans4:Mass density of nucleus=A(m
p
)/(4/3 π r
3
) ≅ 10
17
Kg/m
3
Introduction
So far we have defined the physical quantities in terms of their interdependence and evolved
procedures to measure the physical quantities. Now we shall try to understand the way the
physical quantities appear in the laws of physics and the rules of mathematical manipulations
followed.
Each physical quantity may be attributed a set of dimensions according to the base units
involved in the quantity and laws of physics involve mathematical manipulations of these
physical quantities. As each statement should follow certain rules involving the physical
quantities regarding their mathematical manipulations, is governed by the dimensional
analysis.
Beside that physical quantity regarding their representation numerically should follow certain
rules so that degree of accuracy of the measurement could be ascertained at a glance of the
presentation of measurement. It is governed by the rules of significant digits of measurement
of physical quantities. These two are the scope of study now.
So at the end of this unit of around one hour you will be able to learn
• Dimensions of physical quantities and dimensional analysis.
• Concept of significant digits for the presentation of measurement of quantities in Physics.
Dimensions of Physical Quantities
As we have stated earlier that physical quantities can be added, subtracted, multiplied or
divided in the same manner as any other algebraic quantity. The addition or subtraction of
quantities is meaningful only if the quantities have followed same standard of units and so
are dimensionally homogeneous. The dimensional consistency is must for equation to be
correct. The correctness of equation can be checked by comparing the physical dimensions of
each term in the equation under discussion. A list of various physical quantities with their
usual convention and dimensions are
:
S.No Quantity Symbol Physical
formula
S.I unit Dimension
formula
1 Acceleration a a=∆v/∆t
m/s
2
M
0
LT
2
2 Angular
acceleration
α α = ∆ω/∆t
Rad/sec
2
M
0
L
0
T
2
3 Angular
Displacement
θ θ=arc/radius Radian
M
0
L
0
T
0
4 Angular
Momentum
L L=m v r
Kg m
2
/s M L
2
T
1
5 Angular
Velocity
ω ω=θ/t Rad/sec
M
0
L
0
T
1
6 Area A l x b
(Metre)
2
M
0
L
2
T
0
7 Capacitance C Q = CV Farad
M
1
L
2
T
4
A
2
8 Charge q q=I t Coulomb
M
0
L
0
T A
9 Current I  Ampereor A
M
0
L
0
T
0
A
10 Density d d =M/V
Kg/m
3
M L
3
T
0
11 Dielectric
constant
ε
r
ε
r
=ε/ε
0
___
M
0
L
0
T
0
12 Displacement S ___ Metre or m
M
0
LT
0
13 Electric
dipole
moment
P P=q 2l Coulomb
metre
M
0
L T A
14 Energy KE/U
KE=1/2mv
2
Joule
M L
2
T
2
15 Force F F=ma Newton or N
M L T
2
16 Force
Constant
K K=F/x N/m
M L
0
T
2
17 Frequency f f=1/T Hertz
M
0
L
0
T
1
18 Gravitational
Constant
G
G=F r
2
/m
1
m
2
N m
2
/kg
2
M
1
L
3
T
2
19 Heat Q Q=ms∆t Joule/calorie
M L
2
T
2
20 Impulse  F x t N.sec
M L T
1
21 Intensity of
electrical field
E E = F/q N/coul
M L T
3
A
1
21 Intensity of
electrical field
E E = F/q N/coul
M L T
3
A
1
22 Latent Heat L Q = mL Joule/kg
M
0
L
2
T
2
23 Magnetic
dipole
moment
M M=NIA
Amp.m
2
M
0
L
2
A T
0
24 Magnetic flux
φ E=dφ/dt Weber
M L
2
T
 2
A
1
25 Magnetic
intensity
H B =µH A/m
M L
1
T
0
A
26 Moment of
Inertia
I
I=mr
2
Kg m
2
ML
2
T
0
27 Momentum P P = mv Kg m/s
M L T
1
28 Mutual
inductance
L E=L.di/dt Henery
M L
2
T
2
A
2
29 Power P P=W/t Watt
M L
2
T
3
30 Pressure P P =F/A Pascal
M L
1
T
2
31 Resistance R V=IR Ohm
M L
2
T
3
A
2
32 Specific heat S Q=m s ∆t Joule/kg.kelvi
n
M
0
L
2
T
2
θ
1
33 Strain ___ ∆l/l; ∆A/A;
∆v/v
___
M
0
L
0
T
0
34 Stress ___ F/A
N/m
2
M
0
L
0
T
2
35 Surface
Tension
T F / l N/m
M L
0
T
2
36 Temperature θ ___ Kelvin
M
0
L
0
T
0
θ
1
37 Torque
τ
F.d N.m.
M L
2
T
2
38 Universal gas
constant
R PV = nRT Joule/mol.k
M L
2
T
2
θ
1
39 Velocity v v = ∆s/∆t m/s
M
0
LT
1
40 Volume V V=l x b x h
(Metre)
3
M
0
L
3
T
0
41 Work W F.d N.m
M L
2
T
2
42 Young
Modulus
Y Y =
(F/A)/ ∆l/l
N/m
2
M L
1
T
2
Application of dimensional analysis
1. To find the unit of a physical Quantity.
2. To convert units of a physical Quantity from one system to another.
3. To check the dimensional correctness of a given relation. It is to be further noted that
every dimensionally correct relation does not mean to have physically correct
relationship. If we have some idea or can make an educated guess as to how one
physical quantity relates to another we can use dimensions to derive the form of the
equation.
As an example, consider the equation for the period of pendulum bob. We might suppose that
the period depends on the mass of the bob, the length of the pendulum and the
acceleration due to gravity
We can express this as T=m
x
l
y
g
z
. Where x, y and z are as yet undetermined indices.
To find the values of x, y and z we convert the formula into its dimensions. On the lefthand
side the dimension of the period is [T], the dimension of mass is [M], the dimension of the
length of the pendulum is [L] and the dimension of g is [LT
2
].
[T]=[M]
x
[L]
y
[LT
2
]
z
.
Equating lefthand indices with matching dimensions on the righthand side.
[M]: x=0
[L]: y+z=0
[T]: 2z=1
From this we can deduce that z=1/2, while y=1/2 and x=1/2
Substituting these values into the original equation we obtain. T= k(l/g)
1/2
. Where k
is a constant of proportionality. Compare this with the equation for the period of a
pendulum
g
l
T π 2 ·
The form of the equation is correct, but it cannot determine the constant of proportionality.
Limitations of application of dimensional analysis
1. If the dimensions are given, physical quantity may not be unique as many
physical quantities have same dimensions.
2. Since numerical constants have no dimensions, can’t be deduced by dimensional
analysis. For example 1, etc.
3. The dimensional analysis can’t be used to derive relationship other than the
product of power functions. However the dimensional correctness of the relation
may be checked. For e.g. S=u t+1/2 a t
2
, y= a sin ω t
4. The method of dimension can’t be applied to derive relationship when a physical quantity
depends on more than three quantities. For e.g. T=2 π √ I/(m g l)
Ex1. If velocity, force and time are taken to be fundamental quantities find dimensional
formula for quantity mass
(A) V
1
FT
1
(B) V
1
FT (C) VF
1
T
1
(D) V
1
F
1
T
Sol: M=K (V)
x
(F)
y
(T)
z
; x= 1, y =1, z =1; M = K V
1
F T
Ex2. You may not know integration. But using dimensional analysis can check or prove
results .in the integral
∫ dx/(2axx
2
)
1/2
= a
n
sin
1
[x/a1]
The value of n should be
(A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 0 (D) 1/2
Sol: The dimension of a is that of x and for dimensional consistency of the equation n should
be equal to zero.
Ex3. In the cauchy’s formula for the refractive index n = A+B/λ
2
the dimensions of A and
B are
(A) Both are dimensionless (B) A is dimension less , B has dimension M
0
L
2
T
0
(C) A is dimension less, B has dimensions M
0
L
2
T
0
(D) Both A and B have dimensions
M
0
L
2
T
0
Sol: Since refractive index is dimensionless hence A should be dimensionless and B should
have dimensions of Length
2
that is M
0
L
2
T
0
Ex4. A highly rigid cubical block A of small mass M and side L is fixed rigidly on the
another cubical block B of same dimensions and of low modulus of rigidity η such that
lower face of A completely covers the upper face of B. The lower face of B is rigidly held
on a horizontal surface. A small force F is applies perpendicular to one of the side face of
A. After the force is withdrawn, block A executes small oscillation, the time period of
which is given by
(A) 2π√ (mη L) (B) 2π√ (Mη /L) (C) 2π√ (ML/η ) (D) 2π√ (M/Lη )
Sol: Check the dimensions of the left and right side quantities.
Ex5. The frequency of oscillation of an object of mass m suspended by means of spring of
force constant k is given by f = c m x ky, where c is a dimensionless constant the value of
x and y are
(A) x = ½, y = ½ (B) x =  ½, y = ½ (C) x = ½, y =  ½ (D) x =  ½, y =  ½
Sol: Putting the dimensions on the two sides and equating the powers of the base quantities
we get x= 1/2, y =1/2
Multiple Choice Type of Questions
Ex1. Suppose a quantity x can be dimensionally represented in terms of M, L and T i.e.[X] =
M
a
L
b
T
c
the quantity mass
(A) Can always be dimensionally represented in terms of L, T and x.
(B) May be represented in terms of L,T and x if a = 0
(C) May be represented in terms of L, T and x if a = 0
(D) May be represented in terms of L, T and x if a ≠ 0
Sol: Any quantity may be represented in terms of other quantities as base quantities such that
the quantities are dependent upon each other with a certain relationship. Here I the case the
quantity M may be represented in terms of L, T, x if a≠ 0 so that M remains related with the
rest of quantities.
Ex2. Choose the correct statement (s)
(A) A dimensionally correct equation may be correct
(B) A dimensionally correct equation may be incorrect
(C) A dimensionally incorrect equation must be correct
(D) A dimensionally incorrect equation must be incorrect
Sol: A dimensionally correct equation may be correct or incorrect. But a dimensionally
incorrect equation can never be correct.
Ex3. Choose the correct statement (s)
(A) All quantities may be represented dimensionally in terms of the base quantities.
(B) All base quantities cannot be represented dimensionally in terms of the rest of base
quantities.
(C) The dimension of a base quantity in other base quantity is always zero.
(D) The dimension of a derived quantity is never zero in any base quantity.
Sol: ( A ), (B),( C )
Descriptive Type of Questions:
Ex.1 (a) Can a physical quantity have no unit and dimensions? If yes give an example.
(b) Can a physical quantity have units without dimensions? If yes give an example.
Ans41: (a) Strain has neither unit nor dimensions but it is a defined physical quantity.
(b) Angle measured in radians is physical quantity, which has unit of radian but no
dimension. The angle measurement in a plane that is radian and angle of a solid that is
steradian are supplementary units to supplement the physical quantities like angular
displacement and angular velocity. No dimension has been assigned to these quantities.
Ex2. Find the dimensional formulae of e
0
& m
0
(Where e
0
is the absolute permittivity and m
0
is the permeability of vacuum or free space respectively ).
Sol: The dimensions of ε
0
= M
1
L
3
T
4
A
2
; The dimensions of µ
0
= MLT
2
A
2
Ex3. Assuming that the largest mass that can be moved by a flowing river depends on
velocity of flow density of river water and on gravity, find out how the mass varies with
velocity of flow.
Sol: M=K(v)
x
(d)
y
(g)
z
; x=6, y=1, z=3 and so M= K v
6
d g
–3
Ex4. The gas constant R depends upon pressure of the gas P, volume of the gas V,
temperature of the gas T and number of moles n. Derive an expression for gas constant, R
Sol: Let P= K V
x
n
y
R
z
T
m
, on solving for dimensions of base quantities M,L,T and n we
get x=1, y=1, z=1, T=1 and so PV=n RT
Exercise 2
Matching Type of Questions:
Q1. In the following table, there are two lists A and B, but the list B is not in order of list A.
write down the list B in order of list A in each table.
(a) Moment of inertia (i) Newton /Meter
2
(b) Surface tension (ii) kg/ (metres)
(c) Angular acceleration (iii) kg – meter
2
(d) Coefficient of viscosity (iv) Newton/meter
(e) Coefficient of elasticity (v) radian/s
2
(f) Momentum (vi) MLT
1
(g) Gravitational Constant (vii) ML
2
T
1
(h) Plank Constant (viii) M
1
L
3
T
2
Q2. Column I gives three physical quantities. Select the appropriate units for these from
choices given in column II. Some of the physical quantities may have more than one choice :
I II
Capacitance Ohm second
Inductance Coul
2
joul
1
Magnetic inductance Coulomb (Volt)
1
Newton(amperem)
1
Voltsec (Ampere)
1
Q3. Match the physical quantities given in column I with dimensions expressed in column if
in tabular form
(a) Angular momentum (a) ML
2
T
2
(b) Latent heat (b) ML
2
Q
2
(c) Torque (c) ML
2
T
1
(d) Capacitance (d) ML
3
T
1
Q
2
(e) Inductance (e) M
1
L
2
T
2
Q
2
(f) Resistivity (f) L
2
T
2
Q4. The position of a particle at any time is given by S(t) = V
0
/a (1e
at
), where a>0 and V
0
are constants. What are the dimensions of a and V
0
?
Q5. The equation of a wave traveling along the x axis by y = A e[x/at/T] 2, write the
dimensions of A , a and T.
Q6. Suppose an attractive nuclear force acts between two protons which may be written as F
= Cekt/r2
Write down the dimensional formula and appropriate SI units of C and K.
Q7. Find the dimensional formula of L/R, where R is the resistance and L is the coefficient of
selfinductance.
Q8. Find out the dimensions of electrical conductivity.
Q9. The equation of state of a real gas is given by [p+a/v
2
](vb) = RT, where p, v and T are
pressure , volume and temperature respectively and R is the universal gas constant. Find out
the dimensions of the constant a in the above equation.
Q10. The heat produced in a wire carrying an electric current depends on the current, the
resistance and the time; assuming that the dependence is of the product of powers type, guess
an equation between these quantities using dimensional analysis. The dimensional formula
of resistance is ML
2
T
3
A
2
and heat is a form of energy.
Q11. The frequency of vibration of a stream depends on the length L between the nodes, the
tension F in the string and its mass per unit length M. Guess the expression for its frequency
from dimensional Analysis.
Q12. The kinetic energy E of a rotating body depends on its moment of inertia I and its
angular speed w. Assuming the relation to be E =K Ia wb where K is a dimensionless
constant, find a and b. Moment of Inertia of the sphere about its diameter is 2/5Mr
2
.
Q13 (a) In the formula X=3YZ
2
, X and Z have dimensions of capacitance and magnetic
induction respectively. What are the dimensions of Y in MKSQ system?
(b) Calculate the dimension(s) of VCR/L, where V=supply voltage, C=capacitance,
R=resistance and L=inductance.
Q14. If velocity of light c, the gravitational constant G and plank constant h be chosen as the
fundamental units, then find the dimensions of mass, length and time in the new system.
Concept of Significant digits
As we have seen every measurement pertains to the standard we are going to use
and its numerical value is read from the calibrated scale based on that standard of
measurement. The value of measurement contains two parts
(i) One part with all digits read directly from the scale by the smallest subdivision of
the scale called as certain digits of measurement
(ii) and the second part contains doubtful digits at end corresponding to the eye
judgment within the least subdivision of the scale. For example the length
measured by the meter scale having least count of 1cm as 50.35 cm contains digits 5,
0 as certain 3 is doubtful and 5 is insignificant. The digits 5, 0, 3 are termed as
significant digits and 5 as insignificant digit. There may be some confusion while
dealing with the measurements containing zero at their end but rule is the same.
As a general practice we report only the significant digits and magnitude of any
physical quantity is represented by proper power of 10. For example if only 5 is
significant in 500 cm then we report it as 5 x 10
2
cm, with 5 as a significant digit. If 5
and first zero that is two digits are significant then we write 5.0 x 10
2
cm. and if all
the digits are significant we report it as 5.00 x 10
2
cm.
If the integer part of the digit is zero then all the continuous zeros after the decimal
are treated as insignificant digits as the number 0.00003 having first digit as zero
then all the continuous digits are also insignificant. For this reason it is important to
keep the trailing zeros to indicate the actual number of significant figures.
However if first digit is nonzero as in 1.0005 then all zeros will be counted for
significant digits containing five significant digits as 1,0,0,0 and 5 respectively.
For numbers without decimal points, trailing zeros may or may not be significant.
Thus, 400 indicate only one significant figure. To indicate that the trailing zeros are
significant a decimal point must be added. For example, 400 has three significant
figures, and has one significant figure.
Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant digits. For example, if there are
two oranges on a table, then the number of oranges is 2.000... . Defined numbers are
also like this. For example, the number of centimeters per inch (2.54) has an infinite
number of significant digits, as does the speed of light (299792458 m/s).
Significant digits in arithmetical calculation
As per internationally accepted practice for finding out the significant digits in the
arithmetical calculation say division or multiplication of two physical quantities following
rule has been formulated for determination of significant:
1. In multiplication or division of two or more quantities the number of significant digits in
the answer is equal to the number of significant digits in the quantity, which has least number
of significant digits. Thus 60.0/2.0 will have only two significant digits. The insignificant
digits are dropped from the result if appear after the decimal point, and replaced to zero if
appear to the left of the decimal point. The least significant digit is rounded according to the
following rules:
(A) If the digit next to one rounded is more than 5, then the digit to be rounded is increased
by 1
(B) If next digit is less than 5 then rounding digit is left unchanged.
(C) If the digit next to be rounded is equal to 5 then rounding digit is increased by one if it is
odd otherwise left unchanged.
For example,
(2.80) (4.5039) = 12.61092
should be rounded off to 12.6 (three significant figures like 2.80).
2. For addition or subtraction of quantities all the numbers are written with the decimal point
in one line up to the number, which has the first doubtful digit counted from left. All digits
are written to that digit after rounding off at that level and addition/subtraction is performed.
For example,
89.332 + 1.1 = 90.432
should be rounded to get 90.4 (the tenths place is the last significant place in 1.1).
Ex1. Evaluate 25.2x1374/33.3 All the digits in this expression are significant.
Sol: Expression has value =1039.7838
Since the expression has number with lowest number of significant digits as 3 with number
25.2 or 33.3 hence the expression will also have three significant digits and number will be
written as per rule 1.04x10
3
Ex2. Evaluate 24.36+0.0623+256.2
Sol: As per rule write the numbers with decimal point in a line and check where the first
doubtful digit occurs between these numbers, which in our case occurs at 256.2. Now change
the other numbers with proper rounding and than add as 24.4 + 0.1 + 256.2 = 280.7
Ex3. Given P=0.0030 m; Q=2.40 m and R=3000 m. Find out the number of significant
figures in P, Q, R respectively.
Sol: No of significant figures in P=2(3,0) since the first digit is zero so all zeros after that are
insignificant;
No of significant figures in Q=3(2,4,0);
No of significant figures in R=4(3,0,0,0)
Ex4. The volume of one sphere is 1.76 c.c. Find out the volume of 25 such spheres
(according to idea of significant figures).
Sol: The volume of 25 spheres=25 x1.76 = 44. Since the number 1.76 has three significant
digits and so result should also be written to the three significant digits as 44.0 c.c,
Exercise 3
Q1. The length breadth and thickness of a block are measured as 12.5 cm, 5.6 cm, and 0.32
cm respectively. Which measurement is least accurate?
Q2. The radius of the circle is stated as 2.12 cm. Find out its area written as in appropriate
number of significant digits.
Q3. Round off the following numbers to three significant digits (a) 15462 (b) 14.745 (c)
14.750 (d) 14.650x10
12
.
Hints and Solutions Exercise 2
Ans4: The power of e should be dimensionless so the dimension of a = M
0
L
0
T
1
; The
dimension of V
0
=M
0
LT
1
;
Ans5: The dimension of a and T should be of such that x/a and t/T are dimensionless and
dimensions of A should be of y.
So the dimension of T= M
0
L
0
T; A= M
0
L
T
0
;
a=M
0
L T
0
;
Ans6: The dimension of C = M
L
1
T
2
;
The dimension of K=M
0
L
2
T
1
Ans7: The dimension of L=V/(dI/dt)=W/I
2
=ML
2
T
2
A
2
;
The dimension of R=W/I
2
t
=M L
2
T
3
A
2
Ans8: Electrical conductivity=1/R= M
1
L
2
T
3
A
2
Ans9: a=pv
2
=ML
5
T
2;
Ans10: H= I
x
R
y
t
z
which on solving for dimensions of two side for base quantities M, L, T
and I we get H=I
2
R t
Ans11: Let ν = K
L
x
F
y
m
z
Put the dimensions of the quantities on two sides and solve for powers x,y, and z we get
ν = K/L √ (F/m)
Ans12: E.= K I
x
ω
y
Put the dimensions of E, I and
ω
and we get E=K I
ω
2
Ans13: Y=X/3Z
2
; Y= M
3
L
6
T
8
A
6
= M
3
L
6
T
2
Q
6
Ans14: M=√C h/G ; L=h
1/2
G
1/2
/C
3/2
, T= h
1/2
G
1/2
/C
5/2
Exercise 3
Ans1: The breadth of the block is only up to two significant digits hence supposed to be least
accurate.
Ans2: Area of circle=π R
2
= 14.112416 cm
2
=14.1 cm
2
(three significant figures)
Ans3: (a) 1.55x 10
4 ; The last number has been rounded to five since digit next to 4 is six greater
than 5
(b) 1.47 x 10
1
The last number has been rounded to 7 only since digit next to it is less than 5
(c) 1.48 x 10
1
The last number has been rounded to 8 since digit next to it is 5, and itself odd
number.
(d) 1.46 x 10
13
The last number has been rounded to 6 only since digit next to it is equal to 5 and
itself even number.
Introduction
Now let us continue our discussion about measurement about physical quantities. We know,
that all sort of measurements are arrived at by taking measurements in some set of
experiments of the physical quantities. The authenticity of the results of experiments is
totally dependent upon the precision of the measurements taken, which itself dependent upon
the certain factors like how the instrument is calibrated with respect to reference one, least
sub division of instrument, skill of the person making measurements, secondary effect of
environment or errors in the instrument etc. Although we try to make accurate measurements
but it is also true that it is very difficult to arrive at the fictitious true value of measurement.
One measurement of the same quantity taken many times will differ from each other. So it is
a very difficult task to arrive the true value of the measurement. Now in this unit we shall try
to understand the different causes of errors in measurement and will classify the errors
according to their origination. Next we shall determine the standard procedures to arrive at
the true value and mode of representing them for all purposes.
Now in this next unit of around one hour you will be able to learn
• Types of errors in measurements and level of uncertainty.
• Presentation of magnitude of quantities in Physics.
Errors and Uncertainty
Errors are always the part of measurements and nothing can be done about. If a measurement
is repeated, the values obtained will differ and none of the results can be preferred over the
others. Although it is not possible to do anything about such error, it can be characterized.
For instance, the repeated measurements may cluster tightly together or they may spread
widely. This pattern can be analyzed systematically.
When we measure something the measurement is meaningless without knowing the
uncertainty in the measurement. This leads us to the idea of errors in measurement. Other
factors such as the conditions under which the measurements are taken may also affect the
uncertainty of the measurements. Thus when we report a measurement we must include the
maximum and minimum errors in the measurement.
For example, measuring the height of a person, the measure may be accurate to a scale of 1
mm. But depending on how the person being measured holds himself during the
measurement we might be accurate in measuring to the nearest cm.
Generally, errors can be divided into two broad and rough but useful classes: systematic and
random.
Systematic errors
Systematic errors are errors, which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so
their mean value is displaced. This may be due to such things as incorrect calibration of
equipment, consistently improper use of equipment or failure to properly account for some
effect. In a sense, a systematic error is rather like a blunder and large systematic errors can
and must be eliminated in a good experiment. But small systematic errors will always be
present. For instance, no instrument can ever be calibrated perfectly.
Other sources of systematic errors are external effects which can change the results of the
experiment, but for which the corrections are not well known. In science, the reasons why
several independent confirmations of experimental results are often required (especially
using different techniques) is because different apparatus at different places may be affected
by different systematic effects. Aside from making mistakes (such as thinking one is using
the x10 scale, and actually using the x100 scale), the reason why experiments sometimes
yield results, which may be far outside the quoted errors, is because of systematic effects,
which were not accounted for.
Random errors
Random errors are errors, which fluctuate from one measurement to the next. They yield
results distributed about some mean value. They can occur for a variety of reasons.
♦ They may occur due to lack of sensitivity. For a sufficiently a small change an instrument
may not be able to respond to it or to indicate it or the observer may not be able to discern
it.
♦ They may occur due to noise. There may be extraneous disturbances that cannot be taken
into account.
♦ They may be due to imprecise definition. For example taking measurements with a
magnetic compass, the effect of improper leveling of instrument during observations.
♦ They may also occur due to statistical processes such as the roll of dice.
Random errors displace measurements in an arbitrary direction whereas systematic errors
displace measurements in a single direction. Some systematic error can be substantially
eliminated (or properly taken into account). Random errors are unavoidable and must be
lived with.
So the systematic errors are to be removed from the measurements by rectification of the
cause or my taking measurements by several instruments otherwise the results will remain
shifted from the true value. However the random errors are very uncertain and it is very
difficult to account for them in our measurements. Random errors will always remain in our
measurements how precisely we have taken our measurements. By taking repetitive number
of measurements and taking average of large number of measurements, the average value
will be close to the true value. But still there is some uncertainty associated with the true
value.
The uncertainty associated with the mean value is determined by the standard deviation of
the measurements as detailed below:
Let x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
5
…x
N
be the results of an experiment repeated N times then standard
deviation is defined as
∑
·
·
− ·
N i
i i
N
x
x
1
2
1
)
~
( σ
Where
∑
·
xi
N
x
1
~
is the average of all values of x. It is supposed to be the best value of
x derived from the experiments and the true value is likely to occur within a range
)
~
( σ t x
.
However the interval of
) 96 . 1 (
~
σ t x
is quite often taken as the interval in which the true
value lies with 95% probability. And if the interval is chosen to be
) 3 (
~
σ t x
than the
probability of occurrence of true value in that interval is 99 %.
Probabilities of occurrence the true value in any range say σ k x t
~
is given by
∫
∫
∞ +
∞ −
+
−
dx x f
dx x f
x
x
) (
) (
~
~
σ
σ
But it is fully acceptable only if the numbers of experiments are large. In general the value of
N should be greater than 8 for a good approximation.
Fractional and percentage errors
If ∆ x is the error in the measurement in the value x then fractional and Percentage errors are
defined as :
Fractional error=∆ x/x
Percentage error=∆ x/x100 %
Propagation of errors (addition and subtraction)
Let error in quantity x is t ∆ x and error in quantity y is t ∆ y then the error in x + y or x 
y is t (∆ x+∆ y) that is the errors add.
Prefixes and Magnitudes
To make sense of the vast range over which physical quantities are measured,
prefixes are used as a shortcut to writing the magnitude using scientific notation.
Other prefixes which are commonly used but are not strictly part of the SI system.
Q1.When a current of 2.5t 0.5 ampere flows through a wire, it develops a potential
difference of 20t 1 volt. Find the resistance of the wire
(A) 6.0 t 3 (B) 7.0 t 2(C) 8.0 t 2 (D) 9.0 t 3
Ans1: R=V/I=8
Also ∆ R/R=∆ V/V∆ I/I
For max ∆ R/R all terms to be positive and therefore
∆ R/R=∆ V/V + ∆ I/I=0.25; ∆ R=2 Ohm
and so R= V/I t ∆ R = 8.0 t 2
Q2. In an experiment the value of two resistance were measured to be as given below R
1
=
5.0 t 0.2 ohm and R
2
= 10.0 ± 0.1 ohms. Find there combined resistance in (i) series (ii)
parallel.
Ans2: When resistance are in series R=(R
1
+ R
2
)
∆ R=∆ R
1
+∆ R
2
= t 0.3 and R=15 t 0.3 Ohm
and when in parallel R=(R
1
R
2
)/(R
1
+ R
2
)
∆ R/R=∆ R
1
/R
1
+∆ R
2
/R
2
∆ R
2
/(R
1
+R
2
) ∆ R
2
/(R
1
+R
1
)
For max ∆ R all terms must be positive and ∆ R/R =7%; and R=3.3 t 7%
Q3. In an experiment to determine acceleration due to gravity by simple pendulum, a student
commits 1% positive error in the measurement of length and 3% negative error in the
measurement of time period. Find the percentage error in the value of measurement of g.
Ans3: We have T=2π√ L/g; or T
2
= K L / g
2 ln T= ln K +ln L ln g; (2/T) dT=1/L dL1/g dg; So actual percentage error in measurement
of g value (dg/g) =7%
Q4. A naval destroyer is testing five clocks. Exactly at noon as determined by the wwv signal
on the successive days of a week the clocks read as follows
Clock Sun Mon Tue Wed Thru Fri Sat
A 12:36:40 12:36:56 12:37:12 12:37:27 12:37:44 12:37:59 12:38:14
B 11:59:59 12:00:02 11:59:57 12:00:07 12:00:02 11:59:56 12:00:03
C 15:50:45 15:51:43 15:52:41 15:53:39 15:54:37 15:55:35 15:56:33
D 12:03:59 12:02:52 12:01:45 12:00:38 11:59:31 11:58:24 11:57:17
E 12:03:59 12:02:49 12:01:54 12:01:52 12:01:32 12:01:22 12:01:12
Justify your choice.
Ans4: The standard deviations of the five clocks are increasing in order of C, D, A, B, E.
Hence the clocks with minimum standard deviation is the most consistent one. So the clocks
placed in the same order may be kept in terms of consistency as good timekeepers.
Q5. A wire has a mass 0.3±0.003 g, radius 0.5±0.005 mm and length 6±0.06 cm. Find
out the maximum percentage error in the measurement of its density.
Ans5: d=M/π r
2
L; For Max, ∆ d/d all terms should be positive so Maximum error
=¹ ∆ M/M¹ +2/r¹ ∆ r¹ +¹ ∆ L/L¹ =0.04=4%
Vernier Calliper
The meter scale enables us to measure the length to the nearest millimeter only. Engineers
and scientists need to measure much smaller distances accurately. For this a special type of
scale called Vernier scale is used.
Vernier Calliper
The Vernier scale consists of a main
scale graduated in centimeters and
millimeters. On the Vernier scale 0.9
cm is divided into ten equal parts.
The least count or the smallest
reading which you can get with the
instrument can be calculated as
under:
Least count = one main scale (MS) division one vernier scale (VS) division.
= 1 mm 0.09 mm
= 0.1 mm
= 0.01 cm
The least count of the vernier
= 0.01 cm
The Vernier calliper consists of a main scale fitted with a jaw at one end. Another jaw,
containing the vernier scale, moves over the main scale. When the two jaws are in contact,
the zero of the main scale and the zero of the vernier scale should coincide. If both the zeros
do not coincide, there will be a positive or negative zero error. After calculating the least
count place the object between the two jaws. Record the position of zero of the vernier scale
on the main scale (3.2 cm in figure below).
Principle of Vernier
You will notice that one of the vernier scale divisions coincides with one of the main scale
divisions. (In the illustration, 3
rd
division on the vernier coincides with a MS division).
Reading of the instrument = MS div + (coinciding VS div x L.C.)
= 3.2 + (3 x 0.01)
= 3.2 + 0.03
= 3.23 cm
To measure the inner and outer diameter of a hollow cylinder or ring, inner and outer
callipers are used. Take measurements by the two methods as shown in figure below.
Micrometer ScrewGauge
Micrometer screwgauge is another instrument used for measuring accurately the diameter
of a thin wire or the thickness of a sheet of metal.
It consists of a Ushaped frame fitted with a screwed spindle which is attached to a thimble.
Screwgauge
The screw has a known pitch such as 0.5 mm. Pitch of the screw is the distance moved by
the spindle per revolution. Hence in this case, for one revolution of the screw the spindle
moves forward or backward 0.5 mm. This movement of the spindle is shown on an
engraved linear millimeter scale on the sleeve. On the thimble there is a circular scale which
is divided into 50 or 100 equal parts.
When the anvil and spindle end are brought in contact, the edge of the circular scale should
be at the zero of the sleeve (linear scale) and the zero of the circular scale should be opposite
to the datum line of the sleeve. If the zero is not coinciding with the datum line, there will be
a positive or negative zero error as shown in figure below.
Zero error in case of screw gauge
While taking a reading, the thimble is turned until the wire is held firmly between the anvil
and the spindle.
The least count of the micrometer screw can be calculated using the formula given below:
Least count
= 0.01 mm
Determination of Diameter of a Wire
The wire whose thickness is to be determined is placed between the anvil and spindle end,
the thimble is rotated till the wire is firmly held between the anvil and the spindle. The
rachet is provided to avoid excessive pressure on the wire. It prevents the spindle from
further movement. The thickness of the wire could be determined from the reading as
shown in figure below.
Reading = Linear scale reading + (Coinciding circular scale x Least count)
= 2.5 mm + (46 x 0.01)
= (2.5 + 0.46) mm = 2.96 mm
Relationship in the Metric system of length
1 kilometer (km) = 10
3
m
1 centimeter (cm) = 10
2
m
1 millimeter (mm) = 10
3
m
Q1. The pitch of a screw gauge is 1mm and there are 100 divisions on the circular scale.
While measuring diameter of a wire the linear scale reads 1mm and 47
th
division on the
circular scale coincides with the reference line. The length of wire is 5.6 cm. Find the curved
surface area (in cm
2
) of the wire in appropriate number of significant digits.
Q2. In a Searle’s experiment the diameter of the wire as measured by a screw gauge of least
count 0.001 cm is 0.050 cm. The length measured by a scale of least count 0.1 cm is 110.0
cm. When a weight of 50 N is suspended from the wire the extension is measured to be 0.125
cm by a micrometer of least count 0.001 cm. Find the maximum error in the measurement of
Young’s modulus of the material of the wire from these data.
Solution:
Ans 1: Dia of wire=1+47/100=1.47 mm=0.147 cm; Length of wire =5.6 cm
Hence curved surface area =π D L=2.6 cm
2
.
Ans 2: Y=F.L/A.δ · F.L/π r
2
δ; On differentiating two sides and dividing with Y on two
sides of the equation we get, dY/Y=dL/L2/rdrdδ /δ
For maximum error all terms should be positive
dY/Y=dL/L+2/rdr+dδ /δ =0.0489; dY=1.09x10
10
Motion in One Dimension
Introduction
We have studied till now that the laws of physics are expressed in terms of physical
quantities. These quantities are either fundamental or derived one from these
fundamental quantities so that law of nature could be best expressed in terms of
involved quantities. These quantities are meaning less until unless we have set
certain standards for quantifying the physical quantity. The set of standards and the
units involved in totality denotes the true value of the physical quantity and then
only can participate in mathematical manipulations of laws of physics. Beside that
these physical quantities don’t take part in mathematical operations like ordinary
numeric values but are assigned certain predefined properties according the role to
play to best describe the fundamental law of nature and are so called as scalar,
vector or tensor quantity.
Now we shall start our expedition to understand the very fundamental aspect of
physical observation of nature involving the motion of particles or rigid bodies.
These all aspects of motion are covered in the study of classical mechanics; the
oldest branch of Physics, which is further, subdivided namely Statics and Dynamics.
(A) The statics is the branch of Physics that deals with the study of physical objects or
system of objects that are at rest.
(B) The Dynamics is the branch of Physics that deals with the study of physical objects or
system of objects that are in motion. When we are not concerned with the cause of motion
and limit our study to the involved parameters of particulate motion only then the dynamics
of particles may be termed as Kinematics.
As we have come across with two terms rest and motion and for the purpose of Physics it is
not so easy to call the term rest and motion as we usually do with. The terms rest and motion
denotes the state of motion of the object under consideration with respect to frame of
reference of observer. We have stated earlier in our previous discussions that measurement
of physical quantities depends upon the frame of reference of observer. For an example an
object at rest with respect to the observer attached to a moving train, is in motion with respect
to an observer attached to the Earth. Hence the complete description of a physical quantity
desires a proper set of standard units and complete information of frame of reference for
observance.
The mechanics of motion of objects we are dealing here is a part of Classical mechanics, also
known as Newtonian mechanics (1860), doctrine of Sir Alexander Newton. As physics is not
a static tool for explaining all the phenomenon of nature but itself a developing one to face
the challenges posed by the incident results. The Newtonian mechanics was developed for
understanding the observations regarding motions of objects in the nature and are perceived
through the naked eyes. It proves all experimental results when the speeds of objects are slow
enough in comparison to the speed of light. However it is helpless in describing the
collisions, decay and interactions of elementary particles of atom like proton, electron and
neutron moving at high speed of the order of speed of light, regarding deviation from the
results for the relative velocity of particles observed from the different frame of reference and
prediction of position and velocity at a time for the high speed moving particles which is an
essential requirement for describing any physical quantity. For explaining the above
phenomenon the new theories like Einstein theory of relativity (1905) and Quantum
mechanics (1925) been developed which satisfies all experimental results involving particles
of small mass and high speed (v≅ c). These theories are considered as a more general theory
and Newtonian mechanics is considered as a special case of application for particles moving
with velocity very very less comparable to the light.
We now return to the classical mechanics to study the slow motions, which can be perceived
through our common sense without any intuitive effort. But before taking a leap for
understanding laws of physics involved in motion of objects, we shall introduce the physical
quantities involved in various types of motion and start our expedition with the simplest kind
of motion that is motion in a single direction also called as onedimensional motion.
At the end of this chapter of around one hour, you will be able to learn
Concept of point object
Motion in One Dimension
Distance
Displacement
Average Speed
Average Velocity
Instantaneous Velocity
Average acceleration
Instantaneous acceleration
Motion with constant acceleration
Motion with variable acceleration
Time dependent acceleration
Position dependent acceleration
Velocity dependent acceleration
Relative motion in one dimension
Concept of point object
When we think of a motion there may be different possibilities of motion either in the choice
of path or the choice of the body itself. But to limit our discussion to the beginners we have
simplified our choices. We start our discussion with motion of objects that have assumed
physically zero dimensions, called particles or point objects. One tends to think of a particle
as a tiny object, e.g., a piece of shot, but actually no size limit is implied by the word
“particle”. If we are not interested in the rotational motion of an object, any object can be
considered as a particle. For example, sometimes we consider the motion of earth around the
sun. In this case we consider the motion of the center of the Earth in the circular path and
ignore the rotational motion of the earth on its own axis then for our treatment the Earth may
be considered as a particle. In some astronomical problems the solar system or even a whole
galaxy is treated as a particle. In other words when the size of the object is very small in
comparison to the distance it moves then the object may be treated as point object. There is a
specific nature of point object is that all the points on the object undergo same displacement,
hence the displacement of any of the points may be treated in the experiment. Hence in all
the concept of point object has its significance with reference to the type of motion of the
object is under consideration and displacement that undergo in comparison to its own
dimensions.
Motion in One Dimension
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
D i s t a n c e ( m i l e s )
T i m e 0 . 0 H r s .
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
D i s t a n c e ( m i l e s )
T i m e 0 . 1 0 H r s .
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
D i s t a n c e ( m i l e s )
T i m e 0 . 2 0 H r s .
To describe the motion of the particle, we are now in a stage to develop the concepts of displacement,
velocity and acceleration. In the general motion of a particle in three dimensions, these
quantities are vectors, which have direction as well as magnitude. However at this stage we
have confined our discussion to the movement of a particle in a straight linear path, with only
two possible directions, distinguished by designating one positive and the other negative. A
simple example of onedimensional motion is a vehicle moving along a straight, aligned road.
We can choose any convenient point on the vehicle for the location of the point mass for the
discussion of motion. We shall
now define various physical
quantities associated with
rectilinear motion of a point
object and then try to
understand the need of their
development.
Distance
The distance is defined as the length
of actual path the particle traverses in
its motion. In our case when particle is
restricted its motion in a one
dimension then the distance is defined
as the length of actual path the particle
has traversed irrespective of its
direction of motion. For example the
vehicle traveling in one dimension in
the fig say EastWest direction,
moving 6 miles East ward and 4 miles back west ward will be defined to have moved a distance 10
miles. Hence it is a scalar quantity and always positive and increasing with time. Its unit are (m)
in MKS and (cm) in CGS system.
Displacement
The displacement of the particle or point object in general is defined as the actual
displacement the particle has undergone with respect to its original position in the time
interval under consideration. In other words it is the change in position vector of the object in
a scheduled time. The displacement of particle is not concerned with the path it has elapsed
and journey details. It is a unique value defined with a vector having direction as the
movement from its initial to final position and magnitude equal to the straight distance
between initial and ending positions. In our previous example for a motion in one dimension
the displacement will be 2 miles east ward since the vehicle has traversed a total distance of
10 miles but has been displaced with net amount of 2 miles from it’s initial position say at
origin. Hence it is a vector quantity and units are same as of distance.
Average Speed
The average speed of a particle is defined as the ratio of the total distance moved to the time
taken up to that instant of motion. So it is simply the time rate at which the distance moved
by the particle. So
Average speed = total distance / total time
For example, if the vehicle in the previous example moves a total distance 10 miles in what
ever direction in 0.2 h, than its average speed is
hour miles
hours
miles
t
d
v / 50
2 . 0
10
~
· ·
∆
∆
·
which suggest us that the driver might have moved with this speed uniformly elapsing total
distance of 10 miles in the given time interval of 0.2 hours. It is therefore a scalar quantity
having SI units of meters per second, and written as m/s.
Test your understanding
Ex1. A car covers a distance of 2 km in 2.5 minute. If it covers half of the distance with
speed 40 km/hr, the rest distance it will cover with speed
(A) 56 km/hr (B) 60 km/hr (C) 50 km/hr (D) 48 km/hr
Sol : Time taken to cover the first half distance t
1
=Distance traveled/Speed
=(1/40)60 = 1.5min;
Time taken to cover remaining half distance t
2
=Tt
1
= 1 min
Speed of the car in the next half journey=
Distance traveled/Time taken =1km/min=60km/hr (B)
Ex2. Mark the wrong statement
(A) The time displacement graph of a particle cannot be parallel to the time axis.
(B) The time displacement graph of a particle cannot be perpendicular to the time axis.
(C) The time velocity graph of a particle cannot be perpendicular to the time axis
(D) The area of the time velocity graph gives the displacement
Sol : The time displacement graph of a particle can be parallel to the time axis for a particle
at rest. (A)
Ex3.The position vector of a particle is determined by the expression ∆ r = 3 t
2
i
^
+ 4 t
2
j
^
+
7 k
^
. The distance traveled in the first 10s is
(A) 100 m (B) 150 m (C) 500 m (D) 300 m
Sol: r = 3t
2
i^ +4t
2
j^ +7k^; v = dr/dt =dx/dt i^+dy/dt j^+dz/dt k^= 6ti^+8tj^ ;
S =
0
∫
10
v dt =
0
∫
10
10 t dt= 500 m
Ex4.What is the displacement of the point of the wheel initially in contact with the ground
when the wheel roles forward half a revolution? Take the radius of the wheel R and xaxis in
forward direction.
(A) R/√π
2
+4 (B) R√π
2
+16 (C) 2π R (D) π R
Sol: Displacement in x direction ( x )= π R; Displacement in y direction (y) = 2R; Resultant
displacement = √x
2
+y
2
= R√π
2
+4
Average Velocity
The concept of velocity is similar to that of speed but differs in respect of that here net
displacement is accounted in place of total distance moved by the particle. So average
velocity is defined as the ratio of the net vector displacement of the particle up to that instant
and the total time of motion up to that instant. Since the displacement is a vector quantity so
the average velocity is also a vector because it includes the direction of motion. We have
defined earlier the term displacement as a vector showing change in position of a particle
with magnitude of direct distance measured between initial and final position and directed to
the line joining the two points. Hence the average velocity is also a vector quantity, as a rate
of change of displacement or in other words displacement per unit time, having the same
direction as displacement. Now in the case of previous example the vehicle has elapsed a
net displacement of 2 miles in 0.2 hours in the direction toward east so the average velocity
in the given time frame may be given as
( ) Eastward hour miles
hours
miles
t
x
v / 10
2 . 0
2
· ·
∆
∆
·
Now consider the motion of the vehicle as discussed in the previous example with direction
of motion as along x axis denoting the east ward direction and its position on the x axis at
any instant (t) may be shown as in fig . The value of x depends on the unit chosen as the
measure of distance and sign depends on its position relative to the origin O; if it is to the
right, it is positive; to the left, negative.
Suppose that our vehicle under
consideration is at position x
1
at time t
1
and at point x
2
at time t
2
. The change in
the position of the vehicle x
2
 x
1
is called
the displacement in time t
2
 t
1
. It is
customary and easy to use the Greek letter
∆ (capital delta) to indicate the change in a
quantity. Thus the change in x as ∆ x
The average velocity of the vehicle is defined to be the ratio of the displacement ∆ x and the
interval ∆ t =t
2
–t
1
:
It is to be noted that average velocity like displacement vector can be positive or negative
according as displacement in the direction of positive/negative xaxis of the chosen
coordinate system.
Observation of fig depicts the displacement of particle as difference of ordinate on vertical
axis in the said time interval. The line joining two points P
1
, P
2
is the hypotenuse of the
triangle with sides ∆ x and ∆ t. The ratio is called the slope of the hypotenuse. In geometric
terms it indicates the steepness of the line and as per definition it is a measure of average
1
∆ t t t · −
2 1
t
2
t
x
1
x
2
x
m
P
2
∆ x x x · −
2
( ) x t
1 1
P
2
P
t
1
∆
∆
∆
x
t
s l o p e
v
· · ν
( ) x t
2 2
0
velocity of the particle. The steeper the slope indicates that particle has traversed greater
displacement in a given time interval and has got higher average velocity. Since in our case
the vehicle has moved along the +ve xaxis therefore there is no doubt about the direction of
velocity that is also along +ve xaxis.
Test your understanding
Ex5. A body covers a distance AB of 2 km with speed of 2.5 km/h, while going from A to B
and comes back from B to A with speed 0.5 km/hr, his average speed will be
(A) 1.5 km/hr (B) 0.83 km/hr (C) 1.2 km/hr (D) 1.8 km/hr
Sol : V
av
=4/(2/2.5+2/0.5)=0.83 km/h
Ex6. A particle moves with constant speed v along a regular hexagon ABCDEF in same
order (i.e. A to B, B to C to D, D to E to F, F to A) then magnitude of average velocity for its
motion from A to C is
(A) v (B) v/2 (C) √ 3v/2 (D) None of these
Sol : AC = √3a; t = 2a/v; Av. Velocity = √3v/2
Ex7. A car travels for time t with a uniform velocity of 108 km/h on a straight road and then
immediately reverses gear and travels for time t on the same road with a uniform velocity of
72 km/h. then the average velocity of the car in this time interval 2t is
(A) 90 km/h (B) 86 km/h (C) 36 km/h (D) 18 km/h.
Sol : Average velocity V
av
=Total displacement /Total time of motion=(108+72)t/2t=90 Km/h
Ex8. A person walks along an eastwest street,
and a graph of his displacement from home is
shown in figure. His average velocity for the
whole time interval is
(A) 0 m/s (B) 23 m/s (C) 8.4 m/s (D) None of
the above
Sol : (A) Since net displacement in whole time interval
is zero.
o
t ( s )
2 5
1 0 1 5 5
 3 0
Q . N o . 6 4
S
4 0
Ex9. A point traveling along a straight line traverses onethird the distance with a velocity
v
0
. The remaining part of the distance was covered with velocity v
1
for half the time and
with velocity v
2
for the other half of the time. The mean velocity of the point averaged over
the whole time of motion will be
(A) v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/3(v
1
+v
2
+v
0
) (B) 3v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/(v
1
+v
2
+v
0
) (C) v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/(v
1
+v
2
+4v
0
) (D)
3v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/(v
1
+v
2
+4v
0
)
Sol : Time of motion of one third distance (T
1
) =d/3 v
0
,
Time of journey of rest 2/3 distance (T
2
) = 4d/3(v
1
+v
2
);
V
av
=d/(T
1
+T
2
)= 3v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/(v
1
+v
2
+v
0
)
Ex10. A table clock has its minute hand 4.0 cm long. The average velocity of the tip of the
minute hand between 6.00 AM to 6.30 AM and 6.30 PM will respectively be (in cm/s)
(A) 4.4 x 10
3
, 1.8 x 10
4
(B) 1.8 x 10
4
, 4.4 x 10
3
(C) 8 x 10
3
, 4.4 x 10
3
(D) 4.4 x 10
3
,
8 x 10
4
Sol : Average velocity=displacement/time;
Av. Velocity (6 AM to 6:30 AM)=8/30x60= 4.4 x 10
3
Av. Velocity (6 AM to 6:30 PM)=8/12.5x3600=1.8x10
4
Instantaneous Velocity
At a first glance, it seems impossible to define
the velocity of a particle at a single instant,
i.e. , at a specific time t
1
, the particle is at a
single specific position say x
1
then the
question arises that if we were talking about
velocity of a particle at a single point then as
per definition, what about the displacement at
that instant? It seems to be a paradox, which
can be resolved when we realize motion as a whole at different instants and limit our
∆ t
1
∆ t
2
∆ t
3
P
1
P
2
t
1
t
2
∆t
4
T
a
n
g
e
n
t
a
t
p
o
i
n
t
P
1
t ( s )
0
discussion of motion to a infinitesimal time interval (∆ t) tending to zero then in the limiting
condition displacement is termed as instantaneous velocity of the particle at that particular
instant. The basic requirement for finding out instantaneous velocity of the particle is that
one should have a complete mathematical algorithm available for position of particle at any
instant and time.
Figure shows x (t) curve indicating various sequence of time intervals ∆ t
1
, ∆ t
2
, ∆ t
3
, each
one smaller than the previous one. For each time interval ∆ t, the average velocity is the
slope of the dashed line appropriate for that interval. This figure shows that as the time
intervals becomes smaller, the dashed lines get steeper but never incline more then the line
tangent to the curve at point t
1
. We define the slope of this tangent line to be the
instantaneous velocity at the time t
1
. The instantaneous velocity is then defined as the limit
of the ratio ∆ x/∆ t as ∆ t approaches zero. In the limiting notation this is defined as
derivative of x (t) with respect to t at time t
1
and is written as dx/dt and its value could be
found by differential calculus.
= Slope of line tangent to x (t) at time t=t
1
So instantaneous velocity of the particle at any instant say t
dt
dx
t
x
v
Lim t
·
∆
∆
·
→ ∆ 0
Test your understanding
Ex11. At an instant, the coordinates of a particle are x=at
2
, y=b t
2
and z=0,then its velocity at
the instant t will be.
(A) t√a
2
+b
2
(B) 2t√a
2
+b
2
(C) a
2
+b
2
(D) 2t
2
√a
2
+b
2
Sol : velocity component in x direction v
x
=dx/dt=2at
Velocity component in y direction v
y
=dy/dt=2bt
Resultant Velocity (v) =√ v
x
2
+v
y
2
=2t√a
2
+b
2
Ex12.The displacement of a body is given by x=√(a
2
t
2
)+ t cos t
2
, where t is time and a is
constant. Its velocity is.
(A) at
2
t sint
2
(B) 2 t/√a
2
t
2
+cost
2
t sin t
2
(C) t/√a
2
t
2
+cost
2
2t
2
sint
2
(D) –a/(a
2

t
2
)+cost
2
t sint
2
Sol : Velocity component in x direction v=dx/dt=t/√a
2
t
2
+cost
2
2t
2
sint
2
Ex 13. If the velocity–time diagram for the rectilinear motion of a particle
is as shown in figure (representing half wave of a sine curve). Find the
distance traveled by the particle in a time T/2 seconds.
(A) T v
max
/π (B) V
max
T/3 (C) V
max
T (D) V
max
T/2
Sol : S=2
0
∫
Τ/ 2
V
m
sin 2π t/T dt=V
m
T/π
Average acceleration
Average acceleration is defined as a quantity measuring the rate of change of instantaneous
velocity in a certain time interval. The change in velocity vector may be either in magnitude
or direction or both and change in either way will be termed as the average acceleration.
Since instantaneous velocity is a vector quantity and we are interested in change in vector
quantity so the acceleration can only be a vector quantity and will follow the laws of vector
algebra.
Since for a particle moving in one dimension will have velocity vector having orientation
either on +ve or ve xaxis therefore change in velocity vector will also be associated in the
two possible directions. If the change in velocity vector is directed along the direction of
velocity vector at the instant of starting point of motion under consideration than the resultant
velocity vector gets added up and so the acceleration vector is termed as positive acceleration
and if converse is true than the acceleration is designated as negative acceleration.
So in final words average acceleration is the ratio of change in instantaneous velocity vector
(∆ v) in a given time interval (∆ t).
t
v
a
av
∆
∆
·
The dimensions of acceleration in S.I unit system are meter per Second Square.
v
o
t
v
m
T / 2
Test your understanding
Ex14. A particle is moving eastward with a velocity of 5 ms
1
in 10 s the velocity change to
5 ms
1
northward. The average acceleration in this time is
(A) Zero (B) 1/√2ms
2
towards north–west (C) 1/√2ms
2
towards north–east (D) 1/2ms
2
towards north–west
Sol : Average acceleration=∆ v/∆ t=√50/10=1/√2ms
2
towards north–west
Ex15.A rifle bullet loses 1/20 of its velocity in passing through a wooden plank. The least
number of planks required stopping the bullet is
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 11 (D) 20
Sol : Let x
0
be the thickness of one plank and a be the retarding acceleration produced due to
friction of the plank than
x
0
=u
2
v
2
/2a; x
0
=u
2
(19u/20)
2
/2a;
Number of planks=Total path length/thickness of one plank= u
2
/2ax
0
=400/(39)≈ 11
Instantaneous acceleration
If the instantaneous velocity of the particle is varying continuously with position and time
then instantaneous acceleration at that particular instant is defined as the change in velocity
vector for a time interval ∆ t infinitesimally small tending to zero. It is to be noted that
change in velocity vector is also a vector term and the law of vectors has to be followed. We
shall see later on that such type of situation may be handled easily when vector is considered
to be resolved into its components in the respective directions and the changes are also
considered in the respective components directions individually.
For the case of motion in one dimension the particle moves in a straight line with two
possible directions of motion say either in +ve or ve xaxis. Now if the particle moves such
that velocity at every instant of motion is defined and there is no abrupt change in velocity
vector than the instantaneous acceleration vector is just the rate of change in magnitude of
velocity vector and direction will be in the direction of velocity vector if velocity time curve
is increasing and opposite to the velocity vector if it is a decreasing curve.
So if we plot graph between instantaneous velocity of the particle moving in one dimension
and time then as per the definition the instantaneous acceleration is defined as slope of
tangent line at that instant.
t
v
t a
t Lim ∆
∆
·
→ ∆ 0
) (
= Slope of v (t) curve
The instantaneous acceleration is therefore derivative of velocity with respect of time and is
written as dv/dt. Since velocity is also derivative of x with respect to t therefore acceleration
is also referred as second derivative of x with respect to t. We shall study in the later stage
how acceleration vector is useful in defining Newton’s second law of motion.
Test your understanding
Ex16. Relationship between the distance traveled by a body and the time is described by the
equation S=A + Bt + Ct
2
+ Dt
3
, where C=0.14 m/sec
2
, D= 0.01 m/sec
3
. In what time after
motion begins, will acceleration be 1 m/sec
2
and what is the average acceleration during this
time?
(A) 12 seconds, 0.64 m/sec
2
(B) 6 seconds, 0.5 m/sec
2
(C) 3 seconds, 0.4 m/sec
2
(D) 8
seconds, 0.6 m/sec
2
.
Sol : v=B+2C t+3 D t
2
; a=2C+6 D t=1 at t=12 s
a
av
={v(12)v(0) }/∆ t=0.64 m/s
2
Motion with constant acceleration along the axis of initial velocity vector
Now let us consider the motion of a particle moving with constant acceleration vector
directed along the axis of the initial velocity vector. Since the acceleration vector is directed
along the axis of initial velocity vector than it will lead to the change in magnitude of
velocity vector. If the acceleration is positive or directed along the direction of velocity
vector at any instant increases the magnitude, otherwise decreases the magnitude. Also if the
direction of initial velocity vector is different from the acceleration vector than particle
moves in the plane containing both the vectors in a parabolic trajectory, which we shall
discuss in the next chapter. The motion of a particle with constant acceleration is quite
common in nature. If air resistance is neglected than all the particles irrespective of their
masses fall with constant acceleration in the influence of gravity that is attraction of the
Earth. This acceleration due to gravity is designated by ‘g’ and has approximate value of 9.81
m/s
2
or 32.2 ft/s
2
For a particle moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension the velocity changes
linearly with time. The positive acceleration means it adds the velocity vector and negative
acceleration subtracts the velocity vector or in other words, for the case of one dimensional
motion, the acceleration vector will be in the direction of velocity vector if it is positive other
wise against the velocity vector.
The both cases have been illustrated in
Fig and effect on motion are
summarized here below:
If velocity of the particle is v
0
at time t=0 then it’s value at time t as per definition is given
by
( ) ( ) t a t v
v
+ ·
0
If the particle starts at x
0
at time t=0 and it’s position is x at time t then as per definition of
displacement ∆ x is given by
( ) t x
vav
· ∆
Also
( )
2 2
0
0
at
t
x
v
v v
v
t
av
+ ·
+
·
∆
·
( )
2
2
0
t
v
a t x + · ∆
( ) ( )
2
2
0 0
t
v x
a
t t x + + ·
a a
a
t
t t
 a
t
t t
( a ) ( b )
0
0
We are sometimes interested in finding the final velocity of particle at a particular instant
when its initial velocity, constant rate of acceleration and distance traveled or displacement is
known to us. Since for constant acceleration
2
0 v v
v
t
av
+
·
and
t t x
v v
v
t
av
2
) (
0
+
· · ∆
Now after eliminating t from the above equation yields
x a
t
v v
∆ + · 2
0
2 2
If we are interested in finding out the displacement of particle in the n
th
second of its motion
then
( )
2
1 2
0 1
−
+ · − ·
−
n a
v S S S n n nth
These equations are known as Newton’s equations of motion at constant acceleration.
Graphical presentation of onedimensional motion at constant
acceleration
(1) The graph between positions of particle at
different instances vs. time is parabolic curve given
by equation as shown in fig for +ve and ve
acceleration respectively.
(2) The graph between velocities
of particle with respect to time of
x
t
P o s i t i v e C o n s t a n t
a c c e t e r a t i o n
x
t
N e g a t i v e C o n s t a n t
a c c e t e r a t i o n
O
O
v
t
O
v
I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = (  ) I ' v e I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = 0
O
v
t
v
O
v
I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = ( + ) I ' v e
( a ) ( b ) ( c )
t
motion at constant +ve acceleration given by equation as shown in figure (a), (b), (c) for
different initial velocities.
(3) The graph between velocities
of particle with respect to time of
motion at constant ve
acceleration given by equation as
shown in fig (a), (b), (c) for
different initial velocities.
The important and wellobserved example of motion in one dimension at constant
acceleration is the motion of a body under the influence of gravity. At normal heights above
the earth surface the force/ acceleration remains constant and its magnitude denoted by g may
be taken as 9.80 m/sec
2
. It is directed radially towards the earth center and for our purpose it
may be assumed acting vertically downward that is towards the Earth surface and all the
motions in the azimuth may be considered as linear motions without influenced by the air
drag and all viscous resistance.
Let us consider motion of a body falling freely under the influence of gravity. If we choose
point of projection as origin and taking downward direction as positive, we have
u=0 and a=g as body starts from rest
that is falling freely under the influence
of gravity only, hence as per Newton’s
equation of motion at any instant ;
These equations will yield to all
unknowns at any instant of motion. It is to be noted that all the equations are vector equations
and gives vector quantities on substitution of known parameters.
g a + ·
v
t
O
v
I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = ( + ) ' v e I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = 0
O
v
t
v
O
v
I n i t i a l v e l o c i t y = (  ) ' v e
( a ) ( c )
t
s
( a )
t
v
( b )
t a n θ · g
θ
t
a
( c )
g
t t
g g ut S
2 2
2
1
2
1
· + ·
( ) gt gt u t v · + ·
These equation are presented graphically as in figure 9 (a), (b), (c)
Similarly if we consider motion of a body projected vertically upward under the influence of
gravity and choosing point of projection as origin and vertical up direction as positive. We
have
g a − ·
t
g ut S
2
2
1
− ·
( ) gt u t v − ·
These equation are presented graphically as in figure (a), (b), (c)
Test your
understanding
Ex17. An iron ball and a wooden ball of same radius are released from a height h in vacuum.
The time taken by both of them to reach the ground is
(A) Roughly equal (B) exactly equal (C) Unequal (D) equal only at equator
Sol : (B) Since both have same initial velocity and fall with the same acceleration due to
gravity (g) in the absence of air resistance.
Ex18. A body moving with uniform acceleration describes 4m in 3
rd
second and 12 m in the
5
th
second, then distance described in next three second
(A) 100 m (B) 80 m (C) 60 m (D) 20 m
Sol : Distance traveled in
nth
second S
n
=u+a/2(2n1);
a ( m / s )
2
o
t
2 u / g
+ v e
 v e
( c ) ( a ) ( b )
2 u / g
t
0
u / g
+
v ( t )
0
u / g 2 u / g
+ v e
 v e
s = u / 2 g
2
a=4 m/s
2
and u=6 m/s
V
5
=6+4x5=14 and V
8
=6+4x8=26
S=(V
5
+ V
8
)t/2=60 m
Ex19. A particle P is at the origin and starts with velocity 2i4j (m/s) and constant
acceleration (3i+5j) m/s
2
after it has traveled for 2 seconds. Its distance from the origin is
(A) 10 m (B) 10.2 m (C) 9.8 m (D) 11.7 m
Sol : x = u
x
t+1/2 a
x
t
2
=10m; y= u
y
t+1/2 a
y
t
2
= 2; ¹ R ¹ =√ x
2
+ y
2
=10.2
Ex20. A body moves from rest with constant acceleration then the variation of its K.E. with
the distance (S) traveled is represented by:
(A) Straight line (B) Parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) None of these
Sol : K.E. = 1/2mv
2
= 1/2m(u
2
+2as) = m a s which is a equation of straight line.
Ex21. A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate α for sometime after which it
decelerates at constant rate β to come to rest. If the total time elapsed is t sec, the maximum
velocity of car will be
(A) α β /t (α +B) (B) (α +B) t/α b (C) α β /(α +B) t (D) α β t/(α +β )
Sol : v
m
= α t
1
; v
m
= β t
2
; t = t
1
+ t
2
= v
m
/α + v
m
/β; v
m=
α β t/(α +B)
Ex22. A stone is dropped into a well and the sound of impact of stone on the water is heard
after 2.056 sec of the release of stone from the top. If acceleration due to gravity is 980
cm/sec
2
and velocity of sound in air is 350 m/s, calculate the depth of the well
(A) 1.96 m (B) 19.6 m (C) 6.91 m (D) 69.1 m
Sol : Let d be the depth of well and t be the time taken to reach the stone on the water
surface then d = 1/2gt
2
;
t = √2d/g;
Also time taken by the sound of splash to reach the projector= d/vs
Total time taken since the release of stone to sound of splash to reach the projector=
d/vs+√2d/g = 2.05;
d = 19.81m
Ex23. A particle travels for 40 seconds under the influence of a constant force. If the distance
traveled by the particle is s
1
in the first twenty seconds and s
2
in the next twenty seconds.
Then
(A) s
2
=s
1
(B) s
2
=2s
1
(C) s
2
=3s
1
(D) s
2
=4s
1
Sol : Let T be the total time of motion then distance moved in half of time period as say 20s
is s
1
= ½ a (T/2)
2
=1/8a T
2
;
Total distance moved in time T is given as s
2
= ½ aT
2
Distance moved in second time interval of 20s (s
2
) =1/2 aT
2
1/8 aT
2
=3/8aT
2
And so s
2
/s
1
= 3
Ex24. A bullet fired into a fixed block of wood loses half its velocity after penetrating 60 cm.
Before coming to rest it penetrates a further distance of (Assume constant frictional
resistance)
(A) 60 cm (B) 30 cm (C) 20 cm (D) 10 cm
Sol : Let s be the distance moved by the bullet in first part of motion when loses half of its
speed as
u
2
/4 = u
2
– 2as
1
;
a = 3u
2
/8s
1
;
Let s
2
be the total distance moved up to the instant it comes to rest is given as
s
2
= u
2
/2a = 4/3s
1
;
Distance moved in the second time interval (∆ s
2
)= s
2
s
1
= s
1
/3 = 20 cm
Ex25. A particle is projected vertically upwards and it reaches the maximum height H in time
T seconds. The height of the particle at any time t will be
(A) g(tT)
2
(B) H1/2g(tT)
2
(C)1/2g(tT)
2
(D) Hg(tT)
Sol : h= H1/2g(tT)
2
Ex26. At time t=0, an object is released from rest at the top of a tall building. At the time t
0
a second object is dropped from the same point, ignoring air resistance the time at which the
objects have a vertical separation of l is
(A) t=l/gt
0
+t
0
/2 (B) t= l/gt
0
t
0
/2 (C) t=l/gt
0
(D) none of the above
Sol : Total displacement up to time t, ∆ S = l = ½ g t
0
2
+ g t
0
(t t
0
)
2l/gt
0
= 2tt
0
;
t = l/gt
0
+t
0
/2
Ex27. A steel ball is dropped from the roof of a building. A man standing in front of a 1 m
high window in the building notices that the ball takes 0.1s to fall from the top to bottom of
the window. The ball continues to fall and strikes the ground. On striking the ground, the ball
gets rebounded with the same speed with which it hits the ground. If the ball appears at the
bottom of the window 2 s after passing the bottom of the window on the way down, then the
height of the building is
(A) 12.40 m (B) 21.0 m (C) 24.0 m (D) 42.0 m
Sol : Let u and v be the velocities of the ball at the instant it appears at the top and bottom of window during the
downward journey.
So {(u+v)/2}(0.1)=1;
Or u+v=20
Also v=u+g(0.1)
Or v=u+1; u=19/2 m/s
Height above window (h
1
)= u
2
/20=(9.50)2/20 =4.50 m;
Height below window h
3
= v+1/2g= 15.5 m;
Total height of the building H = 4.50+1+15.50= 21.0 m
Ex28. The vertical height of P above the ground is twice that of Q. A particle is
projected downward with the speed of 9.8 m/s from P and simultaneously another
particle is projected upward with the same speed of 9.8 m/s from Q both particles reach
the ground simultaneously. The time taken to reach the ground is
(A) 3 sec (B) 4 sec (C) 5 sec (D) 6 sec.
Sol : PG = 9.8t{1+0.5t}; QG = 9.8t{0.5t1}; PG/QG = 2; t = 6 sec
Ex29. A particle is projected vertically upwards from a point x on the ground. It takes a time
t
1
to reach a point A at a height h above the ground. It continues to move and takes a time t
2
to reach the ground. The velocity of the particle at half the maximum height is
(A) 2√2/g (t
1
+ t
2
) (B) g/2√2 (t
1
+ t
2
) (C) 2√2g/(t
1
+ t
2
) (D) (t
1
+ t
2
)/ 2√2g
Sol : Tm= (t
2
t
1
)/2+t
1
; Tm = (t
1
+t
2
)/2; u = g(t
1
+t
2
)/2; H = u
2
/2g = g
2
(1+t
2
)2/8g; V
m
= g(t
1
+t
2
)/2√2
Ex30. A juggler keeps on moving four balls in the air throwing the balls after regular
intervals. When one ball leaves his hand (speed=20 m/s) the position of the other balls
(height in meter) will be (take g=10 m/s
2
)
(A) 10, 20, 10 (B) 15, 20, 15 (C) 5, 10, 20 (D) 5, 10, 20
Sol : The ball should be placed taking equal time interval of replacement and for that should be taking
time interval 2/2=1 sec and respective positions of 15, 20,15m from the hand.
Ex31. A man standing on the edge of a cliff throws a stone straight up with initial speed u
and then throw another stone straight down with the same initial speed and from the same
position. Find the ratio of the speed the stones would have attained when they hit the ground
at the base of the cliff
(A) √ 2:1 (B) 1:√2 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:2
Sol : ( C ) The stones have the same velocity at the point of throw in the downward direction.
Motion with variable acceleration
So far we have discussed the motion of a particle moving in one dimension under constant
acceleration. Now we shall extend the motion of a particle with variable acceleration in one
dimension. Since motion is in one dimension then variation in acceleration is limited to
change in magnitude only. We shall discuss the variation in three categories as:
Time dependent acceleration
Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of particle is a function of
time or in other words it may be written as a=f (t). Then velocity may be obtained as integral
of f(t) with respect to dt and displacement may be obtained as further integral with respect to
dt.
( ) t f
dt
dv
a · ·
( ) ( ) t F dt t f
dt
ds
v · · ·
∫
( )
∫
· dt t F s
Position dependent acceleration
Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of particle is dependent upon
the displacement of particle from origin. Then Integrating both sides of equation results
velocity as a function of displacement of particle and may be further integrated to find
displacement as a function of time.
( ) x f
dx
dv
v
dt
dv
a · · ·
Velocity dependent acceleration
Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of the particle is dependent
upon the instantaneous velocity of particle. Then Integrating both sides of equation results
velocity as a function of time, which may be further, integrated with respect to time to find
displacement as a function of time.
( ) v f
dt
dv
a · ·
Test your understanding
Ex32. The acceleration (a) of moving particle varies with displacement (x) according to the
following relation a=x
2
+3x, then correct relation between velocity and displacement is
(A) v=√x
3
+3x
2
+c (B) v=√2/3 x
3
+3x
2
+c ( C ) v=[2/3x
3
+3x
2
+c] (D) v=2x+3 where c is a
constant
Sol : a = x
2
+3x; a= vdv/dx = x
2
+3x; v = √2/3x
3
+3x
2
+c
1
Ex33. A particle moving along straight line has a velocity v ms
1
, when it cleared a distance
of x metres. These two are connected by the relation v= √49+x. When its velocity is 1ms
1
,
its acceleration (in ms
2
) is
(A) 2 (B) 7 (C) 1 (D) 0.5
Sol : a= v dv/dx=0.5 m/s
2
Relative motion in one dimension
As we have stated earlier that
measurement of certain physical
quantities like displacement, velocity
and acceleration depends upon the
reference frame of observation. The
reference frame of observation may
be defined as a frame from which
observations are made. It may be either a frame fixed to the earth or a moving one. Now let
us investigate how the measurements may differ when physical parameters like displacement,
velocity and acceleration of the same moving object are measured from different reference
frames.
Now let us consider the simple onedimensional motion of an object P. Initially at time t=0,
the object P, earth frame and moving frame are all positioned at origin of the coordinate
system as shown in figure.
Now after a lapse of time ∆ t the object P has made a displacement a with respect to the
frame attached to the earth and the moving frame has also elapsed a displacement b with
respect to the earth frame. It is most worthy to note here that the displacement of the object P
as measured by the moving frame will not be the same as measured by the earth frame,
because of the displacement of the moving frame in the same interval and would be
measured as ab.
It is now clear that the displacement and hence velocity measurements are dependent upon
the frame of reference from where the physical quantities are observed. How ever the
acceleration of the object as measured by the moving frame differs from the earth frame only
when the moving frame is also accelerating. In other words the acceleration of an object is
same as observed by the earth frame and a frame moving with constant velocity. For
example if an object is accelerating with an acceleration a
1
with respect to the earth frame
b a  b
O
x
P o s i t i o n a t t = t + ∆ t
y
a
P o s i t i o n a t t = 0
O ’
and at the same time the moving fame is also accelerating with an acceleration a
2
with
respect to the earth frame than the acceleration of the object with respect to the moving frame
will be given by a
1
a
2
.
The reference frames at rest or moving with constant velocity are termed as inertial reference
frame and accelerating frames are known as non inertial frames. We shall discuss in detail
the inertial and non inertial frames during the study of applications of Newton’s laws of
motion, which are applicable in inertial reference frames where true value of acceleration is
measured and inertial state of particle under observation is defined. However it is clear from
the so far discussion that measured value of any physical quantity involving displacement
depends upon the frame of reference of observation and for correct interpretation of physical
quantity appropriate reference frame should be ascertained.
Test your understanding
Ex34. A boat P is moving at 40 km/hr and another boat Q is moving at 20 km/hr. Which one
of the following is not a possible value for their relative velocity –
(A) 10 km/hr. (B) 20 km/hr. (C) 30 km/hr. (D) 40 km/hr.
Sol : (A) The relative velocity may have values v1v2 to v1+v2.
Ex35. Two trains along the same straight rails moving with constant velocities 60 km/hr and
30 km/hr towards each other. If at time t=0, the distance between them is 90 km, the time
when they collide is
(A) 1 hr (B) 2 hr (C) 3 hr (D) 4 hr
Sol : (A) Time of collision (t)= Initial Displacement/(Relative velocity of approach)= 1 hr
Ex36. A boat moves relative to water with a velocity which is 1/n times the river flow
velocity. At what angle to the stream direction must the boat to move for minimizing
drifting?
(A) π /2 (B) sin
1
(1/n) (C) π /2 + sin
1
(1/n) (D) π /2 sin
1
(1/n)
Sol : Horizontal drift (D)= {vv/n sinθ} t={vv/n sinθ} L/( v/n cosθ
sin θ = 1/n; θ = sin
1
(1/n);
φ = π /2+sin
1
(1/n)
Ex37. A thief walking slowly along a road sees a policeman at a perpendicular distance L
from him and starts running at a constant speed u along the road. The policeman also starts
running simultaneously with speed v always aiming at him. Find how soon the policeman
will catch the thief
(A) t= v L/v
2
u
2
(B) t= vL/v
2
u
2
(C) t= uL/(v
2
u
2
) (D) t= v
2
/L
2
(v
2
u
2
)
Sol :
0
∫
Τ
(u cosα v)dt=l; u
0
∫
Τ
cosα dt vT=l
0
∫
Τ
v cosα dt=uT ⇔
0
∫
Τ
cos α dt=uT/v ; T=lv/(v
2
u
2
)
Ex38. Two points move in the same straight line starting at the same moment from the same
point. The first moves with constant velocity u and the second with constant acceleration f.
During the time that elapses before second catches the first, the greatest distance between the
particles is –
(A) u/f (B) u
2
/2f (C) f/2u
2
(D) f/u
2
Sol : At max separation ft=u or t=u/f ; Xm = u
2
/f1/2fu
2
/t
2
= u
2
/2f
Ex39.A truck starts from rest with an acceleration of 1.5 m/s
2
while a car 150 m behind starts
from rest with an acceleration of 2 m/s
2
. How long will it take before both the truck and car
side by side?
(A) 5.24 sec (B) 24.5 sec (C) 2.45 sec. (D) 52.4 sec.
Sol : (B) 150= ½ (21.5) t
2
; t=24.5 sec
Ex40. Three points are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.
They all start moving simultaneously with velocity v constant in magnitude. With the first
point heading continuously for the second, the second for the third and the third for the first.
How soon will the points converge?
(A) 3v/a (B) 2a/3v (C) a/3v (D) a/v
Sol : t = a/(v+vcos60)= 2a/3v
Ex41. A motor cycle and a car start from rest at the same place at the same time and travel in
the same direction .The cycle accelerates uniformly at 1m/s
2
up to a speed of 36 km/h and
the car at 0.5 m/s
2
up to a speed of 54 km/h then the distance at which the car overtakes the
cycle
(A)100 m (B) 200 m (C) 300 m (D) 400 m
Sol : Vcy = 10 m/s; Vca = 15 m/s; Time of acceleration t
1
=10 sec and t
2
=30 sec; Scy = 50 m
t
2
– 40t+200=0; t=6 sec >30 sec; 50+10(t10)=225+15(t30); t=35 sec and Scy=Sca=300 m
Ex42. A passenger is standing d m away from a bus. The bus begins to move with constant
acceleration a. To catch the bus, the passenger runs at a constant speed v towards the bus.
The minimum speed of the passenger so that he may catch the bus will be
(A) 2ad (B) √ ad (C) √ 2ad (D) ad
Sol : d = v.t – 1/2at
2
; at
2
 2vt+2d = 0; t = (2vt√ 4v
2
– 8ad)/2a; t = v/at 1/a√v
2
2ad
for a real t; v
2
– 2ad>0; v
min
2
= 2ad; v
min
= √2ad
Ex43. A ship sails in still water at the rate of 5 m/s. it is sailing northwards in a river flowing
eastwards with a velocity of 3 m/s. A monkey is climbing a vertical pole on the ship at the
rate of 2 m/s. A person is walking along the bank of the river at the rate of 1 m/s. To him the
monkey will appear climbing at the rate of
(A) √10 m/s (B) √11 m/s (C) √33 m/s (D) √45 m/s
Sol : Velocity of monkey relative to man V
rel
= √29+4 = √33 and V
rel
= √41+4 = √45
Ex44. A string passes over a fixed pulley. Two boys P and Q of the same mass hang at the
same height at each end. Both start to climb upward at the same time to reach the pulley. The
velocity of P relative to the string is v and that of Q is 3v, then the time taken by P to reach
the pulley is equal to
(A) 1/3
rd
of the time taken by Q (B) 3 times the time taken by Q (C) the time taken by Q
(D) twice the time taken by Q
Sol : (C) Velocity of Q relative to pulley = 3vv= 2v↑; Velocity of P relative to pulley =
v+v= 2v↑
Single Choice Type Objective Questions
Q1. At a certain moment of time the angle between velocity vector v and the acceleration a of
a particle, is greater than 90
0
. What can be inferred about its motion at the moment?
(A) It is curvilinear and decelerated (B) it is rectilinear and accelerated.
(C) It is curvilinear and accelerated (D) it is rectilinear and decelerated
Q2. The motion of a particle of mass 1kg is confined to a plane and is determined by x=3t
2
,
y=2t
3
where x and y are its coordinates at time t, then magnitude and direction of the force on
the particle at t=1/2 second is
(A) 2 N at 30
0
with the xaxis (B) 6√2N at 45
0
with the xaxis (C) 6 N at 30
0
with the xaxis
(D) 2N at 45
0
with the xaxis
Q3. For a particle moving along a straight line, the displacement x depends on time t as
x=α t
3
+β t
2
+γ t+δ . The ratio of its initial acceleration to its initial velocity depends
(A) Only on γ and β (B) only on α and γ (C) only on α and γ (D) only on α
Q4. Which
one of the
following
curves does
not represent motion in one dimension?
Q5. The length of second’s hand in a watch is 1cm. The change in velocity of its tip in 15
second is
(A) Zero (B) π (30√2) cm/sec (C) π /30 cm/sec. (D) (π√ 2)/30 cm/sec.
Q6. The modulus of the acceleration vector is constant. The trajectory of the particle is a/an
(A) Parabola (B) ellipse (C) hyperbola (D) circle
v
t
v
t
x
t
v
t
Q7. A body A is thrown vertically upward with the initial velocity v
1
. Another body B is
dropped from a height h. Find how the distance x between the bodies depends on the time t,
if the bodies begin to move simultaneously.
(A) x=hv
1
t (B) x=(hv
1
)t (C) x= h – v
1
/t (D) x= h/tv
1
Q8. Which one of the following equations represents the motion of a body with finite
constant acceleration in these equations y denotes the displacement of the body at time t and
a, b and c are the constant of the motion
(A) y= a/t + bt (B) y=at (C) y=at + bt
2
(D) y=at + bt
2
+ ct
3
Q9. The motion of particle is defined by x=a cos ω t and y=a sin ω t. The acceleration of
particle is –
(A) aω (B) a
2
ω (C) aω
2
(D) a
2
ω
2
Q10.The displacement time relationship for a particle is given by x=a
0
+ a
1
t + a
2
t
2
. The
acceleration of the particle is
(A) a
0
(B) a
1
(C) a
2
(D) 2a
2
Q11. The acceleration vector of a particle is a constant. The trajectory of the particle is a/an
(A) parabola (B) ellipse (C) hyperbola (D) circle
Q12. Which
of the
following
distance time
graphs represents onedimensional uniform motion?
Q13. A horse rider is moving towards a big mirror with velocity v. The velocity of his image
with respect to him is
(A) 0 (B) 4v (C) 2v (D) v
x
t
x
t
x
t
x
t
( A ) ( B ) ( C ) ( D )
Q14. Figure shows the displacement time graphs for two boys going home
from the school. Which of the following statements is correct about their
relative velocity
(A) first increases and then decreases
(B) first decreases and then increases (C) is zero (D) is non zero but constant
Q15.A particle is
confined to move along
the xaxis between
reflecting walls at x=0
and x=a between these
two limits, moves freely
at constant velocity v. If
the walls are perfectly
reflecting than its
displacement time
graph is
Q16. The acceleration time graph of a particle
moving along a straight line is as shown in figure. At
what time the particle acquires its initial velocity?
(A) 12 s (B) 5 s (C) 8 s (D)16 s
x
t
A
B
t i m e
0
a
a / v
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
2 a / v 3 a / v
t i m e
a / v 2 a / v 3 a / v
0
a
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
a
t i m e
0
a
a / v
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
2 a / v 3 a / v
t i m e
0
a
a / v
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
2 a / v 3 a / v
( A ) ( B )
( C ) ( D )
a ( m / s )
2
1 0
4 t ( s ) o
Q . 2 8
Q17. The displacement of a particle as a function of time is
shown in fig. The fig indicates that
(A) The particle starts with a certain velocity, but the motion
is retarded and finally the particle stops
(B) The velocity of particle is constant throughout
(C) The acceleration of the particle is constant throughout
(D) The particle starts with a constant velocity, the motion is accelerated and finally the
particle moves with another constant velocity.
Q18. A ship sailing southeast sees another ship which is steaming at the same rate as itself
and which always appears to be in a direction due east and to be always coming nearer. Find
the direction of motion of second vessel.
(A) sails southwest (B) sails southeast (C) sails 30
0
south of west (D) sails 30
0
south of
east
Q19. An α particle travels along the inside of straight hollow tube, 2.0 meter long, of a
particle accelerator under uniform acceleration. How long is the particle in the tube, if it
enters at a speed of 1000 m/s and leaves at 9000 m/s.
(A) 4 x 10
4
sec (B) 2 x 10
7
sec (C) 4 x 10
3
sec (D) 2 x 10
6
sec
Q20. The adjoining cure represents the
velocity–time graph of a particle, its
acceleration value along OA,AB and BC in
metre/sec
2
are respectively
(A)1, 0, 0.5 (B)1, 0, 0.5 (C)1, 1, 0.5 (D)1, 0.5,
0
s ( m )
4 t ( s ) o
2 0
Q . 2 9
0 1 0 2 0 3 0
V e l o c i t y ( m / s )
A B
1 0
5
t i m e ( s e c )
Q21. The vt graph of a linear motion is shown in adjoining figure.
The distance from origin after 8 seconds is
(A) 18 meters (B) 16 meters (C) 8 meters (D) 6 meters
Q22. The displacementtime graph of a moving particle is
shown in the fig, the instantaneous velocity is negative at the
point
(A) D (B) F (C) C (D) E
Q23. The graph between the displacement x and time t for a particle moving
in a straight line is shown is figure. During the interval OA, AB, BC and
CD the acceleration of the particle is
(A) +, 0, + , + (B)  , 0 , + , 0 (C) + , 0 ,  , + (D)  , 0 ,  , 0
Q24. A particle starts out at t=0 from the point x
0
=10 m with an initial velocity v
0
=15 m/s
and a constant acceleration a = 5m/s
2
. Then its velocity – time graph is
1 3 0
4
 2
4 8
t ( s )
v ( m / s )
5 7
y
D
C
x
T i m e
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
x
A
D
C
B
t
o
0
0
2 4 6 ( s )
1 0
2 0
v
( m / s )
t
0
0
2 4 6 ( s )
1 0
2 0
v
( m / s )
t
0
0
2 4 6 ( s )
1 0
2 0
v
( m / s )
t
0
0
2 4 6 ( s )
1 0
2 0
v
( m / s )
t
( A ) ( B ) ( C ) ( D )
Q25. A particle starts out at t=0 from the point x
0
=10 m with an initial velocity v
0
= 15 m/s
and a constant acceleration a=  5m/s
2
. Then its displacement–time graph is –
Q26. The displacement time graph for a one
dimensional motion of a particle is shown in figure.
Then the instantaneous velocity at t=20 sec is
(A) 0.1 m/s (B) 0.1 m/s (C) 0.05 m/s (D) 1.0 m/s
Q27. The acceleration versus time graph of a particle is as shown
figure.The respective vt graph of the particle is
v
t
O
v
O
t
v
t
O
v
t
O
( A ) ( B ) ( C ) ( D )
Q28. The displacement time graph of a moving
particle with constant acceleration is shown in the
figure. The velocitytime graph is given by
x ( m )
4 0
3 0
2 0
1 0
0
0 2
6
4 t ( s )
x ( m )
4 0
3 0
2 0
1 0
0
0 2 6 4 t ( s )
x ( m )
4 0
3 0
2 0
1 0
0
0 2
6 4 t ( s )
x ( m )
4 0
3 0
2 0
1 0
0
0 2 6 4 t ( s )
( C ) ( D )
( A ) ( B )
2 0 3 0 4 0
t ( s )
o
6 0
1
S
(
m
)
2
Q . 4 0
t
O
a
2
o
s
x ( m )
( t / s )
1
1 0
0
 1 0
( a )
2 t ( s )
1 0
0
 1 0
( b )
2
t ( s )
v ( m / s )
v ( m / s )
1 0
0
 1 0
( c )
2
t ( s )
v ( m / s )
1 0
0
( d )
2 t ( s )
v ( m / s )
1
1
1
1
Q29. Two balls are dropped from the top of a high tower with a time interval t
0
second,
where t
0
is smaller than the time taken by the ball to reach the floor, which is perfectly in
elastic. The distance’s’ between the two balls, plotted against the time lapse t from the instant
of dropping the second ball is represented by
Q30. The graph below describes the motion of a ball
rebounding from a horizontal surface being released from a
point above the surface. The quantity represented on the yaxis
is the ball’s –
(A) Displacement (B) velocity (C) acceleration (D)
momentum.
Q31. The acceleration of a particle as a function of time is a= 1.5 t0.15 t
2
. The particle starts
motion from rest at a time t = 0 sec. Then the maximum velocity in the forward direction is.
(A) 10 m/s (B) 25 m/s (C) 50 m/s (D) none of the above
s
t ( s ) o
( a )
s
t ( s ) o
( b )
s
t ( s ) o
( c )
s
t ( s ) o
( d )
t ( s )
y
o
Q . 4 4
Q32. A balloon going upward with a velocity of 12 m/sec is at a height of 65 m from the
Earth at any instant. Exactly at this instant a packet drops from it. How much time will the
packet take in reaching the Earth? (g=10 m/sec
2
)
(A) 7.5 sec (B) 10 sec (C) 5 sec (D) None
Q33. A body of mass 3 kg falls from the multistoried building 100 m high and buries itself 2
meters deep in the sand. The time of penetration will be.
(A) 9 sec (B) 0.9 sec (C) 0.09 sec (D)10 sec.
Q34. A car moving with constant acceleration covers the distance between two points 60 m
apart in 6 sec. Its speed as it passes the second point is 15 m/sec. At what prior distance from
the first point was the car at rest?
(A) 7.5 m (B) 15 m (C) 20 m (D) 25 m
Q35. A body starts from rest with constant acceleration a. It’s velocity after n second is v.
The displacement of body in last two seconds is
(A) 2v(n1)/n (B) v(n1)/n (C) v(n+1)/n (D) 2v(n+1)/n
Q36. A rocket is fired vertically from the ground. It moves upward with a constant
acceleration 10m/s
2
for 30 seconds after which the fuel is consumed. After what time from
the instant of firing the rocket will attain the maximum height? Take g=10 m/s
2
(A) 30 s (B) 45 s (C) 60 s (D) 75 s
Q37. A ball is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 30 m/s. If the acceleration due to
gravity is 10 m/s
2
, what will be the distance traveled by it in the last second of motion?
(A) 5 m (B) 10 m (C) 25 m (D) 30 m.
Q38. A stone is released from an elevator going up with an acceleration a. The acceleration
of the stone after the release is
(A) a upward (B) (ga) upward (C) (ga) downward (D) g downward
Q39. The water falls at regular intervals from a tap 5 m above the ground. The third drop is
leaving at instant when first one touches the ground. How far above the ground is the second
drop at that instant?
(A) 1.25 m (B) 2.50 m (C) 3.75 m (D) 4.00 m
Q40. An object is thrown
upward with a velocity u,
then its displacement time
graph is
Q41. A car moves with uniform acceleration along straight line PQR. Its speeds at P and R
are 5 m/s and 25 m/s respectively. If PQ: QR=1:2, the ratio of the times taken by car to travel
distance PQ and QR is
(A) 1:2 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:5
Q42. The greatest acceleration or deceleration that a train may have is a. The minimum time
in which the train can get from one station to the next at a distance s is
(A) √ s/a (B) √ 2s/a (C) 1/2√s/a (D) 2√s/a
Q43. A particle moves with a constant acceleration such that in the successive time intervals
t
1
, t
2
, t
3
its average velocities are v
1
, v
2
and v
3
. The ratio of v
1
v
2
and v
2
v
3
is
(A) t
1
 t
2
: t
2
+ t
3
(B) t
1
+ t
2
: t
2
+ t
3
(C) t
1
 t
2
: t
2
 t
1
(D) t
1
 t
2
: t
2
 t
3
Q44. A body is thrown up in a lift with a velocity u relative to the lift and the time of flight is
found to be ‘t’. The acceleration with which the lift is moving up will be –
(A) ugt/t (B) u+gt/t (C) 2ugt/t (D) 2u+gt/t
Q45. A ball is dropped from a height of 20 m and rebounds with a velocity, which is 3/4
th
of
the velocity with which it hits the ground. What is the time interval between the first and
second bounces (g=10 m/s
2
)
(A) 3 sec (B) 4 sec (C) 5 sec (D) 6 sec.
s
o
u / g
u / g
2
( C )
s
o
u / g
t
u / g
2
( B )
s
o
u / g
t t
u / g
2
( D )
s
o
u / g
t
u / g
2
( A )
E x 6 3
Q46. A pebble is thrown vertically upwards from bridge with an initial velocity of 4.9 m/s. It
strikes the water after 2s. If acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s
2
. The height of the bridge
will be
(A) 4.9 m. (B) 19.6 m (C) 9.8 m (D) 24.5 m
Q47. A man in a balloon rising vertically with an acceleration of 4.9 m/sec
2
, releases a ball 2
seconds after the balloon is let go from the ground. The greatest height above the ground
reached by the ball is
(A) 14.7 m (B) 19.6 m (C) 9.8 m (D) 24.5 m
Q48. A person standing on the floor of an elevator drops a coin. The coin reaches the floor of
the elevator in a time t
1
, if the elevator is stationary and in time t
2
if it is moving with
constant velocity. Then
(A) t
1
=t
2
(B) t
1
<t
2
(C) t
1
>t
2
(D) t
1
<t
2
or t
1
>t
2
depending whether lift is going up or down
Q49. A river has width 0.5 km and flows from west to East with a speed 30 km/hr. If a
boatman starts sailing his boat at a speed 40 km/hr. normal to bank, the boat shall cross the
river in time
(A) 0.6 minute (B) 0.75 minute (C) 0.45 minute (D) 3 minute
Q50. Two trains take 3 seconds to pass one another when going in opposite direction but
only 2.5 second if the speed of one is increased by 50%. The time one train would take to
pass the other when going in the same direction at their original speed is –
(A) 10 sec (B) 12 sec (C) 15 sec (D) 18 sec
Q51. A steamer takes 12 days to reach from port A to B. Everyday only one steamer sets out
from both the ports. How many steamers does each boat meet in the open sea
(A) 12 (B) 13 (C) 23 (D) 24
Q52. A body of mass 0.5 kg is found to be moving 30 m away from the starting point during
the fourth second and 70 m towards the starting point during the ninth second of its motion.
Identify the correct statements appropriate to the motion from the following.
(A) The initial kinetic energy is 2500 J
(B) It is uniformly accelerated motion
(C) It is uniform acceleration to begin with and then uniform retardation
(D) It will be at the starting point after 10 seconds.
Q53. A freely falling object crosses T.V tower of height 102.9 m in three seconds. Find the
height above the top of the tower from which it would have started falling.
(A) 122.5 m (B) 102.9 m (C) 19.6 m (D) 82.3 m
Q54. A boatman could row his boat with a speed 10 m/sec. He wants to take his boat from P
to a point Q just opposite on the other bank of the river flowing at a speed 4 m/sec. He should
row his boat
(A) at right angle to the steam
(B) at an angle of sin
1
(2/5) with PQ up the stream
(C) at an angle of sin
1
(2/5) with PQ down the stream
(D) at an angle cos
1
(2/5) with PQ down the stream
Q55. A river is flowing from west to east at a speed of 5 meters/minute. A man on the south
bank of the river capable of swimming at 10 meters/minute in still water wants to swim
across the river in shortest time. He should swim in a direction
(A) Due North (B) 30
0
east of North (C) 30
0
west of North (D) 60
0
east of North
Q56. Rahul hits a ball along the ground with a speed u in a direction, which makes an angle
30
0
with the line joining him and the fielder Rhodes. Rhodes runs to intercept the ball with a
speed 2u/3. At what angle θ should he run to intercept the ball
(A) sin
1
√3/2 (B) sin
1
2/3 (C) sin
1
¾ (D) sin
1
4/5
Q57. A bus moves over a straight level road with an acceleration a. A boy in the bus drops a
ball outside. The acceleration of the ball with respect to the bus and the Earth respectively
(A) a and g (B) a+g and ga (C) √a
2
+g
2
and g (D) √ a
2
+g
2
and a
Q58. During a rainstorm, raindrops are observed to be striking the ground at an angle of θ
with the vertical. A wind is blowing horizontal at the speed of 5.0 m/s, the speed of
raindrops is
(A) 5 sinθ (B) 5/sinθ (C) 5 cosθ (D) 5/cosθ
Q59. Two spheres of equal masses but radii R and 2R are allowed to fall in a liquid. The ratio
of there terminal velocities is.
(A) 1:4 (B) 1:2 (C) 1:1 (D) 2:1
Q60.A particles of mass m moves on the xaxis as follows: it starts from rest at t=0 from the
point x=0 and comes to rest at t=1 at the point x=1. No other information is available about
its motion at intermediate times (0<t<1). If α denotes the instantaneous acceleration of the
particle, than –
(A) α cannot remains positive for all in the interval 0≤ t≤ 1
(B) ¹ α ¹ cannot exceed 2 at any point or points in its path
(C) ¹ α ¹ must be ≥ 4 at some point or in its path
(D) α must change sign during the motion, but no other assertion can be made with the
information given.
Q61. Two particles A and B are dropped from heights of 5 m and 20 m respectively. Then
the ratio of time taken by A to that by B, to reach the ground is
(A) 1:4 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:2
Q62. A ball weighing 0.01 kg hits a hard surface vertically with a speed of 5 m/s and
rebounds with the same speed. The ball remains in contact with the surface for 0.01s. The
average force exerted by the surface on the ball in newtons is
(A) 10.0 (B) 1.0 (C) 5.0 (D) 0.1
Q63. A body is projected vertically upwards with velocity of 60 ms
1
. Two seconds later
another body is similarly projected with velocity of 30 ms
1
. Which of the following is (are)
true?
(A) The bodies meet when both are moving upwards
(B) The bodies meet when the former is coming downward and the later is moving upwards.
(C) The bodies meet at a height of 45 m
(D) The bodies do not meet
Q64. The displacement of a moving particle in a straight line is proportional to the square of
the time than for this particle
(A) The velocity is constant (B) The velocity is variable (C) The acceleration is constant.
(D) The acceleration is variable.
Q65. Suppose you are in a closed box, which is falling freely under gravity. If you release a
ball from your hand then to you the ball would appear to be
(A) Falling downwards (B) going upwards (C) stationary (D) oscillating.
Q66. Two particles are projected vertically upwards with the same velocity on two different
planets with acceleration due to gravities g
1
and g
2
respectively. If they fall back to their
initial points of projection after lapse of times t
1
and t
2
respectively. Then
(A) t
1
t
2
= g
1
g
2
(B) t
1
g
1
= t
2
g
2
(C) t
1
g
2
= t
2
g
1
(D) t
1
2
+ t
2
2
= g
1
2
+ g
2
2
Q67. The speed of a swimmer in still water is 5 m/min. He crosses a river of width 24 m
flowing with a speed 4 m/min. To reach the opposite point on the other bank, the time taken
by him is
(A) 8 min (B) 9 min (C) 19 min (D) 20 min
Q68. A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the ground. It crosses a point at the height of
25 m twice at an interval of 4 sec. The ball was thrown with the velocity of
(A) 20 m/sec (B) 25 m/sec (C) 30 m/sec (D) 35 m/sec
Q69. A 40 m wide canal is flowing with velocity 50 m/min. A man reaches the opposite bank
swimming 50 m. His minimum speed should be
(A) 40 m/min (B) 50 m/min (C) 60 m/min (D) 70 m/min
Q70. A bee flies in a line from a point A to another point B in 4 seconds with a velocity of
( t2( m/s. The distance A and B in metre is
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8
Q71. A 30 m wide canal is flowing at the rate of 20 m/min. A man can swim at the rate of 25
m/min in still water. The time taken by him to cross the canal perpendicular to the flow is
(A) 1.0 min (B) 1.5 min (C) 2.0 min (D) 2.5 min
Q72. A man crosses a 320 m wide river perpendicular to the current in 4 minutes. If in still
water he can swim with a speed 5/3 times that of the current, then the speed of the current, in
m/min,is
(A) 30 (B) 40 (C) 50 (D) 60
Q73. A particle is
thrown vertically
upwards. The graph
between its speed v and
time t is given by (neglecting the air resistance) the following figure
Q74. Two particles one with constant velocity 50 m/s and the other with uniform acceleration
10 m/s
2
start moving simultaneously from the same place in the same direction. They will be
at a distance of 125 m from each other after
(A) 5 sec (B) 5(1+√2) sec (C) 10 sec (D) 10(√2+1) sec
Q75. A ball is dropped
vertically from a height d
above the ground. It hits
the ground and bounces up
vertically to a height d/2. Neglecting subsequent motion and air resistance, its velocity v
varies with the height h above the ground as
Q76. A particle suffers three displacements by 4 m in the northward, 2 m in the southeast and
2 m in the southwest directions. What is the displacement of the particle and what is the
distance covered by it?
(A) 42√2 m, 8 m (B) 4+2√2 m, 6 m (C) 16 m, 8 m (D) None of these
Q77. A body covered a distance of L m along a curved path of a quarter circle. The ratio of
distance to displacement is
v
t
v
t
v
t
v
t
( A ) ( B ) ( C ) ( D )
v
h o
( a )
v v v
h
h
h o
o
o
( b ) ( d ) ( c )
(A) π /2√2 (B) 2√2/π (C) π /√2 (D) √ 2/π
Q78. Which of the following
graph (s) is/are not possible
Q79. A drunkard walking in a narrow lane takes 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward,
followed again by 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward, and so on. Each step is 1 m long
and required 1 seco
nd to cover. How long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit 13 m away from the start?
(A) 9 s (B) 21 s (C) 32 s (D) 37 s
Q80. Mark the wrong statement –
(A) Nothing is in the state of absolute rest or state of absolute motion
(B) Magnitude of displacement is always equal to the distance traveled
(C) Magnitude of displacement can never be greater than the distance traveled
(D) Magnitude of instantaneous velocity is equal to the instantaneous speed.
Q81. The following graph can be seen in nature
(A) Yes (B) No (C) Sometime (D) At a particular instant
Q82. Can a body have uniform speed but nonuniform velocity?
(A) Yes (B) No (C) Depends on direction (D) Unpredictable
Q 83. The position vector r of a particle varies with time t as r = at
2
i^+ bt j^ , then the
magnitude of the instantaneous velocity of the particle at time t will be
(A) 2at+b (B) √4a
2
t
2
+b
2
(C) 2a+b (D) √ 4a
2
+b
2
Q84. From the adjoining displacement time graph for two
particles A & B the ratio of velocities V
A
:V
B
will be
S ( m )
0
S ( m )
t ( s )
( C )
t ( s )
( D )
0
t ( s )
0
( A )
S ( m )
t ( s )
0
( B )
S ( m )
t ( s )
 v e
+ v e
O
s p e e d ( m / s )
3 0
o
6 0
o
o t ( s )
s ( m )
B
A
(A) 1:2 (B) 1:√3 (C) √3:1 (D) 1:3
Q85. From the adjoining graph, the distance traversed
by particle in 4 sec is
(A) 60 m (B) 25 m (C) 55 m (D) 30 m
Q86. A car travels first half distance between two places with a speed of 40 km/h and the rest
half distance with a speed of 60 km/h. The average speed of the car will be :
(A) 100 km/hr (B) 50 km/hr (C) 48 km/hr (D) 200 km/hr
Q87. A body moves along the sides AB, BC, and CD of a square of side 10 meter with
velocity of constant magnitude 3 meter/sec. Its Average velocity will be
(A) 3 m/sec (B) 0.87 m/sec (C) 1.33 m/sec (D) None
Q88. The displacement of a particle moving in onedimensional direction under a force at
time t is given by t= √x+3, where x is in m and t in sec. The displacements of the particle,
when its velocity is zero, will be
(A) 0 m (B) 3 m (C) 3 m (D) 2 m
Q89. A body moves in a straight line along, xaxis. Its distance x (in meter) from the origin
is given by x=8t3t
2
. The average speed in the interval t=0 to t=1 second is
(A) 5 ms
1
(B) 4 ms
1
(C) 6 ms
1
(D) zero
Q90. If the displacement of a particle varies with time according to the relation x=k/b[1
exp(bt)],then the velocity (v) of the particle is.
(A) v=k exp(bt) (B) v=k/b exp(bt) (C) v=k
2
/b exp(bt) (D) v= k/b
2
exp(bt)
o t ( s ) 4 3 2 1
2 0
1 0
v ( m / s )
Q . N o . 5 2
Q91. The displacement x of a particle along a straight line at time t is given by x=a
0
 a
1
t +
a
2
t
2
. The acceleration of the particle is
(A) a
0
(B) a
1
(C) 2a
2
(D) a
2
Q92. A truck traveling due to North at 20 m/s turns East and travels at the same speed. The
change in its velocity is
(A) 20√2 m/s NorthEast (B) 20√2 m/s SouthEast (C) 40√2 m/s NorthEast (D) 20 √2 m/s
Northwest
Q93. Which of the following statement is not correct?
(A) A body may have zero instantaneous velocity but finite acceleration
(B) A body may have zero instantaneous acceleration but finite velocity
(C) Magnitude of instantaneous velocity is equal to instantaneous speed
(D) Magnitude of average velocity is equal to average speed.
Q94. The position–time (xt) graphs for two students A and B
returning from their school O to their homes P and Q
respectively are shown in figure. Choose the correct statements
from below.
(A) B lives closer to the school than A
(B) A/B starts from the school earlier than B/A
(C) B walks faster than A
(D) A and B reach home at the different time.
Q95. Figure shows the displacement time graph of a particle
moving on the xaxis
(A) The particle is continuously going in positive x direction
(B) The particle is at rest
(C) The velocity increases up to a time t
0
, and then becomes
constant
o
t ( s )
x ( m )
B
A
P
Q
o t o t
x
(D) The particle moves at a constant velocity up to a time t
0
and then stops.
Q96. A car is moving with a velocity of 20 m/sec.The driver sees a stationary truck at a
distance of 100 m ahead. After some reaction time ∆ t applies the brakes, produces a
retardation of 4 m/s
2
. The maximum reaction times to avoid collision will be
(A) 5 sec (B) 2.5 sec (C) 4 sec (D) 10 sec
Q97. Which one of the following represents uniformly acceleration motion? a and b are
constant and x is the distance described.
(A) x=√(ta)/b (B) x=(ta)/b (C) t=√(xa/b) (D) x=√t+a
Q98. A particle starts from rest and moving along a straight line travels 19 m in the tenth
second. The acceleration of the particle is given by
(A) 1.9 m/s
2
(B) 2 m/s
2
(C) 3.8 m/s
2
(D) 1 m/s
2
Q99. A ball dropped from the top of a building takes 0.5 sec to clear the window of 4.9 m
height. What is the height of building above the window?
(A) 2.75 m (B) 5.0 m (C) 5.5 m (D) 4.9 m
Q100. If a body travels half its total path in the last second of its fall from rest. The time and
height of its fall, will respectively be (g= 9.8 m/s
2
)
(A) 0.59 s, 57 m (B) 3.41 s, 57 m (C) 5.9 s, 5.7 m (D) 5.9 s, 34.1 m
Q101. A stone is dropped from the top of the tower and travels 24.5 m in the last second of
its journey. The height of the lower is
(A) 44.1 m (B) 49 m (C) 78.4 m (D) 72 m
Q102. From the foot of a tower 90 m high, a stone is thrown up so as to reach the top of
tower. Two second later another stone is dropped from the top of the tower. The two stones
will meet at height
(A) 83.6 m (B) 38.6 m (C) 63.8 m (D) 68.3 m
Q103. Two bodies are thrown vertically upward, with the same initial velocity of 98
metre/sec but 4 sec apart. How long after the first one is thrown will they meet?
(A) 10 sec (B)11 sec (C)12 sec (D) 13 sec
Exercise 2
Multiple Choice Type Questions
Q1. Mark the correct statements
(A) The magnitude of the velocity of a particle is equal to speed
(B) The magnitude of average of velocity in an interval is equal to its average speed in that
interval
(C) It is possible to have a situation in which speed of a particle is zero but the average speed
is not zero
(D) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed of the particle is never zero but the
but the average speed in an interval is zero
Q2. A particle starts moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. At a time t
1
seconds after the beginning of motion, the acceleration changes sign, remaining the same in
magnitude. Determine the time from the beginning of motion, till it returns to the starting
point.
(A) t
1
(2+√2) s (B) t
1
(1+√2) s (C) t
1
√2 s (D) 2√2 t
1
s
Q3. A person walks up a stationary escalator in 90 seconds. If the escalator moves with
person, first standing on it, take 1 minute to reach the top from ground. How much time
would it take him to walk up the moving escalator?
(A) 24 s (B) 48 s (C) 36 s (D) 40 s
Q4. The displacement of a particle moving along the xaxis is given by x=1+5(t2)+2(t2)
2
where x is in meter and t is in second.
(A) The particle starts its motion from the origin
(B) The velocity of the particle is 5 ms
1
at t= 2 sec.
(C) The acceleration of the particle is 4 ms
2
(D) The particle starts its motion at t=2 s
Q5. The velocity time plot for a particle
moving on a straight line is shown in the
figure
(A) The particle has a constant acceleration
(B) The particle has never turned around.
(C) The particle has zero displacement
(D) The average speed in the interval 0 to 10 s is the same as the average speed in the interval
10 s to 20 s.
Q6. The velocity of a particle is zero at t=0, then
(A) The acceleration at t=0 must be zero.
(B) The acceleration at t=0 may be zero
(C) If the acceleration is zero from t=0 to t=10 s, the speed is also zero in this interval.
(D) If the speed is zero from t=0 to t=10 s, the acceleration is also zero in this interval.
Q7. A lift performs the first part of its ascent with uniform acceleration a and remainder with
uniform retardation 2a. If t is the time of ascent, the depth of the shaft is
(A) at
2
/4 (B) at
2
/3 (C) at
2
/2 (D) at
2
/8
Q8. A particle moves along the xaxis as x= u (t2)+a (t2)
2

(A) The initial velocity of the particle is u
(B) The acceleration of the particle is a
(C) The acceleration of the particle is 2a
(D) At t=2s particle is at the origin.
Q9. Body A begins to move with initial velocity 2 m/sec and continues to move at a constant
acceleration a. In ∆ t = 10 seconds after the body A begins to moves a body B departs from
the same point with a initial velocity 12 m/sec and moves with the same acceleration a. What
is the maximum acceleration a, at which the body B can overtake A?
(A) 1 m/sec
2
(B) 2 m/sec
2
(C) 1/2 m/sec
2
(D) 3 m/sec
2
V ( m / s )
1 0
1 0 t ( s ) o
Q . 5
2 0
Q10. N particles moving in a straight line have initial velocities of 1, 2, 3,....N m/s and
acceleration of 1, 2, 3,...N m/s
2
respectively. If the initial spacing between any two
consecutive particles is same then, select the correct alternatives(s).
(A) The distance between any two particles remains constant
(B) The distance between any two consecutive particles is same for all particles and increases
with time.
(C) The distance between any two consecutive particles is different and increases with time.
(D) The distance between any two consecutive particles increases periodically with time.
Q11.A man throws a stone vertically up with a speed of 20 ms
1
from top of a highrise
building. Two second later, an identical stone is thrown vertically downward with the same
speed 20 ms
1
then
(A) The relative velocity between the two stones remains constant till one hits the ground
(B) Both will have the same kinetic energy, when they hit the ground
(C) The relative acceleration between the two is equal to zero initially
(D) The time interval between their hitting the ground is 2 seconds.
Q12. Mark the correct statements for a particle going on a straight line –
(A) If the velocity and acceleration have opposite sign, the particle is slowing down.
(B) If the position and velocity have opposite sign, the particle is moving towards the origin
(C) If the velocity is zero at an instant, the acceleration should also be zero at that instant.
(D) If the velocity is zero for a time interval, the acceleration is zero at any instant within the
time interval.
Q13. A particle move with an initial velocity v
0
and retardation α v, where v is its velocity at
any time then
(A) The particle will cover a total distance v
0
/α
(B) The particle will come to rest after time 1/α
(C) The particle will continue to move for a very long time
(D) The velocity of the particle will become v
0
/2 after time 1/α
Q14. The instantaneous velocity of a particle is related to its displacement x according to the
relation v=a x + b, where a>0 and b≤ a/7. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true if
x=0 at t=0
(A) The displacement of the particle at the time t is x=b/a (e
at
1)
(B) The particle will experience a retardation if b<0
(C) The particle will be at origin at time t=0
(D) The acceleration of the particle is constant.
Q15. A particle initially at rest moves from a fixed point in a straight line so that at the end of
t seconds its acceleration is sin t + 1/(t+1)
2
. The distance from the fixed point at the end of
π seconds will be.
(A) 2π log (π +1) (B) 2π logπ (C) 2π +log (π +1)
Q16. The speed v of a particle moving along a straight line, when it is at a distance, x from a
fixed point on the line is given by v
2
=1089x
2
, all quantities are in c.g.s.units.
(A) The motion is uniformly acceleration along a straight line.
(B) The magnitude of the acceleration at a distance 3cm from the fixed point is 27ms
2
(C) The motion is S.H.M. about a given fixed point.
(D) The maximum displacement from the fixed point is 4cm
Q17. An observer moves with a constant speed along the line joining two stationary objects.
He will observe that the two objects
(A) Have the same speed (B) have the same velocity (B) Move in the same direction (D)
moves in opposite directions.
Q 18. Out of the following graphs which is/are not possible
v
o
x
( A )
v
o
t
( B )
v
o t
( C )
v
o
t
( D )
Q . N O . 4 7 E x 2
Q19. The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are given by x(t) = a cos (pt) and y(t)= b
sin(pt), where a, b (<a) and p are positive constants of appropriate dimension. Then
(A) The path of the particle is an ellipse
(B) The velocity and acceleration of the particle are normal to each other at t= π /(2p)
(C) The acceleration of the particle is always towards a a focus.
(D) The distance traveled by the particle in time interval t=0 to t=π /(2p), is π√ a
2
+b
2
Q20. If the velocity of a body is constant
(A)( Velocity ( = speed (B)( Average velocity( = speed (C) Velocity = average velocity
(D) speed= average speed
Q21. If a particle travels a linear distance at speed v
1
and come back along the same track at
speed v
2

(A) Its average speed is arithmetic mean (v
1
+v
2
)/2
(B) Its average speed is geometric mean √v
1
v
2
(C) Its average speed is harmonic mean 2v
1
v
2
/(v
1
+v
2
)
(D) Its average velocity is zero
Descriptive Question Type
Q1. The acceleration of a particle depends on the velocity as a =kv.at t=0, x=0 and v=1m/s,
find the position of the particle as a function of time.
Q2. A student argues that the mean velocity during an interval of time can also be expressed
as
(v)= (v
f
+ v
i
)/2 and this should always be the equal to (r
f
 r
i
)/(t
2
t
1
) . Is he right?
Q3.What is meant by d( v( /dt and dv/dt( ? Can these be equal?
(i) d( v( /dt= 0 while ( dv/dt(≠ 0
(ii) d( v( dt ≠ 0 while ( dv/dt( =0
Q4. Is it possible to be accelerating if you are traveling at constant speed? Is it possible to
round curve with zero acceleration? With constant
acceleration? With variable acceleration?
Q5. x/t graphs for two cars A and B are B are as shown:
(i) Which car is moving faster?
(ii) When will they meet?
Q6. How long does it take for a train to increase its velocity in a uniformly accelerated
motion from 12 km/h to 60 km/h over a distance of 600 m? What is its acceleration?
Q7. A car is moving along a straight line with retardation 2 m/s
2
. After time t=3 s, its
velocity reduces to 5 m/s. Find the distance traveled in time t=3s.
Q8. Two trains, each having a speed of 30 miles/hr, are headed at each other on the same
straight track. A bird that can fly 60 miles/hr flies off one train when they are 60 miles apart
and heads directly for the other train. On reaching the other train it flies directly back to the
first train, and so forth (a) how many trips can the bird make from one train to the other
before they crash? (b) What is the total distance the bird travels?
Q9. A particle starts moving along a straight line with acceleration a=kt. (i) Find its velocity
after time t=n sec.
(ii) Find the distance traveled in t=n sec.
Q10. The acceleration of a particle is given as a = 9x. At t=0, x=1 m and v=3 m/s. Find the
velocity of the particle at t=2 sec.
Q11.The acceleration of a cart started at t=0,
varies with time as shown in fig. Find the distance
traveled in 30 second and draw the position–time
graph.
o t
o
t ( s )
x ( m ) Q . N o . 7 5
1 . 0
6 0
o
6 0
o
B
A
0
0 . 5
 0 . 5 A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
i
n
f
t
/
s
2
1 0
2 0 3 0
T i m e i n S e c o n d
Q12. An arrow while being shot from a bow was accelerated over a distance of 2.0 ft. If its
speed at the moment it left the bow was 200 ft/s, than what was the average acceleration
imparted by the bow? Justify any assumptions you need to make.
Q13. A man can swim at a speed of 3 km/h in still water. He wants to cross a 500 m wide
river flowing at 2 km/h. He keeps himself always at an angle of 120
0
with the river flow
while swimming.
(a) Find the time he takes to cross the river.
(b) At what point on the opposite bank will he arrive?
Q14. Usually “average speed” means the ratio of the total distance covered to the time
elapsed. However some time the phrase “average speed” can mean the magnitude of the
average velocity. Are the two same?
Q15. Consider a particle initially moving with a velocity of 5 m/s starts deceleration at a
constant rate of 2 m/s
2
. Determine (i) The time at which the particle becomes stationery. (ii)
The distance traveled in the 2
nd
second.
(iii) The distance traveled in the third second.
Q16. A ball is thrown up. If the air resistance is taken into account and is supposed to be
constant. Will the time of ascent be longer or shorter than the time descent?
Q17. State whether this assertion is right or wrong. “Two balls of different masses are thrown
vertically upwards with the same speed. They reach through the point of projection in their
downward motion with the same speed”.
Q18. Two balls are dropped from the same point after an interval of 1s. If acceleration due to
gravity is 10 m/s
2
, what will be the separation 3 seconds after the release of first ball?
Q19. Let the distance traveled by an object, as a function of time is given by s=2+3t
2
where s
is in metre and t is sec. Then calculate (i) instantaneous speed at t
1
=1 sec and at t
2
=5 sec. (ii)
average speed between the time interval t
1
=1 sec to t
2
=5 sec.
Q20. A rod of length l leans by its upper end against a smooth vertical wall, while its other
end leans against the floor. The end leans against the wall moves uniformly downward. Will
the other end move uniformly too?
Q21. Whether a driver was exceeding a 30 mile/h speed limit before he made an emergency
stop. The length of skid marks on the road was 19.2 ft. Policeman made the reasonable
assumption that the maximum deceleration of the car would not exceed the acceleration of a
freely falling body and arrested the driver for speeding. Was he speeding? Explain.
Q22. A stone is dropped from a balloon going up with a uniform velocity of 5.0 m/s. If the
balloon was 50 m high when the stone was dropped, find its height when the stone hits the
ground. Take g=10 m/s
2
.
Q23. A particle moves in the xy plane with a constant acceleration 1.5 m/s
2
in the direction
making an angle of 37
0
with the xaxis. At t=0 the particle is at the origin and its velocity is
8.0 m/s along the xaxis. Find the velocity and the position of the particle at t=4.0 s.
Q24. (A) A train moving at an essentially constant speed of 60 mile/h moves eastward for 40
min, then in a direction 45
0
east of North for 20 min, and finally westward for 50 min. What
is the average velocity of the train during this run?
(B) A point traversed half a circle of radius R=160 cm during time interval τ =10.0 s.
Calculate the following quantities averaged over that time:
(a) The mean speed (v)
(b) The modulus of the mean velocity vector ( <v>(
Q25. A train traveling at 72 km/h is checked by track repairs. It retards uniformly for 200 m
covering the next 400 m at constant speed and accelerates uniformly to 72 km/h in a further
600 m. If the time at constant lower speed is equal to the sum of the times taken in retarding
and accelerating. Find the total time taken.
Q26. A boy standing on a long railroad car throws a ball straight upwards. The car is moving
on the horizontal road with an acceleration of 1m/s
2
and the projection velocity in the
vertical direction is 9.8 m/s. How far behind the boy will the ball fall on the car?
Q27. At a distance L=400 m from the traffic light, brakes are applied to a locomotive
moving at a velocity v = 54 km/h. Determine the position of the locomotive relative to the
traffic light 1 minute after the application of brakes if its acceleration a=  0.3 m/s
2
Q28. An ant runs from an anthill in a straight line so that its velocity is inversely
proportional to the distance from the center of the anthill. When the ant is at point A at a
distance L
1
=1m from the center of the anthill, its velocity v
1
=2 cm/s, what time will it take
ant to run from point A to point B, which is at a distance L
2
=2 m from the center of the ant
hill?
Q29. A point moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration describes distances a, b
meters in successive intervals of t
1
, t
2
seconds respectively. What is the acceleration if a=b?
Q30. Two trains A and B are moving along parallel rails. A particle is thrown from train A
vertically upwards. What will be the shape of the path as seen by (a) an observer standing on
the ground, (b) an observer in train B moving with same speed as train A in the same
direction, (C) an observer in train B moving with twice the speed that of A in the same
direction?
Q31. Two particles A and B move in a uniform gravitational field where the acceleration due
to gravity is g. Initially the particles located at a point O move with velocities v
1
and v
2
horizontally in opposite directions. At what time from the start of motion the velocities will
be perpendicular to each other and what will be the distance between them at this instant?
Q32. The current velocity of a river grows in proportion to its distance from the bank and
attains the maximum value v
0
at the middle of the stream. Near the bank its velocity is zero.
A boat is moving along this river in such a manner that it is always perpendicular to the
current. It’s speed in still water is u. The width of river is c. By how much distance it will be
drifted by the current?
Q33. A truck has to carry a load in the shortest time from one station to another station
situated at a distance L from the first. It can start up or slowdown at the same acceleration or
deceleration a. What maximum velocity must the truck attain to satisfy this condition?
Q34. The speed of a train increases at a constant rate α from zero to V, then remains
constant for an interval and finally decreases to zero at a constant rate β . If l is the total
distance described compute the total time taken.
Q35. A motorcar can acquire in one minute by uniform acceleration a speed 90 m/sec. When
it is halting at a place in a straight narrow road it sees another car approaching it from behind
with uniform speed 60 m/sec. Find out whether it will be possible to avoid collision if the
first car starts in full force before the second car has approached it within 1200 meters.
Q36. Two points A and B move with speeds v and 2v in two concentric circles, with center at
O and radii 2r and r respectively in the same sense and if OAB= α, find the value of α
when the relative motion is along AB.
Q37. A person traveling with velocity u towards northeast finds that the wind appears to
come from north. But on doubling his speed it seems to come from a direction inclined at an
angle cot
–1
2 on the east of north. Find the true velocity and the direction of the wind.
Q38. The slider block B starts from rest and moves to the
right with a constant acceleration. After 4s the relative
velocity of A with respect to B is 0.06 m/s. Determine (a) the acceleration of A and B (b) the
velocity of B after 3s.
Q39. A motorist is traveling at 365/6 m/s. when he observes that a traffic light 800 m ahead
of him turns red. The traffic light is timed to stay red for 15 second. If the motorist wishes to
pass the light without stopping just as it turns green again, determine (a) the required
uniform deceleration of the car, (b) the speed of the car as it passes the light.
Q40. A train A and an automobile B travel at the constant
speeds 120 km/hr and 96 km/hr respectively as shown. Three
seconds after the train A passes under the highway bridge the
automobile crosses the bridge. Determine the velocity of train
relative to the automobile and the change in position of the
train relative to the automobile during foursecond interval.
A B
A
6 0
0
1 2 0 k m / h r
9
0
k
m
/
h
r
B
Q41. From point A located on a highway as shown in fig, one
has to get by a car as soon as possible to point B located in the
field at a distance l from the highway. It is known that the car moves in the field n times
slower than on the highway. At what distance from point D one must turn of the highway?
Q42. A point travels along the xaxis with a velocity
whose projection v(x) is presented as a function of
time by the plot in fig. Assuming the coordinate of
the point x=0 at the moment t=0, draw the
approximate time dependence plot for the acceleration
wx, the x coordinate, and the distance covered s.
Q43. Find out the direction of of shortest route for a boat rowing in the river when the
velocity of boat is greater or lower than of the river. Where v is velocity of boat and u is the
velocity of the river.
Q44. A bullet traveling horizontally pierces in succession three screens placed at equal
distance ‘a’ apart. If the time from the first screen to the second be t
1
and from the second to
the third t
2
,
(a) Find the retardation assuming it to be uniform and (b) also calculate the velocity at the
middle screen. Only the screens cause the retardation and medium between the screens offers
no resistance.
Q45. Car A is traveling along a straight highway.
While B is moving along a circular exit ramp of
C A
L
B
D
Q . N o E x . 3 ( 2 2 )
Q . N o E x . 3 ( 2 3 )
o
V ( x )
1 3 4 6 7 t ( s )
 2
1
V k m h r
A
· 7 5 /
V k m h r
B
· 4 0 /
3 0
0
1 5 0 m
A
B
150 m radius. The speed of A is increased at the rate of 1.5m/s
2
and the speed of B is being
decreased at the rate of 0.9 m/s
2
for the position shown. Determine (a) the velocity of A
relative to B. (b) the acceleration of A relative to B.
Q46. Three blocks are connected by pulleys as shown in figure. Find
the velocity of each block given that relative velocity of block A with
respect to C is 0.3 m/s upwards and that the relative velocity of block
B with respect to block A is 0.2 m/s downwards.
Q47. A dog sees a flowerpot sail up and then back down past a window 5.0 ft. high. If the
total time the pot is in sight is 1.0 s, find the height above the window that the pot rises.
Q48. A particle is traveling with a uniform acceleration. If a, b and c were the distances
covered by it during x
th
, y
th
and z
th
second of its motion respectively, then find out the
value of a(yz)+b(zx)+c(xy)
Q49. Find out whether for the particle moving with uniform acceleration the distances
described in consecutive equal interval of time are in A.P.
Q50. Three points are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.
They all start moving simultaneously with velocity ν constant in modulus, with the first
point heading continually for the second, the second for the third, and the third for the first so
on. How soon the particles collide each other?
Q51. Point A moves uniformly with velocity ν so that the vector ν is continually “aimed “
at point B which in its turn moves rectilinearly and uniformly with velocity u<ν . At the
initial moment v⊥u and the points are separated by a distance l. How soon will the points
converge?
A
B
C
Q52. A train of length l = 350 m starts moving rectilinearly with constant acceleration w =
3.0x10
2
m/s
2
; t = 30 sec after the start the locomotive headlight is switched on (event 1),
and T=60 sec after the event the tail signal is switched on (event 2). Find the distance
between these events in the reference frame fixed to the train and to the earth. How and at
what constant velocity V, relative to the earth the frame K should move for the two events to
occur at the same point.
Q53. A particle moving with uniform retardation is found to cover three successive equal
distances. The average velocities during the first and third parts of the journey are 20 m/s and
12 m/s respectively. Determine its average velocity in the middle part of the journey.
Q54. A train passes a station A at 40 km/h and maintains this speed for 7 km and is then
uniformly retarded; stopping at B which is 8.5 km from A. A second train starts from A at the
instant the first train passes and being accelerated for the part of journey and uniformly
retarded for the rest, stops at B the same time as the first train. What is the greatest speed of
the second train?
Q55. A bus is beginning to move with an acceleration of 0.5 m/s
2
. A man standing 20 meters
behind the bus runs at a constant speed of 4.5 m/s.
(a) Find the time in which man will overtake the bus running at a constant speed of 4.5 m/s.
(b) Find out whether he will be able to catch the bus if he is 20.25 meters behind,.
Q56. Two trains A and B leave the same station on parallel lines. A starts with uniform
acceleration of 1/6 m/s
2
and attain a speed of 24 km per hour when steam is reduced to keep
the speed constant. B leaves 40 seconds after with uniform acceleration of 1/3 m/s
2
to attain
a maximum speed of 48 km/hr. When will B overtake A?
Q57. A particle moving in a straight, line with uniform retardation leaves point O at a time
t=0 and comes to an instantaneous rest at D. On its way to the point D the particle passes
point A, B and C at time t=T, 2T and 4T respectively after leaving O. Given that AB = BC
=L, find (i) the length CD and (ii) the length OA.
Q58. A particle is moving in a straight line and is observed to be at a distance ‘a’ from a
marked point initially to be at a distance ‘b’ after an interval of n seconds, to be at a distance
c after 2n seconds and to be at a distance ‘d’ after 3n seconds. If the acceleration is uniform,
then find the acceleration of the particle.
Q59. State whether the following assertion is right or wong. “ If a body moving with uniform
acceleration in a straight line describes successive equal distances in time intervals t
1
, t
2
, t
3
;
then 1/t
1
1/t
2
+1/t
3
= 3/(t
1
+t
2
+t
3
)”
Q60.A railway train goes from one station to another moving during the first part of the
journey with uniform acceleration f, when the steam is shut off and breaks are applied it
moves with uniform retardation g. If ‘a’ be the distance between the stations, then find out
the time that the train takes in moving one station to another.
Q61. A particle starts from rest with acceleration f, at the end of time t; it becomes 2f, at the
end of 2t; it becomes 3f at the end of time 3t and so on. Find the velocity and distance
described at the end of time nt.
Q62. Two cars start off to race with velocities u and v and travel in a straight line with
uniform acceleration p and q respectively. If the race ends in a dead heat, find out the length
of the course.
Q63. For 1/m of the distance between two stations, a train is uniformly accelerated and for
1/n of the distance it is uniformly retarded. It start from rest at one station and comes to rest
at other station. Find out the ratio of its greatest velocity to its average velocity.
Q64. A driver has a definite reaction time and is capable of stopping his car over a
distance of 30 m on seeing a red traffic signal ,when the speed of the car is 72 km/h and
over a distance of 10m , when the speed is 36 km/h. Find the distance over which he can
stop the car if it were running at a speed of 54 km/h. Assume that his reaction time and
its deceleration of the car remains same in all three cases .
Q65. A ,B, C and D are points in a vertical line such that AB=BC=CD. If a body falls from
rest at A, find out the ratio of times taken for distances AB, BC and CD.
Q66. From an elevated point A, a stone is projected vertically upwards. When the stone
reaches a distance h below A, its velocity is double of what is at a height h above A. Find out
the greatest height attained by the stone above A.
Q67. A particle is dropped from the top of a tower h meter high and at the same moment
another particle is projected upward from the bottom. They meet when the upper one has
descended a distance h/n. Find out the ratio of the velocities of the two when they meet and
the initial velocity of the particle projected.
Q68. Two steel balls fall freely on an elastic slab. The first ball is dropped from a height
h
1
=44 cm and the second from the height h
2
=11cm, τ s after the first ball. After the
passage of the time t, the velocities of the balls coincide in magnitude and direction.
Determine the time τ and the time interval during which the velocities of the two balls will
be equal, assuming that the balls do not collide.
Q69. A radius vector of a particle varies with time t as r = a t(1α t), where a is a constant
vector and α is a positive factor. Find:
(a) The velocity v and the acceleration w of the particle as functions of time.
(b) The time interval ∆ t taken by the particle to return to the initial points, and the distance s
covered during that time.
Q70. A lift performs the first part of its ascent with uniform acceleration f and the remainder
with uniform retardation 2f. If t is the time of ascent, find the depth of the shaft.
Q71. A particle moves in a straight line with the
velocity shown in the figure. Knowing that x=
16 m at t=0, draw the acceleration–time and
displacementtime curves for 0<t<30 s and
determine the maximum value of the position
coordinate of the particle.
Q72. How long will a plane take to fly around a square with side a, when the wind is blowing
at a speed u parallel to the diagonal of the square? The velocity of plane in still air is v>u.
t ( s )
3 0
2 4 1 8 1 0
2
 6
m / s
V
Q73. A man rows directly across a flowing river in time t
1
and rows an equal distance down
the stream in time t
2
. If u be the speed of man in still water and v that of the stream then find
out t
1
/t
2
.
Q74. Two particles. 1 and 2, move with constant velocities v
1
and v
2
along two mutually
perpendicular straight lines towards the intersection point O. At the moment t=0, the particle
were located at the distance l
1
and l
2
from the point O. How soon will the distance between
the particles become the smallest? What is it equal to?
Q75. A solid ball of density half that of water falls freely under gravity from a height of 19.6
m and then enters water. Up to what depth will the ball go? How much time will it take to
come again to the water surface? Neglect air resistance and viscosity effects in water. (g=9.8
m/s
2
)
Q76. A ball of density d is dropped onto a horizontal solid surface. It bounces elastically
from the surface and returns to its original position in time t
1
. Next, the ball is released and it
falls through the same height before striking the surface of a liquid of density d
L,
. (a) If
d<d
L,
obtain an expression (in terms of d. t
1
and d
L
) for the time t
2
the ball takes to come
back to the position from which it was released (b) Is the motion of the ball simple
harmonic? (c) If d=d
L
how does the speed of the ball depend on its depth inside the liquid ?
Neglect all frictional and other dissipative forces. Assume the depth of the liquid to be large.
(g=10 m/s
2
)
Q77. A motorboat going downstream overcame a raft at a point A; t = 60 min later it turned
back and after some time passed the raft at a distance l =6.0 km from the point A. Find the
flow velocity assuming the duty of the engine to be constant.
Q78. Two particles, 1 and 2, moves with constant velocities v
1
and v
2
. At the initial moment
their radius vectors are equal to r
1
and r
2 ,
how must these four vectors be interrelated for the
particles to collide?
Q79. Two particles move in a uniform gravitational field with an acceleration g. At the initial
moment the particles were located at one point and moved with velocities ν
1
= 3.0 m/s and
ν
2
= 4.0 m/s horizontally in opposite directions. Find the distance between the particle at
the moment when their velocity vectors become mutually perpendicular.
Q80. A helicopter takes off along the vertical with an acceleration a=3 m/s
2
and zero initial
velocity at a certain time t
1
, the pilot switches off the engine. At the point of takeoff, the
sound dies away at a time t
2
=30s.
Determine the velocity v of the helicopter at the moment when its engine is switched off.
Assuming that the velocity c of sound is 320 m/s. (Time is measured from the instant of take
off).
Q81. A motorboat travels the distance between two spots on a river in 8 hours and 12 hours
down stream and upstream respectively. Calculate the time required by the boat to cover this
distance in still water.
Q82. A person sitting on the top of a tall building is dropping balls at regular intervals of one
second. Find the positions of the 3
rd
, 4
th
and 5
th
ball when the 6
th
ball is being dropped.
Q83. A point mass starts moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. At a time t
1
after the bigining of motion, the acceleration change sign, remaining the same in magnitude.
Determine the time t from the beginning of motion in which the point mass returns to the
initial position.
Q84. A pilot is taking his plane towards north with a velocity of 100 km/h. At that place the
wind is blowing with a speed of 60 km/h from east to west. Calculate the resultant velocity of
the plane. How far the plane will be after 20 min. from the starting point?
Q85. The velocity of a particle moving in the positive direction of the x axis varies as
v=α√ x , where α is a positive constant. Assuming that at the moment t=0, the particle was
located at the point x=0, find mean velocity of the particle averaged over the time that the
particle takes to cover the first s meter of the path.
Q86. An elevator car whose floor to ceiling distance is equal to 2.7 m starts ascending with
constant acceleration 1.2 m/s
2
; 2.0 s after the start a bolt begins falling from the ceiling of the
car. Find:
(a) The bolt’s free fall time;
(b) The displacement and the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall in the reference
frame fixed to the elevator shaft.
Q87. A truck starts from rest with an acceleration of 1.5 metre/sec
2
while a car 150 metre
behind starts from rest with an acceleration of 2 metre/sec
2
. How long will it take before
both the truck and car side by side, and how much distance is traveled by each?
Q88. A point traversed half the distance with a velocity v
0
. The remaining part of the
distance was covered with velocity v
1
for half the time, and with velocity v
2
for the other
half of the time. Find out mean velocity of the point averaged over the whole time of motion.
Q89. The graph of x versus t as shown in
the fig for a particle in straightline
motion. State for each interval whether
the velocity v(
x) is +, , or 0, and
whether the acceleration a(x) is +, , or 0.
The intervals are OA, AB, BC, and CD. From the curve is there any interval over which the
acceleration is obviously not constant?
Q90. A ball is dropped from a height of 19.6 m above the ground. It rebounds from the
ground and raises itself up to the same height. Take the starting point as the origin and
vertically downward as the positive xaxis. Draw approximate plots of x versus t, v versus t
and a versus t. Neglect the small interval during which the ball was in contact with the
ground.
Q91. A tennis ball is dropped onto the floor from height of 4.0 ft. It rebounds to a height of
3.0 ft. If the ball was in contact with the floor for 0.010 s, what was its average acceleration
during contact?
A
B
C
D
t
x
O
t
x
O t
( a ) ( b )
A B
C
D
Q92. Distance between two points A and B is 33 m. A particle P starts from B with a
velocity of 1 m/s along AB with an acceleration of 2 m/s
2
. Simultaneously another particle Q
starts from A with a velocity of 9 m/s in the direction AB and has an acceleration 1 m/s
2
in
the direction AB. Find whether Q will be able to catch P.
Q93. Two cars A and B having velocities of 72 km/h and 18 km/h running in the same
direction. The car B being ahead of the A. The distance between the cars is 150 m. If the car
now starts retarding at a uniform rate of 1 m/s
2
while the car B moves along at a uniform
velocity. Will the car A over take the car B?
Q94. A point moving with constant acceleration from A to B in the straight line AB has
velocities u and v at A and B respectively. Find its velocity at C, the midpoint of AB and the
ratio of v and u when time from A to C is twice of C to B.
Q95 A car starts moving rectilinearly a=5.0 m/s
2
(the initial velocity is equal to zero), then
uniformly, and finally decelerating at the same rate a, comes to a stop. The total time of
motion equals T=25 s. The average velocity during that time is equal to v = 72 km per hour.
How long does the car move uniformly?
Q96.From the velocity–time graph of a particle given
in figure, describe the motion of the particle
qualitatively in the interval 0 to 4 s. Find
(a) The distance traveled during first two seconds, 2 s
to 4 s, and 0 to 4 s,
(b) displacement during 0 to 4s,
(c) acceleration at t=1/2 s and at t=2 s.
Q97. A particle beginning from rest, travels a distance s with uniform acceleration and
immediately after travels a distance of 3 s with uniform speed followed by a distance 5 s with
Q . N o E x . 5 ( 1 3 )
o
1 0
V ( m / s )
Q . N o E x . ( 1 3 )
1
2 3 4 5 6
F
t ( s )
 1 0
E A
C
B D
uniform decleration and comes to rest. Find the ratio of average speed to the maximum speed
of the particle.
Q98. When a particle is projected up ward with speed u from the top of a tower, it reaches
the ground in time t
1
. When it is projected downward with the same speed, it reaches the
ground in time t
2
.
How long does it take to reach the ground if it is just dropped.
Q99. From the foot of a lower 90 m high a stone is thrown up so as to reach the top of the
tower. Two second later another stone is dropped from the top of the tower. When and where
two stones meet.
Q100. A rocket is fired vertically up from the ground with a resultant vertical acceleration of
10 m/s
2
. The fuel is finished in 1 minute and it continues to move up.
(a) The maximum height reached
(b) After how much time from the instant of finishing fuel, the maximum height be reached
(take g=10 m/s
2
)
Q101. A car, starting from rest, starts moving with an acceleration a= √t. At the same instant
a truck passes that point with a velocity 4 m/s. in the same direction. After how much
distance, the car overtakes the truck?
Q102. An engine driver of a passenger train traveling at 40 m/s sees a goods train, whose
last compartment is 250 m ahead on the same track. The goods train is traveling in the same
direction as the passenger train, with a contant speed of 20 m/s. The passenger train driver
has reaction time of 0.5 sec. He applies the brakes which causes the train to declerate at the
rate of 1 m/sec
2
, while the goods train continues with its constant speed. Can the driver avoid
a crash?
Q103. Two boats A and B move away from a buoy anchored at the middle of a river along
mutually perpendicular straight line. The boat A moves along the stream and the boat B
across the river and after moving off an equal distance of 500 meter from the buoy both the
boats returned to their original position. Find out the ratio of the time taken by boat A to boat
B if the velocity of each boat with respect to water is 20 m/s and the stream velocity is 10
m/s.
Q104. A motorboat , with its engine on a running and blown over by a horizontal wind is
observed to travel at 20 km/hr in a direction 53
0
east of North. The velocity of the boat with
its engine in still water and blown over by the horizontal winds is 4 km/hr East ward and the
running river, in the absence of wind is 8 km/hr due south. Find out the velocity of the boat
in magnitude and direction over still water in the absence of wind.
Q105 A ship moves along the equator to the east with velocity 30 km/hr. Wind blows from
southeastern direction at an angle 60
0
to the equator with velocity 15 km/hour. Find out the
wind velocity relative to the ship and angle between the equator and the wind direction as
observed by a person in the ship.
Q106. The position of a particle moving along the xaxis depend on the time according to the
equation x=at
2
bt
3
. where x is in feet and t in second. For the following, let the numerical
values of a and b be 3.0 and 1.0, respectively. (a) At what time does the particle reach its
maximum positive x position? (b) What total length of path does the particle cover in the first
4.0s? (c) What is its displacement during the first 4.0s? (d) What is the particle’s acceleration
at the end of each of the first four second?
Q107. Two trains of Length 180 m are moving on parallel tracks. If they move in the same
direction then they cross each other in 15 s, and if they move in opposite direction then they
cross in 7½ s, then calculate their velocities.
Q108. A person walks up a stalled escalator in 90 s. When standing on the same escalator,
now moving, he is carried up in 60 s. How much time would it take him to walk up the
moving escalator?
Q109. Two bodies move in a straight line towards each other at initial velocities v
1
and v
2
and with constant accelerations a
1
and a
2
directed against the corresponding velocities at the
initial instant. What must be the maximum initial separation l
max
between the bodies for
which they meet during the motion?
Hints and Solutions
Single Choice Type Objective Question
Ans1: Since the acceleration vector has two components, one in opposite direction to the
velocity vector and one perpendicular to the velocity vector. The vector perpendicular to
velocity vector causes only change in direction while the vector component in the direction
opposite to the velocity vector causes the deceleration motion.
Ans2: Force component in xdirection F
x
=Ma
x
=Md
2
x/dt
2
=6 N,
Force component in ydirection F
y
=Ma
x
=Md
2
y/dt
2
=12t ,
Hence F=√F
x
2
+ F
y
2
= 6√2N
tanφ = F
y
/F
x
=1 so acts in a direction 45
0
with the xaxis
Ans3: Acceleration a=d
2
x/dt
2
=6α t+2β which is at t=0 as a=2β
Velocity v=dx/dt=3α t
2
+2β t +γ which is at t=0 as v=γ
So a/v=2β /γ
Ans4: The motion in fig (B) has two values of velocity at a particular instant, which is not
possible in motion in one dimension.
Ans5: The angular velocity of second hand of watch= 2π /60
Velocity of tip=ω r
Magnitude of change in velocity vector = √2v = √2(2π /60) cm/s = π√ 2/30
Ans6: The particle moving in a circle has acceleration vector constant in magnitude with the
direction radially inwards. The motion in a parabolic path has both magnitude and direction
of acceleration vector constant.
Ans7: x=(h1/2 g t
2
)(v t –1/2 g t
2
)=hvt
Ans8: For a constant acceleration the second derivative of displacement with time should be
a constant.
Ans9: a= d
2
x/dt
2
i
∧
+ d
2
y/dt
2
j
∧
·√ ( d
2
x/dt
2
)
2
+ (d
2
y/dt
2
)
2
Ans10: a= d
2
x/dt
2
= 2a
2
Ans11: In a parabolic motion the acceleration vector is constant in magnitude and direction
and directed along one of the axes and defined by equations x=k
1
t and y=k
2
t
2
Ans12:In a onedimensional uniform motion the speed is constant in magnitude. The fig (D)
has speed =dx/dt is constant.
Ans13: The mirror image of the object forms at a far distance away from the mirror which is
equal to the distance of the object from the mirror.
Ans14: The velocities of the two objects are constant so the relative velocity of the one object
with respect to the other is also constant.
Ans15: Since the particle moves with a constant velocity than displacement time graph will
be as per fig (A) showing the displacement varying linearly with time to a maximum value of
a at a time a/v then it decreases linearly to value zero at time 2a/v and so on.
Ans16: After t = 8s, +ve area = ve area so total change in velocity is zero therefore particle will attain
initial velocity at t=0.
Ans17: The rate of change of displacement with time that is velocity is decreasing means
there is retardation of motion and finally the velocity is zero.
Ans18: (A) sails 45
0
southwest;
Ans19:Sm = (u+v)t; t= 4x10
4
sec
Ans20:(A)
Ans21: d=Area under curve=6 m; (D)
Ans22:(D)
Ans23:(B)
Ans24:(B)
Ans25:(D)
Ans26:(A)
Ans27:(A)
Ans28:(A)
Ans29: (D) In the first part the distance decreases linearly and in the second part when first
particle is at rest the distance decreases parabolically finally to zero when second collides.
Ans30 (A)
Ans31: dv/dt=1.5t0.15t
2
dv/dt=0 at t=10 sec
v=1.5t
2
/20.15t
3
/3; v
max
=25 m/s
Ans32: 65=12 t5 t
2
; t=5 sec
Ans33: u
2
= 2x9.8x100= 14√10 m/s; a = 490 m/s
2
; t = 0.09 s
Ans34: (v+15/2)6=60 ⇔v=5 m/s ; a=5/3 m/s
2
;∆ t=3s ; S=7.5 m
Ans35: v=an; Sn = n(0+v)/2=an
2
/2; S
n2
= a(n2)
2
/2; S
l2
= 2v/n(n1)
Ans36: v=300 m/s ,t=30 sec and T=60 sec
Ans37: t=3 sec and S
3
=301/2x10x5=5 m
Ans38: (D)
Ans39: (C)
Ans40:(A)
Ans41: (5+v)t
1
/2=PQ; (25+v)t
2
/2=QR; 15(t
1
+t
2
)=3PQ; t
1
/t
2
=1:1
Ans42: The train will take minimum time when it travels distance of S/2 at maximum
velocity at acceleration
S/2 = 1/2at
2
; t = √S/a; T
min
= 2√S/a
Ans43: v
1
=v
0
+at
1
/2; v
2
=v
0
+a(t
1
+t
2
/2); v
3
=v
0
+a(t
1
+t
2
+t
3
/2); v
2
v
1
/v
3
v
2
=( t
1
+t
2
)/(t
2
+t
3
)
Ans44: (U+u)t – 1/2gt
2
= u.t+1/2at
2
; a = (2U/t – g)
Ans45: V = 20m/s; Vr = 3/4x20 = 15m/s; 0 = 1510t; t = 1.5s; Time interval = 2t = 3s
Ans46: S = 4.9x2+1/2x9.8x = 9.8m; v = 4.9+9.8x2 = 14.7 m/s
Ans47: S=1/2(4.9)2
2
+(0+9.8)/2=9.8 m
Ans48: t
1
=t
2
=√2s/g
Ans49:(B)
Ans50: (v
1
+v
2
)3 = L; (v
1
+1.5v
2
)2.5 = L; v
1
= 3/2 v
2;
(v
1
v
2
)t = 3(v
1
+v
2
); t = 15 sec
Ans51: (C)
Ans52: Distance travelled in the nth second of motion ∆ Sn=u +a/2(2n1); 30=u+7a/2;
70=u+17 a/2 ;
u=100 m/s and a= 20 m/s
2
; and at t=10 sec S
10
=0
Ans53: (C)
Ans54:(B)
Ans55: (A)
Ans56: sin30/(2u/3t) = sinθ /ut; sinθ =¾; θ = sin
1
(3/4)
Ans57: (C)
Ans58: sin θ = 5/v; v = 5/sinθ
Ans59: v = kr
2
; v
1
:v
2
= 1:4
Ans60:(D)
Ans61: t
1
/t
2
= √s
1
/s
2
= 1/2
Ans62: F = ∆ p/ ∆ t = 0.01x2x5/0.01= 10 N;
Ans63: (D)
Ans64: (C) x = kt
2
; v = dx/dt = 2kt; a=dv/dt = 2k
Ans65: (C)
Ans66:(B) t
1
= v/g
1,
; t
2
= 2v/g
2
; g
1
t
1
= g
2
t
2
Ans67: t = 24/(5x0.6) = 8min
Ans68: v
0
= 20 m/s at H=25; u
2
=900; u = 30 m/s
Ans69: (D);
Ans70: (B) S = 4 m
Ans71: t = 30/v’; v’ = vcosθ; t = 2min
Ans72: (D) 60 m/min
Ans73: speed v/s time graph (C)
Ans74: vt –1/2(at
2
)
= 125; t=5 s
Ans75: (A)
Ans76: Displacement component in x dir = 2sin 45 – 2cos 45
0
=0; Displacement component
in y dir = 4 – 2cos 45
0
– 2sin 45= 42/√2; Net displacement=42/√2; Total distance
covered=8 m
Ans77: R = 2L/π ; Displacement = √2R = 2√2L/π ; Ratio = L/Displacement = π /2√2
Ans78: (A) Distance always increases with time (C) Time doesn’t decrease
Ans79: Time = 4 x 8 + 5=37 sec
Ans80: (A) True: Nothing is in absolute rest because there is no object in the universe, which
is at rest and nothing is in absolute motion since there is no frame which is at absolute rest
and w.r.t that the body can have absolute motion
(B) False (C) True (C) True
Ans 81: No, since the speed of the object can’t be negative.
Ans82: (A) in a circular motion with constant speed.
Ans83: v=√v
x
2
+ v
y
2
=√4a
2
t
2
+b
2
(B)
Ans84: V
A
:V
B
=tan 30/tan 60=1:3
Ans85: S=Area under curve=55 m
Ans86: V
av
=2s/(s/40+s/60)=48 Km/hr
Ans87: Average velocity=Displacement/time=10/(30/3)=1m/s
Ans88: x = (t3)
2
; dx/dt = 2(t3) = 0; When t=3, x = 0
Ans89: Average speed= Distance traveled/time
Since dx/dt=86t and in the interval t=0 to t=1, dx/dt>0
Distance traveled=5 m and Average speed=5 m/s
Ans90: v=dx/dt=k.exp(bt)
Ans91: Instantaneous acceleration =dv/dt=d
2
x/dt
2
=2 a
2
Ans92: ∆ v=20√2 m/s South East.
Ans93: (D)
Ans94: (a) A lives closer to the school than B since position of B on the curve is far than of
A .
(b) A starts earlier than B as evident from there initial positions x=0.
(c) B walks faster than A since slope of curve (dx/dt) is greater for B.
(d) A and B reach home at the same time.
Ans95: (D)
Ans96: 100=20∆ t+20
2
/8; ∆ t=2.5 sec
Ans97: (C)
Ans98: s
n
= u+(1/2)(a) (2n1); a = 2
Ans99: (v
1
+v
2
)t/2=4.50; v
1
+v
2
=19.6 m/s; v
2
2
v
1
2
=98; v
1
=7.3 m/s; s
0
=v
1
2
/2g=2.75 m
Ans100: s
n
=a/2(2n1); H/g =2n–1; H=1/2gn
2
; n=(2 t √2)=3.41s; H=57 m
Ans101: s
n
=a/2(2n1); 24.5=9.8/2(2n1); n=3; s=1/2 gn= 44.1m
Ans102: ut1/2gt
2
+1/2g(t2)
2
=90; √2gH t1/2gt
2
+1/2g(t2)
2
=90; t=3.12s; s=83.69m
Ans103: 98t1/2gt
2
=98(t4)1/2g(t4)
2
; t = 12s
Multiple Choice Type Objective Questions
Ans1: (A)
Ans2: T= t
1
(2+√2)
Ans3: T=L/(L/60+L/90)=36 sec
Ans4: Comments: ( A) at t = 0, x = 1 m (D) The particle starts its motion at t=0 s; (B), (C)
Ans5: (A), (D)
Ans6:( B), (C), (D) Comments: (A) The acceleration at t=0 may or may not be zero.
Ans7: t
1
=2t/3; d =a (t
1
2
/2)t
1
+(at
1
2
/2)t
1
/2=at
2
/3
Ans8: (C), (D)
Ans9: a
m
=(122)/10=1 m/s
2
Ans10: (B)
Ans11: (A),(B),(C), (D) v = u+gt
1
, v = u+gt
2
, ∆ t = 2u/gt
l
= 2s
Ans12: (A), (B), (D)
Ans13:(A), (C) a = α v; v = v
0
e

α
t
; S
∝
= v
0
/α
Ans14: ax+b = be
at
; x = b/a{e
at
1}; accel=dv/dt = b {e
at
}(A),(B)
Ans15: v= cos t(t+1)
1
+C
1
, S=sintln(t+1)+C
1
t+C
2
; C
1
=2 and C
2
=0 and so S(π )=2π log
(π +1)
Ans16: v
2
= 108 – 9x
2
; a=dv/dt = 9x; At maximum distance v = 0; x = √12; (B),(C)
Ans17: (A),(B),(C)
Ans 18: (A), (C)
Ans19: x
2
/a
2
+y
2
/b
2
= 1; x= a cos pt; dx/dt =  ap sinpt, d
2
x/dt
2
= ap
2
cospt; y=b sin pt, dy/dt =
bp cos pt,
d
2
y/dt
2
= bp
2
sin pt; At t = π /2p , v = api^ , a= b p
2
j^
Ans20: (A), (B), (C), (D)
Ans21: average speed=Distance moved/Elapsed time or average speed=2l/(l/v
1
+ l/v
2
)=2v
1
v
2
/
(v
1
+v
2
)
Descriptive Type Questions
Ans1: since a = kv; v = e
kt
; x=1/k (e
kt
1)
Ans2: No, As per the definition of average velocity <v> is given by the latter equation (r
f
 r
i
)/
(t
2
t
1
)
Ans3: d( v( /dt means rate of change of magnitude of velocity vector irrespective of change
of direction while dv/dt( means magnitude of rate of change of velocity vector or
acceleration vector and therefore are different quantities.
(i) When a particle describe circular motion d( v( /dt= 0, since magnitude of velocity vector
is constant while( dv/dt(≠ 0 that is acceleration is non zero because of change in direction.
(ii) This case is not possible since change in magnitude of velocity vector imparts nonzero
acceleration, which suggests ( dv/dt(≠ 0.
Ans4: Yes, movement in a circular path at constant speed still generates acceleration because
of change in
direction. It is possible to round a curve with constant and variable acceleration.
Ans5: V
B
=tan 60
0
=√3; V
A
=tan30=1/√3; Hence car B moves faster than A and will meet
when (√31/√3)t=1.0; t= √3/2s
Ans6: Since S={(u+v)/2}t⇒t=2S/(u+v)=60s and acceleration=(vu)/t=2/9 m/s
2
Ans7: v=5 m/s , a= 2 m/s
2
, t=3s; u=v+at=11 m/s
2
; S=={(u+v)/2}t =24 m
Ans8: (a) t
1
= l/u+v; t
2
= l2v
l
/u+v/(u+v) = lu/(u+v)
2
; t
1
+t
2
+t
3
————+t
∞
= l/u+v + lu/
(u+v)
2
+————∞; or = l/u+v [1+u/u+v)+ ————] = (l/2u) =l/v=1 hour
(b) Distance traveled by the time =60 miles
Ans9: Since a=kt; v=kt
2
/2+c
1
; v=kt
2
/2; v
n
=kn
2
/2; x=kt
3
/6+c
2
; x=kt
3
/6
Ans10: a=9x; v dv/dx=9x; v dv=9x dx; v
2
/2=9/2x
2
+c
1
; at t=0,x=1,v=3m/s; or v
2
=9x
2
;
dx/dt=3x; x=e
3t
Ans11: (i) 0≤ t≤ 10; x = ½ at
2
; x
10
= 210 m; v
10
= 50 m/s; x
20
= x
10
+ v
10
∆ t = 750 m
x
30
= x
20
+ v
10
∆ t – ½ a∆ t
2
= 1000 m
Ans12: v
2
= u
2
+ 2as; Assumption made is that initial velocity of the arrow is zero; a = 10
4
m/s
2
Ans13: V
x
= 23cos60= 0.5i^; V
y
= 3 sin60= 3√3/2j^;
Time to cross = Width of river (W)/Vertical component of velocity(V
y
)=1/3√3 hour;
Direction of resultant velocity with vertical tanα = V
x
/V
y
=1/3√3;
Distance from opposite bank (x
0
)= V
x
t= 500/3√3m
Ans14: No, However if displacement and distance covered by any object under observation
are same in
magnitude that is to say motion in a straight line than the average velocity and average speed
will be the same.
Ans15: (i) Time of motion=5/2=2.5 s (ii) Distance traveled in the 2
nd
second=u+1/2(2n1)a=2
m
S
2.5
=6.25 m , S
2
=6 m , S
3
=6 m
Distance traveled in the third second=(S
2.5
S
2
)+(S
2.5
S
3
)=0.5 m
Ans16: t
a
=√2h/(g+r) and t
d
=√2h/(gr) hence time of ascent is lesser than the time of descent.
Ans17: True
Ans18: Distance moved by the first ball in 3 sec (s
1
)=1/2x10x3
2
=45m; Distance moved by the
second ball in 2 sec (s
2
)=1/2x10x2
2
=20 m;
Separation of two balls ∆ s=25 m
Ans19: Instantaneous speed v=(ds/dt)=6t; At t=1 sec, v=6 m/s; At t=5 sec, v=30 m/s
Average speed=Distance traveled/time=72/4=18 m/s
Ans20: l
2
=x
2
+y
2
or x dx/dt= y dy/dt or dx/dt= K √ l
2
/x
2
1.
Ans21: Length of skid marks = 19.2 ft; V
2
= u
2
2as; 0 = u
2
– 2x32x19.2 or u = 35.05 ft/s =
23.96 mile/h < 30 mile/h
Ans22: 50 =  5.0t + 1/2x10t
2
; t = 1t√ 41/2; h = 63.50 m
Ans23: At t = 4.0s; v
x
= u
0
+ a cos α t=12.79 m/s; v
y
= 3.61 m/s; v = 13 .28 m/s; x
t
= u
x
t+1/2
a t
2
= 41 .58m;
y
t
= 7.22m; r = 42.20 m , θ = tan
1
7.22/4.58 = 9.85
Ans24: Displacement of train in a whole time 110 min D= 40 i^ + 14.14 i^ + 14.14 j^50 i^ =
4.14 i^+ 14.14 j^
D = √4.14
2
+ 14.14
2
= 14.73 mile; Average velocity = 0.13 mile/minute= 8.03 mile/h
At angle tan
1
(4.14/14.14) = 16.31
0
East of north
(B) (a) mean speed = π r/t = 50.24 cm/s (b) Average velocity = 2R/t
Hence the driver was not speeding.
Ans25: t
2
=(t
1
+ t
3
); (20+v) t
1
/2 = 200; v t
2
=400; (v+20) t
3
/2 = 600; Total time of motion=120
sec
Ans26: Time of motion = 2s; x = 1/2at
2
= 1/2x1x2
2
= 2.0 m
Ans27: Distance from traffic light; X = L – [ut – ½ at
2
]= 40 m
Ans28: dx/dt=K/x ; K=0.04
x
2
=0.04 t+1.0;
so for x=2 m, t
2
=75 sec
Ans29: Let u be the initial velocity of the particle and A be the acceleration of motion
a=ut
1
+1/2At
1
2
; a+b=u(t
1
+t
2
)+1/2A(t
1
+t
2
)
2
;
(A) = 2(bt
1
at
2
)/t
1
t
2
(t
1
+t
2
) if a=b then A=2b(t
1
t
2
)/t
1
t
2
(t
1
+t
2
)
Ans30: (a) parabola (b) vertical straight line (c) parabola
Ans31: V
t1
=v
1
i^+gt j^ and V
t2
= v
2
i^+gt j^
The velocities will be perpendicular to each other when V
t1.
V
t2
=0
Time (t)= √v
1
v
2
/g, Distance= (v
1
+v
2
) .t=(v
1
+v
2
) √v
1
v
2
/g
Ans32: Horizontal velocity component of flow at distance x from bank V
x
=2 v
0
x/c;
Drift=2
0
∫
T/2
2 v
0
x/c dt
where T=time of reach up to the other bank= 2c/u and x=ut
=v
0
c/2u
Ans33: For the condition to satisfy the maximum velocity should be achieved at the middle
of it’s path and therefore V
m
2
=2a L/2=La; or V
m
= √ La
Ans34: V=α t
1
=β t
3
so t
1
=V/α and t
3
=V/β ; also (V/2)(V/α )+V t
2
+(V/2)(V/β )= l; t
2
=l/V
V/2(1/α +1/β )
Total time of motion= V/2(1/α +1/β )+l/V
Ans35: Let the distance of approach be x then x+1/2 (3/2)t
2
=60 t; 3t
2
240 t+4x=0 for t to be
real x=1200 m
Ans36: For relative velocity of two particles to lie along AB the relative velocity component
perpendicular to AB should be zero and so 2v sin{π /2(θ +α )}=v sin(π /2α ) or 2 cos
(θ +α )}=v cosα
Also sinα /r=sin(θ +α )/2r or sin(θ +α )=2 sin α ; cot α =2
Ans37: Let the person travel with velocity u at a direction α East of North and wind is
blowing with velocity v at angle
φ East of south then as per condition u sin α =v sin φ and cot θ =(2 u cos α +v cos φ )/(2
u sin α v sin φ )=2
Then φ =π /2 and u=√ v ; Drift=2 ∫ 2 v
0
x/c dt=4 v
0
/u c∫ xdx=v
0
c/2u
Ans38: Let V
A
, V
B
be the velocities of blocks A and B relative to the earth frame. Hence
2(V
A
V
B
)=V
B
⇒3 V
B
=2V
A
, after 3sec, V
B
=4a , V
A
=6a therefore acceleration of block
B(a)=0.03 m/s
2
and acceleration of block a=0.045 m/s
2
Ans39: For the condition to achieve the motorist will travel a distance of 800 m with the
decelearation a in the time interval of 15 sec and for that eq 800=(365/6)151/2 a(15
2
) yields
a=1 m/s
2
and speed of car as it passes the light=10√21 m/s
Ans40: (a) Velocity of train relative to the automobile V
rel
=V
A
V
B
Vrel=√V
A
2
+V
B
2
+2 V
A
V
B
cosθ =√ 120
2
+96
2
+2x120x96 cos 60
0
=187.5 km/h
(b) Change in position of the train relative to the automobile during foursecond
interval=Vrel T=208 m
Ans41: Total time of motion (t ) = (AD – x)/v + √l
2
+x
2
/nv;
Where x is the distance of the point of diversion from D.
For t to be minimum dt/dx =  1/v+ 1/2nv√l
2
+x
2
. 2x = 0;
So x = ln /√n
2
1
Ans42: 0< t < 1; a
n
= 1m/s
2
; S
1
= ½ a
n
t
2
= 0.5 m;
1<t<3; a
n
= 0;
Displacement in the time interval (s
2
) = vt = 2m;
Total distance traveled at the last moment x
3
= 0.5+2 = 2.5m;
3<t<6; a
n
=  1 m/s
2
;
Displacement in the time interval (s
6
)
= 1x3 – 1/2x1x3
2
=  1.50 m;
Total distance traveled at the last moment x
6
= 2.50+1.50 = 3.5 m;
6< t <7; a
n
= + 2.0 m/s
2
;
Displacement in the time interval=2x1+1/2x2x1= 1 m
Total distance traveled at the last moment = 4.5 m
Ans43: Let α be the direction of boat in the river frame and θ be the direction of boat in the
earth frame.
Horizontal component of boat velocity w,r,t earth frame Vx=u+v cosα
and Vertical component of boat velocity w.r.t earth frame Vy= v sinα
Total distance moved by the boat L= √Vx
2
+Vy
2
. (T)
Where T=B/v sinα, Β is the width of river.
tan θ =v sin α /(u+v cosα )
L=√{(u+v cosα )
2
+v
2
sin
2
α }(B/v sinα )
For minimum L , dL/dα =0 ; Cos α =u/v,v/u
If (v>u) , cos α·− u/v and so θ =π /2
And if v<u then θ =tan
1
(v/u
2
v
2
)
Ans44: Let v be the velocity at impact to the first screen and ∆ v is the retardation produced by the
each screen
(v∆ v)t
1
=a ; (v2∆ v)t
2
=a ; ∆ v=2a/t
1
a/t
2
=a(2/t
1
1/t
2
)
Velocity at middle screen just before impact=a/t
1
Ans45:(a) Velocity of A relative to B, V
AB
==V
A
V
B
;
¹ V
AB
¹ =√ V
A
2
+ V
B
2
+2 V
A
V
B
cos(18030) = 45 Km/hr
(b) Tangential acceleration of A relative to B,
¹ a
AB
¹ =√ a
A
2
+ a
B
2
+2 a
A
a
B
cos(30)=2.32 m/s
2
Ans46: Let V
A
, V
B
, V
C
are velocities of blocks relative to earth frame and V
BP
, V
CP
are
velocities of blocks B, C relative to the pulley over which they hang. Then V
B
=V
BP
V
A
,
V
C
=V
CP
+V
A
, V
A
+V
C
=0.3⇒2V
A
+V
CP
=0.3 and V
BP
2V
A
= 0.2 ; V
A
=0.125 m/s ; V
B
=0.075 m/s
and V
C
=0.175 m/s
Ans47: s = ut – ½ gt
2
; Height above window = v
2
/2g
Where v=ugt so Height = 1/16 ft
Ans48:a = u+a/2(2x1); b = u+a/2 (2y1); c = u+a/2 (2z1); a(yz)+b(zx)+c(xy) =0
Ans49: Sn = u+a/2 (2n1); Sn+1 = u+a/2 {2(n+1)1}= u+a/2 (2n+1); Sn+2 = u +a/2 {2(n+2)
1}= u+a/2 (2n+3);
Sn ,Sn+1, Sn+2 are in A.P. with difference of a
Ans50: a =∫ ( v+v cos 60
0
)dt = 3vT/2 or T=2a/3v
Ans51:
0
∫
T
(u cosα v)dt=l; ;
0
∫
T
v cos α dt =uT ; T =lv/u
2
v
2
Ans52: Velocity of the train at moment when event 1 occur =wt
(1) The distance between two events in the reference frame attached to train would be equal
to L
(2) The distance between the two events in the reference frame attached to earth= L – wt T
1/2 wT
2
(3) Velocity of reference frame K so the two events occur at same point V.T +w t T+1/2 w
T
2
= L
and so V =4.03 m/s
Ans53: t= t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
= s/20+s/12+s/v;
3s/t = (v
1
+v
4
)/2;
20 = (v
1
+v
2
)/2;
12 = (v
3
+v
4
)/2;
v = (v
2
+v
3
)/2;
Also (30+12v)= (v
1
+v
4
)/2=3s/t=3{1/( 1/20+1/12+1/v)}
2v
2
4v480 = 0;
On solving for v we get
v = 1+√241
Ans54: t
1
= 7/40h; t = ¼ h; (0+V
m
/2) t
B1
+ (V
m
+0/2)t
B2
= S; V
m
= 68.0 km/h
Ans55: Let x be the maximum distance for the just catching by the bus then
4.5 t=x+1/2(0.50) t
2
or t
2
18 t+4x=0
and for real value of t, x ≤ 20.25 m
At the shortest distance of meet the velocities will be equal at time t=9s and time taken by
train A to reach it’s maximum velocity=(20/3)(6)=40 sec
Time taken by train B to reach it’s maximum velocity=(40/3)(3)=40 sec
Let t be the time after 80 sec of motion since start of train A then at the point of overtaking
1200/3+20/3 t= 800/3+20/3 t ⇔ t=20 sec ;Hence total time of motion =100 sec
Shortest distance=25+1/2(0.5)(9
2
)(4.5)(9)=4.75 m
Ans56: Maximum velocity of train A=24 Km/hr=20/3 m/s
Maximum velocity of train B=48 Km/hr=40/3 m/s
Ans57: Let u be the initial velocity of point at O and a the retardation; U
A
=UaT; U
B
= U
2aT; Uc= U4aT
(U
A
+ U
B
)T/2=L and (U
B
+ U
C
)T=L; a = L/3T
2
; U = 3L/2T; OA = 4L/3 and CD=L/24
Ans58: (ba) = un+1/2a
c
n
2
; (ca) = 2un+ 2a
c
n
2
; da = 3[un+3/2a
c
n
2
]; da = 3 (cb); a
c
= (a+c
2b)/n
2
Ans59: v
1
+1/2at
1
= s/t
1
; v
1
+at
1
+1/2at
2
= s/t
2
; v
1
+at
1
+at
2
+at
3
/2 = s/t
3
; s/t
1
s/t
2
+s/t
3
=
v
1
+1/2a(t
1
+t
2
+t
3
) =3s/t
1
+t
2
+t
3
; 1/t
1
+1t
2
+1/t
3
= 3/t
1
+t
2
+t
3
Ans60: s
1
= ½ ft
1
2
; v = ft
1
; t
2
= f/g t
1
; s
2
= vt
2
– 1/2gt
2
2
; a = 1/2ft
1
2
+v(f/g)t
1
– 1/2f
2
/g.t
1
2
; t
1
=
√2ag/f(f+g); t
2
= √2af/g(f+g); t = √2a(f+g)/fg
Ans61:(a) v
1t
=ft; v
2t
=3ft; v
3t
= 6ft; v
4
t = 10ft; v
nt
=n(n+1)ft/2
(b) s
1t
= 1/2ft
2
; s
2t
= ½ ft
2
+ft.t +1/2x2fxt
2
= 5/2ft
2
; s
3t
= 7 ft
2
; s
4t
= 15 ft
2
; s
nt
= (0+1/2 ft
2
)+
{(0+ft)t+1/2 (2ft) t
2
}+ { (ft+2ft)t+1/2 (3ft) t
2
}+……
={1+3+5+…..(n1)terms} ft
2
+ {1
2
+ 2
2
+ 3
2
+……n terms}=
n(n+1)(2n+1)ft
2
/12
Ans62: s = ut+1/2pt
2
; s = vt+1/2qt
2
; t = 2(uv)/(qp); s = 2(uv)(uqpv)/(qp)
2
Ans63: a
1
/a
2
= m/n; t
1
= 2s/vm; t
2
= 2s/nv; t= s/v [1+1/m+1/n]; <v> = s/t = v/{1+1/m+1/n};
v/<v> = (1+1/m+1/n):1
Ans64: Let tr be the reaction time and a be the rate of deceleration then 30 = 20tr +200/a; 10
= 10tr +50/a
a = 10 m/s
2
; tr = 0.58; s = 18.75 m
Ans65: AB = BC=CD; T
AB
= √2s/g; T
AC
= √4gs; T
BC
= (√4√2) √s/g; T
AD
= √6s/g; T
CD
=(√6
√4) √s/g
T
AB
: T
BC
: T
CD
:: 1: (2
1/2
1) : (3
1/2
 2 ½)
Ans66: Vau = √u
2
2gh; Vad = √u
2
+2gh; Vad = 2Vau; u = √10/3 gh; h
m
= u
2
/2g = 5/3 h
Ans67: h/n = 1/2gt
2
; t = √ 2h/ng; h(11/n) = u√2h/ng – ½ g. (2h/ng); u = √ngh/2; v
2
=√u
2
–
2gh(11/n) = √2gh/n (n2)/2; v
1
= √2gh/n; v
2
/v
1
= (n2)/2
Ans68: The balls coincide in magnitude and direction after a lapse of time when ball 2 is
given a delay time of τ =nt1, where (n=0,1,2,3) and there after time interval of t
1
/2 and will
move for an interval of t
1
/2.
Ans69: v = dr/dt= a(1 –2α t ) and w = 2 a α ; r =0 at t=0, t=1/α and since v <0 after
t=1/2α
S=
0
∫
1/2
α v dt + α
1/2
∫
1
α v dt =a/2α
Ans70: Since ft=2f(t
2
)⇔ t
2
=t/2 sec; Vm=ft; Hence length of shaft=ft
2
/2+ft
2
/4=3/4ft
2
Ans71: (a) 0<t<10, acceleration a=0 and displacement s=vt; 10<t<18 , acceleration a=0.5
m/s
2
and
displacement s=20+2(t10)+1/2(0.5)(t10)
2
=2t+1/4(t10)
2
(b) 18<t<24, acceleration a=1 m/s
2
and displacement s=52+6(t18)1/2(1)(t18)
2
=6t56
1/2(t18)
2
and max displacement at t=24 sec when v=0 equals to 70m or x=54 m
Ans72: Let ABCD be a square of side a, the direction of wind is
along the diagonal AC and plane moves along the path ABCD then
for path AB, v
AB
=u cos 45
0
+v cosθ =(u+√2v
2
u
2
)/√2
Time taken to fly along AB=√2 a/(u+√2v
2
u
2
), similarly
Time taken to fly along BC=√2 a/(u+√2v
2
u
2
)
Time taken to fly along CD=√2 a/(√2v
2
u
2
u)
Time taken to fly along DA= √2 a/(√2v
2
u
2
u)
Total time of fly=2√2a√2v
2
u
2
/(v
2
u
2
)
u
v
A B
C D
θ
Ans73: Resultant velocity of the man in flowing water when it rows in a direction
perpendicular to flow = √u
2
– v
2
Time taken to row a distance L (t
1
) =L/(√ u
2
v
2
) v
and t
2
= L/(u+v) then t
1
/t
2
=[(u+v)/(uv)]
1/2
√
u2v2 u
Ans74: At any instant t, S=√(l
1
v
1
t)
2
+(l
2
v
2
t)
2
;
For S to be minimum dS/dt=0
At t=(v
1
l
1
+ v
2
l
2
)/(v
1
2
+v
2
2
) and
L
min
==(v
2
l
1
– v
1
l
2
)/√(v
1
2
+v
2
2
)
Ans75: Velocity at the point of contact on water u= √2gh = 19.6 m/s; upward acceleration =
(ρ ω /ρ
b
1) g = g.
Time the ball take to stop in water T
1
= u/g
Time taken by ball to rise back to surface=2 T
1
= 4 s
Ans76: Velocity of ball at the point of contact = gt
1
/2;
Upward acceleration =(d
L
/d1)g
Total time of motion for ball to reach at the point of release =
t
1
+ 2 x g t
1
/2(d
L
/d1)=t
1
[d
L
/(d
L
d)]
Ans77: let Ve be the velocity of the motorboat (m/s) relative to the flow and V
f
be the flow
velocity (m/s)
T
t
= L/V
f
= T + (V
e
+V
f
)T L/(V
e
–V
f
); V
f
= L/2T
OR (V
e
+V
f
)T=V
f
(T+t)+(V
e
V
f
)t
Which implies that T=t
L=V
f
(T+t)=2V
f
T
V
f
=L/2T
Ans78: For collision to take place the unit vectors in the direction of vector joining initial
points and relative velocity vector should be equal
or (v
1
v
2
)/ v
1
v
2
= r
2
r
1
/ r
2
r
1
Ans79: Velocity vector of particle1 at any instant =v
1
i^gt j^
velocity vector of particle 2 at any instant =v
2
i^gtj^
When these two vectors are perpendicular there dot product should zero .
(v
1
i^gtj^).(v
2
i^gtj^)=0
t=√v
1
v
2
/g
Since particles travel same vertical distance in the same time and therefore relative
displacement is only horizontal one and distance between particles at the instant=(v
1
+v
2
)t
=(v
1
+v
2
) √v
1
.v
2
/g
Ans80: Velocity of heleicpter at the instant engine is switched off v = at
1
;
Displacement of the helicopter at that instant s = 1/2at
1
2
;
Time of last sound signal reaches to the point of take off = t2= t
1
+s/c;
OR t
1
+ 1/2at
1
2
/c = t
2
;
3t
1
2
+640t
1
– 192000 = 0;
t
1
= 26.67 s ; v =80 m/s
Ans81: Let v and vr be the velocities of the boat and river respectively than
L/(v+vr)=8;
L/(vvr)=12;
Time required to travel boat in still water= L/v=9.6 Hours
Ans82: Position of third ball at the end of t=6 sec x
3
= 1/2x10x3
2
= 45m;
Position of fourth ball at the end of t=6 sec x
4
= 1/2x10x2
2
= 20m;
Position of fifth ball at the end of t=6 sec x
5
= 1/2x10x1
2
= 5 m
Ans83: Velocity of the particle at the instant its acceleration changes sign v
1
= a t
1
;
Displacement at that instant S
1
= 1/2at
1
2
;
Now displacement at time t when the particle returns to its initial position from the instant
when acceleration changes sign or at time t=t
1
= 1/2at
1
2
= at
1
(tt
1
) – 1/2a(tt
1
)
2
;
t = t
1
(2t√ 2); since t = (2√2) t
1
< t
1
, not possible then t = (2+√2)t
1
Ans84: resultant velocity of the plane V
R
= √100
2
+60
2
= 116.61km/h;
Inclination of plane from north ϕ = tan
1
(3/5) west of north;
Displacement at time t=20 sec, r(t) = V
R
t = 38.87 km
Ans85: dx/dt=α√ x; 2√x =α t; V
av
=s/t
s
=α√ s/2
Ans86: Velocity of elevator car at the instant bolt falls or after 2 sec of start V
0
= 2.4 m/s
upward
Acceleration of bolt with respect to elevator floor = 9.8 + 1.20 = 11.0m/s
2
—downward
Time taken to travel a distance 2.7 m ;
2.7= ½ x11xt
2
;
t = 0.70 s
(b) In the reference frame attached to the shaft the displacement of the bolt during free fall =
 2.4 x 0.7+ ½ x10 x 0.7
2
= 0.77 m
(c) Distance covered during upward motion t
o
=0.24s; s
1
= 2.4 x 0.241/2 x 10 x 0.24
2
=0.288 m
Distance arrival during downward and motion in next 0.46 s= 0x0.46+1/2 x 10 x 0.46
2
=1.058 m
Total distance covered in 0.70 s = 1.34 m
Ans87: Relative Acceleration of car w.r.t. truck = 0.5 m/s
2
S = 0.1+1/2at
2
; t = 24.58 s; Sc = 1/2at
2
= 600 m; St = ½ x 1.5 x 600 = 450 m
Ans88: Let x be the distance between the two points x and t
1
, t
2
be the time of motion in two
parts of journey each having measurement x/2
So t
1
=x/2v
0
x/2 = v
1
t
2
/2+v
2
t
2
/2; t
2
= x/(v
1
+v
2
) ; T=t
1
+t
2
= x/2v
0
+ x/(v
1
+v
2
)
V
av
=x/T= 2v
0
(v
1
+v
2
)/(2v
0
+ v
1
+v
2
)
Ans89: Fig(a) (vel) (acc) Fig(b) (vel)
(acc)
OA + ve zero OA + ve 
ve
AB + ve  ve AB + ve
zero
BC zero zero BC + ve +
ve
CD  ve  ve CD + ve
zero
See here velocity is positive when dx/dt>0 and negative when converse is true. Similarly
acceleration is positive when dx/dt function is increasing or d
2
x/dt
2
>0 and negative when
converse is true.
Ans90: x = 1/2gt
2
0≤ t ≤ t
0
hx= (√2gh)(tt
0
)1/2g(tt
0
)
2
t
0
≤ t ≤ 2 t
0
x=h{(√2gh)(tt
0
)1/2g(tt
0
)
2
} where h is the height of fall.
Ans91: Velocity of impact= √2gs
1
= 16 ft/s ↓
Velocity of rebound = √2gs
2
= 8√3 ft/s ↑
Average acceleration=Rate of Change in velocity (∆ v) = (16+8√3)/0.01= 2985.64 ft/s
2
Ans92: S=33=(91)t + 1/2 (12) t
2
t
2
– 16t +66 = 0;
t = 16t√ 8/2;
since t has imaginary number hence Q cannot catch B
Ans93: S=150=(7218)x1000/3600 t + ½ (1) t
2
t
2
– 30t+300= 0;
t = 30t√ 300/2;
Since solution is not a real number, hence A cannot catch B
Ans94: Case1: v
2
= u
2
+2al;
a = v
2
u
2
/2l;
v
c
2
=u
2
 2 a l/2
v
c
=√v
2
+u
2
/2;
Velocity at center (v
c
) = u+at
1
;
t
1
= v
c
u/a ;
t
2
= vv
c
/a;
since t
1
= 2t
2
, v
c
u = 2(vv
c
);
Substitute the value of v
c
=√v
2
+u
2
/2;
7 u
2
–8 uv +v
2
=0
v=7u
Ans95: T = 2t
1
+ t
2
; where t
1
is the time of acceleration and deceleration and t
2
is the time of
uniform motion.
Distance traveled with acceleration s
1
= 1/2at
1
2
,
Distance traveled with uniform motion s
2
= V
m
t
2
= at
1
t
2
,
Distance traveled with deceleration s
3
= at
1
t
1
1/2at
1
2
= 1/2at
1
2
;
½ at
1
2
+at
1
t
2
+1/2at
1
2
= <v> T;
t
2
= T2t
1
= T√14<v>/aT
Ans96: (a) Distance travelled in first 2s = Area of ∆ AOB = 1/2x2x10 = 10 m.
(b) Distance travelled in 2≤ t≤ 4 = Area of ∆ BCD= 10 m.
(c) Displacement in 0≤ t≤ 4 = 0
(d) acceleration at t=1/2s = slope of OA= 10 m/s
2
(e) Acceleration at t =20s = 10 m/s
2
Ans97: s = ½ Vm t
1
;
Time of acceleration t
1
= 2s/Vm;
3s = Vm(t
2
)
Time of uniform motion t
2
= 3s/Vm;
Vm/2 (t
3
)= 5s;
Time of deceleration t
3
= 10s/Vm;
Vav (t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
)=9s
<v>/Vm = 3/5
Ans98: If h is the height of tower then
h = ut
1
1/2gt
1
2
, where t
1
is the time of motion with velocity upward
h = ut
2
+1/2gt
2
2
where t
2
is the time of motion with velocity downward
t
1
t
2
= 2u/g;
t
3
= √2h/g; where t
3
is the time of motion with zero initial velocity
2h = g t
1
t
2
;
t
3
= √2h/g = √t
1
t
2
Ans99: ut –1/2gt
2
+1/2g(t2)
2
= 90;
ut+5{t
2
+(t2)
2
}=90;
u
2
2gx90=0
u = 30√2m/s;
t =4.98 s
Ans100: Velocity attained at the end of t=1 min,
v= 0 + a t=600m/s;
Distance moved in time t= 1 min, h
1
= 1/2x10x60
2
= 18 km
Let h
2
be the distance moved further with acceleration g downward
0 = (600)
2
2x10xh
2
;
h
2
= 36x10
4
/20 = 18 km;
Total max height attained = h
1
+ h
2
= 36 km; 0 = 60010 x t ; t = 60 s
Ans101: a = √t;
dv/dt = √t;
v = 2/3t
3/2
;
d=∫ v dt = 4/15(t)
5/2
= 4t;
t=(15)
2/3
Distance d =4t = 4(15)
2/3
Ans102: Distance moved by the passenger train before stopping
S = (4020)x0.5+(4020)
2
/2=220 m <250 m
Ans103: Let the boat B moving in the direction perpendicular to current keeps its direction at
angle θ with the normal to the bank.
So sinθ = 1/2; θ = 30
0
;
Time taken by boat to come back to original position after traveling distance of 500m
T
B
= 2x500/20cosθ = 100/√3;
Time taken by boat A moving first in current direction and then returning back in the
direction opposite to current T
A
= 500/30+500/10= 200/3
So T
A
/T
B
= 2/√3
Ans104: Let Ve, Vwi and Vw be the velocities of ship, wind and stream water respectively as
observed on earth frame.
Now as per the observations Ve+Vwi = 4i^;
Ve+Vw = 18j^ ;
Ve+Vwi+Vw = 15.97i^+12.03j^;
Ve=  12.0i^20.0j^= 23.32 km/h
θ · tan
1
(5/3) South of West
Ans105: Vw,0 = (Vw cos60+Vs) i^+Vw sin60 j^ = 37.5i^+13 j^= 39.69 km/h , 19.10
0
Ans106: x = at
2
bt
3
;
dx/dt = 2at 3bt
2
= 0; At t = 0, t = 2a/3b = 2s;
hence at t = 2s the particle reverses its direction of motion.
Distance traveled in t=2s, x
1
= 4 ft
Distance traveled in next 2s x
2
=
2
∫
4
(2at – 3bt
2
) dt =  20;
Total distance traveled= 24 ft
Ans107: Case1: When the two trains move in opposite directions
2l/u
1
+u
2
= 15/2;
Case 2: When two trains move in the same directions
2l/v
1
v
2
= 15;
Solving for v
1
and v
2
, we get v
1
= 36 m/s; v
2
= 12 m/s
Ans108: Velocity of the man on the escalator V
m
= x/90;
Velocity of the escalator V
e
= x/60;
( V
m
+V
e
)t = x;
(x/90+x/60) t = x;
t = 36 s
Ans109: Let L be the distance between the two particles when they can meet so
L = (v
1
+v
2
)t –1/2 (a
1
+a
2
)t
2
;
(a
1
+a
2
)t
2
– 2(v
1
+v
2
)t +2L = 0;
Now for t to be real b
2
 4 a c ≥ 0 or L ≤ (v
1
+v
2
)
2
/ 2(a
1
+a
2
);
L
max
= (v
1
+v
2
)
2
/2 (a
1
+a
2
)
Chapter 5 Motion in a Plane
Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
In this chapter, we will now extend our thought of a motion to a more general case of motion
in two and three dimensions. So far, we have learnt the definition of displacement, velocity,
acceleration and relative motion with application for a most simplified case of motion in one
dimension. Now we are in the stage to extend it to the motion in the xy plane and later to
the motion in three dimensions.
Location of particle during motion
Whenever we are concerned with a motion of a particle it may be one, two or three
dimensional, it is very first essential to locate the position of a particle at a particular instant
of observation. The location of a particle could be only established if we choose the correct
frame of reference and which is in itself a combination of coordinate axis system. However
in this chapter we are more concerned about motion in a plane therefore only two reference
axis are required to locate its instantaneous position. To locate the instantaneous position of
a particle, we might choose either the distances from Cartesian’s coordinate system that is
two perpendicular coordinate axes x & y axis or polar coordinate system that is distance
from a origin and angle made by the x axis. In terms of vector notation the position of
particle is defined by the position vector r whose head points to the origin O and tail points
to its position. Unlike the ordinary vector it is not a position independent vector. It is related
with the position of object whose location is under consideration and origin of reference
frame and establishes the relationship between the two. The change in position vector of the
object denotes the displacement of the object from its initial position.
If the particle is not confined to a plane but moves in three dimensions three numbers are
needed to specify its location. A simple approach is to describe its location with respect to
three perpendicular coordinate axes or an alternative approach is to use spherical
coordinates r, θ and φ . Spherical coordinates are useful when there is a spherical
symmetry that is radial distance from origin is constant and only θ and φ varies. The usual
relationship between Cartesian coordinates and spherical coordinate is shown here:
x
y
z
r
r z
r y
r x
y
x
z
y
x
·
,
_
¸
¸
+
·
,
_
¸
¸
+ + ·
·
·
·
φ
θ
θ
φ θ
φ θ
tan
tan
cos
sin sin
cos sin
2
2
2
2
2
Displacement of particle during motion in a plane
Figure4.1 shows a particle moving along a curved path in this plane. At any instant of
motion, say at time t
1
, it has occupied a position A as shown in the figure. As discussed
earlier its instantaneous position may be defined in terms of vector algebra by the position
vector r
1
. Now in a time interval
t ∆
moving along the curved path, it occupy another
position B as defined by the position vector r
2.
Now the displacement of particle from one
position to another is defined by the vector r ∆ , which is defined as per vector notation as
r
2
r
1
.
r r
r
1 2
− · ∆
Hence, it clearly indicates that displacement of particle is independent of the path the
particle traverses during its motion but depends only on initial and final positions during
motion and follows vector law in terms of its position vector. If the particle moves along
straight line path than displacement of particle equals the distance moved but if another path
is chosen than displacement will be always less than the distance moved during that time
interval.
Now the one question arises in one’s mind why the concept of vector displacement has
been generated although there is no practicable relationship with the physical movement of
the particle during its motion. The matter will be clear in the next stage while defining
concept of instantaneous velocity / average velocity/ instantaneous acceleration that how
important are these tools to analyze and describe the different types of motions observed in
the nature.
Average velocity of particle during motion in a plane
Now again consider the motion of particle along curved path in a plane as shown in fig 1. On
the same lines of the definition of average velocity defined earlier during the study of motion
along a straightline path, it is again described as the rate of change of displacement and
written as
t
r
vav
∆
∆
· . It is a vector quantity directed along the direction of vector and
physically denotes the rate of change of straight movement of particle from its initial position
to the next position in the said time interval. In our case the particle has moved from position
A to position B, whatever may be path than its average velocity is defined by
t
r
vav
∆
∆
·
Where
r ∆
is the vector displacement r
2
r
1
in the time interval
t ∆
. However, the concept
of average velocity during the physical movement of a particle in a plane in any arbitrary
path has little physical meaning when time interval of motion is considered large enough.
For a large time interval of motion, there is a distinct difference between the actual distance
traversed and the distance considered for our purpose that is displacement. Therefore, the
average velocity does not attribute to the state of motion either at the start, middle or at end.
It is only an average value for general interpretation of motion.
Instantaneous velocity during motion in a plane
Now consider the motion of particle along curved path in a plane as shown in fig 4.2. The fig
shows the instantaneous positions of particle initiating motion at time t
1
, at different time
intervals
t ∆
1
,
t ∆
2
,
t ∆
3
,
t ∆
4
as P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
. As the time interval of motion
under consideration is now decreased slowly than in a limiting condition the physical
displacement is just equal to the distance traversed and the direction of vector displacement
is the direction of physical motion along tangent to the instantaneous position of particle.
The instantaneous velocity of the particle is now defined as limiting rate of displacement
r ∆ when 0 → ∆t . In that case, the direction of velocity vector v is tangent to the path of
the particle.
The instantaneous velocity v(t) is defined as
dt
dr
t
r
t v
Lim t
·
∆
∆
·
→ ∆ 0
) (
As per definition, the instantaneous velocity vector denotes the instantaneous rate of
displacement along any path of movement of particle and in terms of direction, it is directed
along the tangent to the path of motion that should be. Therefore it clearly depicts the
instantaneous state of motion say at time t=t
1
in terms of magnitude and direction.
The acceleration vector during motion in a plane
Now we shall define a term acceleration vector that is essentially the backbone of all
fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics. The term has the same conceptual meaning as
has been defined earlier during the discussion of motion in one dimension. The acceleration
vector is a term defining change in velocity vector with respect to time. Since velocity vector
is defined as a vector quantity, therefore change in velocity vector is also predicted to be a
vector quantity. The acceleration vector is further divided into its two forms like as velocity
vector in terms of time interval of motion under consideration during study of motion in a
plane.
Average acceleration
Now again consider the motion of a particle in a plane as shown in fig 4.3. The particle has
got as per definition instantaneous velocity vector at points P
1
and P
2
as v
1
, v
2
at different
times of motion t
1,
t
2
respectively. Now if the time interval of motion is considered large
enough than the average acceleration vector is defined as the ratio of the change in
instantaneous velocity vector Dv and time interval Dt,
( )
t t
v
v v
a
av
∆
−
·
∆
∆
·
1 2
Here
v ∆
is a vector difference of vectors v
1
and
v
2
and therefore itself is a vector
quantity.
.
Instantaneous acceleration
Now as shown in fig 4.3, if the time interval of motion is considered infinitesimal or tending to
zero than rate of change of velocity vector with respect to time is defined as instantaneous
acceleration. It is expressed as
dt
dv
t
v
t a
Lim t
·
∆
∆
·
→ ∆ 0
) (
Therefore, the instantaneous acceleration vector is the derivative of velocity vector with
respect to time. It is important to note here that if the particle during motion has velocity
changing in magnitude, direction or both the particle is said to be accelerating. We shall see
in the next chapter that a force is required to produce an acceleration of particle. Force is
required to be applied whether the acceleration is produced either due to change of
magnitude of velocity or change in direction of velocity vector or both. This is the reason why
the acceleration is defined in this way.
Motion with constant acceleration
Let us consider the motion of a particle in a plane with constant acceleration. In this case
when particle is moving with a constant acceleration therefore it implies that acceleration
vector is constant in magnitude and direction as well. Hence the components of vector a in
any particular reference frame will also remain constant. The situation is similar to the two
simultaneous constant acceleration motions occurring along two perpendicular directions.
Under the influence of that, the particle will traverse the curvilinear path however one of the
components may be zero.
An example of the above situation is the motion of a ball thrown into air, which follows a
curved path under the influence of gravity acceleration g acting downward. The horizontal
acceleration is zero.
Let us consider the general motion of a particle with constant acceleration:
a
x
= constant and a
y
=constant
Now under the following set of conditions, velocity vector at any instant
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) at t j i j i j t i t j i v
v a a v v a v a v v v y x y x y y x x y x
+ · + + + · + + + · + ·
0 0 0 0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
The above equation shows in a compact and more elaborate form that the velocity of
particle at any instant is the vector sum of initial velocity vector and at vector component
acquired in time t and also displacement vector r at any instant:
t v r
a t r
2
0 0
2
1
+ + ·
Projectile motion
An important case of curvilinear motion with constant acceleration is projectile motion. When
a body is thrown upward under the influence of gravity, then the body follows the path
known as projectile motion (fig 4.4). If the air resistance during follow up is neglected then
the body experiences the only acceleration due to gravity directed vertically downward.
As the acceleration vector is constant then instantaneous velocity vector, acceleration vector
and position vector lies in a plane. The motion is therefore a twodimensional.
Let us choose the motion to be in the x, y plane and initial position of the particle be at origin
of the coordinate system. When the acceleration is constant then above equations can also
be applied considering motion along two axes separately. The x and y components of the
above equations are
t a v
y
a v v
t a v x
a v v
y y
y y y
x x
x x x
t y
t
t x
t
2
0
0
0
2
0 0
0
2
1
2
1
+ + ·
+ ·
+ + ·
+ ·
The velocity components along each axis will be governed by the respective acceleration
component. Let us now apply these results to the motion of a projectile. The motion of
projectile is made complicated by the prevailing air resistance when body is drifted through
the air, rotation of earth on its own axis and variation in the acceleration due to gravity. For
employing lesser complexity, we neglect these complications. As said earlier the projectile
motion has a constant acceleration directed vertically downward with magnitude g=9.81
m/s
2
=32.2 ft/s
2
. If we take yaxis vertical with positive direction upward and xaxis horizontal
with positive direction in the direction of horizontal component of the projectile velocity at the
point of start, then we have
a
y
= g and a
x
=0
Since there is no acceleration along the xaxis therefore the horizontal component, of
velocity vector remains constant and on the other hand, the motion along yaxis can be
considered to be with constant acceleration identical to that studied earlier. If the origin of
motion is considered from the origin of coordinate axis then the instantaneous velocity
components and instantaneous displacements are governed by the following equations,
where v
0x
and v
0y
are the initial velocity components or velocity components at origin of
axis ( see fig 4.4)
t v
v
v v
v v
g t y
t x
gt
y
x
y y
x x
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
− ·
·
− ·
·
If the initial velocity vector makes an angle
θ
0
with the xaxis, the initial velocity
components will be
θ
θ
0 0 0
0 0 0
sin
cos
v v
v v
y
x
·
·
The general equation for the path y(x) can be obtained from equation by eliminating the
variable t between these two equations and is given by :
( )
x
v
x
v
v
v g
x
x
g
x x y
x
y 2
2
2
2
2
0
0
cos
0
2
1
tan
0
2
1
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
θ
θ
Which is the equation of a parabola therefore the trajectory of the particle follows a parabolic
path.
Now we shall try to find out the range (maximum horizontal distance) and time to reach the
highest point of the trajectory for the above motion:
Range of projectile
When the body reaches at the highest point P of the trajectory as shown in fig 4.4 the
vertical component of the velocity vector becomes zero therefore time of flight up to the
moment
g
t
v y 0
·
and the range is the horizontal distance traveled in twice of this time and is given by
( )
g g
R
v v v
v
y x y
x
0 0 0
0
2 2
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
In terms of initial velocity
v
0
and angle
θ
0
( )
g
t
v θ0 0
sin
·
g g
R
v v θ θ θ 0
2
0 0
2
2 sin
0
cos sin
0
2
· ·
Since the maximum value of
θ
0
2 sin
is 1 when
90
0
0
2 ·
θ
=90° or
45
0
0
·
θ
, then
maximum range is admitted when the body is projected at angle of 45° from the horizontal
and maximum range is given by v
o
2
/g. It is to be noted also that for achieving maximum
range the two initial velocity components should be equal in magnitude.
But if a body is
projected from a certain height then in this condition the body remains in air for a longer
duration therefore for maximum range the horizontal component is slightly higher than the
vertical component that is angle of projection is smaller than 45°. Studies have shown it to
be about 42°. It is also evident from the above equation that for a given range there are two
possible angles of projection q
0
and 90q
0
that provide same range.
So far, in our discussion, we have not considered the effect of air resistance and the earth’s
orbital motion. As we would expect the air resistance reduces the range for a given angle of
projection and reduces slightly the optimum angle of projection. Due to earth’s orbital motion
the projectile motion doesn’t remain in the plane formed by the initial horizontal and vertical
components but gets slightly drifted to right in northern hemisphere and to left in the
southern hemisphere. It is due to the Coriolis effect, which arises due to the surface of earth,
is accelerating radially because of the earth rotation on its own axis.
Maximum height of projectile
At maximum height of projectile
0 ·
vy
gH
v
2
0
0
0
2
2
sin
− ·
θ
So
g
H
v
2
0
0
2
2
sin θ
·
Projectile thrown parallel to horizontal
Consider a projectile thrown from a point O at some height h from the ground with a velocity
v
x 0
. Now the equation of its motion in two directions may be depicted here as
,
_
¸
¸
·
·
·
v
x
t
v
x
g
y
g y
t x
x
0
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
0
This is the equation of trajectory.
Time of flight
g
h 2
·
Horizontal range=
,
_
¸
¸
g
h
v x
2
0
Now if particles are thrown at an angle with horizontal then all the particles will arrive at
ground with equal velocities whatever is the time of arrival. The particle thrown in the
downward direction will take least time while thrown upward will take maximum time.
4.6.1.4 Projectile thrown from an inclined plane
Consider a particle thrown from the base of an inclined plane with a velocity v at an angle
θ from the horizontal. The angle of inclination of plane from horizontal is
θ
0
.
For the motion perpendicular to the plane
( )
θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
0
0
2
0 0
cos
) sin( 2
cos
2
1
sin 0
g
v
T
g T v
T
−
·
− − ·
For the motion along the plane
( )
( )
θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
0
2
0
2
2
0 0
cos
cos sin 2
sin
2
1
cos
g
g T v R
v
T
−
·
− − ·
Range is maximum when θ is
2 4
0 θ
π
+
and projectile hits the plane at right angles.
Projectile thrown with variable acceleration
Now consider the motion of a particle in the x–y plane with instantaneous velocity
j bx i a v
ˆ ˆ
+ · where a and b are constants and particle is situated at x=0, y=0 at t=0
So
2
2
t
ab
y
abt bx
dt
dy
and
at x
·
· ·
·
Eliminating t from these two equations
a
b
y
x
2
2
·
The radius of curvature of trajectory at any instant t is given by
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
,
_
¸
¸
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
,
_
¸
¸
+
· ·
a
bx
x
d
dx
dy
b
a
d
y
y
2
2
1
1
2
3
2
2
2
3
Exercise 1
Q1. If T were the total time of flight of a current of water and H be the maximum height
attained by it from the point of projection, then H/T will be
(u=projection velocity, θ =projection angle)
(A) (1/2 )u sinθ (B) (1/4) u sinθ (C) u sinθ (D) 2u sinθ
Ans1: H
max
= u
2
sin
2
θ /2g; T = 2u sinθ /g; H/T = u sinθ /4
Q2. A hunter aims his gun and fires a bullet directly at a monkey on a tree. At the instant
bullet leaves the gun, monkey drops, and the bullet.
(A) hits the monkey (B) misses to hit the monkey (C) cannot be said (D) None of these
Ans2: (A)
Q3. A projectile can have the same range r for two angles of projections. If t
1
and t
2
be the
times of flight in two cases, then the product of times of flight will be
(A) t
1
t
2
α R (B) t
1
t
2
α R
2
(C) t
1
t
2
α 1/R (D) t
1
t
2
α 1/R
2
Ans3: t
1
t
2
=4 u
2
sinθ cosθ /g
2
=2 u
2
sin2θ /g
2
α R
Q4. A body is thrown with a velocity of 9.8 m/s making an angle of 30
0
with the horizontal. It
will hit the ground after a time.
(A) 3 s (B) 2 s (C) 1.5 s (D) 1 s
Ans4: Time of flight = 2u sinα /g = 1 s
Q5. A body A is dropped from a height h above the ground. At the same, time another body B at a
distance d from the projection of A from the ground is fired at an angle a to the horizontal. If the two
collide at the point of the maximum height of trajectory of B the angle of projection is given by :
(A) α = tan
–1
[d/h] (B) α = sin
–1
[h/d] (C) α = tan
–1
[h/d] (D) α =cos
–1
[h/d]
Ans5: u t=d; v t=h; tanα = v/u=h/d
Q.6 The trajectory of the projectile is shown in fig. t and T refer to times to reach the points P
and B respectively. h and H refer to heights of points above horizontal plane. Then H/h will
be equal to
(A) (T/t)
2
(B) (T/t) (C) T/t/(2(t/T)) (D) (T/t)
2
/{2(T/t)1}
Ans6: (C) h= v t ½ g t
2
; H=v T1/2 g T
2
where T= v/g; H/h=( T/t)/(2(t/T))
Q7. An airplane is flying horizontally with a velocity of 720 km/h at an altitude of 490 m.
When it is just vertically above the target a bomb is dropped from it. How far horizontally it
missed the target?
(A) 1000 m (B) 2000 m (C) 100 m (D) 200 m
Ans7: ½ gt
2
= 480 or t=10s ,X = ut = 2000 m
Q8. An airplane is moving with a horizontal velocity u at a height h above the ground, if a
packet is dropped from it, the speed of the packet when it reaches the ground will be
(A) √(u
2
+2gh) (B) √2gh (C) √(u
2
2gh) (D) 2gh
Ans8: V
v
= √2gh; V
h
= u; V = √u
2
+ 2gh
Q9. From the top of a tower of height h a body of mass m is projected in the horizontal
direction with a velocity v, it falls on the ground at a distance x from the tower. If a body of
mass 2m is projected from the top of another tower of height 2h in the horizontal direction so
that it falls on the ground at a distance 2x from the tower, the horizontal velocity of the
second body is
(A) 2v (B) √2v (C) v/2 (D) v/√2
Ans9: v= √2hg + u
2
Q10. A stone is thrown from a bridge at an angle of 30
0
down with the horizontal with a
velocity of 25 m/s. If the stone strikes the water after 2.5 sec then calculate the height of the
bridge from the water surface
(A) 61.9 m (B) 35 m (C) 70 m (D) None
Q11. A projectile is thrown with a velocity of 20 m/s. at an angle of 60
0
with the horizontal.
After how much time the velocity vector will make an angle of 45
0
with the horizontal (Take
g=10 m/s
2
)
(A) √3 sec (B) 1/√3 sec (C) (√3+1) sec (D) (√31) sec.
Q12. An object of mass m is projected with velocity v at an angle 45
0
with the horizontal. The
angular momentum of the projectile at the maximum height h about point of projection will
be
(A) Zero (B) mv
3
/4√2g (C) mv
3
/2√2g (D) None of these
Q13. An object is thrown at an angle a to the horizontal (0
0
<α <90
0
) with a velocity u then
during ascent (ignoring air drag) the acceleration
(A) With which the object moves is g at all points
(B) Tangential to the path decreases
(C) Normal to the path increases, becoming equal to g at the highest point
(D) All of the above
Q14. A bomber is moving with a velocity v (m/s) above H meter from the ground. The
bomber releases a bomb to hit a target T when the sighting angle is θ . Then the relation
between θ , H and v is
(A) θ = tan
1
v √2Hg (B) θ = tan
1
v √2/gH (C) θ = tan
1
v √H/2g (D) None of the above
Q15. Three projectile A, B and C are thrown from the same point in the same plane. Their
trajectories are shown in the figure. Then which of the following statement is true
(A) The time of flight is the same for all the three
(B) The launch speed is greatest for particle C
(C) The horizontal velocity component is greatest for particle C
(D) All of the above.
Q16. A ball rolls off top of a stairway with a horizontal velocity u m/s. If the steps are h m
high and b m wide, the ball will just hit the edge of n th step if n equals to
(A) hu
2
/gb
2
(B) u
2
g/gb
2
(C) 2hu
2
/gb
2
(D) 2u
2
/hb
2
Q17. A boy throws a ball with a velocity v0 at an angle θ to the horizontal. At the same
instant he starts running with uniform velocity to catch the ball before it hits the ground. To
achieve this, he should run with a velocity of
(A) v0
cosθ (B) v0
sinθ (C) v0 tanθ (D) √v0
2
tanθ
Q18. A hosepipe lying on the ground shoots a stream of water upward at an angle of 60
0
to
the horizontal. The speed of the water is 20 m/sec as it leaves the hose. It will strike a wall
10 m away at a height of
(A) 10.5 m (B) 12.32 m (C) 10 m (D) 20 m
Q19. A canon on a level plain is aimed at an angle α above the horizontal and a shell is
fired with a muzzle velocity v0 towards a vertical cliff a distance R away. The height from the
bottom at which the shell strikes the sidewalls of the cliff is
(A) R tanα 1/2gR
2
/v0
2
cos
2
α (B) R tan α 1/2gR
2
/v0
2
(C) R sinα 1/2gR
2
/v0
2
sin
2
α
(D) R tan α +1/2gR
2
/v0
2
Q20. A ball is thrown at an angle of 45
0
with the horizontal with kinetic energy E. The kinetic
energy at the highest point during the flight is
(A) Zero (B) E/2 (C) E (D) (B) ½ E
Q21. A projectile of mass m is fired with velocity v from the point P at an angle 45
0
with the
horizon. The magnitude of change in momentum when it passes through the point Q on the
same horizontal line on which P lies is
(A) mv/√2 (B) 1/2mv (C) zero (D) √2mv
Q22.A gun has a maximum range of 5 km on a horizontal plane. If a shell is fired vertically
upwards. Then the maximum height attained is
(A) 5/2 km (B) 5√2 km (C) 5/√2 km (D) 50/49 km.
Q23. If a particle follows the trajectory y= x1/2x
2
, then the time of flight is
(A) 1/ √ g (B) 2/√g (C) 3/√g (D) 4/√g
Q24. For angle of projection of a projectile at angles (45+θ ) and (45θ ), the horizontal
ranges described by the projectile are in the ratio of (if θ ≥ 45
0
)
(A) 2:1 (B) 1:2 (C) 1:1 (D) 2:3
Q25. Two particles are projected simultaneously in the same plane from the same point on
Earth’s surface. The particles are given different initial velocities and projected in different
direction. The path of one projectile as seen from the other projectile, is a
(A) Circle (B) parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) straight line.
Q26. An artillery piece, which consistently shoots its shell with the same muzzle speed, has
a maximum range of R. To hit a target, which is R/2 from the gun and on the same level, at
what elevation angle should the gun be pointed
(A) 30
0
(B) 45
0
(C) 60
0
(D) 75
0
Q27. For a projectile its range is equal to maximum height attained then the value of angle
of projection θ is given by –
(A) sinθ =1/2 (B) tanθ =4 (C) cosθ =3/4 (D) cosθ = ¼
Q28. Two bullets are fired at angles θ and (90θ ) to the horizontal with the same speed.
The ratio of their times of flight is
(A) 1:1 (B) tanθ : 1 (C) 1 : tanθ (D) tanθ /2 : 1
Q29. A ball is projected at an angle of 60
0
from the horizontal with a velocity of 6 m/s. A
person observes the projectile from a vehicle moving horizontally with uniform velocity of 3
m/s, then the ball appears to move (neglect air resistance)
(A) In a parabolic path (B) vertically upwards and then fall vertically downward (C) In a
hyperbolic path (D) none of these
Q30. A projectile has the maximum range of 500 m. If the projectile is now thrown up an
inclined plane of 30
0
with the same speed, the distance covered by it along the inclined
plane will be 
(A) 250 m (B) 500 m (C) 750 m (D) 1000 m
Q31. It was calculated that a shell when fired from a gun with a certain velocity and at angle
of elevation 5π /36 radian would strike a given target. In actual practice it was found that a
hill just prevented in the trajectory. At what angle of elevation the gun is fired to hit the
target
(A) 5π /36 rad (B) 11π /36 rad (C) 7π /36 rad (D) 13π /36 rad
Q32. A large number of bullets are fired in all direction with the same speed v. What is the
maximum area on the ground on which these bullets will spread
(A) π v
2
/g (B) π v
4
/g
2
(C) π
2
v
4
/g
2
(D) π
2
v
2
/g
2
Q33. A horizontally flying aeroplane releases a bomb. The trajectory of the bomb is a –
(A) Straight line (B) parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) circle
Ans:33. (B) parabola
Q34. At the top of the trajectory of a projectile the direction of its velocity and acceleration
are
(A) Parallel to each other (B) Inclined at an angle of 45
0
to the horizontal
(C) Perpendicular to each other (D) none of the above statement is correct.
Ans:34.(C) V cos 45
0
= 20; V = 20√2; V
v
=20 m/s
Q35. A hunter aims the gun and fires a bullet directly towards a monkey sitting at a distance
tree. To save itself monkey can
(A) Either sit at the position or drop the downward (B) Either sit at the position or jump
upward (C) Either jump upward or drop downward (D) Nothing can be said
Ans35: (B)
Q36. A bullet is fired in a horizontal direction from a tower while a stone is simultaneously
dropped from the same point then
(A) The bullet and the stone will reach the ground simultaneously (B) The stone will reach
earlier C) The bullet will reach earlier (D) Nothing can be predicted.
Ans36: (A)
Q37. A man in the parachute falls from an airplane moving with uniform horizontal velocity
(v). At the moment he just touches ground 
(A) He would be just below the airplane at that moment. (B) He would be left behind the
plane. (C) He would go ahead of the plane (D) Nothing could be said with certainly.
Ans37: (A)
Q38. Two bullets are fired simultaneously, horizontally and with different speeds from the
same place. Which bullet will hit the ground first
(A) The faster one (B) The slower one (C) Both will reach simultaneously (D) Depends on
the masses.
Ans38: (C)
Q39. If it is possible to project a particle with a given velocity in two possible way so as two
make it pass through a point at a distance r from the point of projection. The product of the
time taken to reach these points in the two possible ways is then proportional to
(A) r
3
(B) r
2
(C) r (D) 1/r.
An39: T = 2u sinα /g; T
1
= 2u sinα /g; T
2
= 2u cosα /g; T
1
T
2
=2r/g; T
1
T
2
∝ r
Q40 A body is thrown a velocity v0 at an angle θ to the horizon. Determine v0 and θ , if the
maximum height to which the body reaches is 3 metres and the radius of curvature of the
upper point of trajectory is 3 meters.
(A) v0= 6.4 m/sec, θ =45
0
(B) v0= 9.4 m/sec, θ = 54
0
44’(C) v0=12 m/sec, θ =30
0
(D) v0= 15 m/sec, θ =15
0
Ans40: (v
0
cos α )
2
/R=g & v
0
2
sin
2
α /2 g=H
α =54
0
44’, v
0
=9.4 m/s
Q41. At any instant a projectile is moving with a velocity u in a direction making an angle α
with horizon. After what time the direction of motion turns through an angle θ ?
(A) u cosθ /gsin(θ α ) (B) u sin θ /gcos(θ α ) (C) u/g sin(θ α ) (D) u/g cos (θ α )
Ans41: u cosα /cos(θ α ) sin(α θ )= usinα  gt; t= u sinθ /g cos(α θ )
Q42. A particle is thrown over a triangle from one and of a horizontal base and grazing the
vertex fall on the other end of the base. If α and β be the base angles and θ the angle of
projection then correct relation between (q), (a) and (b) is
(A) tan α =tanθ +tanβ (B) tanθ =tanα +tanβ (C) tanθ = tanα tanβ (D) tanβ =
tanθ +tanα
Ans42: R=h (cotα +cotβ )= u
2
sin 2θ /g; u
2
sin
2θ /g = h(cotα +cotβ ); h=u
2
sin
2
θ /2g; tanθ =
tanα +tanβ
Exercise 2
There are some statements at the end of each paragraph. Ascertain true and false
statements for each one and give reasons for the assertion:
Q1. In a projectile motion –
(A) Change in linear momentum between the initial and final point is mg T, downwards.
(True/False)
(B) Angular momentum with the respect to the point of projection remains constant.
(True/False)
Q2. A cart moves with a constant speed along a horizontal circular path. From the cart a
particle is thrown up vertically with respect to the cart
(A) The particle will land somewhere on the circular path. (True/False)
(B) The particle will follow a parabolic path. (True/False)
Q3. (A) Two particles thrown with same speed from the same point at the same instant but
at different angles, can not collide in mid air
(B) A body projected in a uniform gravitational field follows a parabolic path. (True/False)
(C) In projectile motion, velocity is never perpendicular to the acceleration. (True/False)
(D) A particle dropped from rest and blown over by a horizontal wind constant velocity traces
a parabolic path. (True/False)
Q4. A particle is projected from the end B of a horizontal track BC at a given angle a to the
horizontal after just grazing the vertices A, A’, A,”……. of the triangles BAC, BA’C,
BA’’C………..on its way. It lands up at the point C on the other end of the horizontal line; the
sum of the tangents of the base angles of any of these triangles is a constant. (True/False).
Q5. A shell bursts on contact with the ground and the piece from it fly off in all directions with
all speeds up to 30 m/s. A man standing 30 m away is in danger for nearly 6 seconds.
(True/False)
Q6. Two projectiles are thrown with different velocities and at different angles so as to cover
the same maximum height. Then the sum of the times taken by each to reach the highest
point is equal to the total time taken by either of the projectiles. (True/false)
Q7. A batsman hits a pitched ball at a height 4.0 ft above ground so that its angle of
projection is 45
0
and its horizontal range is 350 ft. The ball fells down the left field line where
a 24 ft high fence is located 320 ft from home place. The ball clears the fence. (True/False)
Q8. The maximum horizontal range is four times the maximum height attained by the
projectile, when fired at an inclination so as to have maximum horizontal range.
(True/False).
Q9. A particle is projected vertically upwards in a vacuum with a speed u
(A) When it rises to half its maximum height, its speed becomes u/2
(B) The time taken to rise to three –fourths of its maximum height is half the time taken to
reach its maximum height.
Q10. A pilot is supposed to fly due east from A to B and then back again to A due west. The
velocity of the plane in air is v and the velocity of the air with respect to the ground is u. The
distance between A and B is l and the plane’s air speed v’ is constant.
(A) If u=0 (still air), the time for a round trip is then TE= t0/1+u
2
/(v’)
2
(True/False)
(B) If the air velocity is due north (or south). The time for a round trip is then
tN = t0/√1u
2
/(v’)
2
(True/False)
Q11. Two particles are projected from the same point on the ground, with same speed
simultaneously at angles α and β with the horizontal. They strike the ground at same point
after times t1 and t2 respectively then
(A) α +β = 90
0
(True/False)
(B) t1/t2= tanα (True/False)
Q12. In case of projectile motion if two projectiles A and B are projected with same speed at
angles 15
0
and 75
0
respectively to the horizontal then
(A) HA>HB (True/False)
(B) TA>TB (True/False)
Q13. Three stones are projected simultaneously in the same vertical plane with velocities u,
v, w in directions making angles α , β and γ with the horizontal. The area of the triangle
formed by the stones at any instant is proportional to the square of the time elapsed from
the instant of projection. (True/False)
Q14. A particle is projected from a point on the inclined plane and at the r
th
impact strikes the
plane perpendicularly and at the n
th
impact it is at the point of projection. If e is the coefficient
of restitution then e
n
2 e
r
+1=0 (True/False)
Q15. The motion of one projectile as seen from another projectile will always be a straight
line motion. (True/False)
Q16. There are two values of time for which a projectile is at the same height and the sum of
these two times is equal to the time of flight. (True/False)
Exercise 3
Q1. If a baseball player can throw a ball at maximum distance d over a ground, then find out
the maximum vertical height to which he can throw the ball. (Balls have same initial speed in
each case)
Q2. The height y and the distance x along the horizontal plane of a projectile on a certain
planet (with no surrounding atmosphere) are given by y=(8t5t
2
) meter and x=6t meter where
t is time in seconds. Find out the velocity of projection.
Q3. A particle is projected from O at an elevation α and after t second it has an elevation β
as seen from the point of projection. Find its initial velocity of projection.
Q4. Two stone are projected with the same speed but making different angles with the
horizontal the ranges are equal. If the angle of projection of one is π /3 and its maximum
height is y1 then find out the maximum height of ascent of the other stone.
Q5. A ball is projected upwards from the top of a tower with a velocity 50 m/s, making an
angle 30
0
with the horizontal. The height of the tower is 70 m. Find out after how many
seconds from the instant of throwing the ball reach the ground.
Q6. Two tall buildings face each other and are at a distance of 180 m from each other. With
what velocity must a ball be thrown horizontally from a window 55 m above the ground in
one building, so that enters a window 10.9 m above the ground in the second building.
Q7. What is the average velocity of a projectile between the instants when it crosses half the
maximum height it is projected with a speed u at an angle θ with the horizontal?
Q8. A canon ball has a range R on a horizontal plane. If h and h’ are the greatest heights in
the two paths for which this is possible, then find out the expression between R, h and h’.
Q9. The trajectory of a projectile in a vertical plane is y=axbx
2
, where, a and b are
constants, and x, and y are respectively the horizontal and vertical distance of the projectile
from the point of projection. Find out the maximum height attained and the angle of
projection from the horizontal.
Q10. An airplane is flying at a height of 1960 m in horizontal direction with a velocity of 360
km/hr, when it is vertically above the point A on the ground drops a bomb. The bomb strikes
a point B on the ground. Then find out the time taken by the bomb to reach the ground.
Q11. A particle moves in the plane xy with a velocity j x i v
k k
ˆ ˆ
2 1
+ · , where i
ˆ
and j
ˆ
are the unit vectors along x and y axis, and k1 and k2 are constants. At the initial moment of
time the particle was located at the point x=y=0 then find out the equation of the particle’s
trajectory y(x).
Q12. Three particles A, B and C are thrown with speeds VA, VB, and VC, with A horizontally,
B at an angle of 30
0
with the horizontal and C, vertically in such a manner that they collide
simultaneously at H, the highest point of the parabolic path of B. If the acceleration due to
gravity is g, then find out the ratio of the speeds VA
: VB
: VC.
Q13. A body is thrown horizontally with velocity √[2gh] from the top of a tower of height h. It
strikes the level ground through the foot of the tower at a distance x from the tower. Find out
the value of x.
Q14. A stunt performer is to run and dive off a tall platform and land in a net in the back of a
truck below. Originally the truck is directly under the platform. It starts forward with a
constant acceleration a at the same instant the performer leaves the platform. If the platform
is H above the net in the truck, then find out the horizontal velocity u that the performer must
have as he leaves the platform.
Q15. From points A and B at the respective heights of 2 m and 6 m, two bodies are thrown
simultaneously towards each other, one is thrown horizontally with a velocity of 8 m/s. and
the other, downward at an angle of 45
0
to the horizontal at an initial velocity such that the
bodies collide in flight. The horizontal distance between points A and B equals 8 m.
Calculate the initial velocity v0 of the body thrown at an angle 45
0
.
Q16. Two inclined planes OA and OB having inclinations (with horizontal) 30
0
and 60
0
respectively, intersect each other at O as shown in fig. A particle is projected from point P
with velocity u=10√3 m/s along a direction perpendicular to plane OA. If the particle strikes
plane OB perpendicularly at Q, calculate,
(A) Velocity with which particle strikes the plane OB
(B) Time of flight.
(C) Distance PQ
(D) Vertical height h of P from O
(E) Maximum height from O, attained by the particle and
Q17. A ball A is projected from origin with an initial velocity v
0
= 700 cm/sec, in a direction
37
0
above the horizontal. Another ball B 300 cm from origin on a line 37
0
above horizontal is
released from rest at the instant A starts. Then find out how far will B have fallen when A hits
it.
Q18. A golfer standing on level ground hits a ball with a velocity of u= 52 m/s. at an angle β
above the horizontal. If tan β = 5/12, then find out the time for which the ball is at least 15 m
above the ground (i.e. between A and B). (Take g = 10 m/s
2
)
Q19. A particle is projected with a speed V from a point O making an angle of 30
0
with the
vertical. At the same instant, a second particle is thrown vertically upwards from a point A
with velocity v. The two particles reach H, the highest point of the parabolic path of particle
simultaneously. Then find out the ratio V/v.
Q20. If R is the range of a projectile on a horizontal plane and h is its maximum height, then
find out the maximum horizontal range with the same velocity of projection.
Q21. A body projected from the top of a tower horizontally with an initial velocity 20 m/s hits
the ground at an angle of 45
0
. Then find out the vertical component of velocity at the time of
hitting.
Q22. A particle is projected from a point O with a velocity u in a direction making an angle a
upward with the horizontal. After some time at point P it is moving at right angle to its initial
direction of projection. Find out the time of flight from O to P.
Q23. An aircraft drives towards a stationary target, which is at sea level, and when it is at a
height of 1390 m above sea level it launches a missile towards the target. The initial velocity
of the missile is 410 m/s. in a direction making an angle θ below the horizontal where
tanθ = 9/40. Then find out the time of flight of the missile from the instant it was launched
until it reaches sea level.
Q24. A shell is fired from a gun from the bottom of a hill along its slope. The slope of the hill
is α = 30
0
, and the angle of the barrel to the horizontal β =60
0
. The initial velocity v of the
shell is 21 m/sec. Then find out the distance of point from the gun where shell will fall.
Q25. Two guns, situated on the top of a hill of height 10 m, fire on shot each with the same
speed 5√3 m/s at some interval of time. One gun fires horizontally and other fires upwards at
an angle of 60
0
with the horizontal. The shots collide in air at a point P. Find (A) the time
interval between the firings, and
(B) the coordinate of the point P.
Take origin of the coordinate system at the foot of the hill right below the muzzle and
trajectories in xy plane.
Q26. A boy throws a ball horizontally with a speed of v0=12 m/s from a bridge. In an effort to
hit the top surface AB of a truck traveling directly underneath the boy on the bridge. If the
truck maintains a constant speed u=15 m/s, and the ball is projected at the instant B on the
top of the truck appears at point C, determine the positions when the ball strikes the top of
the truck.
Q27. (a) A particle is projected with a velocity of 29.4 m/s at an angle of 60
0
to the
horizontal. Find the range on a plane inclined at 30
0
to the horizontal when projected from a
point of the plane up the plane.
(b) Determine the velocity with which a stone must be projected horizontally from a point P,
so that it may hit the inclined plane perpendicularly. The inclination of the plane with the
horizontal is θ and P is h meter above the foot of the incline as shown in the figure.
Q28. A cricket ball thrown from a height of 1.8 m at an angle of 30
0
with the horizontal at a
speed of 18 m/s is caught by another field’s man at a height of 0.6 m from the ground. How
far were the two men apart?
Q29. A projectile is projected from the base of a hill whose slope is that of right circular
cone, whose axis is vertical. The projectile grazes the vertex and strikes the hill again at a
point of the base. If θ be the semivertical angle of the cone, H its height, u the initial
velocity of projection and α the angle of projection, then find out
(i) Relationship between θ and α
(ii) Velocity of projection in terms of h and θ .
Q30. Two particles move in a uniform gravitational field with an acceleration g. At the initial
moment the particles were located at one point and moved with velocities 3 m/s and 4 m/s
horizontally in opposite direction. Find the distance between the particles at the moment
when the velocity vector become mutually perpendicular.
Q31. A person is standing on a truck moving with a constant velocity of 14.7 m/s on a
horizontal road. The man throws a ball in such a way that it returns to the truck after the
truck has moved the distance of 58.8 m.
Find the speed and the angle of projection
(a) as seen from the truck.
(b) as seen from the road.
Q32. A body falling freely from a given height ‘H’ hits an inclined plane in its path at a height
‘h’ As a result of this impact the direction of the velocity of the body becomes horizontal. For
what value of (h/H) the body will take maximum time to reach the ground?
Q33. A spherical bowl with innumerable holes is placed in a lawn at a distance ‘d’ from the wall of a
building. If R is the maximum range of the jet that is produced when the bowl is connected to the nose of
a fire engine, that the portion of the wall that is hit by the jet water is bounded by a parabola. Find the
height and breadth of the bounded parabola.
Q34. The slopes of the windscreen of two motorcar are β
1
=30
0
and β
2
=15
0
respectively.
At what ratio v1/v2 of the velocities of the cars will their drivers see the hailstones bounced by
the windscreen of their cars in the vertical direction? Assume that hailstones fall vertically.
Q35. Figure shows an 11.7 ft wide ditch with the approach road at an angle of 15
0
with the
horizontal, with what minimum speed should a motorbike be moving on the road so that it
safely crosses the ditch? Assume that the length of the bike is 5 ft; and it leaves the road
when the motorbike runs out of the approach road.
Q36.(a) If the maximum height of projectile above a horizontal through the point of projection
were h and a be the angle of projection, find the interval between the instants at which the
height of the projectile is h sin
2
a.
(b) Two particle are projected simultaneously from the same point at angles of projection α and β
respectively. If they simultaneously strike the top and the bottom of a vertical pole subtending an angle
θ at the point of projection, then find out the relationship between α , β and θ .
Q37. Consider a projectile at the top of its trajectory.
(a) What is its speed in terms of v0
and θ 0?
(b) What is its acceleration?
(c) How is the direction of its acceleration related to that of its velocity?
(d) Over a short distance a circular are is a good approximation to a parabola. What then is
the radius of the circular arc approximating the projectile’s motion near the top of its path?
Q38. A ball A is projected from O with an initial velocity 8 m/s in a direction 37
0
above the
horizontal. A ball B, 4 m away from O on the line of initial velocity of A, is released from rest
at the instant A is projected.
Find (i) the time when B is hit by A
(ii) the height through which B falls, before it is hit by A
(iii) the direction and magnitude of velocity of A at the time of impact.
[Take g=10 m/s
2
, sin 37
0
= 0.6 & cos 37
0
= 0.8]
Q39. Two identical shells are fired from a point on the ground will same muzzle velocity at
angles of elevation α =45
0
and β =tan
1
3 towards top of the cliff, 20 m away from point of
firing. If both the shells reach the top simultaneously, calculate
(a) Muzzle velocity (b) Height of the cliff and (c) Time interval between two firings.
Q40. A target is fixed on the top of a pole 13 m high. A person standing at a distance of 50
m from the pole is capable of projecting a stone with a velocity 10√g m/s. If his aim is to
strike the target in the quickest time possible, at what angle of elevation should he throw the
stone?
Q41. A particle is moving along a vertical circle of radius R=20 m with a constant speed
v=31.4 ms
1
as shown in figure. Straight line ABC is horizontal and passes through the
center of the circle. A shell is fired from point A at the instant when particle is at C. If
distance AB is 20√3 m and shell collides with the particle at B, calculate
(a) Smallest possible value of the angle θ of projection
(b) Corresponding velocity u of projection.
(Take π =3.14 and g=10 ms
2
)
Q42. A projectile aimed at a mark which is in a horizontal plane through the point of
projection fall a meter short of it when the elevation is α and goes b meter too far when the
elevation is β . If the velocity of projection be the same in all cases, then find out the proper
elevation for projection.
Q43. A stone is projected from a point on the ground in such a direction so as to hit a bird on
the top of the telegraph post of height h and then attain the maximum height 2h above the
ground. If, at the instant of projection, the bird were to fly away horizontally with uniform
speed, find the ratio between the horizontal velocities of the bird and stone, if the stone still
hits the bird while descending.
Q44. Two persons simultaneously aim their guns at a bird sitting on a tree. The first person
fires his shot with a speed of 100m/s at an angle of projection of 30
0
. The second person is
ahead of the first by a distance of 50 m and fire his shot with a speed of 80 m/s. How must
he aim his gun so that both the shots hit the bird simultaneously. Calculate
(A) the distance of the foot of the tree from two persons and the height of the tree.
(B) With what velocities and when do the two shots hit the bird.
Q45. A ball is thrown from ground level so as to just clear a wall 4 m high at a distance of 4
m and falls at a distance of 14 m from the wall. Find the magnitude and direction of the ball.
Q46. Two particles are projected from a point simultaneously with velocities whose
horizontal and vertical components are u1, v1 and u2, v2 respectively. Find out the interval
between their passings through the other common point of their path.
Q47. Two particles are simultaneously thrown from roofs of two high building, as shown in
fig. Their velocities of projection are 2 ms
1
and 14 ms
1
respectively. Horizontal and vertical
separations between points A and B are 22 m and 9 m respectively. Calculate the minimum
separation between the particles in the process of their motion.
Q48. A gun of muzzle speed v0 is situated at height h above a horizontal plane. Find out the
angle at which it must be fired so as to achieve the greatest range on the plane.
Q49. A projectile is fired from a point on a cliff to hit a mark 10 m horizontally from the point
and 10 m vertically below it. The velocity of projection is equal to that due to falling freely
under gravity through 5 m from rest. Find out the two possible directions with angles of
projections and time of flights respectively. (g=10 m/s
2
)
Q50. From points A and B, at the respective height of 2 m and 6 m, two bodies are thrown
simultaneously towards each other, one is thrown horizontally with a velocity of 8 m/s and
the other, downward at an angle of 45
0
to the horizontal at an initial velocity such that the
bodies collide in flight. The horizontal distance between points A and B equals 8 m.
Calculate
(A) the initial velocity v of the body thrown at an angle 45
0
.
(B) the coordinates (x, y) of the point of collision.
(C) the time of the flight of the bodies before colliding.
(D) the velocity of two bodies at the instant of collision.
Assume that the trajectory lies in a single plane.
Q51. Sand is discharged at A from a conveyor belt and falls onto the top of a stockpile at B,
knowing that the conveyor belt moves at the constant speed v0. Determine the smallest
value of v0 for which sand can be deposited on the stoke pile at B and the corresponding
value of a.
Q52. A particle is projected under gravity v in a direction making an angle θ with respect to
an inclined plane and having gradient α , the point of projection being on the plane. If the
motion is in the vertical plane and the particle strikes the plane at an angle α to the
horizontal. Find out
(a) Value of θ
(b) Velocity with which the particle strikes the plane
Q53. If the horizontal range of a projectile were a and the maximum height attained by it was
b, then find out the velocity of projection in terms of a and b.
Q54. Particle P and Q of mass 20 gm and 40 gm respectively are simultaneously projected
from points A and B on the ground. The initial velocities of P and Q make 45
0
and 135
0
angles respectively with the horizontal AB, as shown in the figure. Each particle has an
initial speed of 49 m/s. The separation AB is 245 m. Both particles travel in the same vertical
plane and undergo a collision. After collision P retraces its path. Determine (A) the position
of Q when it hits the ground.
(B) How much time after the collision does the particle Q takes to reach the ground.
Take (g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
Q55. A particle is projected from point O on the ground with velocity u= 5√5 ms
1
at angle α
= tan
1
(0.5). It strikes at a point C on a fixed smooth plane AB having inclination of 37
0
with
horizontal. If the particle does not rebound, calculate
(a) Coordinates of point C in reference to coordinate system shown in figure.
(b) Maximum height from the ground to which the particle rises.
Take (g=10 m/s
2
)
Q56. The range of a rifle bullet is 1000 m, where θ is the angle of projection. If the bullet is
fired with the same angle from a car traveling at 36 km/h towards the target, then find out
the increase in the range of the projectile.
Q57. A cart is moving along + x direction with a velocity of 4 m/s. A person on the cart
throws a stone with a velocity of 6 m/s relative to himself. In the frame of reference of the
cart, the stone is thrown in yz plane making an angle of 30
0
with vertical zaxis. At the
highest point of its trajectory, the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically from the
branch of tree by means of a strings of length L. A completely inelastic collision occurs, in
which the stone gets embedded in the object. Determine:
(A) The speed of the combined mass immediately after the collision with respect to an
observer on the ground.
(B) The length l of the string such that the tension in the string becomes zero when the
string becomes horizontal during the subsequent motion of the combined mass.
Q58. A cyclist moves along a straight line with a velocity of 9 km/h. In what direction should
he throw a stone with a velocity of 16 m/s and parallel to the ground so that the resultant
motion of the stone may be at right angles to the direction of motion of the cyclist.
Q59. A boat is moving directly away from a gun on the shore with speed v1. The gun fires a
shell with speed v2 at an angle of elevation α and hits the boat. Find out the distance of the
boat from the gun at the moment it is fired.
Q60. A gun is fired from a moving platform and range of the shot are observed to be R1 and
R2 when the platform is moving forwards and backwards respectively with velocity v. Find
the elevation of the gun in terms of the given quantities.
Q61. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance ‘d’ apart as shown in figure. AB is 20 m
high and CD is 30 m high from the ground. An object of mass m is thrown from the top of AB
horizontally with the velocity of 10 ms
1
towards CD. Simultaneously another object of mass
2m is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 60
0
to the horizontal towards AB with same
magnitude of the first object. The two object move in the same vertical plane, collide in mid
air and stick to each other.
(a) Calculate the distance between the tower and
(b) Find the position where the objects hit the ground.
Q62. An object A is kept fixed at the point x=3 m and y= 1.25 m on a plank P raised above
the ground. At time t=0 the plank starts moving along the +x direction with an acceleration
1.5 m/s
2
. At the same instant a stone is projected from the origin with a velocity u as shown.
A stationary person on the ground observes the stone hitting the object during its downward
motion at an angle of 45
0
to the horizontal. All the motions are in xy plane. Find u and the
time after which the stone hits the object.
Take g=10 m/s
2
.
Q63. A small ball thrown at an initial velocity v0 to an angle a to the horizontal strikes a
vertical wall moving towards it with a horizontal velocity v and is bounce to the point from
which it was thrown. Determine the time t from the beginning of motion to the moment of
impact, neglecting friction losses.
Q64. Rain appears to fall vertically downward to a man moving with a velocity of 10 m/s.
When he doubles his speed then the rain appears to strike him at an angle of 60
0
from
horizontal, then what is actual velocity of the rain?
Q65. At what angle to the horizon should a stone be thrown from the steep bank of a river
so that it may fall into the water as far as possible from the bank? The height of the bank is h
and the velocity of projection is v.
Q66. A particle is projected from the ground to graze the four upper vertices of a regular
hexagon whose side is 2a and which is placed vertically with one side on the ground. Find
(a) the time of flight,
(b) range on the ground.
Q67. A particle is projected with a velocity u and it strikes at right angles α plane through
the point of projection inclined at an angle β to the horizontal. Find the height of the point
strike above the horizontal plane through the point of projection and the time of flight up to
that instant.
Q68. A man is sitting on the shore of a river. He is in the line of a 1.0 m long boat and is 5.5
m away from the center of the boat. He wishes to throw an apple into the boat. If he can
throw the apple only with a speed of 10 m/s, find the minimum and maximum angles of
projection for successful shot. Assume that the point of projection and the edge of the boat
are in the same horizontal level.
Q69. The man stands 18 m from the wall and throws a ball at a speed of v0=15 m/s.
Determine the angle at which he should release the ball so that it strikes the wall at the
highest point possible. What is the height? The room has a ceiling height of 5 m.
Q70. A point moves in the plane xy according to the law
x = at,
y = at(1α t) , where a and α are positive constants , and t is time.
Find
(a) The equation of the point‘s trajectory y (x); plot this function;
(b) The velocity v and the acceleration w of the point as functions of time; the moment t0 at
which the velocity vectors forms an angle π /4 with the acceleration vector.
Q71. Consider a balloon that rises from the surface of the earth. The ascension rate is
constant and is given by v0. Now the blowing action of wind causes the balloon to gather
horizontal velocity component vx= ay where y is height of ascent. Find out the horizontal drift
of the balloon as well as total, tangential and normal acceleration of the balloon.
Q72. A particle moves in the plane xy with constant acceleration w directed along the
negative yaxis. The equation of motion of the particle has the form y = ax – bx
2
, where a
and b are positive constant. Find the velocity of the particle at the origin of coordinates.
Q73. A ball starts falling with zero initial velocity on a smooth in inclined plane forming an
angle α with the horizontal. After having fallen the distance h, the ball rebounds elastically
off the inclined plane. At what distance from the impact point will the ball rebound for the
second time?
Q 74. A cannon and a target are 5.10 km apart and located at the same level. How soon will
the shell launched with the initial velocity 240 m/s reach the target in the absence of air
drag?
Q75. A particle A moves in one direction along a given trajectory with a tangential
acceleration wt = a t where a is a constant vector coinciding in direction with the x axis as
shown in fig, and t is a unit vector coinciding in direction with the velocity vector at a given
point. Find how the velocity of the particle depends on x ‘provided that its velocity is
negligible at the point x = 0
Q76. A point moves in the plane so that its tangential acceleration wt = a, and its normal
acceleration wn=
bt
4
, where a and b are positive constant, and t is time.
At the moment t = 0, the point was at rest. Find how the curvature radius R of the points
trajectory and the total acceleration w depend on the distance covered s.
Q77.A particle moves along the plane trajectory y (x) with velocity v whose modulus is
constant. Find the acceleration of the particle at the point x= 0 and the curvature radius of
the trajectory at the point x = 0 and the curvature radius of the trajectory has the from
(a) of a parabola y = ax
2
;
(b) of an ellipse (x/a)
2
+ (y/b)
2
= 1; a and b are constants here.
Q78. Projectiles are hurled at a horizontal distance R from the edge of a cliff of height h in
such a way as to land a horizontal distance x from the bottom of the cliff. If you want x to be
as small as possible, how would you adjust θ 0 and v0, assuming that v0 can be varied from
zero to some maximum finite value and that θ 0 can be varied continuously? Only one
collision with the ground is allowed (see figure).
Q79. A projectile is fired with a speed of 40 m/s at an angle of 60
0
with the horizontal
towards the standing roof of a building. The roof is standing at an angle of 45
0
to the
horizontal as shown in figure.
(a) At what point the projectile hits the roof.
(b) What is the velocity of projectile when it hits the roof?
(c) What should be the angle of projection of the particle, so as to reach the roof in minimum
time and what is the value of this minimum time?
Q80. A canon fires from under a shelter inclined at an angle α to the horizontal (fig). The
canon is at point A at a distance l from the base of the shelter (point B). The initial velocity of
the shell is v0, and its trajectory lies in the plane of the figure. Determine the maximum range
Lmax of the shell.
Exercise 1:
Ans10: H = (u sin θ ) t +1/2 g t
2
; H= 61.9 m
Ans11: V
v
= 10√3 & V
h
= 10; At time t, 10 = 10 √3 – 10t; t = (√31)s (D)
Ans12: Angular momentum = m (v cos 45
0
)= M v
3
/4√2g (B)
Ans13: (A)
Ans14: R = H tan θ; H = ½ gt
2
; t = √2H/g; R = u √2H/g = H tanθ or θ = tan
1
√2u
2
/gh
Ans 15: (D)
Ans16: R = nb; H = nh= ½ gt
2
; ut = nb; t = nb/u; nh = ½ gxn
2
b
2
/u
2
or n = 2u
2
h/gb
2
Ans17: v
0
cosα
Ans18: Time of motion =10 / 20 cos60= 1s; Y = 12.32 m
Ans19: T = R/ V
0
cosα ; Y = V
0
sinα (r/ V
0
cos α ) – 1/2g (R
2
/ V
0
2
cos
2
α )= R tan α  ½ gR
2
/
V
0
2
cos
2
α (A)
Ans20: At the highest point v = u cos 45
0
= u/√2; KE = 1/2mv
2
= 1/4mu
2
= 1/2E
Ans21: Change in momentum ∆ p = 2mv sin45
0
= √2 mv
Ans22: Rm = 5 = u
2
/g; u = √5x10
3
g; Hm = u
2
/2g = 2.5 km
Ans23: y = x1/2x
2
; y = x tan α  gx
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α; tanα =1 or α =45
0
; g/u
2
cos
2
α = 1; u = √2g; t
f
= 2u sinα /g = 2/√g (B)
Ans24: R = u
2
sin2α /g; R
1
/R
2
=1:1
Ans25: (D)
Ans26: R= u
2
/g; u = √Rg; R/2 = (√Rg)
2
sin
2
α /g = Rsin
2
α; sin α = ½; α = 15
0
& 75
0
Ans27: Since R=H
max
; u
2
sin 2θ /g=u
2
sin
2
θ /2g; tan θ = 4
Ans28:T
f
= 2u sinα /g; T
f1
= 2u sin θ /g; T
f2
= 2u cosθ /g; T
f1
/T
f2
= tan θ
Ans29: (B)
Ans30: Rm = u
2
/g; u = 50√2 m/s; y = u sinα t1/2gt
2
= 50 t – 5t
2
; x = 50t; tan30 = 50t5t
2
/50t; t=
4.2s; y = 121.8; x = 210m; s = 242m
Ans31: α = π /25π /36=13π /36 rad
Ans32: Rm = v
2
/g ; A = π v
4
/g
2
Exercise 2:
Ans1: ∆ p = 2mv sinθ; V sinθ = gT/2; ∆ p = mgT ↓; L = mv.r = mu.y – mv.x; L continuously
changes
Ans2: False, True
Ans3: (A) True, (B) True, (C) False (D) True
Ans4: Let α and β be the base angles of the triangle and θ be the angle of projection of the
projectile.
y=x tan θ g x
2
/2u
2
cos
2
θ; h= h cot α tanθ –g h
2
cot
2
α /2 u
2
cos
2
θ; 1= cot α tanθ –g h cot
2
α /2 u
2
cos
2
θ
also h(cot α + cot β )=u2 sin 2θ /g; tanθ =tanα + tanβ
Ans5: R = u
2
sinα /g; 30 = (30)
2
sin
2
α /g; sin
2
α = 1/3; α = 9.73
0
, 80.26
0
; t
f
= 2u sinα /g; t
f
=
5.91s say 6.0s
Ans6: u
1
2
sin
2
θ
1
= u
2
2
sin
2
θ
2
; u
1
sin θ
1
= u
2
sinθ
2
;
t
1h
+t
2h
= u
1
sinθ
1
/g + u
2
sinθ
2
/g=
2u
1
sinθ
1
/g = 2u
2
sinθ
2
/g
= time of flight or either one.
Ans7: Consider the vertical motion of projectile 4.0 = 4 sin45t1/2gt
2
;u cos45t = 350; t = 4.70s; u =
105.31 ft/d; t
2
= 320/u cos45 = 4.29s; y
2
= 29’; Ball clears the fence by 5’
Ans8: Rmax = u
2
/g; Hmax = u
2
/4g; Hmax = Rmax/4
Ans9: H = u
2
/2g; ½ mv
2
= ½ mu
2
/2; v = u/√2; v
2
= u
2
– 2g. (3/4 u
2
/2g)= ¼ u
2
; v = u/2; t’ = u/2g
=T/2
Ans10: (a) t
0
= 2l/v; T = l/vu+l/v+u= 2lv/v
2
u
2
= 2l/v{1u
2
/v
2
}= t
0
/1u
2
/v
2
(b) sinα = u/v; t
1
= l/v cosα =l/v√1u
2
/v
2
; t = 2t
1
=t
0
/√1u
2
/v
2
Ans11: T
1
= 2u sin α /g , T
2
= 2u sinβ /g; T
1
/T
2
= sinα /sinβ =tanα =cotβ
(A) True (B) True
Ans12: (A) False, (B) False
Ans13: (ab)
h
= (u cosα vcosβ )t=k
1
t; (ab)
v
= (u sinα v sinβ )t=k
2
t; (bc)
h
=( w cosγ 
vcosβ )t=k
3
t
(bc)
v
=( w sinγ v sinβ )t=k4 t; (ca)
h
==( w cosγ u cosα )t=k5 t; (ca)v==( w sinγ u sinα )t=k6 t
a=√(ab)
h
2
+ (ab)
v
2
; b=√(bc)
h
2
+ (ca)
v
2
; a=√(ab)
h
2
+ (ca)
v
2
; s=(a+b+c)/2; Area =1/2√s(sa)(sb)(s
c)=K t
2
Ans14: Tr=2 v/g cosθ (1+e+e
2
+e
3
+….+e
(r1)
)= 2 v (e
r
1) /g cosθ
T
n
=2 v (e
n
1) /g cosθ ; u= g sinθ Tr & 2u = g sinθ T
n
; e
n
2 e
r
+1=0
Ans15: Let u
1
, θ
1
, be the velocity and angle of projection of first particle and u
2
, θ
2
be the values
for other one then position of particles at any instant t; x
1
= u
1
cos θ
1
t ; x
2
= u
2
cos θ
2
t ; y
1
= u
1
sin θ
1
t – ½ gt
2
y
2
= u
2
sinθ
2
t – ½ gt
2
; Relative position of particle 2 w.r.t one ∆ x = (u
2
cosθ
2
– u
1
cosθ
1
)t;
∆ y = (u
2
sinθ
2
u
1
sinθ
1
)t ; ∆ y/∆ x = (u
2
sinθ
2
u
1
sin θ
1
/u
2
cosθ
2
u
1
cos θ
1
) = k
Ans16: h= u sinθ . t1/2gt
2
;
gt
2
2u sinθ t + 2h = 0 ; t=2u sinθ t√ 4u
2
sin
2
θ 5gh/2g; t=u sinθ /g
t√ u
2
sin
2
– 2gh/g; t
1
+t
2
= 2u sinθ /g = time of flight
Exercise 3:
Ans1: R = u
2
sin2θ /g ; d = u
2
/g or u = √gd; Hmax= u
2
/2g = d/2
Ans2: dy/dt = 810t ; At t = 0 ; V
y
= 8; V
x
= dx/dt = 6 so V=10 m/s
Ans3: tanβ = u sinα gt/ u cosα ; u = gt cosβ /sin(α β )
Ans4: y
1
= u
2
sin
2
α /2g= 3u
2
/8g; u = √8yg/3; y
2
= u
2
sin
2
(π /6)/2g = u
2
/8g= y
1
/3
Ans5: 70=  25t+1/2x10t
2
=5t
2
25t; t = 7, t= 2
Ans6: t = 180/u; H = ½ gt
2
; (5510.9) = 1/2x10x(180/u)
2
; u = 60.60 m/s
Ans7: Average velocity = distance between points / time= u cosθ
Ans8: R = u
2
sin2α /g; h= u
2
sin
2
α /2g , h’ = u
2
cos
2
α /2g; hh’ = u
4
/16 g
2
(4 sin
2
α cos
2
α ) =
u
4
/16g
2
, sin
2
2α
hh’ = 1/16 R
2
or R = 4√hh’
Ans9: y = ax – bx
2
= x tanα  gx
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α ; tan α = a, g/2u
2
cos
2
α = b; u
2
= g/2b (1+a
2
);
Hm= u
2
sin
2
α /2g=a
2
/4b
Ans10: H = 1/2gt
2
; t = √2h/g = 20 s;
Ans11: v = k
1
i^+k
2
xj^; dx/dt = k
1
or x = k
1
t; dy/dt = k
2
x=k
1
k
2
t=>y = 1/2k
1
k
2
t
2
; y = k
2
/2k
1
x
2
Ans12: V
A
= V
B
cos α; V
A
= √3/2 V
B
; V
B
sin 30 = Vc; V
B
= 2Vc; V
A
: V
B
: VC = √3:2:1;
Ans13: Time of flight = √2h/g; X = √2ghx√2h/g=2h
Ans14: t = √2H/g; X = aH/g = u√2H/g; u =a√H/2g
Ans15: (8+v
0
/√2)t = 8 ; v
0
sin 45t = 4; v
0
/√2t=4; t=1/2s; v
0
= 8√2 = 11.31 m/s
Ans16: t
f
= u/gcos30 = 2u/√3g = 2s; Vv = gsin30t= 10m/s; Distance PO=1/2 g sin 30 t
f
2
=10 m
Hence h= PO sin 30=5m; Maximum height attended = h +(usin60)
2
/2g= 16.25 m;
Applying principal of energy conservation from P to Q
½ m u
2
=1/2 m Vv
2
+ mg∆ h; ∆ h =10m; PQ = √17.32
2
+10
2
= 20 m
Ans17: B
A
= 300 sin37
0
700
2
sin
2
37/2x980; B
A
= 90 cm
Ans18: Time of said motion =Time of flight2(t
15
)=2 sec
Ans19: Vcos 30
0
=v; V/v=2/√3
Ans20: R = u
2
sin2α /g = 2u
2
sinα cosα /g; H = u
2
sin
2
α /2g; R
2
= 4u
4
/g
2
sin
2
α (1sin
2
α )
=
48h/g (u
2
2gh)
R
m
= u
2
/g= R
2
/8h+2h
Ans21: 20 m/s
Ans22: u=g sinα .t; t = u/g sinα = u/g cosecα
Ans23:1390 = 90t + 5t
2
; t= 10.0 s
Ans24: T = 2v sin30/g sin60 = 2v/√3g; S = v cos30 (2v/√3g )1/2g cos60 (4v
2
/3g
2
)=30 m
Ans25: 5√3t = 5√3cos60
0
(t+∆ t); t = ∆ t; 5t sin60(t+∆ t)+1/2g(t+∆ t)
2
= 1/2gt
2
; ∆ t = 1s; coordinate
of P, x = 5√3, y = 5m
Ans26: Time of flight=√2h/g=1.27 s; Position of ball=(u v
0
)T=3.81 m
Ans27: (a) 0 = 29.4 sin30t – 1/2g sin60
0
t
2
; t = 5.88 s; R = 29.4 cos30t – 1/2g cos60
0
t
2
= 58.8 m
(b)t = u/g cotθ ; h cosθ = u sinθ t +1/2 g cosθ .t
2
; u = √2gh/(2+cot
2
θ )
Ans28: In a vertical motion 1.20 = 18 sin30t – 1/2gt
2
; 5t
2
– 9t – 1.20 = 0; t = 1.92 s;
x = 18 cos30x 1.92 = 29.92 m
Ans29. (i) R/h= 4 cotα ; R/2h= tanθ; tanθ = 2 cotα
(ii) R = u
2
sin
2
α /g = 2h tanθ; 2u
2
tanα /(1+tan
2
α ) = 2gh tanθ; u
2
=gh/2 (4+tan
2
θ )
Ans30: v
1
=  3 i^+gt j^; v
2
= 4i^ + gtj^; v
1
. v
2
=  12 +g
2
t
2
= 0; t = √12/g; ∆ x = 2.42 m
Ans31: Time of flight (T)= 58.8/14.7= 4s; 2 u sin θ /g= 4 ⇔ u sinθ =2g; u cosθ =0 ⇔ θ =π /2 and
u=19.6 m/s
and relative to earth v=√14.7
2
+19.6
2
=24.5 m/s at angle of 53
0
from horizontal.
Ans32: Time of flight (T)=√ 2(Hh)/g +√ 2h/g; dT/dh=√ 2/g{1/2√h1/2√Hh}=0; H=2h or h/H=1:2
Ans 33: Y = x tanα  gx
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α; Y = d tanα  gd
2
/2u
2
sec
2
α; dy/dα = d sec
2
α  gd
2
/2u
2
(2 sec
2
α tanα )
tanα = u
2
/gd=R/d; Ym = (R
2
d
2
/2R); B = 2√R
2
D
2
Ans34: Let v
0
be the velocity of fall of hailstones falling vertically with respect to the Earth
frame.Then 2v
1
cot2β
1
=v
0
and 2v
2
cot2β
2
=v
0
; v
1
/v
2
=tan 2β
1
/tan 2β
2
=3
Ans35: y = x tanα  gx
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α; (dy/dx) = tanα  gx/u
2
cos
2
α; At x =(11.7+5 cos 15
0
)=
16.52’, dy/dx= tanα
2 tanα = gx/u
2
cos
2
α or u = (√gx)/sinα; u = 32.49 ft/s
Ans36: (a) h = u
2
sin
2
α /2g; u = √2gh/sin
2
α = √2gh/sinα; V
f
2
= Vi
2
– 2gh sin
2
α; V
f
= √2gh
cosα .
(b) u
2
2
= √gx/2 sinβ cosβ ; o = x tan β  gx
2
/2u
2
2
cos
2
β; x tan θ = x tanα  gx
2
/2u
1
2
cos
2
α;
gx/2u
1
2
cos
2
α = tanα  tanθ; u
2
2
sinβ cosβ /u
1
2
cos
2
α = tanα tanθ; since u
1
cosα = u
2
cosβ; tanβ = tanα tanθ
Ans37: V = V
0
cosθ
0
; a = g↓; a⊥v; V
2
/R = g; R = V
2
/g = u
0
2
cos
2
θ
0
/g
Ans38: t = 4/u, t =1/2s; BF = 1/2gt
2
= 1.25m; V
v
A
= u sinα  gt =0.1m/s; V
H
A
= 6.3 m/s; V
A
=
6.38 m/s, tanφ =0.01
Ans39: H = 20 tanα  gx10
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α = 20 tan β  gx10
2
/2u
2
cos
2
β; u = √25(sec
2
α sec
2
β )/
(tanα tanβ )
u = 20 m/s; H=10m & ∆ t=1.72 s
Ans40: y = x tanα  gx
2
/2u
2
cos
2
α; 12.5 tan
2
α  50tanα +25.5 =0; tanα = 3.4, 0.6; α = 73.6
0
,
30.96
0
Angle of projection for quickest time of throw is with least sinα that is= 30.96
0
Ans41: T
f
= 2u sinα /g=2s; R=20√3 = u
2
sin2α /g ; tanα =1/√3 =>α =30
0
; u = 20 m/s
Ans42: g(Ra) = u
2
sin2α ; g(R+b) = u
2
sin2β; R =u
2
sin2θ /g= u
2
/g(asin2β +bsin2α )/(a+b);
θ = ½ sin
1
(a sin
2
β +bsin
2
α )/(a+b)
Ans43: h =(u sinα .)t – 1/2gt
2
; t= (2+√2)√h/g; t
2
= (2√2) √h/g; u cosα{ t
2
 t}= v t
2
;
u cosα /v= t
2
/(t
2
 t)=(2/√2+1)
Ans44: 100 cos30.t = 80 cosθ t + 50; 100 sin30.t – ½ gt
2
= 80 sinθ t –1/2 gt
2
; sinθ = 5/8; t = 2.07
s.
Distance of foot of tree from first person x
1
= 80 cosθ t + 50 = 179.27
Distance of foot of tree from second person x
2
= 80 cosθ t = 129.27 m
Height of tree = 100 sin30 t – ½ gt
2
= 82.50 m
Ans45: u cos θ t = 4; u sinθ t – ½ gt
2
= 4; u
2
sin2θ /g = 18 ; u sinθ /g t = 9/4; 9/4 gt
2
– ½ gt
2
=
4; t = 0.47 s
u = 13.71 m/s; θ = 51.63
0
Ans46: u
1
t
1
= u
2
t
2
; v
1
t
1
– ½ gt
1
2
= v
2
t
2
– ½ gt
2
2
; v
1
/t
1
– 1/2g = u
2
(t
2
/t
1
)1/t
1
– ½ g(t
2
/t
1
)
2
;
Since t
2
/t1 = u
1
/u
2 so
t
1
= 2u
2
(u
2
v
1
u
1
v
2
)/g(u
2
2
u
1
2
)’; t
2
= 2u
1
(u
2
u
1
u
1
v
2
)/g(u
2
2
u
1
2
);
∆ t = t
1
t
2
= 2(u
2
v
1
u
1
v
2
)/g(u
1
+u
2
)
Ans47. At any instant Horizontal Separation = 22(16/√2) t; Vertical Separation =(912/√2t);
Z=(2216/√2t)
2
+(912/√2t)
2
;
dz/dt =0; x = 6 m
Ans48: gt
2
2v
0
sinα t2h = 0; t = 2v
0
sinαt√ 4v
0
2
sin
2
α +2gh/2g; R =
v
0
2
sinα cosα /g+v
0
cosα /g√v
0
2
sin
2
α +2gh
dR/dα = 0; cos2α = gh/v
0
2
+gh; α = ½ cos
1
{gh/v
0
2
+gh}
Ans49: u=√2gh=10m/s; 10 = 10sinα t5 t
2
; t = 1/cosα ; tanα =(1t√ 2)/2; α
1
= 67.5
0
, α
2
=
22.5
0
Ans50: 8t+vcos45t = 8; v sin45t = 4; vt = 4√2; t=1/2s; v = 11.31 m/s;
Ans51: V
0
cosα t = 8; V
0
sinα t= 5t
2
6; V
0
2
t
2
= 25t
4
60t
2
+100; Z = V
0
2
=25t
2
+100/t
2
60; dz/dt =
50t+100(2/t
3
) = 0; t = 1.41s; V
0
= 6.30m/s; cosα = 0.89; α = 26.94
0
Ans52: t = 2v sinθ /g cosα; V
h
= v cosθ  gsinα .(2vsinθ /gcosα );
Vv = vsinθ + g cosα t; tan2α = Vv/Vh
(1+3tan
2
α ) tanθ = 2tanα
Ans53: 2u
2
sinθ cosθ /g =a ; u
2
sin
2
θ /2g = b; tanθ = 4b/a; sinθ =4b/√a
2
+16b
2
; u =
√2g(b+a
2
/16b)
Ans54: At the point of collision U
AX
= u cos 45
0
= u/√2; U
AY
= u/√2 – gt=0 ; U
BX
= u/√2; U
BY
=
u/√2gt=0
mu/√22mu/√2 = mu/√2+2mu’x; u’x = 0; Hence body Q falls freely under gravity
Ans55: 10/3 sin 37=5√5 cos θ t+1/2 g cos 37
0
t
2
where θ =79.56
0
; t = 0.50s; MC=5√5 sin θ t1/2
g sin 37
0
t
2
=4.75m
AC=4.7510/3 cos 37
0
= 2.08 m; X=5.0m & Y=1.25 m; Vp=7.8 m/s; ½ m V
p
2=m g h; hm =
h+Y=4.45 m
Ans56:10
3
=u
2
sin2θ /10; u=√10
4
/sin2θ; t = 2u sinθ /g; ∆ Rn = (√10
4
/sinθ cosθ +10)
(200/√sin2θ )sinθ /1010
3
= 1000/7 √tanθ
Ans57: At highest point V
h
= √Vn
2
+vz
2
= 5 m/s; Mv+0= 2m.v’; V’ = 2.5 m/s; ½ 2m(v’)
2
= 2mgl;
l=0.32 m
Ans58: 16cosα = 2.5; cosα = 0.15; α = 81
0
Ans59: X = (v
2
cosα v
1
)t
1
= 2v
2
sinα /g(v
2
cosα v
1
)
Ans60: R
1
= (u+v)t
f
; R
2
= (uv)t
f
;
R
1
/R
2
=(u+v)/(uv); u=(R
1
+R
2
)v/ (R
1
R
2
); tanα = g(R
1

R
2
)
2
/4v
2
(R
1
+R
2
)
Ans61. 15t = d; (10sin60t+1/2gt
2
)(1/2gt
2
)= 10 m; t = 2/√3 ;d = 17.32 m; At the instant of collision
Vn
A
= 10 , Vv
A
= 1/2gt
2
= 20/3; Vn
B
= 5, Vv
B
= 10/3 (√3+2); From principal of conservation of
momentum
m(10) – 2m(5) = 3m(Vn); Vn = 0
Hence particle after collision falls vertically at distance=10t = 20/√3m from AB
Ans62: u cosα t = 3+0.75t
2
; u sinα t = 1.25+5t
2
;
u cosα = usinα +gt; t = 1s; u = 7.28 m/s
Ans63: X = v
0
cosα t; Y = v
0
sinα t1/2gt
2
; Y = (v
0
sinα gt)t
1
+1/2gt
1
2
; X = (v+v
0
cosα )t
1
;
T=v
0
sinα (v
0
cosα +2 v)/g (v
0
cosα +v)
Ans64: Vsinα = 10; tan60
0
= Vcosα /20Vsinα; V cosα = 10√3; V = 20 m/s
Ans65: h=R tanα +1/2g/v
2
R
2
(1+tan
2
α ); Differentiating both sides with respect to α , R=v
2
/g
tanα ;
tanα =v/√v
2
+2 gh
Ans66: Let the origin be at the point of projection and b is the abscissa of the first vertex of the
Hexagon above plane √3 a= b tanα  g b
2
/2 u
2
cos
2
α; 2√3 a= (b+a) tanα  g (b+a)
2
/2 u
2
cos
2
α;
2√3 a= (b+3a) tanα  g (b+3a)
2
/2 u
2
cos
2
α ; √ 3 a= (b+4a) tanα  g (b+4a)
2
/2 u
2
cos
2
α
On solving (u cosα )
2
=(√3 a g/2) And b= (√72)a; So Range R=4a +2b=2√7 a
Ans67: t= 2u
n
/g cosβ; u
p
=
2 u
n
tan β so u
n
=u / √ 1+4 tan
2
β; h=2 u
2
sin
2
β /g(1+3 sin
2
β );
Ans68. Possible range of shot=5.50 – 0.50 = 5 m; and 5.50+0.50 = 6 m; R = u
2
sin2α /g; α = 15
0
,
75
0
(Sin2α )
m
= 3/5; α
m
= 18.43
0
,71.57
0
;
Hence α can have value between 15
0
and 18.43
0
or 71.57
0
and 75
0
Ans69: Let h
max
=v
0
sin
2
θ /2g ≤ 5⇔sinθ ≤ 2/3
Also h=18 tanθ 36/5 (1+ tan
2
θ ); For dh/dθ =0 tanθ =5/4>2/3 hence take θ =sin
1
(2/3) ; h=3.14
Ans 70: Equation of the motion in the plane x= at; y = at(1α t); y = x (1α x/a); v = ai + (a
2aα t)j
w = (2aα )j
angle the velocity vector makes with the y axis tan α = a/(2aα t  a) = 1; t = 1/α
Ans71: dy/dt = V
0
; dx/dt = ay ; tanθ =dy/dx= v
0
/ay; d
2
y/dt
2
= 0; d
2
x/dt
2
= av
0
; α
total
= av
0
;
α
t
= α
total
cos θ = α
total
/√1+ tan
2
θ ; α
t
= a
2
v
0
y/√v
0
2
+a
2
.y
2
Ans72. w = constant = k j where k is positive constant; dy/dx = a – 2bx; and d
2
y / dx
2
=  2b;
v
y
=dy/dt= v
x
(a2b x); w= dv
y
/dt=2 bv
x
2
; v
x
= √w/2b; v = √w/2b {i + (a – 2bx)j}
Ans73: Time to reach peak tp = v cos ∝/ g cos ∝ = v/g
Total time of motion up to second collision = 2v/g
Distance traveled along plane (AB) = 4v
2
/g sinα =8 h sinα
Ans74 : let the α be the angle projection for minimum time of flight
so v
0
cos α t
m
= L; t
m
= 2v
0
sin α /g; v
0
cos α (2v sinα )/g = L
v
0
2
sin2α /g = L; sin
2
α gl/v
0
2
= 0.86; α = 30.14
0
or 59.85
0
; tm = 2 x 240 sin 30.14
0
/10 =
0.40 min and 0.69 min
Ans75: dv/dt = aτ = a.v/ v ; vdv/dx = a ; v = √2 a x
Ans76: Tangential acceleration w
t
= a; Normal acceleration w
n
= bt
4
;
s = at
2
/2; Hence w
n
=b(2s/a)
2
total acceleration = √a
2
+b
2
(2s/a)
4
= √a
2
+16b
2
s
4
/a
4
Ans77: (a) equation of motion y = ax
2
; Since v = constant implies tangential acceleration is zero
at every point and acceleration is directed normal to path; Also R= {1+(dy/dx)
2
}
3/2
/ d
2
y/dx
2
= a/2;
a
total
= 2 v
2
a
(b) ellipse (x/a)
2
+(y/b)
2
= 1; radius of curvature = a
2
v
2
/bv
2
= a
2
/b
a=an= [ba v
2
/a
3
]=  bv
2
/a
Ans78: Time of fall of height h(t)= √ v
2
sin
2
θ +2 g h /g –v sinθ /g
x=v cosθ{√ v
2
sin
2
θ +2 g h /g –v sinθ /g } =√(R
2
+2h/g v
2
cos
2
θ ) –R/2
For x to be minimum v cosθ should be minimum or v sinθ should be maximum which is for v to be
v
max
and θ be the corresponding max value given by ½ sin
–1
(R g/v
max
2
)
Ans79: 8sinα tt
2
= 48cosα t
{cosα t+sinα dt/dα }2tdt/dα = {sinα t +cosα dt/dα }; α = π /4
Ans80: tanα =V
0
sin θ  g t/ V
0
cosθ; t= V
0
/g(1 tanα ) since for L
max
, θ =45
0
and path is
tangent to shelter
Also { l +V
0
/√2 t} tanα = V
0
/√2 1/2 g t
2
; Sin2α = V
0
2
/ (V
0
2
+ 2gl) or α ≥ ½ sin
1
{V
0
2
/
(V
0
2
+ 2gl) }
Then L
max
= V
0
2
/g ; If α< ½ sin
1
{V
0
2
/ (V
0
2
+ 2gl) }, Lmax=V
0
2
/g{sin 2(α + sin
1
√ gl sin 2α /
V
0
}
physics are expressed and experimentally validated in terms of these physical quantities. The laws expressed in terms of these physical quantities are invariant with space and time. For the purpose of Physics it is very essential that quantities should be defined clearly and precisely and should have the conceptual meaning for the postulated law. Among these are force, time, velocity, density, temperature, charge, magnetic susceptibility and numerous others. Now as per the practice all the physical quantities involved in the Physics today may be grouped in two sets. One set contains the physical quantities as a fundamental one and other set contains quantities derived from these fundamental one. For an example length and time may be taken as a fundamental quantities and the quantity velocity defined as the ratio of length upon time may be termed as a derived quantity. However which quantity will be taken as a fundamental and which one as derived depends on system to system. For example S.I. system of units takes length, mass and time as a fundamental quantity and the quantity force defined as the product of mass and acceleration (length/time2) as a derived quantity. While the F.P.S. system of units and measurement takes force, length and time as a fundamental quantity and mass as a derived quantity. Now the intention of creating physical quantities is that physical laws are expressed in terms of these quantities and which are themselves evaluated in terms of numerical values. These values should be such that can be characterized as intrinsic to the experiment conducted and may be compared to the same quantity arrived in another set of experiment. Now the comparison of physical quantities can be done only when each physical quantity either fundamental or derived one is based on some standard of measurement. The standard of measurement is a set of standard where each fundamental quantity is assigned a specific unit value. The unit value to that quantity is such that it is invariant with space and time and is easily accessible. For
example in the S.I. system of measurement the physical quantity mass has been given a unit value as one kilogram and defined as mass of the international standard body preserved at Severes, France. However it certainly involves the procedure to account the unit value of the fundamental quantity, where different objects having different values in the same set of conditions can be compared. For example by the procedure to obtain mass of a standard body, the spring balance in terms of stretch of spring may be used. The stretch of spring is directly proportional to the mass of the body. By comparing the different stretches of spring, the masses of different bodies, may be compared. So in final words the operational definition of fundamental quantity involves two steps, first choice of a standard and second the establishment of procedures for measuring the quantity in terms of standard so that a number and unit are determined as a measure of quantity. But very important aspect of choice of standard is that it should be accessible and invariant. For example we have selected our standard for length to measure the distance between two points as one meter, then by a comparison of this length with a second object three times in length as standard, we say that second bar has a length of three meters. However most quantities cannot be measured directly in comparison to standard and indirect approach using some involved procedure is required and also certain assumptions are made to ascertain the matter. For example measuring the time of sending and receiving the electromagnetic pulse with known speed, the distance can be measured as product of speed and one half of time interval. Here we have set half time of sending and receiving the signals as our standard of measurement and different distances may be compared with different times of observations. However the speed of pulse is to be determined through the other acclaimed procedure. Similarly, we use an indirect method to measure very small distances between atoms and molecules by particle scattering method.
People tend to measure their own height in feet and inches and beer is sold in pints.System of measurements in practice Now so far we have studied that quantities in physics are either fundamental one or derived one depending upon the system of measurement we are using and shall study the different systems of measurement prevailing and used all over the world. the British systems of English units and later Imperial system of units were used in Britain. Now we shall discuss the different system of measurements prevailing all over the world and their merits and demerits. The derived quantities are derived from these fundamental one and for the complete descriptions will have dimensions showing the fundamental quantities involved and units of these dimensions involved depending upon the system of measurement used.S. The system came to be known as U. These various systems of measurement have at times been called footpoundsecond systems after the Imperial units for distance. to give just a few examples. system of units adopted around the world. and so on. the Commonwealth and the United States. yards. Road signs are still in miles. Imperial System of units measurement Before S.I. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain despite the fact that it has officially switched to the SI system. Imperial units are used in many other places. weight and time. miles per hour. which are . The fundamental quantities are defined in terms of a standard of measurement devised in that particular system of measurement and procedure to measure the quantity so that comparison of different objects may be done in terms of that quantity. for example. Customary units in the United States and is still in use there and in a few Caribbean countries. in many Commonwealth countries.
234 metres is 1234 millimetres or 0. Metric units of mass. though these do not affect its daytoday use. one thousand. All other units are powers of ten or multiples of ten of this base unit. rods). are measured in meters. Unit conversions are always simple because they will be in the ratio of ten. such as 2/5 of a meter. and so on. the imperial gallon is used in many countries that are considered metricated at gas/petrol stations.considered metricated. land area is measured in acres and floor space in square feet. feet. All lengths and distances.g.001234 kilometres. There is no profusion of different units with different conversion factors as in the Imperial system (e.inches. is the internationally recognized standard metric system. Since the 1960s the International System of Units (SI). etc. for example. Similarly. or thousandths of a metre (millimeters). yards. is not prohibited. fathoms. It exists in several variations. but uncommon. both in everyday commerce and in .I system of measurement The International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French language name Système International d'Unités) is the modern. an example being the United Arab Emirates. explained further below. S. or thousands of meters (kilometres). The use of fractions. It is the world's most widely used system of units. Metric System of Measurement The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement based on the metre and the Kilogram. so that one can convert by simply moving the decimal place: 1. one hundred. length. and electricity are widely used around the world for both everyday and scientific purposes. particularly for commercial transactions (rather than government statistics). with different choices of base units. revised form of the metric system. Multiples and submultiples are related to the fundamental unit by factors of powers of ten. The main advantage of the metric system is that it has a single base unit for each physical quantity.
The distance between two lines engraved on gold plugs near the ends of the bar (when the bar was at 0. Of the many repetitive . But the main disadvantage of the meter bar is that it is not accurately producible at everywhere. In 1961 an atomic standard of length was accepted by International agreement. system of units has the following set of standards for measurement: Standard of Length The first standard of length measurement conceived was a bar of platinumiridium alloy kept at International Bureau of weights and measures near Paris. in turn. rather than the centimetregramsecond (CGS) system.650.science. at everywhere therefore accessible and invariant with respect to space and time. One meter is now defined to be 1. which. An oscillating pendulum. At its development the SI introduced several newly named fundamental units that were previously not a part of the metric system. The wavelength of orange radiation emitted by atoms of Krypton (Kr36) in electrical discharge was chosen. The S. had many variants.73 wavelengths of this light. quartz crystal. One is for civil and another for scientific work according to the desired accuracy in the work.00 degree centigrade and supported in a certain mechanical system) was defined as one meter.I. The choice of atomic standard has offered a great advantage that there is enough precision in length measurements and all atoms generate light of same wavelength. The SI was developed in 1960 from the metrekilogramsecond (MKS) system. We define the time to know the duration between the start and end of events and classify them in such a sequence where precedence of start or end of one event can be compared with other by counting number of repetitions as the division of time phase. Standard of Time For the development of the time standard there are two different aspects for the purpose. oscillating spring or digital counter can be used for the purpose.763.
phenomenon occurring in the nature, the rotation of earth on its own axis, which in time span is length of day, has been used as time standard and still the basis of determining civil time standard. One mean solar second being defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day and time expressed in terms of Earth’s rotation about its own axis is called universal time (UT) In 1956, The International Congress of Weight and measures redefined the second for the scientific purposes requiring high precision, in terms of the earth orbital motion about the sun and found it to be the fraction 1/31,556,925.9747 of the tropical year 1900 and time defined in terms of the earth orbital motion is called ephemeris time (ET). But the main disadvantage of the above time standards is that both UT and ET must be determined by astronomical observations extending over several weeks (for UT) or several years (for ET) and a secondary terrestrial clock, calibrated by the astronomical observations is needed for the purpose. Quartz crystal clocks, based on the electrically sustained natural periodic vibration of a quartz crystal serve as a time standard and have measured time with a maximum error of 0.02 sec in a year. One of the most common uses of a time standard is the determination of frequencies and for the purpose the atomic clocks using the periodic atomic vibrations as a standard have been developed which gives accurate time estimates to a accuracy of fraction of micro seconds and are invariant with space and time. As per the S.I. system of units the second (s) is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the hyperfine levels of the ground state of the Cs133 atoms.
Standard of Mass
The kilogram (kg) is the mass of the international standard body preserved at Severes, France.
Standard of amount of Substance (Mole)
The amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities (Avogadro number 6.02x1023) like atoms if substance is monoatomic or molecules is called a mole. For example 0.012 kg of carbon12, called as one mole substance contains
6.0 x10
23
Nos of atoms of carbon12.
Standard of Current
The ampere (A) is the current in two very long parallel wires 1m apart that gives rise to a magnetic force of
2.0 x10
−7
N/m.
Standard of Temperature
The Kelvin (K) is water.
1 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of 273 .16
Standard of Luminous Intensity
The candela (cd) is the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction of a surface of a area 600 ,000 sq meter of a black body at a temperature of freezing platinum at pressure of 1 atm.
1
Units and their conversion
We have studied earlier that all derived quantities are dependent upon the fundamental quantities and fundamental quantities on certain standards. The choice of standard units for these fundamental quantities determines the system of units for all physical quantities used all over the world. For example the M.K.S. system of units classifying fundamental quantities mass, length and time as Kilogram, meter, second. Therefore once the choice of the system of units has been made the derived or dependent quantities follow the same system of units and will have both number and unit in its notification.
When such quantities are added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided in an algebraic equation the unit can be treated as an algebraic quantity. For example we wish to find out the distance traveled by a person traveling at a speed of 5 km per hour in five hours than Distance traveled = Speed x Time= 5.0
Km x5h =25 km h
Ex 1. 5 litre of benzene weigh more in summer or winter? (A) Summer (B) Winter (C) Equal in both (D) None of these Sol: Since volume increases and density decreases after rise in temperature so for a given volume of benzene say 5 litre it will weigh more in the winter for higher density. Ex 2. The SI unit of length is the meter. Suppose we adopt a new unit of length which equal to x meters the area 1m2 expressed in terms of the new unit has a magnitude (A) x (B) x2 (C)1/x (D)1/x2 Sol: Area = 1m x 1m = (1 unit/x)(1 unit/x) = 1/x2 unit2 So magnitude=1/x2 Ex 3. If the unit of length is micrometer and the unit of time is microsecond, the unit of velocity will be (A) 100 m/s (B) 10 m/s (C) micrometer/s (D) 1 m/s Sol: Velocity=L/T = 1 m/s Ex 4. If the units of length and force are increased four times, then the units of energy will (A) Increase 8 times (B) increase 16 times (C) decrease 16 times (D) increase 4 times Sol: E0 = F0 d0 En = 16 f0 d0 En = 16 E0 Hence each unit of new energy dimension is 16 times each unit of energy in old dimension
The unit of force in this system will be equivalent to (A) 1/10 N (B) 1 N (C) 10 N (D) 100 N Sol: unit of mass = 10 gm Length = 10 cm. What will be the unit of time in that system in which the unit of length is ‘metre’ unit of mass ‘kg’ and unit of force ‘kg.8 sec Ex7. then the unit of mass will be (A) 1 kg (B) 81 kg (C) 9x1018 kg (D) 81x1034 kg Sol: M= c x g y p z = M z L x+yz T –x –2y –2z . y=3 M=pc4/g3 =81x1034 Kg Ex8 Is the time variation of position as shown in the fig is observed in nature? Explain.10 s Unit force in the new system with dimensions M L T –2 have 10 (gm)(10 cm) (0. .8 sec Sol: Force F = MLT2 kg (9. m / kgwt = 1/√ 9.8) sec (C)√9. m/ kg wt So T= √ kg . mass and time are chosen to be 10 cm. acceleration due to gravity g .1 s respectively.’? 2 (A) 1√9.10 gm.. so z=1.Ex 5. Time = 0.8 s OR F= M L T –2 T=√ ML/F = √ kg .1 s)2 And so equals to 1/10 N OR Since 1N = 1kg m.8 sec (D) 9. In a particular system.wt. and the atmospheric pressure p are taken as the fundamental units .(102cm)( s 2) Hence each unit of force = 1N/10 Ex 6. the unit of length.8 sec (B) (9.s –2 = 103gm. and 0. If the velocity of light c.80 m/s2) = kgmT2 T = 1/√9. x=4.
The normal duration of physics practical period in Indian colleges is 100 minutes. Express this period in micro century. The SI and C. Here dyne is the C. Since dimension of density ρ = ML3T0 ρ 2/ρ 1 = (M2/M1) (L2/L1)3 = 20 (5)3= 4/25. Ex9. Now we have a new system where unit of length is 5 cm and unit of mass 20 g. If the units of force.S. The density of a substance is 8 g/cm3.G.5)2 = 20 Kg. system of units Energy =Kg m2 /s 2 = 1 joule= 107 grams cm 2 /s 2 = 1 Erg in C. Express it in dyne/cm2. Density of substance in new system = 50 units Exercise 1 Q1. find the units of mass. system Ex 11. energy and velocity in new system be 10 N. L=E/F=0. Sol: 19 x1011 Dyne /cm2.G. units of energy are joule and erg respectively. length and time in the new system. How many erg are equal to one joule. T=E/FV=1 sec .T im e in S e c . Find the density in the new system.G.S. Sol: Density of substance = 8 g/cm3.S.5 m s 1 respectively. unit of force. Young’s modulus of steel is 19x1010 N/m2. Unit of mass = 20 g. Ex 10. 1 micro century =106 x 100 year.S. Which gives M=E/v2=5J/(0.5 m. Sol: In M. 5 J and 0.K. Unit of length = 5 cm .9 Microcenturies. Sol: T= 100 minutes =100/60x24x365x10 –4 = 1. ( t) P o s i t i o n o f P a r t i c l e ( x ) Sol: The answer is clearly NO because at any instant of time the particle can’t have two positions and time doesn’t decreases. Ex 12.
Let M = F x E y v z and so x=0. Solutions Exercise 1 Ans1. Now we shall try to understand the way the physical quantities appear in the laws of physics and the rules of mathematical manipulations followed.001s in a century.03 h Ans4:Mass density of nucleus=A(mp)/(4/3 π r3) ≅ 1017 Kg/m3 Introduction So far we have defined the physical quantities in terms of their interdependence and evolved procedures to measure the physical quantities. Calculate the cumulative effect on the measure of time over twenty centuries.01s Cumulative error in time measurement = cumulative error in day length increase in 20 centuries = 20 x100 x 365 x 0. Name a physical object whose size is approximately half way between these two on a logarithmic scale.5 ≅ 1x106 ( Radius of moon) Ans3: Increase in length of day in 20 centuries = 20 x 0. Each physical quantity may be attributed a set of dimensions according to the base units involved in the quantity and laws of physics involve mathematical manipulations of these physical quantities.01/3600 h= 2. Q4.Q2. r=r0A10 where r is the radius of the nucleus. Q3 Assuming that the length of the day uniformly increases by 0. y=1 and z=2 Ans2: On logarithmic scale the exponent value= 15+(15+26)/2= 15 + 41/2=5. Nuclear sizes obey roughly the following empirical relation. 1 f=1015 m.2 f. A its mass number and r0 is a constant equal to 1.001s Average increase in length of day = 0. As each statement should follow certain rules involving the physical .5 Hence the size of object=105.001x 20/2 = 0. Find out whether mass density is nearly constant for different nuclei. Such a slowing down of the earth‘s rotation is indicated by observations of the occurrences of solar eclipses during this period. The unit of length convenient on the nuclear scale is fermi . The radius of proton is about 109 microns and the radius of the universe is about 10 28 cm.
These two are the scope of study now. is governed by the dimensional analysis. multiplied or divided in the same manner as any other algebraic quantity. The addition or subtraction of quantities is meaningful only if the quantities have followed same standard of units and so are dimensionally homogeneous.quantities regarding their mathematical manipulations. Concept of significant digits for the presentation of measurement of quantities in Physics. The dimensional consistency is must for equation to be correct. It is governed by the rules of significant digits of measurement of physical quantities. Beside that physical quantity regarding their representation numerically should follow certain rules so that degree of accuracy of the measurement could be ascertained at a glance of the presentation of measurement. A list of various physical quantities with their usual convention and dimensions are . So at the end of this unit of around one hour you will be able to learn • • Dimensions of physical quantities and dimensional analysis. Dimensions of Physical Quantities As we have stated earlier that physical quantities can be added. subtracted. The correctness of equation can be checked by comparing the physical dimensions of each term in the equation under discussion.
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Quantity Acceleration Angular acceleration Angular Displacement Angular Momentum Angular Velocity Area Capacitance Charge Current Density Dielectric constant Displacement Electric dipole moment Energy Force Force Constant Frequency Gravitational Constant Heat Impulse Intensity of electrical field Symbol a α θ L ω A C q I d εr S P KE/U F K f G Q E Physical formula a=∆v/∆t α = ∆ω/∆t θ=arc/radius L=m v r ω=θ/t lxb Q = CV q=I t d =M/V εr=ε/ε0 ___ P=q 2l KE=1/2mv 2 F=ma K=F/x f=1/T G=F r /m1m2 Q=ms∆t Fxt E = F/q 2 S.I unit m/s2 Rad/sec 2 Radian Kg m2/s Rad/sec (Metre) Farad 2 Dimension formula M0LT2 M0 L0 T 2 M0 L0 T0 M L2 T 1 M0 L0 T 1 MLT 0 2 0 M1L2 T 4A2 M0 L0 T A MLTA M L3 T 0 M0L0T0 M LT 0 0 0 0 0 Coulomb Ampereor A Kg/m3 ___ Metre or m Coulomb metre Joule Newton or N N/m Hertz N m /kg 2 2 M0L T A M L2 T 2 M L T 2 ML T 0 2 M0 L0 T 1 M L T 1 3 2 Joule/calorie N.sec N/coul M L2 T 2 M L T 1 M L T 3A1 : .
m M L T3A1 M0 L2 T 2 M0 L2A T 0 M L2 T .di/dt P=W /t P =F/A V=IR Q=m s∆t Joule/kg.m N/m2 .21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Intensity of electrical field Latent Heat M agnetic dipole moment M agnetic flux M agnetic intensity Moment of Inertia M omentum Mutual inductance Power Pressure Resistance Specific heat Strain Stress Surface Tension Tem perature Torque Universal gas constant Velocity Volume W ork Young M odulus E L M E = F/q Q = mL M =NIA N/coul Joule/kg 2 Am p.kelvi n ___ ∆l/l. Joule/mol. ∆A/A.m.k m/s 3 (Metre) N.d Y= (F/A)/ l/l ∆ Kelvin N.d PV = nRT v = ∆s/∆t V=l x b x h F.2A1 M L1T 0A ML2T0 M L T1 M L 2 T 2A2 M L2 T 3 M L1 T 2 M L2 T3 A2 M0 L2T 2θ 1 M0L0T0 M0 L0 T 2 M L0 T 2 M0 L0 T0 θ 1 M L2 T 2 ML T θ M0LT 1 M0L3T0 M L2 T2 M L1 T 2 2 2 1 φ H I P L P P R S ___ ___ T θ τ R v V W Y E=dφ/dt B =µH 2 I=m r W eber A/m Kg m2 Kg m/s Henery W att Pascal Ohm P = mv E=L. ∆v/v F/A N/m2 F/l N/m ___ F.
y and z are as yet undetermined indices. As an example. T= k(l/g)1/2. while y=1/2 and x=1/2 Substituting these values into the original equation we obtain. To find the unit of a physical Quantity. If we have some idea or can make an educated guess as to how one physical quantity relates to another we can use dimensions to derive the form of the equation. Where k is a constant of proportionality. 3. It is to be further noted that every dimensionally correct relation does not mean to have physically correct relationship. 2. Where x. To convert units of a physical Quantity from one system to another. consider the equation for the period of pendulum bob. the dimension of the length of the pendulum is [L] and the dimension of g is [LT2]. On the lefthand side the dimension of the period is [T]. the dimension of mass is [M]. the length of the pendulum and the acceleration due to gravity We can express this as T=mx l y gz. y and z we convert the formula into its dimensions. [T]=[M]x[L]y[LT2]z.Application of dimensional analysis 1. To find the values of x. To check the dimensional correctness of a given relation. but it cannot determine the constant of proportionality. l . Equating lefthand indices with matching dimensions on the righthand side. We might suppose that the period depends on the mass of the bob. Compare this with the equation for the period of a pendulum T = 2π g The form of the equation is correct. [M]: x=0 [L]: y+z=0 [T]: 2z=1 From this we can deduce that z=1/2.
g. T=2 π √ I/(m g l) Ex1. You may not know integration. Ex3. If the dimensions are given.Limitations of application of dimensional analysis 1. The method of dimension can’t be applied to derive relationship when a physical quantity depends on more than three quantities. But using dimensional analysis can check or prove results . 3. can’t be deduced by dimensional analysis.g. However the dimensional correctness of the relation may be checked. M = K V1 F T Ex2. x= 1. In the cauchy’s formula for the refractive index n = A+B/λ 2 the dimensions of A and B are (A) Both are dimensionless (B) A is dimension less . 2. y= a sin ω t 4. z =1. physical quantity may not be unique as many physical quantities have same dimensions. For e. If velocity. etc.in the integral ∫ dx/(2axx2)1/2 = an sin1 [x/a1] The value of n should be (A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 0 (D) 1/2 Sol: The dimension of a is that of x and for dimensional consistency of the equation n should be equal to zero. For e. y =1. For example 1. force and time are taken to be fundamental quantities find dimensional formula for quantity mass 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (A) V FT (B) V FT (C) VF T (D) V F T Sol: M=K (V)x (F)y (T)z . B has dimension M0 L2 T0 . S=u t+1/2 a t2 . The dimensional analysis can’t be used to derive relationship other than the product of power functions. Since numerical constants have no dimensions.
L and T i.[X] = Ma Lb T c the quantity mass (A) Can always be dimensionally represented in terms of L. The lower face of B is rigidly held on a horizontal surface. The frequency of oscillation of an object of mass m suspended by means of spring of force constant k is given by f = c m x ky.(C) A is dimension less.T and x if a = 0 (C) May be represented in terms of L. After the force is withdrawn. B has dimensions M0L2T0 (D) Both A and B have dimensions M0L2T0 Sol: Since refractive index is dimensionless hence A should be dimensionless and B should have dimensions of Length 2 that is M0L2T0 Ex4. the time period of which is given by (A) 2π √ (mη L) (B) 2π √ (Mη /L) (C) 2π √ (ML/η ) (D) 2π √ (M/Lη ) Sol: Check the dimensions of the left and right side quantities. y = ½ (B) x = . where c is a dimensionless constant the value of x and y are (A) x = ½. T and x if a = 0 (D) May be represented in terms of L.e. Suppose a quantity x can be dimensionally represented in terms of M.½ Sol: Putting the dimensions on the two sides and equating the powers of the base quantities we get x= 1/2. A highly rigid cubical block A of small mass M and side L is fixed rigidly on the another cubical block B of same dimensions and of low modulus of rigidity η such that lower face of A completely covers the upper face of B. (B) May be represented in terms of L. y = . block A executes small oscillation. y =1/2 Multiple Choice Type of Questions Ex1. y = ½ (C) x = ½. A small force F is applies perpendicular to one of the side face of A. y = .½.½. Ex5.½ (D) x = . T and x if a ≠ 0 . T and x.
(B). Here I the case the quantity M may be represented in terms of L.Sol: Any quantity may be represented in terms of other quantities as base quantities such that the quantities are dependent upon each other with a certain relationship. (C) The dimension of a base quantity in other base quantity is always zero.1 (a) Can a physical quantity have no unit and dimensions? If yes give an example.( C ) Descriptive Type of Questions: Ex. Choose the correct statement (s) (A) A dimensionally correct equation may be correct (B) A dimensionally correct equation may be incorrect (C) A dimensionally incorrect equation must be correct (D) A dimensionally incorrect equation must be incorrect Sol: A dimensionally correct equation may be correct or incorrect. Ex2. Sol: ( A ). (b) Can a physical quantity have units without dimensions? If yes give an example. (b) Angle measured in radians is physical quantity. But a dimensionally incorrect equation can never be correct. No dimension has been assigned to these quantities. Ex3. . T. (D) The dimension of a derived quantity is never zero in any base quantity. which has unit of radian but no dimension. The angle measurement in a plane that is radian and angle of a solid that is steradian are supplementary units to supplement the physical quantities like angular displacement and angular velocity. Ans41: (a) Strain has neither unit nor dimensions but it is a defined physical quantity. (B) All base quantities cannot be represented dimensionally in terms of the rest of base quantities. x if a≠ 0 so that M remains related with the rest of quantities. Choose the correct statement (s) (A) All quantities may be represented dimensionally in terms of the base quantities.
Column I gives three physical quantities. on solving for dimensions of base quantities M. The dimensions of µ 0 = MLT2A2 Ex3. Sol: The dimensions of ε 0= M1 L3 T 4A2 . Find the dimensional formulae of e0& m0 (Where e0 is the absolute permittivity and m0 is the permeability of vacuum or free space respectively ). x=6. y=1. Derive an expression for gas constant. Sol: M=K(v)x(d)y(g)z . Some of the physical quantities may have more than one choice : I Capacitance II Ohm second .T and n we get x=1. find out how the mass varies with velocity of flow. Select the appropriate units for these from choices given in column II. R Sol: Let P= K V x n y R z T m . (a) Moment of inertia (b) Surface tension (c) Angular acceleration (d) Coefficient of viscosity (e) Coefficient of elasticity (f) Momentum (g) Gravitational Constant (h) Plank Constant (i) Newton /Meter 2 (ii) kg/ (metres) (iii) kg – meter2 (iv) Newton/meter (v) radian/s2 (vi) MLT1 (vii) ML2T1 (viii) M1 L3 T2 Q2. volume of the gas V. Assuming that the largest mass that can be moved by a flowing river depends on velocity of flow density of river water and on gravity. y=1. write down the list B in order of list A in each table. In the following table. z=3 and so M= K v6 d g –3 Ex4.L. there are two lists A and B. T=1 and so PV=n RT Exercise 2 Matching Type of Questions: Q1.Ex2. but the list B is not in order of list A. temperature of the gas T and number of moles n. z=1. The gas constant R depends upon pressure of the gas P.
Q8. Q7. Match the physical quantities given in column I with dimensions expressed in column if in tabular form (a) Angular momentum (a) ML2T2 (b) Latent heat (b) ML2Q2 (c) Torque (c) ML2T1 (d) Capacitance (d) ML3T1Q2 (e) Inductance (e) M1L2T2Q2 (f) Resistivity (f) L2T2 Q4. What are the dimensions of a and V0 ? Q5. Q6.Inductance Magnetic inductance Coul2 joul1 Coulomb (Volt)1 Newton(amperem) 1 Voltsec (Ampere)1 Q3. Find out the dimensions of electrical conductivity. Find the dimensional formula of L/R. Suppose an attractive nuclear force acts between two protons which may be written as F = Cekt/r2 Write down the dimensional formula and appropriate SI units of C and K. The position of a particle at any time is given by S(t) = V 0/a (1eat). . The equation of a wave traveling along the x axis by y = A e[x/at/T] 2. write the dimensions of A . where R is the resistance and L is the coefficient of selfinductance. where a>0 and V0 are constants. a and T.
length and time in the new system. Guess the expression for its frequency from dimensional Analysis. Concept of Significant digits As we have seen every measurement pertains to the standard we are going to use and its numerical value is read from the calibrated scale based on that standard of measurement. 0 as certain 3 is doubtful and 5 is insignificant. Q14. find a and b. the tension F in the string and its mass per unit length M. 0.35 cm contains digits 5. Q13 (a) In the formula X=3YZ2. Q10. assuming that the dependence is of the product of powers type. Assuming the relation to be E =K Ia wb where K is a dimensionless constant. the resistance and the time. Find out the dimensions of the constant a in the above equation. C=capacitance. For example the length measured by the meter scale having least count of 1cm as 50. The equation of state of a real gas is given by [p+a/v2](vb) = RT. where V=supply voltage. guess an equation between these quantities using dimensional analysis. where p. The digits 5.Q9. If velocity of light c. then find the dimensions of mass. X and Z have dimensions of capacitance and magnetic induction respectively. The heat produced in a wire carrying an electric current depends on the current. The dimensional formula of resistance is ML2T3 A2 and heat is a form of energy. Q11. The frequency of vibration of a stream depends on the length L between the nodes. What are the dimensions of Y in MKSQ system? (b) Calculate the dimension(s) of VCR/L. The value of measurement contains two parts (i) One part with all digits read directly from the scale by the smallest subdivision of the scale called as certain digits of measurement (ii) and the second part contains doubtful digits at end corresponding to the eye judgment within the least subdivision of the scale. R=resistance and L=inductance. v and T are pressure . volume and temperature respectively and R is the universal gas constant. The kinetic energy E of a rotating body depends on its moment of inertia I and its angular speed w. the gravitational constant G and plank constant h be chosen as the fundamental units. Q12. 3 are termed as . Moment of Inertia of the sphere about its diameter is 2/5Mr2.
and has one significant figure.0005 then all zeros will be counted for significant digits containing five significant digits as 1. For example.0. There may be some confusion while dealing with the measurements containing zero at their end but rule is the same. If 5 and first zero that is two digits are significant then we write 5. as does the speed of light (299792458 m/s). Significant digits in arithmetical calculation As per internationally accepted practice for finding out the significant digits in the arithmetical calculation say division or multiplication of two physical quantities following rule has been formulated for determination of significant: 1. with 5 as a significant digit.. In multiplication or division of two or more quantities the number of significant digits in the answer is equal to the number of significant digits in the quantity. For this reason it is important to keep the trailing zeros to indicate the actual number of significant figures. . For example.000..00003 having first digit as zero then all the continuous digits are also insignificant. Thus.significant digits and 5 as insignificant digit. For example if only 5 is significant in 500 cm then we report it as 5 x 10 2 cm. For example. Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant digits. the number of centimeters per inch (2. To indicate that the trailing zeros are significant a decimal point must be added. As a general practice we report only the significant digits and magnitude of any physical quantity is represented by proper power of 10. If the integer part of the digit is zero then all the continuous zeros after the decimal are treated as insignificant digits as the number 0. 400 indicate only one significant figure.0 x 102 cm.54) has an infinite number of significant digits. and if all the digits are significant we report it as 5. then the number of oranges is 2. if there are two oranges on a table.0 and 5 respectively. trailing zeros may or may not be significant. For numbers without decimal points. Defined numbers are also like this. which has least number .0. However if first digit is nonzero as in 1. 400 has three significant figures.00 x 10 2 cm.
1 + 256.6 (three significant figures like 2.2 Sol: As per rule write the numbers with decimal point in a line and check where the first doubtful digit occurs between these numbers.80) (4.3 All the digits in this expression are significant.2x1374/33.7838 Since the expression has number with lowest number of significant digits as 3 with number 25. The least significant digit is rounded according to the following rules: (A) If the digit next to one rounded is more than 5. R respectively. Evaluate 25.4 + 0. which has the first doubtful digit counted from left.432 should be rounded to get 90. (C) If the digit next to be rounded is equal to 5 then rounding digit is increased by one if it is odd otherwise left unchanged. Thus 60. For example. For example. .0/2. Now change the other numbers with proper rounding and than add as 24.7 Ex3.3 hence the expression will also have three significant digits and number will be written as per rule 1. Q=2. Given P=0. Q. (2.332 + 1.of significant digits. Sol: Expression has value =1039. Ex1.0623+256.40 m and R=3000 m. The insignificant digits are dropped from the result if appear after the decimal point. Evaluate 24. 2. then the digit to be rounded is increased by 1 (B) If next digit is less than 5 then rounding digit is left unchanged.61092 should be rounded off to 12.2 = 280.5039) = 12.0 will have only two significant digits.36+0.1). and replaced to zero if appear to the left of the decimal point. 89.2 or 33.1 = 90.04x103 Ex2.80). Find out the number of significant figures in P.2. which in our case occurs at 256. For addition or subtraction of quantities all the numbers are written with the decimal point in one line up to the number.0030 m. All digits are written to that digit after rounding off at that level and addition/subtraction is performed.4 (the tenths place is the last significant place in 1.
5.0. The dimension of K=M0L2T1 Ans7: The dimension of L=V/(dI/dt)=W/I 2 =ML2T2A2.5 cm. a=M0 L T 0. Sol: The volume of 25 spheres=25 x1.Sol: No of significant figures in P=2(3.76 = 44. Q3. Hints and Solutions Exercise 2 Ans4: The power of e should be dimensionless so the dimension of a = M0L0T1. The volume of one sphere is 1. No of significant figures in Q=3(2.0. No of significant figures in R=4(3.0 c.650x1012. A= M0L T0 . and 0. The radius of the circle is stated as 2.32 cm respectively. So the dimension of T= M0L0T. Round off the following numbers to three significant digits (a) 15462 (b) 14. Since the number 1. Find out the volume of 25 such spheres (according to idea of significant figures).0) Ex4.745 (c) 14.76 has three significant digits and so result should also be written to the three significant digits as 44. Ans5: The dimension of a and T should be of such that x/a and t/T are dimensionless and dimensions of A should be of y.0). Ans6: The dimension of C = M L1T 2 . The dimension of R=W/I 2 t =M L2 T3A2 Ans8: Electrical conductivity=1/R= M1 L2 T 3 A2 Ans9: a=pv2=ML5T2.6 cm. Find out its area written as in appropriate number of significant digits. Exercise 3 Q1.0) since the first digit is zero so all zeros after that are insignificant. . The dimension of V0=M0LT1. Which measurement is least accurate? Q2.12 cm.c. The length breadth and thickness of a block are measured as 12.750 (d) 14.c.76 c.4.
Although we try to make accurate measurements but it is also true that it is very difficult to arrive at the fictitious true value of measurement. skill of the person making measurements.= K I x ω y Put the dimensions of E. secondary effect of environment or errors in the instrument etc. and itself odd number. So it is a very difficult task to arrive the true value of the measurement. T= h1/2 G1/2/C5/2 Exercise 3 Ans1: The breadth of the block is only up to two significant digits hence supposed to be least accurate.47 x 101 The last number has been rounded to 7 only since digit next to it is less than 5 (c) 1.112416 cm2=14. One measurement of the same quantity taken many times will differ from each other. Ans2: Area of circle=π R2= 14.46 x 1013 The last number has been rounded to 6 only since digit next to it is equal to 5 and itself even number. Now in this unit we shall try to understand the different causes of errors in measurement and will classify the errors according to their origination. that all sort of measurements are arrived at by taking measurements in some set of experiments of the physical quantities. . Next we shall determine the standard procedures to arrive at the true value and mode of representing them for all purposes. I and ω and we get E=K I ω 2 Ans13: Y=X/3Z2 . T and I we get H=I2 R t Ans11: Let ν = K L x F y m z Put the dimensions of the quantities on two sides and solve for powers x. which itself dependent upon the certain factors like how the instrument is calibrated with respect to reference one.1 cm2 (three significant figures) Ans3: (a) 1.y.55x 104 . and z we get ν = K/L √ (F/m) Ans12: E. L. The last number has been rounded to five since digit next to 4 is six greater than 5 (b) 1. L=h1/2 G1/2/C3/2. (d) 1. Y= M3L6T8A6= M3 L6 T2 Q6 Ans14: M=√C h/G .Ans10: H= I x R y t z which on solving for dimensions of two side for base quantities M. The authenticity of the results of experiments is totally dependent upon the precision of the measurements taken.48 x 101 The last number has been rounded to 8 since digit next to it is 5. least sub division of instrument. Introduction Now let us continue our discussion about measurement about physical quantities. We know.
errors can be divided into two broad and rough but useful classes: systematic and random. But depending on how the person being measured holds himself during the measurement we might be accurate in measuring to the nearest cm. But small systematic errors will always be present. it can be characterized. In a sense. consistently improper use of equipment or failure to properly account for some effect. For example. which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so their mean value is displaced. Systematic errors Systematic errors are errors. This pattern can be analyzed systematically. Errors and Uncertainty Errors are always the part of measurements and nothing can be done about. If a measurement is repeated. Generally. For instance. This leads us to the idea of errors in measurement. but for which the corrections are not well known. Thus when we report a measurement we must include the maximum and minimum errors in the measurement. no instrument can ever be calibrated perfectly. Although it is not possible to do anything about such error. Other factors such as the conditions under which the measurements are taken may also affect the uncertainty of the measurements. the measure may be accurate to a scale of 1 mm. Other sources of systematic errors are external effects which can change the results of the experiment. the reasons why several independent confirmations of experimental results are often required (especially using different techniques) is because different apparatus at different places may be affected . Presentation of magnitude of quantities in Physics. In science. When we measure something the measurement is meaningless without knowing the uncertainty in the measurement. the values obtained will differ and none of the results can be preferred over the others.Now in this next unit of around one hour you will be able to learn • • Types of errors in measurements and level of uncertainty. For instance. a systematic error is rather like a blunder and large systematic errors can and must be eliminated in a good experiment. the repeated measurements may cluster tightly together or they may spread widely. This may be due to such things as incorrect calibration of equipment. measuring the height of a person.
the reason why experiments sometimes yield results. There may be extraneous disturbances that cannot be taken into account. Random errors are unavoidable and must be lived with. The uncertainty associated with the mean value is determined by the standard deviation of the measurements as detailed below: . For a sufficiently a small change an instrument may not be able to respond to it or to indicate it or the observer may not be able to discern it. which were not accounted for. Aside from making mistakes (such as thinking one is using the x10 scale. ♦ They may occur due to noise. So the systematic errors are to be removed from the measurements by rectification of the cause or my taking measurements by several instruments otherwise the results will remain shifted from the true value. However the random errors are very uncertain and it is very difficult to account for them in our measurements. which may be far outside the quoted errors. Random errors displace measurements in an arbitrary direction whereas systematic errors displace measurements in a single direction. Some systematic error can be substantially eliminated (or properly taken into account). the average value will be close to the true value. For example taking measurements with a magnetic compass. the effect of improper leveling of instrument during observations. is because of systematic effects. and actually using the x100 scale). ♦ They may occur due to lack of sensitivity. Random errors Random errors are errors. But still there is some uncertainty associated with the true value. ♦ They may also occur due to statistical processes such as the roll of dice. By taking repetitive number of measurements and taking average of large number of measurements. They yield results distributed about some mean value. They can occur for a variety of reasons.by different systematic effects. which fluctuate from one measurement to the next. Random errors will always remain in our measurements how precisely we have taken our measurements. ♦ They may be due to imprecise definition.
x Probabilities of occurrence the true value in any range say ~ ± kσ is given by ~+ x σ ~− x σ +∞ ∫ f ( x)dx −∞ ∫ f ( x)dx But it is fully acceptable only if the numbers of experiments are large. In general the value of N should be greater than 8 for a good approximation.96 σ) is quite often taken as the interval in which the true x value lies with 95% probability. It is supposed to be the best value of x x derived from the experiments and the true value is likely to occur within a range ( ~ ± σ ) . x However the interval of ~ ± (1.Let x1 x2 x3 x4 x5…xN be the results of an experiment repeated N times then standard deviation is defined as σ= ∑ i=N i =1 1 ( xi − ~ ) 2 x N 1 x Where ~ = N ∑x i is the average of all values of x. Fractional and percentage errors If ∆ x is the error in the measurement in the value x then fractional and Percentage errors are defined as : Fractional error=∆ x/x Percentage error=∆ x/x100 % Propagation of errors (addition and subtraction) Let error in quantity x is ± ∆ x and error in quantity y is ± ∆ y then the error in x + y or x y is ± (∆ x+∆ y) that is the errors add. Prefixes and Magnitudes . And if the interval is chosen to be ~ ± (3σ ) than the probability of occurrence of true value in that interval is 99 %.
0 ± 0. Other prefixes which are commonly used but are not strictly part of the SI system.0 ± 2 (D) 9. . Find the resistance of the wire(A) 6.0 ± 0.25.When a current of 2.0 ± 2 Q2. Find there combined resistance in (i) series (ii) parallel.0 ± 3 Ans1: R=V/I=8 Also ∆ R/R=∆ V/V∆ I/I For max ∆ R/R all terms to be positive and therefore ∆ R/R=∆ V/V + ∆ I/I=0.0 ± 2(C) 8. prefixes are used as a shortcut to writing the magnitude using scientific notation.5± 0.1 ohms. In an experiment the value of two resistance were measured to be as given below R 1 = 5.2 ohm and R2 = 10. Q1.0 ± 3 (B) 7.5 ampere flows through a wire. ∆ R=2 Ohm and so R= V/I ± ∆ R = 8. it develops a potential difference of 20± 1 volt.To make sense of the vast range over which physical quantities are measured.
Ans4: The standard deviations of the five clocks are increasing in order of C. Ans5: d=M/π r2 L. D. a student commits 1% positive error in the measurement of length and 3% negative error in the measurement of time period.04=4% Vernier Calliper .003 g.06 cm.3 Ohm 1 2 and when in parallel R=(R R )/(R + R ) 1 2 1 2 ∆ R/R=∆ R1/R1+∆ R2/R2∆ R2/(R1+R2). Hence the clocks with minimum standard deviation is the most consistent one. Find the percentage error in the value of measurement of g.Ans2: When resistance are in series R=(R + R ) 1 2 ∆ R=∆ R +∆ R = ± 0. In an experiment to determine acceleration due to gravity by simple pendulum. Find out the maximum percentage error in the measurement of its density. Ans3: We have T=2π √ L/g. For Max.∆ R2/(R1+R1) For max ∆ R all terms must be positive and ∆ R/R =7%. E. A naval destroyer is testing five clocks. A. Q5. (2/T) dT=1/L dL1/g dg.3±0. and R=3.3 ± 7% Q3. radius 0. Exactly at noon as determined by the wwv signal on the successive days of a week the clocks read as follows Clock A B C D E Sun 12:36:40 11:59:59 15:50:45 12:03:59 12:03:59 Mon 12:36:56 12:00:02 15:51:43 12:02:52 12:02:49 Tue 12:37:12 11:59:57 15:52:41 12:01:45 12:01:54 Wed 12:37:27 12:00:07 15:53:39 12:00:38 12:01:52 Thru 12:37:44 12:00:02 15:54:37 11:59:31 12:01:32 Fri 12:37:59 11:59:56 15:55:35 11:58:24 12:01:22 Sat 12:38:14 12:00:03 15:56:33 11:57:17 12:01:12 Justify your choice. So actual percentage error in measurement of g value (dg/g) =7% Q4.005 mm and length 6±0.ln g.3 and R=15 ± 0. or T2= K L / g 2 ln T= ln K +ln L.5±0. ∆ d/d all terms should be positive so Maximum error = ∆ M/M +2/r ∆ r + ∆ L/L =0. So the clocks placed in the same order may be kept in terms of consistency as good timekeepers. B. A wire has a mass 0.
01 cm The least count of the vernier = 0. For this a special type of scale called Vernier scale is used.9 cm is divided into ten equal parts. On the Vernier scale 0. If both the zeros do not coincide. = 1 mm 0. Vernier Calliper The Vernier scale consists of a main scale graduated in centimeters and millimeters.09 mm = 0. there will be a positive or negative zero error.The meter scale enables us to measure the length to the nearest millimeter only. When the two jaws are in contact. The least count or the smallest reading which you can get with the instrument can be calculated as under: Least count = one main scale (MS) division one vernier scale (VS) division. After calculating the least . containing the vernier scale. the zero of the main scale and the zero of the vernier scale should coincide.1 mm = 0. Another jaw. Engineers and scientists need to measure much smaller distances accurately. moves over the main scale.01 cm The Vernier calliper consists of a main scale fitted with a jaw at one end.
Reading of the instrument = MS div + (coinciding VS div x L. .C.2 cm in figure below). (In the illustration. Take measurements by the two methods as shown in figure below. 3rd division on the vernier coincides with a MS division). inner and outer callipers are used.01) = 3. Principle of Vernier You will notice that one of the vernier scale divisions coincides with one of the main scale divisions.03 = 3.2 + 0.23 cm To measure the inner and outer diameter of a hollow cylinder or ring. Record the position of zero of the vernier scale on the main scale (3.2 + (3 x 0.count place the object between the two jaws.) = 3.
Screwgauge The screw has a known pitch such as 0.5 mm. When the anvil and spindle end are brought in contact. This movement of the spindle is shown on an engraved linear millimeter scale on the sleeve. the edge of the circular scale should be at the zero of the sleeve (linear scale) and the zero of the circular scale should be opposite . Pitch of the screw is the distance moved by the spindle per revolution.5 mm. It consists of a Ushaped frame fitted with a screwed spindle which is attached to a thimble.Micrometer ScrewGauge Micrometer screwgauge is another instrument used for measuring accurately the diameter of a thin wire or the thickness of a sheet of metal. for one revolution of the screw the spindle moves forward or backward 0. Hence in this case. On the thimble there is a circular scale which is divided into 50 or 100 equal parts.
If the zero is not coinciding with the datum line. .01 mm Determination of Diameter of a Wire The wire whose thickness is to be determined is placed between the anvil and spindle end. there will be a positive or negative zero error as shown in figure below. the thimble is turned until the wire is held firmly between the anvil and the spindle. the thimble is rotated till the wire is firmly held between the anvil and the spindle. The rachet is provided to avoid excessive pressure on the wire.to the datum line of the sleeve. The least count of the micrometer screw can be calculated using the formula given below: Least count = 0. Zero error in case of screw gauge While taking a reading. It prevents the spindle from further movement. The thickness of the wire could be determined from the reading as shown in figure below.
. The length of wire is 5. When a weight of 50 N is suspended from the wire the extension is measured to be 0. In a Searle’s experiment the diameter of the wire as measured by a screw gauge of least count 0.5 + 0. While measuring diameter of a wire the linear scale reads 1mm and 47 th division on the circular scale coincides with the reference line. Q2.5 mm + (46 x 0.001 cm is 0.001 cm.1 cm is 110. The pitch of a screw gauge is 1mm and there are 100 divisions on the circular scale.050 cm.147 cm.0 cm.96 mm Relationship in the Metric system of length 1 kilometer (km) = 103 m 1 centimeter (cm) = 102 m 1 millimeter (mm) = 103 m Q1. Solution: Ans 1: Dia of wire=1+47/100=1. The length measured by a scale of least count 0.6 cm Hence curved surface area =π D L=2. Find the curved surface area (in cm2) of the wire in appropriate number of significant digits.6 cm.47 mm=0.125 cm by a micrometer of least count 0.6 cm2.01) = (2.46) mm = 2. Length of wire =5.Reading = Linear scale reading + (Coinciding circular scale x Least count) = 2. Find the maximum error in the measurement of Young’s modulus of the material of the wire from these data.
These quantities are either fundamental or derived one from these fundamental quantities so that law of nature could be best expressed in terms of involved quantities. These quantities are meaning less until unless we have set certain standards for quantifying the physical quantity. Now we shall start our expedition to understand the very fundamental aspect of physical observation of nature involving the motion of particles or rigid bodies. which is further. These all aspects of motion are covered in the study of classical mechanics. On differentiating two sides and dividing with Y on two sides of the equation we get. Beside that these physical quantities don’t take part in mathematical operations like ordinary numeric values but are assigned certain predefined properties according the role to play to best describe the fundamental law of nature and are so called as scalar.09x1010 Motion in One Dimension Introduction We have studied till now that the laws of physics are expressed in terms of physical quantities. dY=1.Ans 2: Y=F. dY/Y=dL/L2/rdrdδ /δ For maximum error all terms should be positive dY/Y=dL/L+2/rdr+dδ /δ =0. .L/A.L/π r 2 δ . subdivided namely Statics and Dynamics.0489. vector or tensor quantity. the oldest branch of Physics.δ = F. The set of standards and the units involved in totality denotes the true value of the physical quantity and then only can participate in mathematical manipulations of laws of physics.
However it is helpless in describing the collisions. The terms rest and motion denotes the state of motion of the object under consideration with respect to frame of reference of observer. is in motion with respect to an observer attached to the Earth. regarding deviation from the results for the relative velocity of particles observed from the different frame of reference and prediction of position and velocity at a time for the high speed moving particles which is an essential requirement for describing any physical quantity. electron and neutron moving at high speed of the order of speed of light. Hence the complete description of a physical quantity desires a proper set of standard units and complete information of frame of reference for observance. It proves all experimental results when the speeds of objects are slow enough in comparison to the speed of light. (B) The Dynamics is the branch of Physics that deals with the study of physical objects or system of objects that are in motion. For explaining the above phenomenon the new theories like Einstein theory of relativity (1905) and Quantum mechanics (1925) been developed which satisfies all experimental results involving particles of small mass and high speed (v≅ c). doctrine of Sir Alexander Newton. The Newtonian mechanics was developed for understanding the observations regarding motions of objects in the nature and are perceived through the naked eyes.(A) The statics is the branch of Physics that deals with the study of physical objects or system of objects that are at rest. For an example an object at rest with respect to the observer attached to a moving train. We have stated earlier in our previous discussions that measurement of physical quantities depends upon the frame of reference of observer. These theories are considered as a more general theory . decay and interactions of elementary particles of atom like proton. also known as Newtonian mechanics (1860). When we are not concerned with the cause of motion and limit our study to the involved parameters of particulate motion only then the dynamics of particles may be termed as Kinematics. The mechanics of motion of objects we are dealing here is a part of Classical mechanics. As physics is not a static tool for explaining all the phenomenon of nature but itself a developing one to face the challenges posed by the incident results. As we have come across with two terms rest and motion and for the purpose of Physics it is not so easy to call the term rest and motion as we usually do with.
and Newtonian mechanics is considered as a special case of application for particles moving with velocity very very less comparable to the light. We now return to the classical mechanics to study the slow motions, which can be perceived through our common sense without any intuitive effort. But before taking a leap for understanding laws of physics involved in motion of objects, we shall introduce the physical quantities involved in various types of motion and start our expedition with the simplest kind of motion that is motion in a single direction also called as onedimensional motion. At the end of this chapter of around one hour, you will be able to learn
Concept of point object
Motion in One Dimension
Distance
Displacement
Average Speed Average Velocity Instantaneous Velocity Average acceleration Instantaneous acceleration Motion with constant acceleration Motion with variable acceleration Time dependent acceleration
Position dependent acceleration Velocity dependent acceleration
Relative motion in one dimension
Concept of point object
When we think of a motion there may be different possibilities of motion either in the choice of path or the choice of the body itself. But to limit our discussion to the beginners we have simplified our choices. We start our discussion with motion of objects that have assumed
physically zero dimensions, called particles or point objects. One tends to think of a particle as a tiny object, e.g., a piece of shot, but actually no size limit is implied by the word “particle”. If we are not interested in the rotational motion of an object, any object can be considered as a particle. For example, sometimes we consider the motion of earth around the sun. In this case we consider the motion of the center of the Earth in the circular path and ignore the rotational motion of the earth on its own axis then for our treatment the Earth may be considered as a particle. In some astronomical problems the solar system or even a whole galaxy is treated as a particle. In other words when the size of the object is very small in comparison to the distance it moves then the object may be treated as point object. There is a specific nature of point object is that all the points on the object undergo same displacement, hence the displacement of any of the points may be treated in the experiment. Hence in all the concept of point object has its significance with reference to the type of motion of the object is under consideration and displacement that undergo in comparison to its own dimensions.
Motion in One Dimension
To describe the motion of the particle, we are now in a stage to develop the concepts of displacement, velocity and acceleration. In the general motion of a particle in three dimensions, these quantities are vectors, which have direction as well as magnitude. However at this stage we have confined our discussion to the movement of a particle in a straight linear path, with only two possible directions, distinguished by designating one positive and the other negative. A simple example of onedimensional motion is a vehicle moving along a straight, aligned road. We can choose any convenient point on the vehicle for the location of the point mass for the discussion of motion. We shall now define various physical quantities associated with rectilinear motion of a point object and then try to understand the need of their development. Distance The distance is defined as the length of actual path the particle traverses in its motion. In our case when particle is restricted its motion in a one dimension then the distance is defined as the length of actual path the particle has traversed irrespective of its direction of motion. For example the vehicle traveling in one dimension in the fig say EastWest direction,
0 1 2
D T T i m e 0 . 0 H r s .
0
1
2
D
3
i s t a n i m e
4
c e ( m H
5
6
i l e s ) r s .
0 . 1 0
0
1
2
D T
3
4
i s t a n c e i m e 0 . 2 0 ( m
5
6
i l e s ) r s .
H
3
4
i s t a n c e ( m
5
6
i l e s )
moving 6 miles East ward and 4 miles back west ward will be defined to have moved a distance 10 miles. Hence it is a scalar quantity and always positive and increasing with time. Its unit are (m)
in MKS and (cm) in CGS system.
Displacement
The displacement of the particle or point object in general is defined as the actual displacement the particle has undergone with respect to its original position in the time interval under consideration. In other words it is the change in position vector of the object in
Average Speed The average speed of a particle is defined as the ratio of the total distance moved to the time taken up to that instant of motion. Hence it is a vector quantity and units are same as of distance. the rest distance it will cover with speed(A) 56 km/hr (B) 60 km/hr (C) 50 km/hr (D) 48 km/hr Sol : Time taken to cover the first half distance t1 =Distance traveled/Speed =(1/40)60 = 1. Test your understanding Ex1. It is therefore a scalar quantity having SI units of meters per second. A car covers a distance of 2 km in 2.5 minute. if the vehicle in the previous example moves a total distance 10 miles in what ever direction in 0. So it is simply the time rate at which the distance moved by the particle. So Average speed = total distance / total time For example. In our previous example for a motion in one dimension the displacement will be 2 miles east ward since the vehicle has traversed a total distance of 10 miles but has been displaced with net amount of 2 miles from it’s initial position say at origin. and written as m/s.5min.2 hours. than its average speed is ~ ∆d = 10 miles = 50 miles / hour v = ∆t 0. If it covers half of the distance with speed 40 km/hr. Time taken to cover remaining half distance t2=Tt1= 1 min Speed of the car in the next half journey= Distance traveled/Time taken =1km/min=60km/hr (B) .a scheduled time. It is a unique value defined with a vector having direction as the movement from its initial to final position and magnitude equal to the straight distance between initial and ending positions. The displacement of particle is not concerned with the path it has elapsed and journey details.2hours which suggest us that the driver might have moved with this speed uniformly elapsing total distance of 10 miles in the given time interval of 0.2 h.
as a rate . (C) The time velocity graph of a particle cannot be perpendicular to the time axis (D) The area of the time velocity graph gives the displacement Sol : The time displacement graph of a particle can be parallel to the time axis for a particle at rest.What is the displacement of the point of the wheel initially in contact with the ground when the wheel roles forward half a revolution? Take the radius of the wheel R and xaxis in forward direction. Hence the average velocity is also a vector quantity. v = dr/dt =dx/dt i^+dy/dt j^+dz/dt k^= 6ti^+8tj^ . So average velocity is defined as the ratio of the net vector displacement of the particle up to that instant and the total time of motion up to that instant. The distance traveled in the first 10s is(A) 100 m (B) 150 m (C) 500 m (D) 300 m Sol: r = 3t2 i^ +4t2 j^ +7k^. (A) R/√ π 2+4 (B) R√ π 2+16 (C) 2π R (D) π R Sol: Displacement in x direction ( x )= π R. Resultant displacement = √x2+y2 = R√ π 2+4 Average Velocity The concept of velocity is similar to that of speed but differs in respect of that here net displacement is accounted in place of total distance moved by the particle. (B) The time displacement graph of a particle cannot be perpendicular to the time axis. Since the displacement is a vector quantity so the average velocity is also a vector because it includes the direction of motion. Mark the wrong statement(A) The time displacement graph of a particle cannot be parallel to the time axis.Ex2. We have defined earlier the term displacement as a vector showing change in position of a particle with magnitude of direct distance measured between initial and final position and directed to the line joining the two points.The position vector of a particle is determined by the expression ∆ r = 3 t2 i^+ 4 t2 j^ + 7 k^. Displacement in y direction (y) = 2R. S =0∫ 10 v dt = ∫ 0 10 10 t dt= 500 m Ex4. (A) Ex3.
negative. The ratio is called the slope of the hypotenuse. P2 is the hypotenuse of the triangle with sides ∆ x and ∆ t. Observation of fig depicts the displacement of particle as difference of ordinate on vertical axis in the said time interval. if it is to the x m x2 P2 P2 ∆x = x − x1 (x2t2 ) right. having the same direction as displacement.of change of displacement or in other words displacement per unit time. In geometric terms it indicates the steepness of the line and as per definition it is a measure of average . The value of x depends on the unit chosen as the measure of distance and sign depends on its position relative to the origin O. to the left. The line joining two points P1.2hours ) Now consider the motion of the vehicle as discussed in the previous example with direction of motion as along x axis denoting the east ward direction and its position on the x axis at any instant (t) may be shown as in fig . Thus the change in x as ∆ x 0 t1 ∆x = s lo p e = ν ∆v ∆t The average velocity of the vehicle is defined to be the ratio of the displacement ∆ x and the interval ∆ t =t2–t1: It is to be noted that average velocity like displacement vector can be positive or negative according as displacement in the direction of positive/negative xaxis of the chosen coordinate system.2 hours in the direction toward east so the average velocity in the given time frame may be given as ∆x 2miles v= = = 10 miles / hour ( Eastward ∆t 0. The change in the position of the vehicle x2.t1. Now in the case of previous example the vehicle has elapsed a net displacement of 2 miles in 0.x1 is called x1 P ( x 1t1 ) ∆ t = t 2 − t1 t t2 the displacement in time t2. It is customary and easy to use the Greek letter ∆ (capital delta) to indicate the change in a quantity. Suppose that our vehicle under consideration is at position x1 at time t1 2 and at point x2 at time t2 . it is positive.
B to C to D.83 km/hr (C) 1. F to A) then magnitude of average velocity for its motion from A to C is(A) v (B) v/2 (C) √ 3v/2 (D) None of these Sol : AC = √3a. .5 km/hr (B) 0.5 km/hr. D to E to F.4 m/s (D) None of the above  3 0 Q . Velocity = √3v/2 Ex7.5)=0. then the average velocity of the car in this time interval 2t is(A) 90 km/h (B) 86 km/h (C) 36 km/h (D) 18 km/h. 6 4 Sol : (A) Since net displacement in whole time interval is zero. Test your understanding Ex5. A body covers a distance AB of 2 km with speed of 2. A to B.2 km/hr (D) 1. A person walks along an eastwest street.velocity of the particle. Sol : Average velocity Vav=Total displacement /Total time of motion=(108+72)t/2t=90 Km/h S 4 0 Ex8.5 km/h. N o . The steeper the slope indicates that particle has traversed greater displacement in a given time interval and has got higher average velocity. Since in our case the vehicle has moved along the +ve xaxis therefore there is no doubt about the direction of velocity that is also along +ve xaxis.e. and a graph of his displacement from home is shown in figure. Av.5+2/0. his average speed will be(A) 1.8 km/hr Sol : Vav=4/(2/2. t = 2a/v. while going from A to B and comes back from B to A with speed 0. His average velocity for the whole time interval ist ( s ) 2 5 o 5 1 0 1 5 (A) 0 m/s (B) 23 m/s (C) 8.83 km/h Ex6. A particle moves with constant speed v along a regular hexagon ABCDEF in same order (i. A car travels for time t with a uniform velocity of 108 km/h on a straight road and then immediately reverses gear and travels for time t on the same road with a uniform velocity of 72 km/h.
which can be resolved when we realize motion as a whole at different instants and limit our .30 AM and 6. i. at a specific time t1.4 x 103. Vav=d/(T1+T2)= 3v0(v1+v2)/(v1+v2+v0) Ex10.8 x 104.00 AM to 6.8x104 Instantaneous Velocity P1 ta tp o in t P2 At a first glance.e. A table clock has its minute hand 4. Velocity (6 AM to 6:30 PM)=8/12. The mean velocity of the point averaged over the whole time of motion will be(A) v0(v1+v2)/3(v1+v2+v0) (B) 3v0(v1+v2)/(v1+v2+v0) (C) v0(v1+v2)/(v1+v2+4v0) (D) 3v0(v1+v2)/(v1+v2+4v0) Sol : Time of motion of one third distance (T1) =d/3 v0. it seems impossible to define the velocity of a particle at a single instant. A point traveling along a straight line traverses onethird the distance with a velocity v0.(in cm/s) (A) 4.4 x 103 (C) 8 x 103.30 PM will respectively be. 1. Av.4 x 103 (D) 4.0 cm long. 4.4 x 103 Av. what about the displacement at that instant? It seems to be a paradox. The average velocity of the tip of the minute hand between 6. Velocity (6 AM to 6:30 AM)=8/30x60= 4. The remaining part of the distance was covered with velocity v1 for half the time and with velocity v2 for the other half of the time. .Ex9.8 x 104 (B) 1.4 x 103. 4.5x3600=1. the particle is at a single specific position say x1 then the P1 Ta ng en ∆t 4 ∆t3 question arises that if we were talking about ∆t2 ∆ t1 t2 velocity of a particle at a single point then as t ( s ) 0 t1 per definition. 8 x 104 Sol : Average velocity=displacement/time. Time of journey of rest 2/3 distance (T2) = 4d/3(v1+v2).
We define the slope of this tangent line to be the instantaneous velocity at the time t1. Figure shows x (t) curve indicating various sequence of time intervals ∆ t1. At an instant.discussion of motion to a infinitesimal time interval (∆ t) tending to zero then in the limiting condition displacement is termed as instantaneous velocity of the particle at that particular instant. ∆ t3. each one smaller than the previous one. the average velocity is the slope of the dashed line appropriate for that interval. For each time interval ∆ t. The instantaneous velocity is then defined as the limit of the ratio ∆ x/∆ t as ∆ t approaches zero. In the limiting notation this is defined as derivative of x (t) with respect to t at time t1 and is written as dx/dt and its value could be found by differential calculus. (A) t√a2+b2 (B) 2t√a2+b2 (C) a2+b2 (D) 2t2√a2+b2 Sol : velocity component in x direction vx=dx/dt=2at Velocity component in y direction vy=dy/dt=2bt Resultant Velocity (v) =√ vx2+vy2 =2t√a2+b2 Ex12.then its velocity at the instant t will be. The basic requirement for finding out instantaneous velocity of the particle is that one should have a complete mathematical algorithm available for position of particle at any instant and time. . ∆ t2. Its velocity is. This figure shows that as the time intervals becomes smaller.The displacement of a body is given by x=√(a2t2)+ t cos t2. the coordinates of a particle are x=at2. where t is time and a is constant. y=b t2 and z=0. the dashed lines get steeper but never incline more then the line tangent to the curve at point t1. = Slope of line tangent to x (t) at time t=t1 So instantaneous velocity of the particle at any instant say t v = Lim ∆t →0 ∆x dx = ∆t dt Test your understanding Ex11.
(A) at2t sint2 (B) 2 t/√a2t2+cost2t sin t2 (C) t/√a2t2 +cost22t2sint2 (D) –a/(a2t2)+cost2t sint2 Sol : Velocity component in x direction v=dx/dt=t/√a2t2 +cost22t2sint2 v vm o T Ex 13. If the change in velocity vector is directed along the direction of velocity vector at the instant of starting point of motion under consideration than the resultant velocity vector gets added up and so the acceleration vector is termed as positive acceleration and if converse is true than the acceleration is designated as negative acceleration. .I unit system are meter per Second Square. aav = ∆v ∆t The dimensions of acceleration in S. Since for a particle moving in one dimension will have velocity vector having orientation either on +ve or ve xaxis therefore change in velocity vector will also be associated in the two possible directions. Since instantaneous velocity is a vector quantity and we are interested in change in vector quantity so the acceleration can only be a vector quantity and will follow the laws of vector algebra. The change in velocity vector may be either in magnitude or direction or both and change in either way will be termed as the average acceleration. If the velocity–time diagram for the rectilinear motion of a particle is as shown in figure (representing half wave of a sine curve). / 2 (A) T v max/π (B) V max T/3 (C) V max T (D) V max T/2 Τ /2 Sol : S=2 ∫ 0 V sin 2π t/T dt=V T/π m m Average acceleration Average acceleration is defined as a quantity measuring the rate of change of instantaneous velocity in a certain time interval. Find the t distance traveled by the particle in a time T/2 seconds. So in final words average acceleration is the ratio of change in instantaneous velocity vector (∆ v) in a given time interval (∆ t).
It is to be noted that change in velocity vector is also a vector term and the law of vectors has to be followed. A particle is moving eastward with a velocity of 5 ms1 in 10 s the velocity change to 5 ms1 northward.Test your understanding Ex14. We shall see later on that such type of situation may be handled easily when vector is considered to be resolved into its components in the respective directions and the changes are also considered in the respective components directions individually. The average acceleration in this time is(A) Zero (B) 1/√2ms2 towards north–west (C) 1/√2ms2 towards north–east (D) 1/2ms2 towards north–west Sol : Average acceleration=∆ v/∆ t=√50/10=1/√2ms2 towards north–west Ex15. For the case of motion in one dimension the particle moves in a straight line with two possible directions of motion say either in +ve or ve xaxis. Number of planks=Total path length/thickness of one plank= u2/2ax0=400/(39)≈ 11 Instantaneous acceleration If the instantaneous velocity of the particle is varying continuously with position and time then instantaneous acceleration at that particular instant is defined as the change in velocity vector for a time interval ∆ t infinitesimally small tending to zero. x0=u2(19u/20)2/2a. The least number of planks required stopping the bullet is(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 11 (D) 20 Sol : Let x0 be the thickness of one plank and a be the retarding acceleration produced due to friction of the plank than x0=u2v2/2a. Now if the particle moves such that velocity at every instant of motion is defined and there is no abrupt change in velocity vector than the instantaneous acceleration vector is just the rate of change in magnitude of velocity vector and direction will be in the direction of velocity vector if velocity time curve is increasing and opposite to the velocity vector if it is a decreasing curve. .A rifle bullet loses 1/20 of its velocity in passing through a wooden plank.
01 m/sec . where C=0.So if we plot graph between instantaneous velocity of the particle moving in one dimension and time then as per the definition the instantaneous acceleration is defined as slope of tangent line at that instant.4 m/sec2 (D) 8 seconds. 0.64 m/sec2 (B) 6 seconds. Sol : v=B+2C t+3 D t .64 m/s2 2 Motion with constant acceleration along the axis of initial velocity vector Now let us consider the motion of a particle moving with constant acceleration vector directed along the axis of the initial velocity vector. 0. Also if the direction of initial velocity vector is different from the acceleration vector than particle moves in the plane containing both the vectors in a parabolic trajectory. In what time after 2 motion begins. 0. a (t ) = ∆v Lim∆t →0 ∆t = Slope of v (t) curve The instantaneous acceleration is therefore derivative of velocity with respect of time and is written as dv/dt. otherwise decreases the magnitude. Since velocity is also derivative of x with respect to t therefore acceleration is also referred as second derivative of x with respect to t. Since the acceleration vector is directed along the axis of initial velocity vector than it will lead to the change in magnitude of velocity vector. If the acceleration is positive or directed along the direction of velocity vector at any instant increases the magnitude. Test your understanding Ex16. We shall study in the later stage how acceleration vector is useful in defining Newton’s second law of motion.5 m/sec2 (C) 3 seconds. D= 0. a=2C+6 D t=1 at t=12 s aav={v(12)v(0) }/∆ t=0.6 m/sec2. 0. will acceleration be 1 m/sec and what is the average acceleration during this time? (A) 12 seconds. which we shall .14 m/sec . Relationship between the distance traveled by a body and the time is described by the 2 3 equation S=A + Bt + Ct2 + Dt3.
for the case of one dimensional motion. The motion of a particle with constant acceleration is quite common in nature. The positive acceleration means it adds the velocity vector and negative acceleration subtracts the velocity vector or in other words. This acceleration due to gravity is designated by ‘g’ and has approximate value of 9.2 ft/s2 For a particle moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension the velocity changes linearly with time.a ( b ) If velocity of the particle is v0 at time t=0 then it’s value at time t as per definition is given by v( t ) = v0 + a ( t ) If the particle starts at x0 at time t=0 and it’s position is x at time t then as per definition of displacement ∆ x is given by ∆x = vav ( t ) Also v = av ∆x = t (v + v ) = v 2 0 t 2 0 + at 2 ∆x = v ( t ) + a t 0 2 2 a x ( t ) = x0 + v0 ( t ) + t 2 . If air resistance is neglected than all the particles irrespective of their masses fall with constant acceleration in the influence of gravity that is attraction of the Earth.81 m/s2 or 32. the acceleration vector will be in the direction of velocity vector if it is positive other wise against the velocity vector. a a t a t t The both cases have been illustrated in t 0 t Fig and effect on motion are summarized here below: 0 ( a ) t .discuss in the next chapter.
Since for constant acceleration v = v0 av + vt 2 and ∆x = vav t = (v0 + vt ) 2 t Now after eliminating t from the above equation yields vt = v 0 then 2 2 + 2a∆x th If we are interested in finding out the displacement of particle in the n second of its motion a( 2n − 1) 2 S nth = S n − S n −1 = v0 + These equations are known as Newton’s equations of motion at constant acceleration. n s t a n P o s i t i v e C o N n e s gt a a n t it v e C o a c c e t e r a t i o an c c e t e r a t i o n v v v v O v ( .e ) l I o 'I v cn ei i t t y i a =l v0 e l o (2) The graph between velocities of particle with respect to time of t O v I n i t i a l t O v e l o I c n i it ty i a = l t ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) c i t y = ( + ) I ' v e . time is parabolic curve given by equation as shown in fig for +ve and ve t O t O t acceleration respectively. constant rate of acceleration and distance traveled or displacement is known to us.We are sometimes interested in finding the final velocity of particle at a particular instant when its initial velocity. Graphical presentation of onedimensional motion at constant acceleration x x (1) The graph between positions of particle at different instances vs.
motion at constant +ve acceleration given by equation as shown in figure (a), (b), (c) for different initial velocities.
v v t O I n i t i a l v e l o
v t O c I i n t y i t i = a l ( v+
v O v
(3) The graph between velocities of particle with respect to time of motion at constant ve
=v e 0l o
e) 'Il v no e ci t i i t a y l
acceleration given by equation as
c i t y = (  ) 'v e
( a )
( c )
shown in fig (a), (b), (c) for
different initial velocities. The important and wellobserved example of motion in one dimension at constant acceleration is the motion of a body under the influence of gravity. At normal heights above the earth surface the force/ acceleration remains constant and its magnitude denoted by g may 2 be taken as 9.80 m/sec . It is directed radially towards the earth center and for our purpose it may be assumed acting vertically downward that is towards the Earth surface and all the motions in the azimuth may be considered as linear motions without influenced by the air drag and all viscous resistance. Let us consider motion of a body falling freely under the influence of gravity. If we choose point of projection as origin and taking downward direction as positive, we have
s v a g
ta n θ = g
u=0 and a=g as body starts from rest that is falling freely under the influence of gravity only, hence as per Newton’s
t ( c )
t ( a )
θ
t ( b )
equation of motion at any instant ; These equations will yield to all
unknowns at any instant of motion. It is to be noted that all the equations are vector equations and gives vector quantities on substitution of known parameters.
a = +g
S = ut +
1 2 1 2 g = gt 2 t 2
v( t ) = u + gt = gt
These equation are presented graphically as in figure 9 (a), (b), (c) Similarly if we consider motion of a body projected vertically upward under the influence of gravity and choosing point of projection as origin and vertical up direction as positive. We have
a = −g
S = ut −
1 2 g 2 t
v( t ) = u − gt
These equation are presented graphically as in figure (a), (b), (c)
a ( m2 + s =2 u / 2 g +
+ 0
/ s
)
v e o 2 e u / g t
v
( t ) v e 0 e ( b ) ( c )  v
u
/ g 2
u
/ g
u
/ g 2 ( a )
u
/ g  v
t
Test your
understanding Ex17. An iron ball and a wooden ball of same radius are released from a height h in vacuum. The time taken by both of them to reach the ground is (A) Roughly equal (B) exactly equal (C) Unequal (D) equal only at equator Sol : (B) Since both have same initial velocity and fall with the same acceleration due to gravity (g) in the absence of air resistance. Ex18. A body moving with uniform acceleration describes 4m in 3rd second and 12 m in the 5th second, then distance described in next three second(A) 100 m (B) 80 m (C) 60 m (D) 20 m Sol : Distance traveled in nth second Sn=u+a/2(2n1);
a=4 m/s2 and u=6 m/s V5=6+4x5=14 and V8=6+4x8=26 S=(V5+ V8)t/2=60 m Ex19. A particle P is at the origin and starts with velocity 2i4j (m/s) and constant acceleration (3i+5j) m/s2 after it has traveled for 2 seconds. Its distance from the origin is(A) 10 m (B) 10.2 m (C) 9.8 m (D) 11.7 m Sol : x = uxt+1/2 axt2 =10m; y= uyt+1/2 ayt2 = 2; R =√ x 2 + y 2 =10.2 Ex20. A body moves from rest with constant acceleration then the variation of its K.E. with the distance (S) traveled is represented by: (A) Straight line (B) Parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) None of these Sol : K.E. = 1/2mv2= 1/2m(u2+2as) = m a s which is a equation of straight line. Ex21. A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate α for sometime after which it decelerates at constant rate β to come to rest. If the total time elapsed is t sec, the maximum velocity of car will be(A) α β /t (α +B) (B) (α +B) t/α b (C) α β /(α +B) t (D) α β t/(α +β ) Sol : vm = α t1; vm = β t2; t = t1+ t2= vm/α + vm/β ; vm=α β t/(α +B) Ex22. A stone is dropped into a well and the sound of impact of stone on the water is heard after 2.056 sec of the release of stone from the top. If acceleration due to gravity is 980cm/sec2 and velocity of sound in air is 350 m/s, calculate the depth of the well (A) 1.96 m (B) 19.6 m (C) 6.91 m (D) 69.1 m Sol : Let d be the depth of well and t be the time taken to reach the stone on the water surface then d = 1/2gt2; t = √2d/g; Also time taken by the sound of splash to reach the projector= d/vs Total time taken since the release of stone to sound of splash to reach the projector= d/vs+√2d/g = 2.05;
The height of the particle at any time t will be (A) g(tT)2 (B) H1/2g(tT)2 (C)1/2g(tT)2 (D) Hg(tT) Sol : h= H1/2g(tT)2 . A particle is projected vertically upwards and it reaches the maximum height H in time T seconds. Total distance moved in time T is given as s2 = ½ aT2 Distance moved in second time interval of 20s (s2) =1/2 aT21/8 aT2=3/8aT2 And so s2/s1 = 3 Ex24. If the distance traveled by the particle is s1 in the first twenty seconds and s2 in the next twenty seconds. Then (A) s2=s1 (B) s2=2s1 (C) s2=3s1 (D) s2=4s1 Sol : Let T be the total time of motion then distance moved in half of time period as say 20s is s1 = ½ a (T/2)2=1/8a T2. Before coming to rest it penetrates a further distance of (Assume constant frictional resistance) (A) 60 cm (B) 30 cm (C) 20 cm (D) 10 cm Sol : Let s be the distance moved by the bullet in first part of motion when loses half of its speed as u2/4 = u2 – 2as1. A particle travels for 40 seconds under the influence of a constant force. A bullet fired into a fixed block of wood loses half its velocity after penetrating 60 cm.81m Ex23. a = 3u2/8s1. Distance moved in the second time interval (∆ s2)= s2s1= s1/3 = 20 cm Ex25.d = 19. Let s2 be the total distance moved up to the instant it comes to rest is given as s2 = u2/2a = 4/3s1.
then the height of the building is (A) 12.1) Or v=u+1. On striking the ground. If the ball appears at the bottom of the window 2 s after passing the bottom of the window on the way down.1)=1. an object is released from rest at the top of a tall building.0 m Ex28.0 m (D) 42. At time t=0. The ball continues to fall and strikes the ground.t0) 2l/gt0 = 2tt0. ∆ S = l = ½ g t0 2 + g t0 (t. . t = l/gt0+t0/2 Ex27. A particle is projected downward with the speed of 9.0 m Sol : Let u and v be the velocities of the ball at the instant it appears at the top and bottom of window during the downward journey. ignoring air resistance the time at which the objects have a vertical separation of l is(A) t=l/gt0+t0/2 (B) t= l/gt0t0/2 (C) t=l/gt0 (D) none of the above Sol : Total displacement up to time t.50 m.5 m.40 m (B) 21.50+1+15. A steel ball is dropped from the roof of a building. Or u+v=20 Also v=u+g(0.50= 21.0 m (C) 24. Height below window h3 = v+1/2g= 15. The vertical height of P above the ground is twice that of Q.8 m/s from Q both particles reach the ground simultaneously. The time taken to reach the ground is(A) 3 sec (B) 4 sec (C) 5 sec (D) 6 sec. At the time t0 a second object is dropped from the same point. the ball gets rebounded with the same speed with which it hits the ground.1s to fall from the top to bottom of the window.8 m/s from P and simultaneously another particle is projected upward with the same speed of 9. u=19/2 m/s Height above window (h1)= u2/20=(9.Ex26. A man standing in front of a 1 m high window in the building notices that the ball takes 0.50)2/20 =4. So {(u+v)/2}(0. Total height of the building H = 4.
5t}. H = u2/2g = g2(1+t2)2/8g. Motion with variable acceleration So far we have discussed the motion of a particle moving in one dimension under constant acceleration. When one ball leaves his hand (speed=20 m/s) the position of the other balls (height in meter) will be (take g=10 m/s2)(A) 10. 20 (D) 5. 20. u = g(t1+t2)/2. 10. . 10 (B) 15. Vm= g(t1+t2)/2√2 Ex30. Since motion is in one dimension then variation in acceleration is limited to change in magnitude only. Tm = (t1+t2)/2. Ex31. 20 Sol : The ball should be placed taking equal time interval of replacement and for that should be taking time interval 2/2=1 sec and respective positions of 15. PG/QG = 2. 20. QG = 9. 10.8t{1+0. 15 (C) 5.Sol : PG = 9. Now we shall extend the motion of a particle with variable acceleration in one dimension. A juggler keeps on moving four balls in the air throwing the balls after regular intervals. We shall discuss the variation in three categories as: Time dependent acceleration Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of particle is a function of time or in other words it may be written as a=f (t). It takes a time t1 to reach a point A at a height h above the ground. A particle is projected vertically upwards from a point x on the ground. Find the ratio of the speed the stones would have attained when they hit the ground at the base of the cliff (A) √ 2:1 (B) 1:√2 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:2 Sol : ( C ) The stones have the same velocity at the point of throw in the downward direction. The velocity of the particle at half the maximum height is (A) 2√2/g (t + t ) (B) g/2√2 (t + t ) (C) 2√2g/(t + t ) (D) (t + t )/ 2√2g 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Sol : Tm= (t2t1)/2+t1. t = 6 sec Ex29. A man standing on the edge of a cliff throws a stone straight up with initial speed u and then throw another stone straight down with the same initial speed and from the same position. 20.5t1}. Then velocity may be obtained as integral of f(t) with respect to dt and displacement may be obtained as further integral with respect to dt.8t{0. It continues to move and takes a time t2 to reach the ground.15m from the hand.
when it cleared a distance of x metres. The acceleration (a) of moving particle varies with displacement (x) according to the following relation a=x2+3x. a= dv dv =v = f ( x) dt dx Velocity dependent acceleration Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of the particle is dependent upon the instantaneous velocity of particle. Then Integrating both sides of equation results velocity as a function of displacement of particle and may be further integrated to find displacement as a function of time. which may be further. a= dv = f ( v) dt Test your understanding Ex32. integrated with respect to time to find displacement as a function of time. then correct relation between velocity and displacement is(A) v=√x3+3x2+c (B) v=√2/3 x3+3x2+c ( C ) v=[2/3x3+3x2+c] (D) v=2x+3 where c is a constant Sol : a = x2+3x. When its velocity is 1ms1. a= vdv/dx = x2+3x. v = √2/3x3+3x2+c1 Ex33. A particle moving along straight line has a velocity v ms1. These two are connected by the relation v= √49+x.a= v= dv = f (t) dt ds = f ( t )dt = F ( t ) dt ∫ s = ∫ F ( t ) dt Position dependent acceleration Under this category of onedimensional motion the acceleration of particle is dependent upon the displacement of particle from origin. its acceleration (in ms2) is . Then Integrating both sides of equation results velocity as a function of time.
earth frame and moving frame are all positioned at origin of the coordinate system as shown in figure. In other words the acceleration of an object is same as observed by the earth frame and a frame moving with constant velocity. For example if an object is accelerating with an acceleration a1 with respect to the earth frame . the object P. velocity and acceleration of the same moving object are measured from different reference frames.5 m/s2 Relative motion in one dimension y a a t b t = 0 a b P o s i t i o n As we have stated earlier that measurement of certain physical ∆a t t quantities like displacement. Now let us investigate how the measurements may differ when physical parameters like displacement. How ever the acceleration of the object as measured by the moving frame differs from the earth frame only when the moving frame is also accelerating. The x O O ’ reference frame of observation may be defined as a frame from which observations are made.5 Sol : a= v dv/dx=0. Now let us consider the simple onedimensional motion of an object P. It may be either a frame fixed to the earth or a moving one. It is now clear that the displacement and hence velocity measurements are dependent upon the frame of reference from where the physical quantities are observed. velocity t = t + P o s i t i o n and acceleration depends upon the reference frame of observation. It is most worthy to note here that the displacement of the object P as measured by the moving frame will not be the same as measured by the earth frame. Now after a lapse of time ∆ t the object P has made a displacement a with respect to the frame attached to the earth and the moving frame has also elapsed a displacement b with respect to the earth frame.(A) 2 (B) 7 (C) 1 (D) 0. Initially at time t=0. because of the displacement of the moving frame in the same interval and would be measured as ab.
A boat moves relative to water with a velocity which is 1/n times the river flow velocity. Ex35.sin1 (1/n) Sol : Horizontal drift (D)= {vv/n sinθ } t={vv/n sinθ } L/( v/n cosθ sin θ = 1/n. θ = sin1 (1/n).and at the same time the moving fame is also accelerating with an acceleration a2 with respect to the earth frame than the acceleration of the object with respect to the moving frame will be given by a1a2. If at time t=0. Which one of the following is not a possible value for their relative velocity – (A) 10 km/hr. (B) 20 km/hr. Two trains along the same straight rails moving with constant velocities 60 km/hr and 30 km/hr towards each other. which are applicable in inertial reference frames where true value of acceleration is measured and inertial state of particle under observation is defined. At what angle to the stream direction must the boat to move for minimizing drifting? (A) π /2 (B) sin1(1/n) (C) π /2 + sin1 (1/n) (D) π /2. the time when they collide is(A) 1 hr (B) 2 hr (C) 3 hr (D) 4 hr Sol : (A) Time of collision (t)= Initial Displacement/(Relative velocity of approach)= 1 hr Ex36. However it is clear from the so far discussion that measured value of any physical quantity involving displacement depends upon the frame of reference of observation and for correct interpretation of physical quantity appropriate reference frame should be ascertained. We shall discuss in detail the inertial and non inertial frames during the study of applications of Newton’s laws of motion. φ = π /2+sin1(1/n) . A boat P is moving at 40 km/hr and another boat Q is moving at 20 km/hr. the distance between them is 90 km. Sol : (A) The relative velocity may have values v1v2 to v1+v2. (D) 40 km/hr. The reference frames at rest or moving with constant velocity are termed as inertial reference frame and accelerating frames are known as non inertial frames. Test your understanding Ex34. (C) 30 km/hr.
the greatest distance between the particles is – 2 2 2 (A) u/f (B) u /2f (C) f/2u (D) f/u Sol : At max separation ft=u or t=u/f .Ex37. u 0∫ cosα dt.24 sec (B) 24. Sol : (B) 150= ½ (21. T=lv/(v2u2) 0 0 Τ Τ Ex38. Find how soon the policeman will catch the thief(A) t= v L/v2u2 (B) t= vL/v2u2 (C) t= uL/(v2u2) (D) t= v2/L2(v2u2) Sol : ∫ (u cosα v)dt=l. t=24.5 sec Ex40.A truck starts from rest with an acceleration of 1. Two points move in the same straight line starting at the same moment from the same point. Xm = u2/f1/2fu2/t2 = u2/2f 2 Ex39. The first moves with constant velocity u and the second with constant acceleration f. (D) 52. How soon will the points converge? (A) 3v/a (B) 2a/3v (C) a/3v (D) a/v Sol : t = a/(v+vcos60)= 2a/3v .45 sec. Three points are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.5 sec (C) 2. The policeman also starts running simultaneously with speed v always aiming at him.5 m/s while a car 150 m behind starts 2 from rest with an acceleration of 2 m/s . How long will it take before both the truck and car side by side? (A) 5. During the time that elapses before second catches the first. A thief walking slowly along a road sees a policeman at a perpendicular distance L from him and starts running at a constant speed u along the road. With the first point heading continuously for the second. They all start moving simultaneously with velocity v constant in magnitude.4 sec.vT=l 0 Τ Τ ∫ v cosα dt=uT ⇔ ∫ cos α dt=uT/v . the second for the third and the third for the first.5) t2.
Vca = 15 m/s. vmin = √2ad Ex43. Both start to climb upward at the same time to reach the pulley. The minimum speed of the passenger so that he may catch the bus will be(A) 2ad (B) √ ad (C) √ 2ad (D) ad Sol : d = v. t = v/a± 1/a√v22ad for a real t. Two boys P and Q of the same mass hang at the same height at each end. Velocity of P relative to pulley = v+v= 2v↑ . then the time taken by P to reach the pulley is equal to (A) 1/3rd of the time taken by Q (B) 3 times the time taken by Q (C) the time taken by Q (D) twice the time taken by Q Sol : (C) Velocity of Q relative to pulley = 3vv= 2v↑.Ex41. 50+10(t10)=225+15(t30). A motor cycle and a car start from rest at the same place at the same time and travel in the same direction . t=6 sec >30 sec. A person is walking along the bank of the river at the rate of 1 m/s. Time of acceleration t1=10 sec and t2=30 sec. A monkey is climbing a vertical pole on the ship at the rate of 2 m/s. The velocity of P relative to the string is v and that of Q is 3v. A ship sails in still water at the rate of 5 m/s.5 m/s2 up to a speed of 54 km/h then the distance at which the car overtakes the cycle (A)100 m (B) 200 m (C) 300 m (D) 400 m Sol : Vcy = 10 m/s. v2 – 2ad>0. A string passes over a fixed pulley.t – 1/2at2. Scy = 50 m t2 – 40t+200=0. at2 . A passenger is standing d m away from a bus.2vt+2d = 0. vmin2 = 2ad. To catch the bus. t = (2v±√ 4v2 – 8ad)/2a. The bus begins to move with constant acceleration a. it is sailing northwards in a river flowing eastwards with a velocity of 3 m/s. t=35 sec and Scy=Sca=300 m Ex42. the passenger runs at a constant speed v towards the bus.The cycle accelerates uniformly at 1m/s2 up to a speed of 36 km/h and the car at 0. To him the monkey will appear climbing at the rate of(A) √10 m/s (B) √11 m/s (C) √33 m/s (D) √45 m/s Sol : Velocity of monkey relative to man Vrel = √29+4 = √33 and Vrel = √41+4 = √45 Ex44.
For a particle moving along a straight line. is greater than 900. Q6. The length of second’s hand in a watch is 1cm.Single Choice Type Objective Questions Q1. The trajectory of the particle is a/an(A) Parabola (B) ellipse (C) hyperbola (D) circle . then magnitude and direction of the force on the particle at t=1/2 second is(A) 2 N at 300 with the xaxis (B) 6√2N at 450 with the xaxis (C) 6 N at 300 with the xaxis (D) 2N at 450 with the xaxis Q3. The ratio of its initial acceleration to its initial velocity depends(A) Only on γ v and β (B) only on α and γ (C) only on α and γ (D) only on α v x v Q4. y=2t3where x and y are its coordinates at time t. (D) (π √ 2)/30 cm/sec. (C) It is curvilinear and accelerated (D) it is rectilinear and decelerated Q2. What can be inferred about its motion at the moment? (A) It is curvilinear and decelerated (B) it is rectilinear and accelerated. the displacement x depends on time t as x=α t3+β t2+γ t+δ . At a certain moment of time the angle between velocity vector v and the acceleration a of a particle. The motion of a particle of mass 1kg is confined to a plane and is determined by x=3t2. The change in velocity of its tip in 15 second is (A) Zero (B) π (30√2) cm/sec (C) π /30 cm/sec. Which one of the following curves does t t t t not represent motion in one dimension? Q5. The modulus of the acceleration vector is constant.
The trajectory of the particle is a/an(A) parabola (B) ellipse (C) hyperbola (D) circle x x x x Q12. The acceleration of particle is – (A) aω (B) a2ω (C) aω 2 (D) a2ω 2 Q10.Q7.time relationship for a particle is given by x=a0 + a1t + a2t2. A body A is thrown vertically upward with the initial velocity v1. Which one of the following equations represents the motion of a body with finite constant acceleration in these equations y denotes the displacement of the body at time t and a. Another body B is dropped from a height h.The displacement. The velocity of his image with respect to him is (A) 0 (B) 4v (C) 2v (D) v .time ( C ) ( A ) t t ( B ) t t graphs represents onedimensional uniform motion? Q13. The acceleration vector of a particle is a constant. The acceleration of the particle is(A) a0 (B) a1 (C) a2 (D) 2a2 Q11. (A) x=hv1t (B) x=(hv1)t (C) x= h – v1/t (D) x= h/tv1 Q8. A horse rider is moving towards a big mirror with velocity v. if the bodies begin to move simultaneously. Which of the following distance. b and c are the constant of the motion (A) y= a/t + bt (B) y=at (C) y=at + bt2 (D) y=at + bt2 + ct3 Q9. The motion of particle is defined by x=a cos ω t and y=a sin ω t. Find how the distance x between the bodies depends on the time t.
Which of the following statements is correct about their relative velocity(A) first increases and then decreases (B) first decreases and then increases (C) is zero (D) is non zero but constant Q15.time graphs for two boys going home from the school. The acceleration time graph of a particle 1 a ( m2 o Q . At what time the particle acquires its initial velocity? ( s (A) ) 12 s (B) 5 s (C) 8 s (D)16 s . If ( B ) a d is p la c e m e n t d is p la c e m e n t 0 a a / v t i m ( C e 2 a /3 v a / v a the walls are perfectly reflecting than its 0 a / v 2 a / v 3 a / v displacement time t i m e ) graph is ( D ) Q16. moves freely at constant velocity v. 2 / s 0 ) 4 8 t moving along a straight line is as shown in figure.A B x t Q14. Figure shows the displacement.A particle is d is p la c e m e n t d is p la c e m e n t a a confined to move along the xaxis between 0 a / v 2 a / v 3 a / v reflecting walls at x=0 t i m e 0 a / v 2 a / v 3 a / v t i m e ( A ) and x=a between these two limits.
of a particle accelerator under uniform acceleration. 0. Find the direction of motion of second vessel. 0. 0. How long is the particle in the tube. Q18. 6 7 3 (A) 4 x 104 sec (B) 2 x 10 sec (C) 4 x 10 sec (D) 2 x 10 sec V e l o c i t y 1 0 5 A ( m B / s ) Q20. The displacement of a particle as a function of time is shown in fig.s ( m ) Q . the motion is accelerated and finally the particle moves with another constant velocity. An α particle travels along the inside of straight hollow tube.0 meter long.5. A ship sailing southeast sees another ship which is steaming at the same rate as itself and which always appears to be in a direction due east and to be always coming nearer. 0. The fig indicates that(A) The particle starts with a certain velocity. 2. if it enters at a speed of 1000 m/s and leaves at 9000 m/s. 2 9 Q17. 1. The adjoining cure represents the velocity–time graph of a particle.5 (D)1. 0. its acceleration value along OA.5 (C)1.AB and BC in 2 metre/sec are respectively 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 t i m e ( s e c ) (A)1. (A) sails southwest (B) sails southeast (C) sails 300 south of west (D) sails 300 south of east Q19. 0 .5 (B)1. 0. but the motion is retarded and finally the particle stops (B) The velocity of particle is constant throughout 2 0 o 4 t (C)s The acceleration of the particle is constant throughout ( ) (D) The particle starts with a constant velocity.
5 0 . BC and t CD the acceleration of the particle is (A) +. The vt graph of a linear motion is shown in adjoining figure.. . The graph between the displacement x and time t for a particle moving in a straight line is shown is figure. 0 . A particle starts out at t=0 from the point x0=10 m with an initial velocity v0=15 m/s 2 and a constant acceleration a = 5m/s . The displacementtime graph of a moving particle is shown in the fig. + .. 0. Then its velocity – time graph is . 0 . ..v 4 ( m / s ) 4 Q21. 0 . During the interval OA. + (B) .. AB. 0 ( m 2 v 1 0 0 0 2 t 4 6 ( A ) ( s ) / s ) 0 ( m 2 v 1 0 0 0 2 t 4 6 / s ) 0 ( m 2 v 1 ( s ) 0 0 0 2 t 4 6 ( s ) ( B / s ) 0 ( m 2 v 1 0 0 0 ) 2 t 4 6 ( s ) / s ) 0 Q24. 0 (C) + . the instantaneous velocity is negative at the point (A) D (B) F (C) C (D) E x A o B D C Q23. + . + (D) .2 1 3 7 8 The distance from origin after 8 seconds is t ( s ) (A) 18 meters (B) 16 meters (C) 8 meters (D) 6 meters y D is p la c e m e n t D C T i m e x Q22.
The acceleration versus time graph of a particle is as shown figure.time graph of a moving particle with constant acceleration is shown in the figure. Then the instantaneous velocity at t=20 sec is (A) 0.The respective vt graph of the particle isv v O t v O t v O ( A ) t O ( B t ) O t x ( m ) Q28. The velocitytime graph is given by s o 1 2 ( t / s ) . The displacement.x 4 3 2 1 ( m 0 0 0 0 0 0 ) 2 4 ( A ) ( m 0 0 0 0 0 6 t ( s )0 4 3 2 1 x ) 2 4 ( m 0 0 0 0 0 6 t ( s 0) 4 3 2 1 x ) 2 4 ( C ( m 0 0 0 0 0 6 t ( s ) 0 4 3 2 1 ) ( B ) x ) 2 4 6 t ( s ) Q25.05 m/s (D) 1.0 m/s 1 o 2 0 3 0 4 0 6 0 t ( s ) a Q27.5m/s . The displacement time graph for a one dimensional motion of a particle is shown in figure.1 m/s (B) 0.1 m/s (C) 0. 4 0 Q26. Then its displacement–time graph is – Q 2 S (m ) . A particle starts out at t=0 from the point x0=10 m with an initial velocity v0= 15 m/s 2 and a constant acceleration a= .
The graph below describes the motion of a ball rebounding from a horizontal surface being released from a point above the surface. Q31.5 t0. which is perfectly in elastic.15 t2.1 0 1 2 t ( s 0) . Two balls are dropped from the top of a high tower with a time interval t0 second. plotted against the time lapse t from the instant of dropping the second ball is represented by y Q .1 0 ( b ) 1 2 t ( s )0 . (A) 10 m/s (B) 25 m/s (C) 50 m/s (D) none of the above . Then the maximum velocity in the forward direction is.1 0 ( c ) 2 1 t ( s )0 1 ( d ) 2 t ( s ) ( a ) s s s s o ( a ) t ( s o) ( b ) t ( so) ( c ) t ( s )o ( d ) t ( s ) Q29. where t0 is smaller than the time taken by the ball to reach the floor. The acceleration of a particle as a function of time is a= 1.v ( m / s ) v 1 ( m 0 / s ) v 1 ( m 0 / s ) v 1 ( m 0 / s ) 1 0 0 . 4 4 Q30. The distance’s’ between the two balls. The particle starts motion from rest at a time t = 0 sec. The quantity represented on the yaxis is the ball’s – o t ( s ) (A) Displacement (B) velocity (C) acceleration (D) momentum.
The displacement of body in last two seconds is(A) 2v(n1)/n (B) v(n1)/n (C) v(n+1)/n (D) 2v(n+1)/n Q36. Its speed as it passes the second point is 15 m/sec. A car moving with constant acceleration covers the distance between two points 60 m apart in 6 sec. A body starts from rest with constant acceleration a. A body of mass 3 kg falls from the multistoried building 100 m high and buries itself 2 meters deep in the sand. what will be the distance traveled by it in the last second of motion? (A) 5 m (B) 10 m (C) 25 m (D) 30 m. A rocket is fired vertically from the ground. Exactly at this instant a packet drops from it. At what prior distance from the first point was the car at rest? (A) 7.5 sec (B) 10 sec (C) 5 sec (D) None Q33. The acceleration of the stone after the release is(A) a upward (B) (ga) upward (C) (ga) downward (D) g downward Q39. Q38.Q32.5 m (B) 15 m (C) 20 m (D) 25 m Q35. How far above the ground is the second drop at that instant? 2 . The water falls at regular intervals from a tap 5 m above the ground.09 sec (D)10 sec. Q34. How much time will the packet take in reaching the Earth? (g=10 m/sec2) (A) 7.9 sec (C) 0. It’s velocity after n second is v. If the acceleration due to gravity is 10 m/s2. The third drop is leaving at instant when first one touches the ground. A balloon going upward with a velocity of 12 m/sec is at a height of 65 m from the Earth at any instant. It moves upward with a constant acceleration 10m/s2 for 30 seconds after which the fuel is consumed. (A) 9 sec (B) 0. A stone is released from an elevator going up with an acceleration a. After what time from the instant of firing the rocket will attain the maximum height? Take g=10 m/s (A) 30 s (B) 45 s (C) 60 s (D) 75 s Q37. A ball is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 30 m/s. The time of penetration will be.
The ratio of v1v2 and v2v3 is (A) t1. A body is thrown up in a lift with a velocity u relative to the lift and the time of flight is found to be ‘t’. An object is thrown upward with a velocity u. If PQ: QR=1:2.50 m (C) 3. What is the time interval between the first and 2 second bounces (g=10 m/s ) (A) 3 sec (B) 4 sec (C) 5 sec (D) 6 sec.00 m s s u2 u u2 / g 2 s / g u2 s / g Q40. .t3 Q44. t3 its average velocities are v1. t2 .(A) 1. A particle moves with a constant acceleration such that in the successive time intervals t1. which is 3/4th of the velocity with which it hits the ground. Its speeds at P and R are 5 m/s and 25 m/s respectively.75 m (D) 4. The minimum time in which the train can get from one station to the next at a distance s is(A) √ s/a (B) √ 2s/a (C) 1/2√s/a (D) 2√s/a Q43.t2 : t2. A ball is dropped from a height of 20 m and rebounds with a velocity. The acceleration with which the lift is moving up will be – (A) ugt/t (B) u+gt/t (C) 2ugt/t (D) 2u+gt/t Q45. A car moves with uniform acceleration along straight line PQR.25 m (B) 2. The greatest acceleration or deceleration that a train may have is a.t2 : t2.t2 : t2+ t3 (B) t1+ t2 : t2+ t3 (C) t1. the ratio of the times taken by car to travel distance PQ and QR is(A) 1:2 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:5 Q42. then its displacement time graph is / g o u ( A / g ) t o ( B ) u / g t o ( C ) u / g t o ( D ) u / g t E x 6 3 Q41.t1 (D) t1. v2 and v3.
if the elevator is stationary and in time t2 if it is moving with constant velocity. The coin reaches the floor of the elevator in a time t1. A man in a balloon rising vertically with an acceleration of 4.9 m/s.9 m/sec2. The height of the bridge will be(A) 4. Identify the correct statements appropriate to the motion from the following.8 m/s2.5 m Q47. the boat shall cross the river in time(A) 0. A pebble is thrown vertically upwards from bridge with an initial velocity of 4. normal to bank. If acceleration due to gravity is 9. (B) 19.Q46.6 m (C) 9. The greatest height above the ground reached by the ball is(A) 14.8 m (D) 24.5 second if the speed of one is increased by 50%. Everyday only one steamer sets out from both the ports.6 m (C) 9. The time one train would take to pass the other when going in the same direction at their original speed is – (A) 10 sec (B) 12 sec (C) 15 sec (D) 18 sec Q51.5 m Q48.5 kg is found to be moving 30 m away from the starting point during the fourth second and 70 m towards the starting point during the ninth second of its motion. A person standing on the floor of an elevator drops a coin.8 m (D) 24. If a boatman starts sailing his boat at a speed 40 km/hr. (A) The initial kinetic energy is 2500 J (B) It is uniformly accelerated motion . It strikes the water after 2s. releases a ball 2 seconds after the balloon is let go from the ground. Then (A) t1=t2 (B) t1<t2 (C) t1>t2 (D) t1<t2 or t1>t2 depending whether lift is going up or down Q49. A body of mass 0.9 m.7 m (B) 19.6 minute (B) 0.45 minute (D) 3 minute Q50. A river has width 0. Two trains take 3 seconds to pass one another when going in opposite direction but only 2. How many steamers does each boat meet in the open sea (A) 12 (B) 13 (C) 23 (D) 24 Q52. A steamer takes 12 days to reach from port A to B.75 minute (C) 0.5 km and flows from west to East with a speed 30 km/hr.
He should swim in a direction(A) Due North (B) 300 east of North (C) 300 west of North (D) 600 east of North Q56. A boatman could row his boat with a speed 10 m/sec. A wind is blowing horizontal at the speed of 5. the speed of raindrops is . He should row his boat (A) at right angle to the steam (B) at an angle of sin1 (2/5) with PQ up the stream (C) at an angle of sin1 (2/5) with PQ down the stream (D) at an angle cos1 (2/5) with PQ down the stream Q55.(C) It is uniform acceleration to begin with and then uniform retardation (D) It will be at the starting point after 10 seconds. which makes an angle 300 with the line joining him and the fielder Rhodes. A river is flowing from west to east at a speed of 5 meters/minute.0 m/s. A freely falling object crosses T. Rahul hits a ball along the ground with a speed u in a direction.V tower of height 102.5 m (B) 102.3 m Q54. Find the height above the top of the tower from which it would have started falling. (A) 122. The acceleration of the ball with respect to the bus and the Earth respectively(A) a and g (B) a+g and ga (C) √a2+g2 and g (D) √ a2+g2 and a Q58.9 m in three seconds. Rhodes runs to intercept the ball with a speed 2u/3. During a rainstorm. A boy in the bus drops a ball outside. He wants to take his boat from P to a point Q just opposite on the other bank of the river flowing at a speed 4 m/sec. Q53. A bus moves over a straight level road with an acceleration a.6 m (D) 82. A man on the south bank of the river capable of swimming at 10 meters/minute in still water wants to swim across the river in shortest time. raindrops are observed to be striking the ground at an angle of θ with the vertical.9 m (C) 19. At what angle θ should he run to intercept the ball(A) sin1√3/2 (B) sin12/3 (C) sin1 ¾ (D) sin1 4/5 Q57.
(A) 1:4 (B) 1:2 (C) 1:1 (D) 2:1 Q60.01s.0 (C) 5. than – (A) α cannot remains positive for all in the interval 0≤ t≤ 1 (B) α cannot exceed 2 at any point or points in its path (C) α must be ≥ 4 at some point or in its path (D) α must change sign during the motion.0 (B) 1. but no other assertion can be made with the information given. The average force exerted by the surface on the ball in newtons is(A) 10.(A) 5 sinθ (B) 5/sinθ (C) 5 cosθ (D) 5/cosθ Q59. to reach the ground is(A) 1:4 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:1 (D) 1:2 Q62. Then the ratio of time taken by A to that by B. Two particles A and B are dropped from heights of 5 m and 20 m respectively. No other information is available about its motion at intermediate times (0<t<1).01 kg hits a hard surface vertically with a speed of 5 m/s and rebounds with the same speed. Two seconds later another body is similarly projected with velocity of 30 ms1. The ball remains in contact with the surface for 0. A ball weighing 0. Which of the following is (are) true? (A) The bodies meet when both are moving upwards (B) The bodies meet when the former is coming downward and the later is moving upwards. If α denotes the instantaneous acceleration of the particle. Two spheres of equal masses but radii R and 2R are allowed to fall in a liquid.A particles of mass m moves on the xaxis as follows: it starts from rest at t=0 from the point x=0 and comes to rest at t=1 at the point x=1. The ratio of there terminal velocities is. (C) The bodies meet at a height of 45 m (D) The bodies do not meet . A body is projected vertically upwards with velocity of 60 ms1.1 Q63.0 (D) 0. Q61.
Then2 2 2 2 (A) t1 t2= g1 g2 (B) t1 g1= t2 g2 (C) t1 g2= t2 g1 (D) t1 + t2 = g1 + g2 Q67. The ball was thrown with the velocity of(A) 20 m/sec (B) 25 m/sec (C) 30 m/sec (D) 35 m/sec Q69. If you release a ball from your hand then to you the ball would appear to be(A) Falling downwards (B) going upwards (C) stationary (D) oscillating. The displacement of a moving particle in a straight line is proportional to the square of the time than for this particle(A) The velocity is constant (B) The velocity is variable (C) The acceleration is constant. (D) The acceleration is variable. the time taken by him is(A) 8 min (B) 9 min (C) 19 min (D) 20 min Q68. A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the ground. To reach the opposite point on the other bank. If they fall back to their initial points of projection after lapse of times t1 and t2 respectively. The distance A and B in metre is(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 Q71.Q64.0 min (D) 2. Suppose you are in a closed box. A man can swim at the rate of 25 m/min in still water. It crosses a point at the height of 25 m twice at an interval of 4 sec. Two particles are projected vertically upwards with the same velocity on two different planets with acceleration due to gravities g1 and g2 respectively. Q65. A 40 m wide canal is flowing with velocity 50 m/min. He crosses a river of width 24 m flowing with a speed 4 m/min.5 min . A bee flies in a line from a point A to another point B in 4 seconds with a velocity of t2 m/s.0 min (B) 1. The time taken by him to cross the canal perpendicular to the flow is(A) 1. A man reaches the opposite bank swimming 50 m. His minimum speed should be(A) 40 m/min (B) 50 m/min (C) 60 m/min (D) 70 m/min Q70. The speed of a swimmer in still water is 5 m/min. Q66.5 min (C) 2. A 30 m wide canal is flowing at the rate of 20 m/min. which is falling freely under gravity.
A particle is thrown vertically t ( B ) upwards. 6 m (C) 16 m. then the speed of the current. A particle suffers three displacements by 4 m in the northward.Q72. If in still water he can swim with a speed 5/3 times that of the current. A man crosses a 320 m wide river perpendicular to the current in 4 minutes. its velocity v varies with the height h above the ground as Q76. in m/min. The graph between its speed v and ( C ) t ( A ) t t time t is given by (neglecting the air resistance) the following figure Q74. A body covered a distance of L m along a curved path of a quarter circle.is(A) 30 (B) 40 (C) 50 (D) 60 v v v v Q73. 2 m in the southeast and 2 m in the southwest directions. 8 m (D) None of these Q77. 8 m (B) 4+2√2 m. Two particles one with constant velocity 50 m/s and the other with uniform acceleration 10 m/s2 start moving simultaneously from the same place in the same direction. Neglecting subsequent motion and air resistance. What is the displacement of the particle and what is the distance covered by it? (A) 42√2 m. They will be at a distance of 125 m from each other after(A) 5 sec (B) 5(1+√2) sec (C) 10 sec (D) 10(√2+1) sec v v v v Q75. A ball is dropped h o h o h o h o vertically from a height d above the ground. It hits the ground and bounces up ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) ( d ) vertically to a height d/2. The ratio of distance to displacement is .
The position vector r of a particle varies with time t as r = at2 i^+ bt j^ . How long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit 13 m away from the start? (A) 9 s (B) 21 s (C) 32 s (D) 37 s Q80.(A) π /2√2 (B) 2√2/π (C) π /√2 (D) √ 2/π S ( m ) S ( m ) S ( m ) S ( m ) Q78. followed again by 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward. Can a body have uniform speed but nonuniform velocity? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Depends on direction (D) Unpredictable Q 83.v e t ( s ) Q82. Each step is 1 m long and required 1 seco nd to cover. then the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity of the particle at time t will bes ( m ) B (A) 2at+b (B) √4a2t2+b2 (C) 2a+b (D) √ 4a2+b2 Q84. A drunkard walking in a narrow lane takes 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward. The following graph can be seen in natures ) (A) Yes (B) No (C) Sometime (D) At a particular instant O . and so on. From the adjoining displacement time graph for two particles A & B the ratio of velocities VA:VB will beA 3 o o 0 6 o 0 t ( s ) . Mark the wrong statement – (A) Nothing is in the state of absolute rest or state of absolute motion (B) Magnitude of displacement is always equal to the distance traveled (C) Magnitude of displacement can never be greater than the distance traveled (D) Magnitude of instantaneous velocity is equal to the instantaneous speed. Which of the following graph (s) is/are not possible 0 ( A ) t ( s0 ) ( B ) t ( s 0) ( C ) t 0 ( s ) t ( D ) ( s ) Q79. + v se p e e d ( m /Q81.
(A) v=k exp(bt) (B) v=k/b exp(bt) (C) v=k2/b exp(bt) (D) v= k/b2 exp(bt) .(A) 1:2 (B) 1:√3 (C) √3:1 (D) 1:3 v ( m / s ) Q . Its distance x (in meter) from the origin is given by x=8t3t2. will be(A) 0 m (B) 3 m (C) 3 m (D) 2 m Q89. The average speed of the car will be :(A) 100 km/hr (B) 50 km/hr (C) 48 km/hr (D) 200 km/hr Q87. Its Average velocity will be(A) 3 m/sec (B) 0.87 m/sec (C) 1. xaxis. If the displacement of a particle varies with time according to the relation x=k/b[1exp(bt)]. The average speed in the interval t=0 to t=1 second is(A) 5 ms1 (B) 4 ms1 (C) 6 ms1 (D) zero Q90. A car travels first half distance between two places with a speed of 40 km/h and the rest half distance with a speed of 60 km/h. From the adjoining graph. where x is in m and t in sec. The displacements of the particle. A body moves in a straight line along. the distance traversed by particle in 4 sec is 2 0 (A) 60 m (B) 25 m (C) 55 m (D) 30 m 1 0 o 1 2 3 4 t ( s ) Q86. BC. and CD of a square of side 10 meter with velocity of constant magnitude 3 meter/sec. 5 2 Q85.33 m/sec (D) None Q88. N o . A body moves along the sides AB.then the velocity (v) of the particle is. The displacement of a particle moving in onedimensional direction under a force at time t is given by t= √x+3. when its velocity is zero.
Figure shows the displacement time graph of a particle moving on the xaxis(A) The particle is continuously going in positive x direction (B) The particle is at rest o to t (C) The velocity increases up to a time t0. x ( m ) Q94.a1 t + a2 t2. The change in its velocity is(A) 20√2 m/s NorthEast (B) 20√2 m/s SouthEast (C) 40√2 m/s NorthEast (D) 20 √2 m/s Northwest Q93. A truck traveling due to North at 20 m/s turns East and travels at the same speed. The displacement x of a particle along a straight line at time t is given by x=a0 . and then becomes constant . The position–time (xt) graphs for two students A and B returning from their school O to their homes P and Q B Q respectively are shown in figure. The acceleration of the particle is(A) a0 (B) a1 (C) 2a2 (D) a2 Q92.Q91. P A t o ( s ) (A) B lives closer to the school than A (B) A/B starts from the school earlier than B/A (C) B walks faster than A (D) A and B reach home at the different time. Choose the correct statements from below. x Q95. Which of the following statement is not correct? (A) A body may have zero instantaneous velocity but finite acceleration (B) A body may have zero instantaneous acceleration but finite velocity (C) Magnitude of instantaneous velocity is equal to instantaneous speed (D) Magnitude of average velocity is equal to average speed.
(g= 9.The driver sees a stationary truck at a distance of 100 m ahead.8 m/s2 (D) 1 m/s2 Q99.6 m (C) 63. with the same initial velocity of 98 metre/sec but 4 sec apart. After some reaction time ∆ t applies the brakes.3 m Q103. 57 m (B) 3.7 m (D) 5. The maximum reaction times to avoid collision will be(A) 5 sec (B) 2.4 m (D) 72 m Q102.8 m (D) 68. produces a retardation of 4 m/s2. How long after the first one is thrown will they meet? (A) 10 sec (B)11 sec (C)12 sec (D) 13 sec .5 sec to clear the window of 4.75 m (B) 5.5 m in the last second of its journey. Q96. What is the height of building above the window? (A) 2.59 s. Which one of the following represents uniformly acceleration motion? a and b are constant and x is the distance described.8 m/s2) (A) 0.9 m Q100.41 s. A particle starts from rest and moving along a straight line travels 19 m in the tenth second. From the foot of a tower 90 m high.6 m (B) 38. will respectively be. The two stones will meet at height (A) 83. A ball dropped from the top of a building takes 0. (A) x=√(ta)/b (B) x=(ta)/b (C) t=√(xa/b) (D) x=√t+a Q98. A car is moving with a velocity of 20 m/sec.9 s. Two second later another stone is dropped from the top of the tower.9 s.9 m/s2 (B) 2 m/s2 (C) 3. If a body travels half its total path in the last second of its fall from rest. The acceleration of the particle is given by(A) 1.0 m (C) 5. 5. a stone is thrown up so as to reach the top of tower. A stone is dropped from the top of the tower and travels 24.(D) The particle moves at a constant velocity up to a time t0 and then stops. The height of the lower is (A) 44. 57 m (C) 5.5 m (D) 4.5 sec (C) 4 sec (D) 10 sec Q97.1 m Q101. The time and height of its fall.9 m height. 34. Two bodies are thrown vertically upward.1 m (B) 49 m (C) 78.
first standing on it. A particle starts moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. (A) t (2+√2) s (B) t (1+√2) s (C) t √2 s (D) 2√2 t s 1 1 1 1 Q3. till it returns to the starting point. Mark the correct statements(A) The magnitude of the velocity of a particle is equal to speed (B) The magnitude of average of velocity in an interval is equal to its average speed in that interval (C) It is possible to have a situation in which speed of a particle is zero but the average speed is not zero (D) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed of the particle is never zero but the but the average speed in an interval is zero Q2. take 1 minute to reach the top from ground. Determine the time from the beginning of motion. If the escalator moves with person. (A) The particle starts its motion from the origin (B) The velocity of the particle is 5 ms1 at t= 2 sec. (C) The acceleration of the particle is 4 ms2 (D) The particle starts its motion at t=2 s . The displacement of a particle moving along the xaxis is given by x=1+5(t2)+2(t2)2 where x is in meter and t is in second. the acceleration changes sign. At a time t1 seconds after the beginning of motion. How much time would it take him to walk up the moving escalator? (A) 24 s (B) 48 s (C) 36 s (D) 40 s Q4.Exercise 2 Multiple Choice Type Questions Q1. remaining the same in magnitude. A person walks up a stationary escalator in 90 seconds.
the acceleration is also zero in this interval. A particle moves along the xaxis as x= u (t2)+a (t2)2(A) The initial velocity of the particle is u (B) The acceleration of the particle is a (C) The acceleration of the particle is 2a (D) At t=2s particle is at the origin. If t is the time of ascent. then (A) The acceleration at t=0 must be zero. the speed is also zero in this interval. The velocity of a particle is zero at t=0. at which the body B can overtake A? (A) 1 m/sec2 (B) 2 m/sec2 (C) 1/2 m/sec2 (D) 3 m/sec2 . Body A begins to move with initial velocity 2 m/sec and continues to move at a constant acceleration a. Q7. 5 2 0 t ( s (A) ) The particle has a constant acceleration (B) The particle has never turned around. Q6. A lift performs the first part of its ascent with uniform acceleration a and remainder with uniform retardation 2a. Q9.V 1 ( m 0 / s ) Q5. the depth of the shaft is2 2 2 2 (A) at /4 (B) at /3 (C) at /2 (D) at /8 Q8. What is the maximum acceleration a. (D) If the speed is zero from t=0 to t=10 s. (B) The acceleration at t=0 may be zero (C) If the acceleration is zero from t=0 to t=10 s. (C) The particle has zero displacement (D) The average speed in the interval 0 to 10 s is the same as the average speed in the interval 10 s to 20 s. In ∆ t = 10 seconds after the body A begins to moves a body B departs from the same point with a initial velocity 12 m/sec and moves with the same acceleration a. The velocity time plot for a particle moving on a straight line is shown in the figure o Q 1 0 .
when they hit the ground (C) The relative acceleration between the two is equal to zero initially (D) The time interval between their hitting the ground is 2 seconds. N particles moving in a straight line have initial velocities of 1. 3. Q11. 2.N m/s and 2 acceleration of 1. (D) The distance between any two consecutive particles increases periodically with time.Q10.. (D) If the velocity is zero for a time interval. (B) If the position and velocity have opposite sign. Two second later. where v is its velocity at any time then(A) The particle will cover a total distance v0/α (B) The particle will come to rest after time 1/α (C) The particle will continue to move for a very long time . 3.N m/s respectively.. an identical stone is thrown vertically downward with the same speed 20 ms1 then (A) The relative velocity between the two stones remains constant till one hits the ground (B) Both will have the same kinetic energy. the acceleration is zero at any instant within the time interval. the acceleration should also be zero at that instant. Q13. (A) The distance between any two particles remains constant (B) The distance between any two consecutive particles is same for all particles and increases with time. 2.. the particle is moving towards the origin (C) If the velocity is zero at an instant. (C) The distance between any two consecutive particles is different and increases with time. Mark the correct statements for a particle going on a straight line – (A) If the velocity and acceleration have opposite sign. Q12.... select the correct alternatives(s). the particle is slowing down. A particle move with an initial velocity v0 and retardation α v.A man throws a stone vertically up with a speed of 20 ms1 from top of a highrise building.. If the initial spacing between any two consecutive particles is same then.
(D) The velocity of the particle will become v0/2 after time 1/α Q14. The instantaneous velocity of a particle is related to its displacement x according to the relation v=a x + b. all quantities are in c. Which of the following statement(s) is (are) true if x=0 at t=0 (A) The displacement of the particle at the time t is x=b/a (eat1) (B) The particle will experience a retardation if b<0 (C) The particle will be at origin at time t=0 (D) The acceleration of the particle is constant. when it is at a distance.M. Out of the following graphs which is/are not possiblev v v v o o ( A ) x o ( B ) t ( C ) t o ( D ) t Q . 4 7 E x 2 . (A) 2π log (π +1) (B) 2π logπ (C) 2π +log (π +1) Q16. (B) The magnitude of the acceleration at a distance 3cm from the fixed point is 27ms2 (C) The motion is S.g.H. A particle initially at rest moves from a fixed point in a straight line so that at the end of t seconds its acceleration is sin t + 1/(t+1)2.units. (D) The maximum displacement from the fixed point is 4cm Q17. An observer moves with a constant speed along the line joining two stationary objects. about a given fixed point.s. He will observe that the two objects(A) Have the same speed (B) have the same velocity (B) Move in the same direction (D) moves in opposite directions. The speed v of a particle moving along a straight line. x from a 2 2 fixed point on the line is given by v =1089x . Q 18. where a>0 and b≤ a/7. (A) The motion is uniformly acceleration along a straight line. N O . The distance from the fixed point at the end of π seconds will be. Q15.
b (<a) and p are positive constants of appropriate dimension. The acceleration of a particle depends on the velocity as a =kv.ri)/(t2t1) . is π √ a2+b2 Q20.Q19.at t=0. find the position of the particle as a function of time. If a particle travels a linear distance at speed v1 and come back along the same track at speed v2(A) Its average speed is arithmetic mean (v1+v2)/2 (B) Its average speed is geometric mean √v1v2 (C) Its average speed is harmonic mean 2v1v2/(v1+v2) (D) Its average velocity is zero Descriptive Question Type Q1. A student argues that the mean velocity during an interval of time can also be expressed as (v)= (vf + vi)/2 and this should always be the equal to (rf . Q2. Then(A) The path of the particle is an ellipse (B) The velocity and acceleration of the particle are normal to each other at t= π /(2p) (C) The acceleration of the particle is always towards a a focus. where a. The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are given by x(t) = a cos (pt) and y(t)= b sin(pt). Is he right? Q3.What is meant by d v /dt and dv/dt ? Can these be equal? (i) d v /dt= 0 while dv/dt ≠ 0 (ii) d v dt ≠ 0 while dv/dt =0 . x=0 and v=1m/s. If the velocity of a body is constant(A) Velocity = speed (B) Average velocity = speed (C) Velocity = average velocity (D) speed= average speed Q21. (D) The distance traveled by the particle in time interval t=0 to t=π /(2p).
Q4. 5 0 0 3 0 T i m e i n S Q11. A car is moving along a straight line with retardation 2 m/s2. A c c e le r a tio n in f t/s 2 0 0 . The acceleration of a particle is given as a = 9x. Find the distance traveled in 30 second and draw the position–time graph. (i) Find its velocity after time t=n sec. After time t=3 s. At t=0. N o . On reaching the other train it flies directly back to the first train. Q8. e c o n d . How long does it take for a train to increase its velocity in a uniformly accelerated motion from 12 km/h to 60 km/h over a distance of 600 m? What is its acceleration? Q7. are headed at each other on the same straight track.The acceleration of a cart started at t=0. A bird that can fly 60 miles/hr flies off one train when they are 60 miles apart and heads directly for the other train. each having a speed of 30 miles/hr. A particle starts moving along a straight line with acceleration a=kt. x=1 m and v=3 m/s. Find the velocity of the particle at t=2 sec. x/t graphs for two cars A and B are B are as shown: (i) Which car is moving faster? 6 o o 0 to t ( s ) (ii) When will they meet? Q6. 7 5 B round curve with zero acceleration? With constant acceleration? With variable acceleration? A 6 1 . varies with time as shown in fig. Find the distance traveled in time t=3s. Q10. 0 o 0 Q5. and so forth (a) how many trips can the bird make from one train to the other before they crash? (b) What is the total distance the bird travels? Q9. its velocity reduces to 5 m/s. Is it possible to be accelerating if you are traveling at constant speed? Is it possible to x ( m ) Q .0 . Two trains. (ii) Find the distance traveled in t=n sec. 5 2 1 .
(iii) The distance traveled in the third second. If the air resistance is taken into account and is supposed to be constant. However some time the phrase “average speed” can mean the magnitude of the average velocity. Let the distance traveled by an object. as a function of time is given by s=2+3t2 where s is in metre and t is sec. (a) Find the time he takes to cross the river. Q18. “Two balls of different masses are thrown vertically upwards with the same speed. Consider a particle initially moving with a velocity of 5 m/s starts deceleration at a constant rate of 2 m/s2. . Will the time of ascent be longer or shorter than the time descent? Q17. State whether this assertion is right or wrong. Then calculate (i) instantaneous speed at t1=1 sec and at t2=5 sec. An arrow while being shot from a bow was accelerated over a distance of 2. (ii) The distance traveled in the 2ndsecond. If its speed at the moment it left the bow was 200 ft/s.0 ft. Determine (i) The time at which the particle becomes stationery. They reach through the point of projection in their downward motion with the same speed”. Are the two same? Q15. Q16. Two balls are dropped from the same point after an interval of 1s. He wants to cross a 500 m wide river flowing at 2 km/h. than what was the average acceleration imparted by the bow? Justify any assumptions you need to make.Q12. Q13. (b) At what point on the opposite bank will he arrive? Q14. A man can swim at a speed of 3 km/h in still water. A ball is thrown up. He keeps himself always at an angle of 1200 with the river flow while swimming. Usually “average speed” means the ratio of the total distance covered to the time elapsed. If acceleration due to gravity is 10 m/s2. (ii) average speed between the time interval t1=1 sec to t2=5 sec. what will be the separation 3 seconds after the release of first ball? Q19.
What is the average velocity of the train during this run? (B) A point traversed half a circle of radius R=160 cm during time interval τ =10. Q24.8 m/s. and finally westward for 50 min.0 s. Calculate the following quantities averaged over that time: (a) The mean speed (v) (b) The modulus of the mean velocity vector <v> Q25. Find the total time taken. A boy standing on a long railroad car throws a ball straight upwards. Find the velocity and the position of the particle at t=4. If the time at constant lower speed is equal to the sum of the times taken in retarding and accelerating. Will the other end move uniformly too? Q21. Q22. A stone is dropped from a balloon going up with a uniform velocity of 5. The end leans against the wall moves uniformly downward. If the balloon was 50 m high when the stone was dropped.0 m/s along the xaxis. Whether a driver was exceeding a 30 mile/h speed limit before he made an emergency stop. The length of skid marks on the road was 19. It retards uniformly for 200 m covering the next 400 m at constant speed and accelerates uniformly to 72 km/h in a further 600 m. A train traveling at 72 km/h is checked by track repairs. Q23.2 ft.0 m/s. Take g=10 m/s . find its height when the stone hits the 2 ground. A rod of length l leans by its upper end against a smooth vertical wall. At t=0 the particle is at the origin and its velocity is 8.5 m/s2 in the direction making an angle of 370 with the xaxis. (A) A train moving at an essentially constant speed of 60 mile/h moves eastward for 40 min. Policeman made the reasonable assumption that the maximum deceleration of the car would not exceed the acceleration of a freely falling body and arrested the driver for speeding.Q20. A particle moves in the xy plane with a constant acceleration 1. while its other end leans against the floor. How far behind the boy will the ball fall on the car? . Q26.0 s. Was he speeding? Explain. The car is moving on the horizontal road with an acceleration of 1m/s2 and the projection velocity in the vertical direction is 9. then in a direction 450 east of North for 20 min.
A truck has to carry a load in the shortest time from one station to another station situated at a distance L from the first.3 m/s2 Q28. What maximum velocity must the truck attain to satisfy this condition? . When the ant is at point A at a distance L1=1m from the center of the anthill. What will be the shape of the path as seen by (a) an observer standing on the ground. A boat is moving along this river in such a manner that it is always perpendicular to the current. The current velocity of a river grows in proportion to its distance from the bank and attains the maximum value v0 at the middle of the stream. Determine the position of the locomotive relative to the traffic light 1 minute after the application of brakes if its acceleration a= . By how much distance it will be drifted by the current? Q33. which is at a distance L2=2 m from the center of the ant hill? Q29. A particle is thrown from train A vertically upwards. Near the bank its velocity is zero. The width of river is c. (b) an observer in train B moving with same speed as train A in the same direction.0. At a distance L=400 m from the traffic light. Initially the particles located at a point O move with velocities v and v 1 2 horizontally in opposite directions. t seconds respectively. brakes are applied to a locomotive moving at a velocity v = 54 km/h. It can start up or slowdown at the same acceleration or deceleration a. It’s speed in still water is u. b meters in successive intervals of t . Two particles A and B move in a uniform gravitational field where the acceleration due to gravity is g. (C) an observer in train B moving with twice the speed that of A in the same direction? Q31. What is the acceleration if a=b? 1 2 Q30. A point moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration describes distances a. At what time from the start of motion the velocities will be perpendicular to each other and what will be the distance between them at this instant? Q32. its velocity v1=2 cm/s. Two trains A and B are moving along parallel rails. An ant runs from an anthill in a straight line so that its velocity is inversely proportional to the distance from the center of the anthill.Q27. what time will it take ant to run from point A to point B.
A person traveling with velocity u towards northeast finds that the wind appears to come from north. A motorist is traveling at 365/6 m/s. Determine the velocity of train relative to the automobile and the change in position of the train relative to the automobile during foursecond interval. The speed of a train increases at a constant rate α from zero to V. (b) the speed of the car as it passes the light. The slider block B starts from rest and moves to the right with a constant acceleration. Find out whether it will be possible to avoid collision if the first car starts in full force before the second car has approached it within 1200 meters. Three 6 0 0 A 1 2 0 90 km k /h r B msecondsr after the train A passes under the highway bridge the / h automobile crosses the bridge. After 4s the relative velocity of A with respect to B is 0.06 m/s. Q36. A B Q38. then remains constant for an interval and finally decreases to zero at a constant rate β . If the motorist wishes to pass the light without stopping just as it turns green again. But on doubling his speed it seems to come from a direction inclined at an angle cot–12 on the east of north. Two points A and B move with speeds v and 2v in two concentric circles. The traffic light is timed to stay red for 15 second. Determine (a) the acceleration of A and B (b) the velocity of B after 3s. Q39. If l is the total distance described compute the total time taken. Find the true velocity and the direction of the wind. When it is halting at a place in a straight narrow road it sees another car approaching it from behind with uniform speed 60 m/sec. determine (a) the required uniform deceleration of the car. . find the value of α when the relative motion is along AB. A motorcar can acquire in one minute by uniform acceleration a speed 90 m/sec. Q37. Q40. Q35.Q34. A train A and an automobile B travel at the constant speeds 120 km/hr and 96 km/hr respectively as shown. when he observes that a traffic light 800 m ahead of him turns red. with center at O and radii 2r and r respectively in the same sense and if OAB= α.
the x coordinate. draw the o 1 Q . N o 3 E x 4 . A point travels along the xaxis with a velocity whose projection v(x) is presented as a function of time by the plot in fig. = 75 km / hr = 40 km / hr While B is moving along a circular exit ramp of B 30 0 150 m . 3 ( 2 2 V 1 ( x ) Q42. and the distance covered s. A V B V A Q45.A C D Q41.  2 Q43. If the time from the first screen to the second be t1 and from the second to the third t2. Q44. Where v is velocity of boat and u is the velocity of the river. 3 6 ( 2 3 ) 7 t ( s ) approximate time dependence plot for the acceleration wx. A bullet traveling horizontally pierces in succession three screens placed at equal distance ‘a’ apart. (a) Find the retardation assuming it to be uniform and (b) also calculate the velocity at the middle screen. Only the screens cause the retardation and medium between the screens offers no resistance. Car A is traveling along a straight highway. At what distance from point D one must turn of the highway? Q . Find out the direction of of shortest route for a boat rowing in the river when the velocity of boat is greater or lower than of the river. N o E x . one L B has to get by a car as soon as possible to point B located in the ) field at a distance l from the highway. It is known that the car moves in the field n times slower than on the highway. From point A located on a highway as shown in fig. Assuming the coordinate of the point x=0 at the moment t=0.
b and c were the distances covered by it during x th. Find out whether for the particle moving with uniform acceleration the distances described in consecutive equal interval of time are in A.P. A dog sees a flowerpot sail up and then back down past a window 5.3 m/s upwards and that the relative velocity of block A B with respect to block A is 0. If the total time the pot is in sight is 1. Determine (a) the velocity of A relative to B. Point A moves uniformly with velocity ν so that the vector ν is continually “aimed “ at point B which in its turn moves rectilinearly and uniformly with velocity u<ν . Q48. Q46. and the third for the first so on. Three blocks are connected by pulleys as shown in figure. If a. Three points are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.9 m/s2 for the position shown.0 s.2 m/s downwards. the second for the third. How soon the particles collide each other? Q51. B C Q47. Q50.150 m radius. Find the velocity of each block given that relative velocity of block A with respect to C is 0. The speed of A is increased at the rate of 1.0 ft. They all start moving simultaneously with velocity ν constant in modulus. with the first point heading continually for the second. high. then find out the value of a(yz)+b(zx)+c(xy) Q49. (b) the acceleration of A relative to B. find the height above the window that the pot rises. How soon will the points converge? . y th and z th second of its motion respectively. A particle is traveling with a uniform acceleration. At the initial moment v⊥u and the points are separated by a distance l.5m/s2 and the speed of B is being decreased at the rate of 0.
and T=60 sec after the event the tail signal is switched on (event 2). A particle moving with uniform retardation is found to cover three successive equal distances.5 m/s. to be at a distance . find (i) the length CD and (ii) the length OA. t = 30 sec after the start the locomotive headlight is switched on (event 1). A train of length l = 350 m starts moving rectilinearly with constant acceleration w = 3.. Determine its average velocity in the middle part of the journey. (b) Find out whether he will be able to catch the bus if he is 20. On its way to the point D the particle passes point A. Q54.0x102 m/s2. A particle is moving in a straight line and is observed to be at a distance ‘a’ from a marked point initially to be at a distance ‘b’ after an interval of n seconds. Q56.Q52. A bus is beginning to move with an acceleration of 0. stops at B the same time as the first train. 2T and 4T respectively after leaving O. How and at what constant velocity V. relative to the earth the frame K should move for the two events to occur at the same point. A train passes a station A at 40 km/h and maintains this speed for 7 km and is then uniformly retarded. A man standing 20 meters behind the bus runs at a constant speed of 4. line with uniform retardation leaves point O at a time t=0 and comes to an instantaneous rest at D.25 meters behind. A second train starts from A at the instant the first train passes and being accelerated for the part of journey and uniformly retarded for the rest. A starts with uniform acceleration of 1/6 m/s2 and attain a speed of 24 km per hour when steam is reduced to keep the speed constant. The average velocities during the first and third parts of the journey are 20 m/s and 12 m/s respectively. stopping at B which is 8. B and C at time t=T.5 m/s.5 m/s . When will B overtake A? Q57. Q58. Find the distance between these events in the reference frame fixed to the train and to the earth. Two trains A and B leave the same station on parallel lines. Q53. What is the greatest speed of the second train? 2 Q55. B leaves 40 seconds after with uniform acceleration of 1/3 m/s2 to attain a maximum speed of 48 km/hr.5 km from A. Given that AB = BC =L. A particle moving in a straight. (a) Find the time in which man will overtake the bus running at a constant speed of 4.
it becomes 3f at the end of time 3t and so on. It start from rest at one station and comes to rest at other station. at the end of 2t.B. at the end of time t. Q59. then find the acceleration of the particle. it becomes 2f. “ If a body moving with uniform acceleration in a straight line describes successive equal distances in time intervals t1. Q66. Find the velocity and distance described at the end of time nt. t2. when the steam is shut off and breaks are applied it moves with uniform retardation g. . a train is uniformly accelerated and for 1/n of the distance it is uniformly retarded. find out the length of the course.when the speed of the car is 72 km/h and over a distance of 10m . its velocity is double of what is at a height h above A. A driver has a definite reaction time and is capable of stopping his car over a distance of 30 m on seeing a red traffic signal . then 1/t11/t2+1/t3= 3/(t1+t2+t3)” Q60. If a body falls from rest at A. Two cars start off to race with velocities u and v and travel in a straight line with uniform acceleration p and q respectively. From an elevated point A. BC and CD. Q64. For 1/m of the distance between two stations. when the speed is 36 km/h. C and D are points in a vertical line such that AB=BC=CD. Find the distance over which he can stop the car if it were running at a speed of 54 km/h. Find out the ratio of its greatest velocity to its average velocity.c after 2n seconds and to be at a distance ‘d’ after 3n seconds. If the race ends in a dead heat. A particle starts from rest with acceleration f.A railway train goes from one station to another moving during the first part of the journey with uniform acceleration f. If ‘a’ be the distance between the stations. then find out the time that the train takes in moving one station to another. When the stone reaches a distance h below A. Q61. A . t3. Assume that his reaction time and its deceleration of the car remains same in all three cases . Q65. State whether the following assertion is right or wong. Q63. Q62. Find out the greatest height attained by the stone above A. find out the ratio of times taken for distances AB. a stone is projected vertically upwards. If the acceleration is uniform.
They meet when the upper one has descended a distance h/n. where a is a constant vector and α is a positive factor. Q72.Q67. A radius vector of a particle varies with time t as r = a t(1α t). . when the wind is blowing at a speed u parallel to the diagonal of the square? The velocity of plane in still air is v>u. the velocities of the balls coincide in magnitude and direction. After the passage of the time t. A lift performs the first part of its ascent with uniform acceleration f and the remainder with uniform retardation 2f. How long will a plane take to fly around a square with side a.6 determine the maximum value of the position coordinate of the particle. Q69. Knowing that x=3 0 1 0 1 8 2 4 2 16 m at t=0. Q70. Find: (a) The velocity v and the acceleration w of the particle as functions of time. Two steel balls fall freely on an elastic slab. m V / s Q71. assuming that the balls do not collide. If t is the time of ascent. A particle is dropped from the top of a tower h meter high and at the same moment another particle is projected upward from the bottom. Determine the time τ and the time interval during which the velocities of the two balls will be equal. draw the acceleration–time and t ( s displacementtime curves for 0<t<30 s and ) . Find out the ratio of the velocities of the two when they meet and the initial velocity of the particle projected. (b) The time interval ∆ t taken by the particle to return to the initial points. and the distance s covered during that time. find the depth of the shaft. Q68. A particle moves in a straight line with the velocity shown in the figure. τ s after the first ball. The first ball is dropped from a height h1=44 cm and the second from the height h2=11cm.
. If u be the speed of man in still water and v that of the stream then find out t1/t2. (a) If d<dL.0 km from the point A. obtain an expression (in terms of d. 1 and 2.6 m and then enters water. t = 60 min later it turned back and after some time passed the raft at a distance l =6. A motorboat going downstream overcame a raft at a point A. Assume the depth of the liquid to be large.Q73. the particle were located at the distance l1 and l2 from the point O. the ball is released and it falls through the same height before striking the surface of a liquid of density dL. 1 and 2. A solid ball of density half that of water falls freely under gravity from a height of 19. moves with constant velocities v1 and v2. Next. t1 and dL) for the time t2 the ball takes to come back to the position from which it was released (b) Is the motion of the ball simple harmonic? (c) If d=dL how does the speed of the ball depend on its depth inside the liquid ? Neglect all frictional and other dissipative forces. (g=9. Q74.8 m/s2) Q76. Up to what depth will the ball go? How much time will it take to come again to the water surface? Neglect air resistance and viscosity effects in water. Q78. Find the flow velocity assuming the duty of the engine to be constant. At the moment t=0. A ball of density d is dropped onto a horizontal solid surface. A man rows directly across a flowing river in time t1 and rows an equal distance down the stream in time t2. Two particles. Two particles. (g=10 m/s2) Q77. At the initial moment their radius vectors are equal to r1 and r2 . How soon will the distance between the particles become the smallest? What is it equal to? Q75. It bounces elastically from the surface and returns to its original position in time t1. move with constant velocities v1 and v2 along two mutually perpendicular straight lines towards the intersection point O. how must these four vectors be interrelated for the particles to collide? .
0 m/s and ν 2 = 4. Assuming that at the moment t=0. Determine the time t from the beginning of motion in which the point mass returns to the initial position. A motorboat travels the distance between two spots on a river in 8 hours and 12 hours down stream and upstream respectively. Assuming that the velocity c of sound is 320 m/s. Q82. Q83. the acceleration change sign. At the point of takeoff. from the starting point? Q85. Q84. At a time t1 after the bigining of motion. find mean velocity of the particle averaged over the time that the particle takes to cover the first s meter of the path. How far the plane will be after 20 min. A helicopter takes off along the vertical with an acceleration a=3 m/s2 and zero initial velocity at a certain time t . remaining the same in magnitude. Find the distance between the particle at the moment when their velocity vectors become mutually perpendicular. the pilot switches off the engine. At that place the wind is blowing with a speed of 60 km/h from east to west. . The velocity of a particle moving in the positive direction of the x axis varies as v=α√ x . Calculate the time required by the boat to cover this distance in still water. At the initial moment the particles were located at one point and moved with velocities ν 1 = 3.0 m/s horizontally in opposite directions. the particle was located at the point x=0.Q79. Find the positions of the 3rd. Q81. A point mass starts moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration a. (Time is measured from the instant of take off). where α is a positive constant. Q80. A person sitting on the top of a tall building is dropping balls at regular intervals of one second. 4th and 5th ball when the 6th ball is being dropped. Determine the velocity v of the helicopter at the moment when its engine is switched off. the 1 sound dies away at a time t2=30s. Calculate the resultant velocity of the plane. A pilot is taking his plane towards north with a velocity of 100 km/h. Two particles move in a uniform gravitational field with an acceleration g.
0 ft. A truck starts from rest with an acceleration of 1. The remaining part of the distance was covered with velocity v1 for half the time. or 0. An elevator car whose floor to ceiling distance is equal to 2. and how much distance is traveled by each? Q88. From the curve is there any interval over which the acceleration is obviously not constant? Q90. and with velocity v2 for the other half of the time. or 0. v versus t and a versus t. State for each interval whether the velocity v( x) is +.6 m above the ground. Neglect the small interval during which the ball was in contact with the ground.010 s. . and whether the acceleration a(x) is +. It rebounds to a height of 3. Take the starting point as the origin and vertically downward as the positive xaxis. x B A O ( a ) C D t O x A B C t D Q89. 2. A tennis ball is dropped onto the floor from height of 4. How long will it take before both the truck and car side by side. A ball is dropped from a height of 19. The graph of x versus t as shown in the fig for a particle in straightline motion.5 metre/sec while a car 150 metre 2 behind starts from rest with an acceleration of 2 metre/sec . 2 Q87. Q91. It rebounds from the ground and raises itself up to the same height. Find out mean velocity of the point averaged over the whole time of motion. Find: (a) The bolt’s free fall time.0 s after the start a bolt begins falling from the ceiling of the car. and CD. BC. Draw approximate plots of x versus t.0 ft.7 m starts ascending with constant acceleration 1. (b) The displacement and the distance covered by the bolt during the free fall in the reference frame fixed to the elevator shaft. If the ball was in contact with the floor for 0. A point traversed half the distance with a velocity v0. what was its average acceleration during contact? . .Q86. AB.2 m/s2. ( b ) The intervals are OA.
Will the car A over take the car B? Q94. 2 s B D 4 x C .0 m/s (the initial velocity is equal to zero). Q97. Two cars A and B having velocities of 72 km/h and 18 km/h running in the same direction. The car B being ahead of the A. Q93. Simultaneously another particle Q 2 starts from A with a velocity of 9 m/s in the direction AB and has an acceleration 1 m/s in the direction AB.1 0 1 . describe the motion of the particle qualitatively in the interval 0 to 4 s. Distance between two points A and B is 33 m. N 2 o E 3 ( s ) to 4 s. comes to a stop. The distance between the cars is 150 m. then uniformly.Q92. and 0 to 4 s. Find (a) The distance traveled during first two seconds. and finally decelerating at the same rate a. Find whether Q will be able to catch P.From the velocity–time graph of a particle given in figure. A particle beginning from rest. N o E x . 2 Q95 A car starts moving rectilinearly a=5. Find its velocity at C. A point moving with constant acceleration from A to B in the straight line AB has velocities u and v at A and B respectively. (b) displacement during 0 to 4s. ( 1 E 3 ) Q96. The average velocity during that time is equal to v = 72 km per hour. The total time of motion equals T=25 s. the midpoint of AB and the ratio of v and u when time from A to C is twice of C to B. A particle P starts from B with a 2 velocity of 1 m/s along AB with an acceleration of 2 m/s . travels a distance s with uniform acceleration and immediately after travels a distance of 3 s with uniform speed followed by a distance 5 s with . If the car 2 now starts retarding at a uniform rate of 1 m/s while the car B moves along at a uniform velocity. 5 F 5 ( 1 3 ) 6 t 1 0 A o Q . How long does the car move uniformly? V ( m / s ) Q . (c) acceleration at t=1/2 s and at t=2 s.
uniform decleration and comes to rest. A rocket is fired vertically up from the ground with a resultant vertical acceleration of 2 10 m/s . A car. When and where two stones meet. The passenger train driver has reaction time of 0.5 sec. Can the driver avoid a crash? Q103. (a) The maximum height reached (b) After how much time from the instant of finishing fuel. the maximum height be reached 2 (take g=10 m/s ) Q101. Two second later another stone is dropped from the top of the tower. After how much distance. with a contant speed of 20 m/s. whose last compartment is 250 m ahead on the same track. it reaches the 1 ground in time t How long does it take to reach the ground if it is just dropped. Two boats A and B move away from a buoy anchored at the middle of a river along mutually perpendicular straight line. while the goods train continues with its constant speed. An engine driver of a passenger train traveling at 40 m/s sees a goods train. When a particle is projected up ward with speed u from the top of a tower. the car overtakes the truck? Q102. Q100. The boat A moves along the stream and the boat B across the river and after moving off an equal distance of 500 meter from the buoy both the boats returned to their original position. Find out the ratio of the time taken by boat A to boat . starts moving with an acceleration a= √t. it reaches the ground in time t . Find the ratio of average speed to the maximum speed of the particle. Q98. starting from rest. The fuel is finished in 1 minute and it continues to move up. The goods train is traveling in the same direction as the passenger train. Q99. in the same direction. From the foot of a lower 90 m high a stone is thrown up so as to reach the top of the tower. When it is projected downward with the same speed. He applies the brakes which causes the train to declerate at the 2 rate of 1 m/sec . 2. At the same instant a truck passes that point with a velocity 4 m/s.
What must be the maximum initial separation lmax between the bodies for which they meet during the motion? . and if they move in opposite direction then they cross in 7½ s.B if the velocity of each boat with respect to water is 20 m/s and the stream velocity is 10 m/s. How much time would it take him to walk up the moving escalator? Q109. Q106. Find out the wind velocity relative to the ship and angle between the equator and the wind direction as observed by a person in the ship. Two bodies move in a straight line towards each other at initial velocities v1 and v2 and with constant accelerations a1 and a2 directed against the corresponding velocities at the initial instant. Wind blows from 0 southeastern direction at an angle 60 to the equator with velocity 15 km/hour. now moving. Find out the velocity of the boat in magnitude and direction over still water in the absence of wind. Q105 A ship moves along the equator to the east with velocity 30 km/hr. A motorboat . For the following.0 and 1. he is carried up in 60 s. Two trains of Length 180 m are moving on parallel tracks. let the numerical values of a and b be 3. The position of a particle moving along the xaxis depend on the time according to the equation x=at2bt3. Q108. Q104. A person walks up a stalled escalator in 90 s. in the absence of wind is 8 km/hr due south. If they move in the same direction then they cross each other in 15 s. respectively. (a) At what time does the particle reach its maximum positive x position? (b) What total length of path does the particle cover in the first 4.0s? (d) What is the particle’s acceleration at the end of each of the first four second? Q107. with its engine on a running and blown over by a horizontal wind is 0 observed to travel at 20 km/hr in a direction 53 east of North. The velocity of the boat with its engine in still water and blown over by the horizontal winds is 4 km/hr East ward and the running river. When standing on the same escalator. where x is in feet and t in second.0. then calculate their velocities.0s? (c) What is its displacement during the first 4.
Hints and Solutions Single Choice Type Objective Question Ans1: Since the acceleration vector has two components. The vector perpendicular to velocity vector causes only change in direction while the vector component in the direction opposite to the velocity vector causes the deceleration motion. Ans2: Force component in xdirection Fx=Max=Md2x/dt2=6 N. Force component in ydirection Fy=Max=Md2y/dt2=12t . one in opposite direction to the velocity vector and one perpendicular to the velocity vector. The motion in a parabolic path has both magnitude and direction of acceleration vector constant. Ans9: a= d2x/dt2 i + d2y/dt2 j =√ ( d2x/dt2)2 + (d2y/dt2)2 Ans10: a= d2x/dt2 = 2a2 Ans11: In a parabolic motion the acceleration vector is constant in magnitude and direction and directed along one of the axes and defined by equations x=k1t and y=k2t2 ∧ ∧ . Ans7: x=(h1/2 g t 2)(v t –1/2 g t 2 )=hvt Ans8: For a constant acceleration the second derivative of displacement with time should be a constant. which is not possible in motion in one dimension. Ans5: The angular velocity of second hand of watch= 2π /60 Velocity of tip=ω r Magnitude of change in velocity vector = √2v = √2(2π /60) cm/s = π √ 2/30 Ans6: The particle moving in a circle has acceleration vector constant in magnitude with the direction radially inwards. Hence F=√Fx2 + Fy 2 = 6√2N tanφ = Fy /Fx=1 so acts in a direction 450 with the xaxis Ans3: Acceleration a=d2x/dt2=6α t+2β which is at t=0 as a=2β Velocity v=dx/dt=3α t2 +2β t +γ which is at t=0 as v=γ So a/v=2β /γ Ans4: The motion in fig (B) has two values of velocity at a particular instant.
Ans12:In a onedimensional uniform motion the speed is constant in magnitude. The fig (D) has speed =dx/dt is constant. Ans13: The mirror image of the object forms at a far distance away from the mirror which is equal to the distance of the object from the mirror. Ans14: The velocities of the two objects are constant so the relative velocity of the one object with respect to the other is also constant. Ans15: Since the particle moves with a constant velocity than displacement time graph will be as per fig (A) showing the displacement varying linearly with time to a maximum value of a at a time a/v then it decreases linearly to value zero at time 2a/v and so on.
Ans16: After t = 8s, +ve area = ve area so total change in velocity is zero therefore particle will attain initial velocity at t=0.
Ans17: The rate of change of displacement with time that is velocity is decreasing means there is retardation of motion and finally the velocity is zero. Ans18: (A) sails 450 southwest; Ans19:Sm = (u+v)t; t= 4x104sec Ans20:(A) Ans21: d=Area under curve=6 m; (D) Ans22:(D) Ans23:(B) Ans24:(B) Ans25:(D) Ans26:(A) Ans27:(A) Ans28:(A) Ans29: (D) In the first part the distance decreases linearly and in the second part when first particle is at rest the distance decreases parabolically finally to zero when second collides. Ans30 (A) Ans31: dv/dt=1.5t0.15t2 dv/dt=0 at t=10 sec
v=1.5t2/20.15t3/3; vmax=25 m/s Ans32: 65=12 t5 t2; t=5 sec Ans33: u2 = 2x9.8x100= 14√10 m/s; a = 490 m/s2; t = 0.09 s Ans34: (v+15/2)6=60 ⇔v=5 m/s ; a=5/3 m/s2 ;∆ t=3s ; S=7.5 m Ans35: v=an; Sn = n(0+v)/2=an2/2; Sn2 = a(n2)2/2; Sl2= 2v/n(n1) Ans36: v=300 m/s ,t=30 sec and T=60 sec Ans37: t=3 sec and S3=301/2x10x5=5 m Ans38: (D) Ans39: (C) Ans40:(A) Ans41: (5+v)t1/2=PQ; (25+v)t2/2=QR; 15(t1+t2)=3PQ; t1/t2=1:1 Ans42: The train will take minimum time when it travels distance of S/2 at maximum velocity at acceleration S/2 = 1/2at2; t = √S/a; Tmin = 2√S/a Ans43: v1=v0+at1/2; v2=v +a(t1+t2/2); v3=v0+a(t1+t2+t3/2); v2v1/v3v2 =( t1+t2)/(t2+t3)
0
Ans44: (U+u)t – 1/2gt2 = u.t+1/2at2; a = (2U/t – g) Ans45: V = 20m/s; Vr = 3/4x20 = 15m/s; 0 = 1510t; t = 1.5s; Time interval = 2t = 3s Ans46: S = 4.9x2+1/2x9.8x = 9.8m; v = 4.9+9.8x2 = 14.7 m/s Ans47: S=1/2(4.9)22+(0+9.8)/2=9.8 m Ans48: t1=t2=√2s/g Ans49:(B) Ans50: (v1+v2)3 = L; (v1+1.5v2)2.5 = L; v1 = 3/2 v2; (v1v2)t = 3(v1+v2); t = 15 sec Ans51: (C) Ans52: Distance travelled in the nth second of motion ∆ Sn=u +a/2(2n1); 30=u+7a/2; 70=u+17 a/2 ; u=100 m/s and a= 20 m/s2 ; and at t=10 sec S10=0
Ans53: (C) Ans54:(B) Ans55: (A) Ans56: sin30/(2u/3t) = sinθ /ut; sinθ =¾; θ = sin1(3/4) Ans57: (C) Ans58: sin θ = 5/v; v = 5/sinθ Ans59: v = kr2; v1:v2 = 1:4 Ans60:(D) Ans61: t1/t2 = √s1/s2= 1/2 Ans62: F = ∆ p/ ∆ t = 0.01x2x5/0.01= 10 N; Ans63: (D) Ans64: (C) x = kt2; v = dx/dt = 2kt; a=dv/dt = 2k Ans65: (C) Ans66:(B) t1 = v/g1,; t2 = 2v/g2; g1t1 = g2t2 Ans67: t = 24/(5x0.6) = 8min Ans68: v0 = 20 m/s at H=25; u2=900; u = 30 m/s Ans69: (D); Ans70: (B) S = 4 m Ans71: t = 30/v’; v’ = vcosθ ; t = 2min Ans72: (D) 60 m/min Ans73: speed v/s time graph (C) Ans74: vt –1/2(at2) = 125; t=5 s Ans75: (A) Ans76: Displacement component in x dir = 2sin 45 – 2cos 45 0=0; Displacement component in y dir = 4 – 2cos 450 – 2sin 45= 42/√2; Net displacement=42/√2; Total distance covered=8 m Ans77: R = 2L/π ; Displacement = √2R = 2√2L/π ; Ratio = L/Displacement = π /2√2
(b) A starts earlier than B as evident from there initial positions x=0. When t=3. (c) B walks faster than A since slope of curve (dx/dt) is greater for B. dx/dt = 2(t3) = 0.Ans78: (A) Distance always increases with time (C) Time doesn’t decrease Ans79: Time = 4 x 8 + 5=37 sec Ans80: (A) True: Nothing is in absolute rest because there is no object in the universe.r. since the speed of the object can’t be negative. Ans95: (D) . which is at rest and nothing is in absolute motion since there is no frame which is at absolute rest and w. Ans83: v=√vx2+ vy2=√4a2t2+b2 (B) Ans84: V :V =tan 30/tan 60=1:3 A B Ans85: S=Area under curve=55 m Ans86: Vav =2s/(s/40+s/60)=48 Km/hr Ans87: Average velocity=Displacement/time=10/(30/3)=1m/s Ans88: x = (t3)2.exp(bt) Ans91: Instantaneous acceleration =dv/dt=d2x/dt2=2 a2 Ans92: ∆ v=20√2 m/s South East.t that the body can have absolute motion (B) False (C) True (C) True Ans 81: No. Ans93: (D) Ans94: (a) A lives closer to the school than B since position of B on the curve is far than of A. x = 0 Ans89: Average speed= Distance traveled/time Since dx/dt=86t and in the interval t=0 to t=1. (d) A and B reach home at the same time. Ans82: (A) in a circular motion with constant speed. dx/dt>0 Distance traveled=5 m and Average speed=5 m/s Ans90: v=dx/dt=k.
∆ t=2.Ans96: 100=20∆ t+202/8. Ans7: t1=2t/3. x = √12. ∆ t = 2u/gtl = 2s Ans12: (A). (D) Ans9: am=(122)/10=1 m/s2 Ans10: (B) Ans11: (A). d =a (t12/2)t1+(at12/2)t1/2=at2/3 Ans8: (C). s0=v12/2g=2. s=83. x = 1 m (D) The particle starts its motion at t=0 s. v = u+gt2 . (C).t . H=57 m Ans101: sn=a/2(2n1). v = v0 e. t=3.12s. v1+v2=19. (B). (C) a = α v. accel=dv/dt = b {eat}(A). (B).(C) . v22v12=98. S = v0/α ∝ α Ans14: ax+b = beat. H/g =2n–1. H=1/2gn2.3 m/s. (D) Comments: (A) The acceleration at t=0 may or may not be zero. At maximum distance v = 0.(C).8/2(2n1). √2gH t1/2gt2+1/2g(t2)2=90.6 m/s. s=1/2 gn= 44. S=sintln(t+1)+C1t+C2. t = 12s Multiple Choice Type Objective Questions Ans1: (A) Ans2: T= t1 (2+√2) Ans3: T=L/(L/60+L/90)=36 sec Ans4: Comments: ( A) at t = 0.5=9. C1=2 and C2=0 and so S(π )=2π log (π +1) Ans16: v2 = 108 – 9x2. (B). (C) Ans5: (A).5 sec Ans97: (C) Ans98: sn = u+(1/2)(a) (2n1).(B) Ans15: v= cos t(t+1)1+C1.50. n=(2 ± √2)=3. (D) Ans6:( B). v1=7.(B).69m Ans103: 98t1/2gt2=98(t4)1/2g(t4)2. (D) Ans13:(A). (D) v = u+gt1. 24.41s.1m Ans102: ut1/2gt2+1/2g(t2)2=90.75 m Ans100: sn =a/2(2n1). x = b/a{eat1}. a = 2 Ans99: (v1+v2)t/2=4. n=3. a=dv/dt = 9x.
Hence car B moves faster than A and will meet when (√31/√3)t=1. d2y/dt2 = bp2 sin pt. As per the definition of average velocity <v> is given by the latter equation (rf . VA=tan30=1/√3. y=b sin pt. It is possible to round a curve with constant and variable acceleration. (ii) This case is not possible since change in magnitude of velocity vector imparts nonzero acceleration. which suggests dv/dt ≠ 0. (D) Ans21: average speed=Distance moved/Elapsed time or average speed=2l/(l/v1+ l/v2)=2v1v2/ (v1+v2) Descriptive Type Questions Ans1: since a = kv. S=={(u+v)/2}t =24 m 2 2 . t= √3/2s Ans6: Since S={(u+v)/2}t⇒ t=2S/(u+v)=60s and acceleration=(vu)/t=2/9 m/s2 Ans7: v=5 m/s . a= b p2j^ Ans20: (A).0.(C) Ans 18: (A). Ans5: VB =tan 600=√3.Ans17: (A). (C). t=3s. u=v+at=11 m/s .(B). v = api^ . since magnitude of velocity vector is constant while dv/dt ≠ 0 that is acceleration is non zero because of change in direction. movement in a circular path at constant speed still generates acceleration because of change in direction. d2x/dt2 = ap2 cospt. (C) Ans19: x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1. (B). x= a cos pt. a= 2 m/s .ap sinpt.ri)/ (t2t1) Ans3: d v /dt means rate of change of magnitude of velocity vector irrespective of change of direction while dv/dt means magnitude of rate of change of velocity vector or acceleration vector and therefore are different quantities. v = ekt. (i) When a particle describe circular motion d v /dt= 0. dx/dt = . Ans4: Yes. dy/dt = bp cos pt. At t = π /2p . x=1/k (ekt1) Ans2: No.
Time to cross = Width of river (W)/Vertical component of velocity(Vy)=1/3√3 hour. Ans15: (i) Time of motion=5/2=2. x=e3t Ans11: (i) 0≤ t≤ 10. x10 = 210 m. t1+t2+t3 ————+t = l/u+v + lu/ 1 ∞ (u+v)2+————∞. nd . x20 = x10+ v10∆ t = 750 m x30 = x20 + v10∆ t – ½ a∆ t2 = 1000 m Ans12: v2 = u2+ 2as. dx/dt=3x. Vy = 3 sin60= 3√3/2j^. v dv/dx=9x. v=kt2/2+c1. x=kt3/6+c2. or v2=9x2. v10 = 50 m/s. a = 10 4 m/s2 Ans13: Vx = 23cos60= 0. Distance moved by the second ball in 2 sec (s2)=1/2x10x22=20 m. x=kt3/6 Ans10: a=9x.25 m . v2/2=9/2x2+c1.5=6. Assumption made is that initial velocity of the arrow is zero. or = l/u+v [1+u/u+v)+ ————] = (l/2u) =l/v=1 hour (b) Distance traveled by the time =60 miles Ans9: Since a=kt.x=1.5i^. vn=kn2/2. at t=0. S3=6 m Distance traveled in the third second=(S2.5S2)+(S2. Distance from opposite bank (x0)= Vx t= 500/3√3m Ans14: No.5S3)=0.Ans8: (a) t = l/u+v. x = ½ at2.5 m Ans16: ta=√2h/(g+r) and td=√2h/(gr) hence time of ascent is lesser than the time of descent. Ans17: True Ans18: Distance moved by the first ball in 3 sec (s1)=1/2x10x32=45m. S2=6 m . v dv=9x dx. v=kt2/2. t2 = l2vl/u+v/(u+v) = lu/(u+v)2.v=3m/s. However if displacement and distance covered by any object under observation are same in magnitude that is to say motion in a straight line than the average velocity and average speed will be the same.5 s (ii) Distance traveled in the 2 second=u+1/2(2n1)a=2 m S2. Direction of resultant velocity with vertical tanα = Vx/Vy=1/3√3.
14 i^ + 14. r = 42. θ = tan1 7. (v+20) t3/2 = 600. t2=75 sec Ans29: Let u be the initial velocity of the particle and A be the acceleration of motion a=ut1+1/2At12.61 m/s.2 ft.2 or u = 35.14) = 16. V2 = u22as. At t=5 sec. v=30 m/s Average speed=Distance traveled/time=72/4=18 m/s Ans20: l2=x2+y2 or x dx/dt= y dy/dt or dx/dt= K √ l2/x21.14 j^ D = √4. v = 13 . At t=1 sec.14/14.14 i^+ 14.04 x2=0. so for x=2 m.58 = 9. xt = uxt+1/2 a t2= 41 .0.22/4. x = 1/2at2= 1/2x1x22= 2.20 m .22m.24 cm/s (b) Average velocity = 2R/t Hence the driver was not speeding. Total time of motion=120 sec Ans26: Time of motion = 2s.142 = 14.58m. Average velocity = 0.Separation of two balls ∆ s=25 m Ans19: Instantaneous speed v=(ds/dt)=6t.0t + 1/2x10t2.96 mile/h < 30 mile/h Ans22: 50 = . t = 1±√ 41/2.28 m/s. a+b=u(t1+t2)+1/2A(t1+t2)2.03 mile/h At angle tan1 (4. Ans21: Length of skid marks = 19. vy = 3.14 j^50 i^ = 4.50 m Ans23: At t = 4. v=6 m/s.05 ft/s = 23.79 m/s. y = 7.04 t+1. (20+v) t1/2 = 200.0s.310 East of north (B) (a) mean speed = π r/t = 50. Ans25: t2=(t1 + t3). K=0.0 m Ans27: Distance from traffic light. 0 = u2 – 2x32x19. X = L – [ut – ½ at2]= 40 m Ans28: dx/dt=K/x .73 mile.85 t Ans24: Displacement of train in a whole time 110 min D= 40 i^ + 14. vx = u0 + a cos α t=12.5. (A) = 2(bt1at2)/t1t2(t1+t2) if a=b then A=2b(t1t2)/t1t2(t1+t2) Ans30: (a) parabola (b) vertical straight line (c) parabola .13 mile/minute= 8. v t2=400.142+ 14. h = 63.
Distance= (v1+v2) . t2=l/VV/2(1/α +1/β ) Total time of motion= V/2(1/α +1/β )+l/V Ans35: Let the distance of approach be x then x+1/2 (3/2)t 2=60 t. 3t2240 t+4x=0 for t to be real x=1200 m Ans36: For relative velocity of two particles to lie along AB the relative velocity component perpendicular to AB should be zero and so 2v sin{π /2(θ +α )}=v sin(π /2α ) or 2 cos (θ +α )}=v cosα Also sinα /r=sin(θ +α )/2r or sin(θ +α )=2 sin α .Ans31: Vt1=v1 i^+gt j^ and Vt2= v2 i^+gt j^ The velocities will be perpendicular to each other when Vt1.t=(v1+v2) √v1v2/g Ans32: Horizontal velocity component of flow at distance x from bank Vx=2 v0x/c. Vt2=0 Time (t)= √v1v2/g. Drift=2 ∫ 2 v0x/c dt=4 v0/u c∫ xdx=v0c/2u . also (V/2)(V/α )+V t2+(V/2)(V/β )= l. cot α =2 Ans37: Let the person travel with velocity u at a direction α East of North and wind is blowing with velocity v at angle φ East of south then as per condition u sin α =v sin φ and cot θ =(2 u cos α +v cos φ )/(2 u sin α v sin φ )=2 Then φ =π /2 and u=√ v . Drift=2 ∫ 0 T/2 2 v0x/c dt where T=time of reach up to the other bank= 2c/u and x=ut =v0c/2u Ans33: For the condition to satisfy the maximum velocity should be achieved at the middle of it’s path and therefore Vm2=2a L/2=La. or Vm= √ La Ans34: V=α t1=β t3 so t1=V/α and t3=V/β .
5 m. Total distance traveled at the last moment x6 = 2. For t to be minimum dt/dx = . VA=6a therefore acceleration of block B(a)=0. 3<t<6. an = . 2x = 0. Displacement in the time interval=2x1+1/2x2x1= 1 m Total distance traveled at the last moment = 4. Where x is the distance of the point of diversion from D. an = + 2.0 m/s2 .045 m/s2 Ans39: For the condition to achieve the motorist will travel a distance of 800 m with the decelearation a in the time interval of 15 sec and for that eq 800=(365/6)151/2 a(15 2) yields a=1 m/s2 and speed of car as it passes the light=10√21 m/s Ans40: (a) Velocity of train relative to the automobile Vrel=VAVB Vrel =√VA2+VB2+2 VA VB cosθ =√ 1202+962+2x120x96 cos 600=187. an = 0. Displacement in the time interval (s6) = 1x3 – 1/2x1x32= .1/v+ 1/2nv√l2+x2 .03 m/s2 and acceleration of block a=0.1. S1 = ½ an t2 = 0.50 = 3. an = 1m/s2.1 m/s2.5m.5 m . after 3sec.5 m. Total distance traveled at the last moment x3 = 0. So x = ln /√n21 Ans42: 0< t < 1.50+1. Displacement in the time interval (s2) = vt = 2m. Hence 2(VAVB)=VB ⇒3 VB=2VA .5+2 = 2. VB=4a .50 m. VB be the velocities of blocks A and B relative to the earth frame. 1<t<3.Ans38: Let VA. 6< t <7.5 km/h (b) Change in position of the train relative to the automobile during foursecond interval=Vrel T=208 m Ans41: Total time of motion (t ) = (AD – x)/v + √l2+x2/nv.
r. VCP are velocities of blocks B.32 m/s2 Ans46: Let VA. Then VB=VBPVA. dL/dα =0 .v/u If (v>u) . (T) Where T=B/v sinα. Β is the width of river. VA+VC=0. b = u+a/2 (2y1). VC=VCP+VA.Ans43: Let α be the direction of boat in the river frame and θ be the direction of boat in the earth frame. Height above window = v2/2g Where v=ugt so Height = 1/16 ft Ans48:a = u+a/2(2x1).3 and VBP2VA= 0. VB=0. tan θ =v sin α /(u+v cosα ) L=√{(u+v cosα )2+v2 sin2α }(B/v sinα ) For minimum L .175 m/s Ans47: s = ut – ½ gt . Cos α =u/v. (v2∆ v)t2=a . c = u+a/2 (2z1).2 .075 m/s and VC=0.r. VA=0.t earth frame Vy= v sinα Total distance moved by the boat L= √Vx2+Vy2. a(yz)+b(zx)+c(xy) =0 2 .3⇒2VA+VCP=0. VAB =√ VA2+ VB2+2 VA VB cos(18030) = 45 Km/hr (b) Tangential acceleration of A relative to B.t earth frame Vx=u+v cosα and Vertical component of boat velocity w. ∆ v=2a/t1a/t2=a(2/t11/t2) Velocity at middle screen just before impact=a/t1 Ans45:(a) Velocity of A relative to B. VAB==VAVB. C relative to the pulley over which they hang. Horizontal component of boat velocity w.125 m/s . aAB =√ aA2+ aB2+2 aA aB cos(30)=2. cos α =− u/v and so θ =π /2 And if v<u then θ =tan1(v/u2v2) Ans44: Let v be the velocity at impact to the first screen and ∆ v is the retardation produced by the each screen (v∆ v)t1=a . VB. VC are velocities of blocks relative to earth frame and VBP.
03 m/s Ans53: t= t1 + t2 + t3 = s/20+s/12+s/v. Vm = 68. with difference of a Ans50: a =∫ ( v+v cos 600)dt = 3vT/2 or T=2a/3v Ans51: ∫ (u cosα v)dt=l. v = (v2+v3)/2. Sn .50) t2 or t218 t+4x=0 and for real value of t. 20 = (v1+v2)/2. T =lv/u2v2 Ans52: Velocity of the train at moment when event 1 occur =wt (1) The distance between two events in the reference frame attached to train would be equal to L (2) The distance between the two events in the reference frame attached to earth= L – wt T 1/2 wT2 (3) Velocity of reference frame K so the two events occur at same point V. On solving for v we get v = 1+√241 Ans54: t1 = 7/40h. x ≤ 20. 3s/t = (v1+v4)/2. Sn+2 = u +a/2 {2(n+2)1}= u+a/2 (2n+3).Ans49: Sn = u+a/2 (2n1). t = ¼ h.25 m .0 km/h Ans55: Let x be the maximum distance for the just catching by the bus then 4. ∫ 0 0 T T v cos α dt =uT . Sn+2 are in A. Sn+1 = u+a/2 {2(n+1)1}= u+a/2 (2n+1).5 t=x+1/2(0. . Also (30+12v)= (v1+v4)/2=3s/t=3{1/( 1/20+1/12+1/v)} 2v24v480 = 0. 12 = (v3+v4)/2.Sn+1. (0+Vm/2) tB1 + (Vm+0/2)tB2 = S.T +w t T+1/2 w T2 = L and so V =4.P.
58. v3t= 6ft. 10 = 10tr +50/a a = 10 m/s . UB = U2aT. s = vt+1/2qt2. t1 = √2ag/f(f+g). t2 = f/g t1. v1+at1 +1/2at2 = s/t2. t2 = 2s/nv.5)(92)(4. v4t = 10ft. snt = (0+1/2 ft2 )+ {(0+ft)t+1/2 (2ft) t 2 }+ { (ft+2ft)t+1/2 (3ft) t 2 }+…… ={1+3+5+….75 m 2 . UA=UaT. s2 = vt2 – 1/2gt22. ac= (a+c2b)/n2 Ans59: v1+1/2at1 = s/t1..t +1/2x2fxt2= 5/2ft2.t12. t1 = 2s/vm.Hence total time of motion =100 sec Shortest distance=25+1/2(0. s/t1s/t2+s/t3 = v1+1/2a(t1+t2+t3) =3s/t1+t2+t3. t2 = √2af/g(f+g). s3t = 7 ft2. v = ft1. s = 2(uv)(uqpv)/(qp)2 Ans63: a1/a2 = m/n. U = 3L/2T.75 m Ans56: Maximum velocity of train A=24 Km/hr=20/3 m/s Maximum velocity of train B=48 Km/hr=40/3 m/s Ans57: Let u be the initial velocity of point at O and a the retardation. da = 3 (cb). v/<v> = (1+1/m+1/n):1 Ans64: Let tr be the reaction time and a be the rate of deceleration then 30 = 20tr +200/a.5)(9)=4. vnt=n(n+1)ft/2 (b) s1t = 1/2ft2. v1+at1+at2+at3/2 = s/t3 . OA = 4L/3 and CD=L/24 Ans58: (ba) = un+1/2acn2. da = 3[un+3/2acn2]. t= s/v [1+1/m+1/n]. tr = 0. Uc= U4aT (UA+ UB)T/2=L and (UB+ UC)T=L. s4t = 15 ft2. s = 18. s2t = ½ ft2+ft. a = 1/2ft12+v(f/g)t1 – 1/2f2/g. <v> = s/t = v/{1+1/m+1/n}. t = 2(uv)/(qp).At the shortest distance of meet the velocities will be equal at time t=9s and time taken by train A to reach it’s maximum velocity=(20/3)(6)=40 sec Time taken by train B to reach it’s maximum velocity=(40/3)(3)=40 sec Let t be the time after 80 sec of motion since start of train A then at the point of overtaking 1200/3+20/3 t= 800/3+20/3 t ⇔ t=20 sec . v2t =3ft. (ca) = 2un+ 2acn2. t = √2a(f+g)/fg Ans61:(a) v1t=ft. a = L/3T2. 1/t1+1t2 +1/t3 = 3/t1+t2+t3 Ans60: s1 = ½ ft12 .(n1)terms} ft 2 + {1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 +……n terms}= n(n+1)(2n+1)ft2/12 Ans62: s = ut+1/2pt2.
t = √ 2h/ng. Ans69: v = dr/dt= a(1 –2α t ) and w = 2 a α . where (n=0. t=1/α and since v <0 after t=1/2α S= 0∫ 1/2 1 α v dt + α ∫ α v dt =a/2α 1/2 Ans70: Since ft=2f(t2)⇔ t2=t/2 sec. v2=√u2– 2gh(11/n) = √2gh/n (n2)/2. r =0 at t=0.1. TAD = √6s/g. TAB = √2s/g. v1 = √2gh/n. the direction of wind is along the diagonal AC and plane moves along the path ABCD then u for path AB. TBC = (√4√2) √s/g. Hence length of shaft=ft2/2+ft2/4=3/4ft2 Ans71: (a) 0<t<10.3) and there after time interval of t 1/2 and will move for an interval of t1/2. Vad = 2Vau. vAB=u cos 450+v cosθ =(u+√2v2u2)/√2 B v A θ Time taken to fly along AB=√2 a/(u+√2v2u2). acceleration a=0. 10<t<18 .Ans65: AB = BC=CD. Vm=ft. similarly Time taken to fly along BC=√2 a/(u+√2v2u2) Time taken to fly along CD=√2 a/(√2v2u2u) Time taken to fly along DA= √2 a/(√2v2u2u) Total time of fly=2√2a√2v2u2/(v2u2) . TCD=(√6√4) √s/g TAB: TBC: TCD:: 1: (21/2 1) : (31/2 . acceleration a=1 m/s2 and displacement s=52+6(t18)1/2(1)(t18)2=6t561/2(t18)2 and max displacement at t=24 sec when v=0 equals to 70m or x=54 m D C Ans72: Let ABCD be a square of side a. h(11/n) = u√2h/ng – ½ g. v2/v1 = (n2)/2 Ans68: The balls coincide in magnitude and direction after a lapse of time when ball 2 is given a delay time of τ =nt1. Vad = √u2+2gh. hm = u2/2g = 5/3 h Ans67: h/n = 1/2gt2. TAC = √4gs. (2h/ng).2 ½) Ans66: Vau = √u22gh. u = √10/3 gh. acceleration a=0 and displacement s=vt.5)(t10)2=2t+1/4(t10)2 (b) 18<t<24.2.5 m/s2 and displacement s=20+2(t10)+1/2(0. u = √ngh/2.
upward acceleration = (ρ ω /ρ b1) g = g.Ans73: Resultant velocity of the man in flowing water when it rows in a direction perpendicular to flow = √u2 – v2 Time taken to row a distance L (t1) =L/(√ u2v2) and t2= L/(u+v) then t1/t2=[(u+v)/(uv)]1/2 Ans74: At any instant t. Vf = L/2T OR (Ve+Vf)T=Vf(T+t)+(VeVf)t Which implies that T=t L=Vf(T+t)=2VfT Vf=L/2T Ans78: For collision to take place the unit vectors in the direction of vector joining initial points and relative velocity vector should be equal √ u2v2 u v .6 m/s. S=√(l1v1t)2+(l2v2t)2. Upward acceleration =(dL/d1)g Total time of motion for ball to reach at the point of release = t1+ 2 x g t1/2(dL/d1)=t1[dL/(dLd)] Ans77: let Ve be the velocity of the motorboat (m/s) relative to the flow and V f be the flow velocity (m/s) Tt = L/Vf = T + (Ve +Vf)T L/(Ve –Vf). Time the ball take to stop in water T1 = u/g Time taken by ball to rise back to surface=2 T1 = 4 s Ans76: Velocity of ball at the point of contact = gt1/2. For S to be minimum dS/dt=0 At t=(v1l1 + v2l2)/(v12+v22) and Lmin==(v2l1 – v1l2)/√(v12+v22) Ans75: Velocity at the point of contact on water u= √2gh = 19.
or (v1v2)/ v1v2 = r2r1/ r2r1 Ans79: Velocity vector of particle1 at any instant =v1 i^gt j^ velocity vector of particle 2 at any instant =v2i^gtj^ When these two vectors are perpendicular there dot product should zero . Position of fourth ball at the end of t=6 sec x4 = 1/2x10x22 = 20m. (v1i^gtj^).v2/g Ans80: Velocity of heleicpter at the instant engine is switched off v = at1. t1 = 26. 3t12+640t1 – 192000 = 0. v =80 m/s Ans81: Let v and vr be the velocities of the boat and river respectively than L/(v+vr)=8. . OR t1 + 1/2at12/c = t2. Displacement at that instant S1 = 1/2at12.67 s . L/(vvr)=12.(v2i^gtj^)=0 t=√v1 v2 /g Since particles travel same vertical distance in the same time and therefore relative displacement is only horizontal one and distance between particles at the instant=(v1+v2)t =(v1+v2) √v1. Time of last sound signal reaches to the point of take off = t2= t1+s/c. Position of fifth ball at the end of t=6 sec x5 = 1/2x10x12 = 5 m Ans83: Velocity of the particle at the instant its acceleration changes sign v1 = a t1.6 Hours Ans82: Position of third ball at the end of t=6 sec x3 = 1/2x10x32 = 45m. Time required to travel boat in still water= L/v=9. Displacement of the helicopter at that instant s = 1/2at12.
7= ½ x11xt2.61km/h. t2 = x/(v1+v2) .46 2 =1.4 m/s upward Acceleration of bolt with respect to elevator floor = 9. s1= 2.46+1/2 x 10 x 0.70 s (b) In the reference frame attached to the shaft the displacement of the bolt during free fall = . t = t1 (2±√ 2).58 s.0m/s2—downward Time taken to travel a distance 2.46 s= 0x0. truck = 0.r.7+ ½ x10 x 0.t.058 m Total distance covered in 0. t = 24.24s. Sc = 1/2at2= 600 m.72= 0.87 km Ans85: dx/dt=α√ x. T=t1+t2= x/2v0 + x/(v1+v2) Vav=x/T= 2v0(v1+v2)/(2v0 + v1+v2 ) .70 s = 1.5 x 600 = 450 m Ans88: Let x be the distance between the two points x and t1.2. Vav=s/ts=α√ s/2 Ans86: Velocity of elevator car at the instant bolt falls or after 2 sec of start V0 = 2. St = ½ x 1.5 m/s 2 S = 0. r(t) = VRt = 38.20 = 11. t2 be the time of motion in two parts of journey each having measurement x/2 So t1=x/2v0 x/2 = v1t2/2+v2t2/2. Displacement at time t=20 sec.4 x 0. t = 0.Now displacement at time t when the particle returns to its initial position from the instant when acceleration changes sign or at time t=t1= 1/2at12 = at1(tt1) – 1/2a(tt1)2.8 + 1.4 x 0. 2√x =α t. 2.34 m Ans87: Relative Acceleration of car w. not possible then t = (2+√2)t1 Ans84: resultant velocity of the plane VR = √1002+602 = 116.242=0.1+1/2at2. since t = (2√2) t1 < t1 .7 m . Inclination of plane from north ϕ = tan1 (3/5) west of north.288 m Distance arrival during downward and motion in next 0.77 m (c) Distance covered during upward motion to=0.241/2 x 10 x 0.
t = 16±√ 8/2.01= 2985.Ans89: Fig(a) (acc) (vel) (acc) Fig(b) (vel) OA ve + ve zero OA + ve  AB zero + ve . Similarly acceleration is positive when dx/dt function is increasing or d2x/dt2>0 and negative when converse is true. since t has imaginary number hence Q cannot catch B . Ans90: x = 1/2gt2 0≤ t ≤ t0 t0 ≤ t ≤ 2 t0 hx= (√2gh)(tt0)1/2g(tt0)2 x=h{(√2gh)(tt0)1/2g(tt0)2} where h is the height of fall.ve .ve AB + ve BC ve zero zero BC + ve + CD zero . Ans91: Velocity of impact= √2gs1= 16 ft/s ↓ Velocity of rebound = √2gs2 = 8√3 ft/s ↑ Average acceleration=Rate of Change in velocity (∆ v) = (16+8√3)/0.64 ft/s2 Ans92: S=33=(91)t + 1/2 (12) t2 t2 – 16t +66 = 0.ve CD + ve See here velocity is positive when dx/dt>0 and negative when converse is true.
since t1 = 2t2. where t1 is the time of acceleration and deceleration and t2 is the time of uniform motion. Distance traveled with acceleration s1 = 1/2at 2. vc2=u2. Velocity at center (vc ) = u+at1. vcu = 2(vvc). hence A cannot catch B Ans94: Case1: v2 = u2+2al. ½ at12+at1t2+1/2at12 = <v> T. 7 u2 –8 uv +v2=0 v=7u Ans95: T = 2t1+ t2. Substitute the value of vc =√v2+u2/2. t1= vcu/a . t = 30±√ 300/2. t2 = vvc/a. 1 Distance traveled with uniform motion s2 = Vm t2= at1t2 . (c) Displacement in 0≤ t≤ 4 = 0 2 . t2 = T2t1= T√14<v>/aT Ans96: (a) Distance travelled in first 2s = Area of ∆ AOB = 1/2x2x10 = 10 m.Ans93: S=150=(7218)x1000/3600 t + ½ (1) t 2 t2 – 30t+300= 0. (b) Distance travelled in 2≤ t≤ 4 = Area of ∆ BCD= 10 m. Distance traveled with deceleration s3 = at1t11/2at12= 1/2at1 . Since solution is not a real number.2 a l/2 vc=√v2+u2/2. a = v2u2/2l.
ut+5{t2+(t2)2}=90. t3 = √2h/g. where t1 is the time of motion with velocity upward h = ut +1/2gt22 where t2 is the time of motion with velocity downward 2 t1t2 = 2u/g. u22gx90=0 u = 30√2m/s. Time of deceleration t3= 10s/Vm.(d) acceleration at t=1/2s = slope of OA= 10 m/s (e) Acceleration at t =20s = 10 m/s Ans97: s = ½ Vm t1. t =4. 3s = Vm(t2) Time of uniform motion t2 = 3s/Vm.98 s Ans100: Velocity attained at the end of t=1 min. t3 = √2h/g = √t1t2 Ans99: ut –1/2gt2+1/2g(t2)2 = 90. where t3 is the time of motion with zero initial velocity 2h = g t1t2. Distance moved in time t= 1 min. Time of acceleration t1 = 2s/Vm. h1 = 1/2x10x602 = 18 km Let h2 be the distance moved further with acceleration g downward . Vav (t1 + t2 + t3 )=9s <v>/Vm = 3/5 Ans98: If h is the height of tower then 2 2 h = ut11/2gt12 . v= 0 + a t=600m/s. Vm/2 (t3 )= 5s.
0 = (600)22x10xh2. Ve+Vwi+Vw = 15. Vwi and Vw be the velocities of ship. wind and stream water respectively as observed on earth frame. t = 60 s 1 2 Ans101: a = √t. Time taken by boat to come back to original position after traveling distance of 500m TB = 2x500/20cosθ = 100/√3. Ve+Vw = 18j^ .97i^+12.32 km/h θ= tan (5/3) South of West 1 . t=(15)2/3 Distance d =4t = 4(15) 2/3 5/2 3/2 Ans102: Distance moved by the passenger train before stopping S = (4020)x0. h2 = 36x104/20 = 18 km.0i^20.5+(4020)2 /2=220 m <250 m Ans103: Let the boat B moving in the direction perpendicular to current keeps its direction at angle θ with the normal to the bank. 0 = 60010 x t . θ = 300 . Time taken by boat A moving first in current direction and then returning back in the direction opposite to current TA = 500/30+500/10= 200/3 So TA/TB = 2/√3 Ans104: Let Ve. So sinθ = 1/2.03j^. Ve= .12. dv/dt = √t. Total max height attained = h + h = 36 km. Now as per the observations Ve+Vwi = 4i^. d=∫ v dt = 4/15(t) = 4t. v = 2/3t .0j^= 23.
Case 2: When two trains move in the same directions 2l/v1v2 = 15.20.5i^+13 j^= 39. Now for t to be real b2. t = 2a/3b = 2s.4 a c ≥ 0 or L ≤ (v1+v2)2/ 2(a1+a2). x1= 4 ft Distance traveled in next 2s x2 = ∫ (2at – 3bt2) dt = . we get v1 = 36 m/s. v2 = 12 m/s Ans108: Velocity of the man on the escalator Vm = x/90. At t = 0. (x/90+x/60) t = x. (a1+a2)t2 – 2(v1+v2)t +2L = 0. dx/dt = 2at. hence at t = 2s the particle reverses its direction of motion. t = 36 s Ans109: Let L be the distance between the two particles when they can meet so L = (v1+v2)t –1/2 (a1+a2)t2. Distance traveled in t=2s. 2 4 Total distance traveled= 24 ft Ans107: Case1: When the two trains move in opposite directions 2l/u1+u2 = 15/2. Velocity of the escalator Ve = x/60. 19.3bt2 = 0. ( Vm+Ve)t = x. Lmax = (v1+v2)2/2 (a1+a2) Chapter 5 Motion in a Plane .Ans105: Vw.0 = (Vw cos60+Vs) i^+Vw sin60 j^ = 37.100 Ans106: x = at2bt3.69 km/h . Solving for v1and v2 .
we might choose either the distances from Cartesian’s coordinate system that is two perpendicular coordinate axes x & y axis or polar coordinate system that is distance from a origin and angle made by the x axis. So far. we will now extend our thought of a motion to a more general case of motion in two and three dimensions. two or three dimensional. acceleration and relative motion with application for a most simplified case of motion in one dimension. The location of a particle could be only established if we choose the correct frame of reference and which is in itself a combination of coordinate axis system. Location of particle during motion Whenever we are concerned with a motion of a particle it may be one. The change in position vector of the object denotes the displacement of the object from its initial position. Unlike the ordinary vector it is not a position independent vector. To locate the instantaneous position of a particle.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions In this chapter. A simple approach is to describe its location with respect to three perpendicular coordinate axes or an alternative approach is to use spherical coordinates r. It is related with the position of object whose location is under consideration and origin of reference frame and establishes the relationship between the two. However in this chapter we are more concerned about motion in a plane therefore only two reference axis are required to locate its instantaneous position. If the particle is not confined to a plane but moves in three dimensions three numbers are needed to specify its location. θ and φ . it is very first essential to locate the position of a particle at a particular instant of observation. we have learnt the definition of displacement. Spherical coordinates are useful when there is a spherical . Now we are in the stage to extend it to the motion in the xy plane and later to the motion in three dimensions. velocity. In terms of vector notation the position of particle is defined by the position vector r whose head points to the origin O and tail points to its position.
which is defined as per vector notation as r r2r1. it has occupied a position A as shown in the figure. As discussed earlier its instantaneous position may be defined in terms of vector algebra by the position vector r1. If the particle moves along straight line path than displacement of particle equals the distance moved but if another path is chosen than displacement will be always less than the distance moved during that time interval. At any instant of motion.symmetry that is radial distance from origin is constant and only θ and φ varies. .1 shows a particle moving along a curved path in this plane. Now in a time interval ∆ moving along the curved path. ∆ r = r 2 − r1 Hence. it occupy another t position B as defined by the position vector r2. it clearly indicates that displacement of particle is independent of the path the particle traverses during its motion but depends only on initial and final positions during motion and follows vector law in terms of its position vector. say at time t1. The usual relationship between Cartesian coordinates and spherical coordinate is shown here: x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ 2 2 2 r = x + y + z tan θ = tan φ = y x 2 + 2 x y z Displacement of particle during motion in a plane Figure4. Now the displacement of particle from one position to another is defined by the vector ∆ .
the concept t r of average velocity during the physical movement of a particle in a plane in any arbitrary path has little physical meaning when time interval of motion is considered large enough. middle or at end. For a large time interval of motion. it is again described as the rate of change of displacement and written as v av = ∆r . However. The matter will be clear in the next stage while defining concept of instantaneous velocity / average velocity/ instantaneous acceleration that how important are these tools to analyze and describe the different types of motions observed in the nature.Now the one question arises in one’s mind why the concept of vector displacement has been generated although there is no practicable relationship with the physical movement of the particle during its motion. Average velocity of particle during motion in a plane Now again consider the motion of particle along curved path in a plane as shown in fig 1. On the same lines of the definition of average velocity defined earlier during the study of motion along a straightline path. In our case the particle has moved from position A to position B. It is a vector quantity directed along the direction of vector and ∆t physically denotes the rate of change of straight movement of particle from its initial position to the next position in the said time interval. there is a distinct difference between the actual distance traversed and the distance considered for our purpose that is displacement. whatever may be path than its average velocity is defined by v av = ∆r ∆t Where ∆ is the vector displacement r2r1 in the time interval ∆ . the average velocity does not attribute to the state of motion either at the start. Instantaneous velocity during motion in a plane . Therefore. It is only an average value for general interpretation of motion.
The instantaneous velocity of the particle is now defined as limiting rate of displacement ∆ when ∆t → 0 . P3. Since velocity vector is defined as a vector quantity. In that case. therefore change in velocity vector is also predicted to be a vector quantity. The acceleration vector during motion in a plane Now we shall define a term acceleration vector that is essentially the backbone of all fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics. Therefore it clearly depicts the instantaneous state of motion say at time t=t1 in terms of magnitude and direction. the direction of velocity vector v is tangent to the path of r the particle. The term has the same conceptual meaning as has been defined earlier during the discussion of motion in one dimension.Now consider the motion of particle along curved path in a plane as shown in fig 4. As the time interval of motion under consideration is now decreased slowly than in a limiting condition the physical displacement is just equal to the distance traversed and the direction of vector displacement is the direction of physical motion along tangent to the instantaneous position of particle. the instantaneous velocity vector denotes the instantaneous rate of displacement along any path of movement of particle and in terms of direction. P2. at different time intervals ∆t . ∆t 1 2 3 4 as P1. P4. The acceleration vector is further divided into its two forms like as velocity . The acceleration vector is a term defining change in velocity vector with respect to time. it is directed along the tangent to the path of motion that should be. The instantaneous velocity v(t) is defined as v(t ) = Lim ∆t →0 ∆r dr = ∆t dt As per definition. ∆t .2. The fig shows the instantaneous positions of particle initiating motion at time t1. ∆t .
Force is required to be applied whether the acceleration is produced either due to change of .3. It is expressed as a(t ) = Lim ∆t →0 ∆v dv = ∆t dt Therefore. We shall see in the next chapter that a force is required to produce an acceleration of particle. if the time interval of motion is considered infinitesimal or tending to zero than rate of change of velocity vector with respect to time is defined as instantaneous acceleration. The particle has got as per definition instantaneous velocity vector at points P and P as v1.3.. direction or both the particle is said to be accelerating. Average acceleration Now again consider the motion of a particle in a plane as shown in fig 4. the instantaneous acceleration vector is the derivative of velocity vector with respect to time. It is important to note here that if the particle during motion has velocity changing in magnitude. Instantaneous acceleration Now as shown in fig 4. aav = ∆v = ∆t (v − v ) 2 1 ∆t Here ∆ is a vector difference of vectors v1 and v2 and therefore itself is a vector v quantity. t2 respectively.vector in terms of time interval of motion under consideration during study of motion in a plane. Now if the time interval of motion is considered large enough than the average acceleration vector is defined as the ratio of the change in instantaneous velocity vector Dv and time interval Dt. v2 at different 1 2 times of motion t1.
Let us consider the general motion of a particle with constant acceleration: ax= constant and ay=constant Now under the following set of conditions. An example of the above situation is the motion of a ball thrown into air.magnitude of velocity or change in direction of velocity vector or both. Hence the components of vector a in any particular reference frame will also remain constant. The situation is similar to the two simultaneous constant acceleration motions occurring along two perpendicular directions. The horizontal acceleration is zero. Under the influence of that. which follows a curved path under the influence of gravity acceleration g acting downward. velocity vector at any instant v = v x iˆ + v y ˆ = ( v0 x + a x t )iˆ + j (v + a t ) ˆj = (v 0y y 0x iˆ + v0 y ˆ + j ) (a iˆ + a ˆj )t = v + at x y 0 The above equation shows in a compact and more elaborate form that the velocity of particle at any instant is the vector sum of initial velocity vector and at vector component acquired in time t and also displacement vector r at any instant: r = r 0 + v0 t + 1 2 a 2 t Projectile motion . This is the reason why the acceleration is defined in this way. In this case when particle is moving with a constant acceleration therefore it implies that acceleration vector is constant in magnitude and direction as well. the particle will traverse the curvilinear path however one of the components may be zero. Motion with constant acceleration Let us consider the motion of a particle in a plane with constant acceleration.
When the acceleration is constant then above equations can also be applied considering motion along two axes separately. we neglect these complications. When a body is thrown upward under the influence of gravity.An important case of curvilinear motion with constant acceleration is projectile motion. The motion is therefore a twodimensional. If the air resistance during follow up is neglected then the body experiences the only acceleration due to gravity directed vertically downward. then we have ay= g and ax=0 . As the acceleration vector is constant then instantaneous velocity vector. If we take yaxis vertical with positive direction upward and xaxis horizontal with positive direction in the direction of horizontal component of the projectile velocity at the point of start. Let us choose the motion to be in the x. then the body follows the path known as projectile motion (fig 4. y plane and initial position of the particle be at origin of the coordinate system. rotation of earth on its own axis and variation in the acceleration due to gravity. acceleration vector and position vector lies in a plane. As said earlier the projectile motion has a constant acceleration directed vertically downward with magnitude g=9.81 m/s2=32. The motion of projectile is made complicated by the prevailing air resistance when body is drifted through the air. The x and y components of the above equations are v =v x 0x + ax t 1 2 ax t 2 1 2 ay t 2 x= y x0 + v 0 x t + 0y v =v y= + ay t 0y y +v 0 t+ The velocity components along each axis will be governed by the respective acceleration component.4).2 ft/s2. Let us now apply these results to the motion of a projectile. For employing lesser complexity.
the initial velocity v v 0x 0y = v0 cosθ 0 = v0 sinθ 0 The general equation for the path y(x) can be obtained from equation by eliminating the variable t between these two equations and is given by : v y( x ) = v path. of velocity vector remains constant and on the other hand.Since there is no acceleration along the xaxis therefore the horizontal component. the motion along yaxis can be considered to be with constant acceleration identical to that studied earlier. 0y 1 g 2 1 g x− = x tanθ − 2 2x 2 2 2 0x v0x v 0 cos θ 2 x Which is the equation of a parabola therefore the trajectory of the particle follows a parabolic . If the origin of motion is considered from the origin of coordinate axis then the instantaneous velocity components and instantaneous displacements are governed by the following equations.4) v =v v = v − gt x=v t x 0x y 0y 0x y = v0 y t − 1 2 g 2 t If the initial velocity vector makes an angle components will be θ 0 with the xaxis. where v0x and v0y are the initial velocity components or velocity components at origin of axis ( see fig 4.
But if a body is projected from a certain height then in this condition the body remains in air for a longer duration therefore for maximum range the horizontal component is slightly higher than the .Now we shall try to find out the range (maximum horizontal distance) and time to reach the highest point of the trajectory for the above motion: Range of projectile When the body reaches at the highest point P of the trajectory as shown in fig 4.4 the vertical component of the velocity vector becomes zero therefore time of flight up to the moment t= v 0y g and the range is the horizontal distance traveled in twice of this time and is given by 2 v0 y 2 v0 x v0 y = R = v0 x g g In terms of initial velocity ( ) v 0 and angle θ 0 t= (v sinθ ) 0 0 g 2 R= 2 v 0 sin θ 0 cosθ 0 g = v 0 sin 2θ g 2 0 Since the maximum value of sin 2θ 0 is 1 when 2θ 0 = 90 0 =90° or θ = 45 0 0 . then maximum range is admitted when the body is projected at angle of 45° from the horizontal and maximum range is given by vo2/g. It is to be noted also that for achieving maximum range the two initial velocity components should be equal in magnitude.
in our discussion. As we would expect the air resistance reduces the range for a given angle of projection and reduces slightly the optimum angle of projection. It is due to the Coriolis effect. which arises due to the surface of earth. Maximum height of projectile At maximum height of projectile 2 v y =0 0 = v0 sin θ 2 2 0 − 2 gH 2 So H = v 0 sin θ 0 2g Projectile thrown parallel to horizontal Consider a projectile thrown from a point O at some height h from the ground with a velocity v 0x .vertical component that is angle of projection is smaller than 45°. we have not considered the effect of air resistance and the earth’s orbital motion. Now the equation of its motion in two directions may be depicted here as . So far. Due to earth’s orbital motion the projectile motion doesn’t remain in the plane formed by the initial horizontal and vertical components but gets slightly drifted to right in northern hemisphere and to left in the southern hemisphere. It is also evident from the above equation that for a given range there are two possible angles of projection q0 and 90q0 that provide same range. Studies have shown it to be about 42°. is accelerating radially because of the earth rotation on its own axis.
The angle of inclination of plane from horizontal is For the motion perpendicular to the plane θ 0.1.4 Projectile thrown from an inclined plane Consider a particle thrown from the base of an inclined plane with a velocity v at an angle θ from the horizontal. 1 2 0 = v sin(θ − θ 0 )T − g cosθ 0 T 2 2v sin(θ − θ 0) T= g cosθ 0 For the motion along the plane . 4. The particle thrown in the downward direction will take least time while thrown upward will take maximum time. Time of flight = 2h g Horizontal range= v 0x 2h g Now if particles are thrown at an angle with horizontal then all the particles will arrive at ground with equal velocities whatever is the time of arrival.x = v0 x t 1 2 g 2 t 2 gx y= 1 2 2 v0x y= This is the equation of trajectory.6.
Projectile thrown with variable acceleration Now consider the motion of a particle in the x–y plane with instantaneous velocity v = i +x ˆ aˆ b j where a and b are constants and particle is situated at x=0.( ) 1 g sinθ T 2 2 sin(θ − θ ) cosθ = v g cos θ R = v cos θ − θ 0 T − 2 0 2 0 0 2 Range is maximum when θ is π θ0 + 4 2 and projectile hits the plane at right angles. y=0 at t=0 x = at dy and = bx = abt dt So 2 ab t y= 2 Eliminating t from these two equations y= bx 2a 2 The radius of curvature of trajectory at any instant t is given by dy 2 1+ dx y= d y dx 2 2 3 2 3 2 bx 2 a = 1+ b a .
(A) hits the monkey (B) misses to hit the monkey (C) cannot be said (D) None of these Ans2: (A) Q3. then H/T will be(u=projection velocity. A hunter aims his gun and fires a bullet directly at a monkey on a tree. H/T = u sinθ /4 Q2. If T were the total time of flight of a current of water and H be the maximum height attained by it from the point of projection. It will hit the ground after a time. then the product of times of flight will be(A) t1t2 α R (B) t1t2 α R2 (C) t1t2 α 1/R (D) t1t2 α 1/R2 Ans3: t1t2=4 u2sinθ cosθ /g2=2 u2sin2θ /g2 α R Q4. T = 2u sinθ /g. monkey drops. If t1 and t2 be the times of flight in two cases.Exercise 1 Q1. At the instant bullet leaves the gun.8 m/s making an angle of 300 with the horizontal. A projectile can have the same range r for two angles of projections. and the bullet. A body is thrown with a velocity of 9. (A) 3 s (B) 2 s (C) 1. θ =projection angle) (A) (1/2 )u sinθ (B) (1/4) u sinθ (C) u sinθ (D) 2u sinθ Ans1: Hmax= u2 sin2 θ /2g.5 s (D) 1 s .
How far horizontally it missed the target? (A) 1000 m (B) 2000 m (C) 100 m (D) 200 m Ans7: ½ gt2 = 480 or t=10s . If a body of mass 2m is projected from the top of another tower of height 2h in the horizontal direction so that it falls on the ground at a distance 2x from the tower. h and H refer to heights of points above horizontal plane. H=v T1/2 g T2 where T= v/g.Ans4: Time of flight = 2u sinα /g = 1 s Q5. if a packet is dropped from it. v t=h. An airplane is moving with a horizontal velocity u at a height h above the ground.6 The trajectory of the projectile is shown in fig. An airplane is flying horizontally with a velocity of 720 km/h at an altitude of 490 m. A body A is dropped from a height h above the ground. t and T refer to times to reach the points P and B respectively. From the top of a tower of height h a body of mass m is projected in the horizontal direction with a velocity v. When it is just vertically above the target a bomb is dropped from it. V = √u2+ 2gh Q9. time another body B at a distance d from the projection of A from the ground is fired at an angle a to the horizontal. Vh = u. the speed of the packet when it reaches the ground will be(A) √(u2 +2gh) (B) √2gh (C) √(u22gh) (D) 2gh Ans8: Vv = √2gh. Then H/h will be equal to (A) (T/t)2 (B) (T/t) (C) T/t/(2(t/T)) (D) (T/t)2/{2(T/t)1} Ans6: (C) h= v t. H/h=( T/t)/(2(t/T)) Q7. tanα = v/u=h/d Q. it falls on the ground at a distance x from the tower.X = ut = 2000 m Q8. If the two collide at the point of the maximum height of trajectory of B the angle of projection is given by : (A) α = tan–1[d/h] (B) α = sin–1[h/d] (C) α = tan–1 [h/d] (D) α =cos–1 [h/d] Ans5: u t=d. the horizontal velocity of the second body is . At the same.½ g t2.
at an angle of 600 with the horizontal. After how much time the velocity vector will make an angle of 450 with the horizontal (Take g=10 m/s2 ) (A) √3 sec (B) 1/√3 sec (C) (√3+1) sec (D) (√31) sec. H and v is . An object is thrown at an angle a to the horizontal (00<α <900) with a velocity u then during ascent (ignoring air drag) the acceleration(A) With which the object moves is g at all points (B) Tangential to the path decreases (C) Normal to the path increases. A bomber is moving with a velocity v (m/s) above H meter from the ground. The angular momentum of the projectile at the maximum height h about point of projection will be(A) Zero (B) mv3/4√2g (C) mv3/2√2g (D) None of these Q13. The bomber releases a bomb to hit a target T when the sighting angle is θ .5 sec then calculate the height of the bridge from the water surface(A) 61.9 m (B) 35 m (C) 70 m (D) None Q11. Q12. A projectile is thrown with a velocity of 20 m/s. A stone is thrown from a bridge at an angle of 300 down with the horizontal with a velocity of 25 m/s.(A) 2v (B) √2v (C) v/2 (D) v/√2 2 Ans9: v= √2hg + u Q10. Then the relation between θ . becoming equal to g at the highest point (D) All of the above Q14. An object of mass m is projected with velocity v at an angle 450 with the horizontal. If the stone strikes the water after 2.
Then which of the following statement is true(A) The time of flight is the same for all the three (B) The launch speed is greatest for particle C (C) The horizontal velocity component is greatest for particle C (D) All of the above. The height from the bottom at which the shell strikes the sidewalls of the cliff is(A) R tanα 1/2gR2/v02cos2α (B) R tan α 1/2gR2/v02 (C) R sinα 1/2gR2/v02sin2α (D) R tan α +1/2gR2/v02 . the ball will just hit the edge of n th step if n equals to(A) hu2/gb2 (B) u2g/gb2 (C) 2hu2/gb2(D) 2u2/hb2 Q17. Three projectile A. A ball rolls off top of a stairway with a horizontal velocity u m/s. B and C are thrown from the same point in the same plane. The speed of the water is 20 m/sec as it leaves the hose. Their trajectories are shown in the figure. Q16.(A) θ = tan1 v √2Hg (B) θ = tan1 v √2/gH (C) θ = tan1 v √H/2g (D) None of the above Q15. To achieve this. A hosepipe lying on the ground shoots a stream of water upward at an angle of 600 to the horizontal. It will strike a wall 10 m away at a height of(A) 10. A canon on a level plain is aimed at an angle α above the horizontal and a shell is fired with a muzzle velocity v0 towards a vertical cliff a distance R away.32 m (C) 10 m (D) 20 m Q19. A boy throws a ball with a velocity v0 at an angle θ to the horizontal. he should run with a velocity of(A) v0 cosθ (B) v0 sinθ (C) v0 tanθ (D) √v02 tanθ Q18. If the steps are h m high and b m wide.5 m (B) 12. At the same instant he starts running with uniform velocity to catch the ball before it hits the ground.
A projectile of mass m is fired with velocity v from the point P at an angle 450 with the horizon.A gun has a maximum range of 5 km on a horizontal plane. Then the maximum height attained is(A) 5/2 km (B) 5√2 km (C) 5/√2 km (D) 50/49 km. at what elevation angle should the gun be pointed(A) 300 (B) 450 (C) 600 (D) 750 . The particles are given different initial velocities and projected in different direction. If a shell is fired vertically upwards. Two particles are projected simultaneously in the same plane from the same point on Earth’s surface. Q23. A ball is thrown at an angle of 450 with the horizontal with kinetic energy E. is a(A) Circle (B) parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) straight line. the horizontal ranges described by the projectile are in the ratio of (if θ ≥ 450)(A) 2:1 (B) 1:2 (C) 1:1 (D) 2:3 Q25. To hit a target. The magnitude of change in momentum when it passes through the point Q on the same horizontal line on which P lies is(A) mv/√2 (B) 1/2mv (C) zero (D) √2mv Q22. The kinetic energy at the highest point during the flight is(A) Zero (B) E/2 (C) E (D) (B) ½ E Q21. which consistently shoots its shell with the same muzzle speed. has a maximum range of R. then the time of flight is(A) 1/ √ g (B) 2/√g (C) 3/√g (D) 4/√g Q24. For angle of projection of a projectile at angles (45+θ ) and (45θ ). An artillery piece. If a particle follows the trajectory y= x1/2x2. Q26. The path of one projectile as seen from the other projectile. which is R/2 from the gun and on the same level.Q20.
A projectile has the maximum range of 500 m.Q27. The ratio of their times of flight is(A) 1:1 (B) tanθ : 1 (C) 1 : tanθ (D) tanθ /2 : 1 Q29. the distance covered by it along the inclined plane will be (A) 250 m (B) 500 m (C) 750 m (D) 1000 m Q31. For a projectile its range is equal to maximum height attained then the value of angle of projection θ is given by – (A) sinθ =1/2 (B) tanθ =4 (C) cosθ =3/4 (D) cosθ = ¼ Q28. It was calculated that a shell when fired from a gun with a certain velocity and at angle of elevation 5π /36 radian would strike a given target. A ball is projected at an angle of 600 from the horizontal with a velocity of 6 m/s. then the ball appears to move (neglect air resistance)(A) In a parabolic path (B) vertically upwards and then fall vertically downward (C) In a hyperbolic path (D) none of these Q30. A horizontally flying aeroplane releases a bomb. At what angle of elevation the gun is fired to hit the target(A) 5π /36 rad (B) 11π /36 rad (C) 7π /36 rad (D) 13π /36 rad Q32. If the projectile is now thrown up an inclined plane of 300 with the same speed. What is the maximum area on the ground on which these bullets will spread(A) π v2/g (B) π v4/g2 (C) π 2v4/g2 (D) π 2v2/g2 Q33. Two bullets are fired at angles θ and (90θ ) to the horizontal with the same speed. A person observes the projectile from a vehicle moving horizontally with uniform velocity of 3 m/s. The trajectory of the bomb is a – . In actual practice it was found that a hill just prevented in the trajectory. A large number of bullets are fired in all direction with the same speed v.
Ans36: (A) Q37.(C) V cos 450 = 20. (B) He would be left behind the plane. Two bullets are fired simultaneously. At the moment he just touches ground (A) He would be just below the airplane at that moment. To save itself monkey can(A) Either sit at the position or drop the downward (B) Either sit at the position or jump upward (C) Either jump upward or drop downward (D) Nothing can be said Ans35: (B) Q36. (B) parabola Q34. Ans:34. V =20 m/s v Q35. A bullet is fired in a horizontal direction from a tower while a stone is simultaneously dropped from the same point then(A) The bullet and the stone will reach the ground simultaneously (B) The stone will reach earlier C) The bullet will reach earlier (D) Nothing can be predicted. V = 20√2. A hunter aims the gun and fires a bullet directly towards a monkey sitting at a distance tree.(A) Straight line (B) parabola (C) Hyperbola (D) circle Ans:33. A man in the parachute falls from an airplane moving with uniform horizontal velocity (v). Which bullet will hit the ground first . Ans37: (A) Q38. (C) He would go ahead of the plane (D) Nothing could be said with certainly. horizontally and with different speeds from the same place. At the top of the trajectory of a projectile the direction of its velocity and acceleration are(A) Parallel to each other (B) Inclined at an angle of 450 to the horizontal (C) Perpendicular to each other (D) none of the above statement is correct.
θ =300 (D) v0= 15 m/sec. Ans38: (C) Q39. θ =150 Ans40: (v0 cos α )2/R=g & v02sin2α /2 g=H α =54044’. (A) v0= 6. v0=9. After what time the direction of motion turns through an angle θ ? (A) u cosθ /gsin(θ α ) (B) u sin θ /gcos(θ α ) (C) u/g sin(θ α ) (D) u/g cos (θ α ) Ans41: u cosα /cos(θ α ) sin(α θ )= usinα . T1T2∝ r Q40 A body is thrown a velocity v0 at an angle θ to the horizon. The product of the time taken to reach these points in the two possible ways is then proportional to(A) r3 (B) r2 (C) r (D) 1/r. if the maximum height to which the body reaches is 3 metres and the radius of curvature of the upper point of trajectory is 3 meters. θ =450 (B) v0= 9. T1T2 =2r/g. A particle is thrown over a triangle from one and of a horizontal base and grazing the vertex fall on the other end of the base. T2 = 2u cosα /g. An39: T = 2u sinα /g. T1 = 2u sinα /g.4 m/s Q41.(A) The faster one (B) The slower one (C) Both will reach simultaneously (D) Depends on the masses. (a) and (b) is(A) tan α =tanθ +tanβ (B) tanθ =tanα +tanβ (C) tanθ = tanα tanβ (D) tanβ = tanθ +tanα .4 m/sec. At any instant a projectile is moving with a velocity u in a direction making an angle α with horizon.gt.4 m/sec. t= u sinθ /g cos(α θ ) Q42. If α and β be the base angles and θ the angle of projection then correct relation between (q). θ = 540 44’(C) v0=12 m/sec. Determine v0 and θ . If it is possible to project a particle with a given velocity in two possible way so as two make it pass through a point at a distance r from the point of projection.
BA’’C………. BA’C. In a projectile motion – (A) Change in linear momentum between the initial and final point is mg T. of the triangles BAC. downwards. velocity is never perpendicular to the acceleration. From the cart a particle is thrown up vertically with respect to the cart(A) The particle will land somewhere on the circular path. (True/False) (B) Angular momentum with the respect to the point of projection remains constant.. A. (True/False) .Ans42: R=h (cotα +cotβ )= u2 sin 2θ /g. (True/False) Q4. (A) Two particles thrown with same speed from the same point at the same instant but at different angles. (True/False) (B) The particle will follow a parabolic path. can not collide in mid air (B) A body projected in a uniform gravitational field follows a parabolic path. Ascertain true and false statements for each one and give reasons for the assertion: Q1. (True/False). A’.”……. (True/False) Q3. It lands up at the point C on the other end of the horizontal line. (True/False) (D) A particle dropped from rest and blown over by a horizontal wind constant velocity traces a parabolic path. A cart moves with a constant speed along a horizontal circular path. A shell bursts on contact with the ground and the piece from it fly off in all directions with all speeds up to 30 m/s. (True/False) (C) In projectile motion. the sum of the tangents of the base angles of any of these triangles is a constant. Q5.on its way. u2 sin 2θ /g = h(cotα +cotβ ). A particle is projected from the end B of a horizontal track BC at a given angle a to the horizontal after just grazing the vertices A. (True/False) Q2. tanθ = tanα +tanβ Exercise 2 There are some statements at the end of each paragraph. A man standing 30 m away is in danger for nearly 6 seconds. h=u2sin2θ /2g.
w in directions making angles α . (True/false) Q7. v. with same speed simultaneously at angles α and β with the horizontal. The distance between A and B is l and the plane’s air speed v’ is constant. Two particles are projected from the same point on the ground. The velocity of the plane in air is v and the velocity of the air with respect to the ground is u. The time for a round trip is then tN = t0/√1u2/(v’)2 (True/False) Q11. The area of the triangle formed by the stones at any instant is proportional to the square of the time elapsed from the instant of projection. when fired at an inclination so as to have maximum horizontal range. They strike the ground at same point after times t1 and t2 respectively then(A) α +β = 900 (True/False) (B) t1/t2= tanα (True/False) Q12. (True/False). (A) If u=0 (still air). (True/False) . A batsman hits a pitched ball at a height 4. Then the sum of the times taken by each to reach the highest point is equal to the total time taken by either of the projectiles. Q10. β and γ with the horizontal.0 ft above ground so that its angle of projection is 450 and its horizontal range is 350 ft. The ball fells down the left field line where a 24 ft high fence is located 320 ft from home place. the time for a round trip is then TE= t0/1+u2/(v’)2 (True/False) (B) If the air velocity is due north (or south). In case of projectile motion if two projectiles A and B are projected with same speed at angles 150 and 750 respectively to the horizontal then(A) HA>HB (True/False) (B) TA>TB (True/False) Q13. Three stones are projected simultaneously in the same vertical plane with velocities u. The ball clears the fence. A particle is projected vertically upwards in a vacuum with a speed u(A) When it rises to half its maximum height. A pilot is supposed to fly due east from A to B and then back again to A due west.Q6. (True/False) Q8. Two projectiles are thrown with different velocities and at different angles so as to cover the same maximum height. The maximum horizontal range is four times the maximum height attained by the projectile. its speed becomes u/2 (B) The time taken to rise to three –fourths of its maximum height is half the time taken to reach its maximum height. Q9.
If the angle of projection of one is π /3 and its maximum height is y1 then find out the maximum height of ascent of the other stone. Q5. where. and y are respectively the horizontal and vertical distance of the projectile . then find out the expression between R. then find out the maximum vertical height to which he can throw the ball. The motion of one projectile as seen from another projectile will always be a straightline motion. Two stone are projected with the same speed but making different angles with the horizontal the ranges are equal. a and b are constants. Find out after how many seconds from the instant of throwing the ball reach the ground. Q7. h and h’. Q4. making an angle 300 with the horizontal. A canon ball has a range R on a horizontal plane. The height of the tower is 70 m. Q6. With what velocity must a ball be thrown horizontally from a window 55 m above the ground in one building. The height y and the distance x along the horizontal plane of a projectile on a certain planet (with no surrounding atmosphere) are given by y=(8t5t2) meter and x=6t meter where t is time in seconds. If a baseball player can throw a ball at maximum distance d over a ground.9 m above the ground in the second building. Q9. What is the average velocity of a projectile between the instants when it crosses half the maximum height it is projected with a speed u at an angle θ with the horizontal? Q8. Find its initial velocity of projection. Two tall buildings face each other and are at a distance of 180 m from each other.Q14. so that enters a window 10. The trajectory of a projectile in a vertical plane is y=axbx2. A ball is projected upwards from the top of a tower with a velocity 50 m/s. A particle is projected from O at an elevation α and after t second it has an elevation β as seen from the point of projection. If h and h’ are the greatest heights in the two paths for which this is possible. If e is the coefficient of restitution then en2 er+1=0 (True/False) Q15. Q3. and x. A particle is projected from a point on the inclined plane and at the rth impact strikes the plane perpendicularly and at the nth impact it is at the point of projection. (True/False) Exercise 3 Q1. Find out the velocity of projection. (Balls have same initial speed in each case) Q2. (True/False) Q16. There are two values of time for which a projectile is at the same height and the sum of these two times is equal to the time of flight.
A body is thrown horizontally with velocity √[2gh] from the top of a tower of height h. and k1 and k2 are constants. Three particles A. Find out the maximum height attained and the angle of projection from the horizontal. A particle is projected from point P with velocity u=10√3 m/s along a direction perpendicular to plane OA. B and C are thrown with speeds VA.from the point of projection. downward at an angle of 450 to the horizontal at an initial velocity such that the bodies collide in flight. A stunt performer is to run and dive off a tall platform and land in a net in the back of a truck below. Q15. one is thrown horizontally with a velocity of 8 m/s. where j ˆ j i and ˆ are the unit vectors along x and y axis. Q14. The horizontal distance between points A and B equals 8 m. If the acceleration due to gravity is g. and the other. Calculate the initial velocity v0 of the body thrown at an angle 450. Originally the truck is directly under the platform. From points A and B at the respective heights of 2 m and 6 m. At the initial moment of time the particle was located at the point x=y=0 then find out the equation of the particle’s trajectory y(x). It strikes the level ground through the foot of the tower at a distance x from the tower. when it is vertically above the point A on the ground drops a bomb. Then find out the time taken by the bomb to reach the ground. If the particle strikes plane OB perpendicularly at Q. (A) Velocity with which particle strikes the plane OB (B) Time of flight. Two inclined planes OA and OB having inclinations (with horizontal) 300 and 600 respectively. vertically in such a manner that they collide simultaneously at H. calculate. It starts forward with a constant acceleration a at the same instant the performer leaves the platform. Q10. . Q13. Q11. and VC. with A horizontally. An airplane is flying at a height of 1960 m in horizontal direction with a velocity of 360 km/hr. Find out the value of x. VB. The bomb strikes a point B on the ground. then find out the horizontal velocity u that the performer must have as he leaves the platform. Q16. A particle moves in the plane xy with a velocity ˆ v = k 1 i + k 2 xˆ . intersect each other at O as shown in fig. B at an angle of 300 with the horizontal and C. the highest point of the parabolic path of B. If the platform is H above the net in the truck. then find out the ratio of the speeds VA : VB : VC. Q12. two bodies are thrown simultaneously towards each other.
Q22. Q24. attained by the particle and Q17. Q25. in a direction 370 above the horizontal. the highest point of the parabolic path of particle simultaneously. At the same instant. then find out the time for which the ball is at least 15 m above the ground (i. and the angle of the barrel to the horizontal β =600. Then find out the vertical component of velocity at the time of hitting. between A and B). Then find out the distance of point from the gun where shell will fall. The slope of the hill is α = 300. A shell is fired from a gun from the bottom of a hill along its slope. and when it is at a height of 1390 m above sea level it launches a missile towards the target. One gun fires horizontally and other fires upwards at . which is at sea level. The initial velocity v of the shell is 21 m/sec. a second particle is thrown vertically upwards from a point A with velocity v. (Take g = 10 m/s2) Q19. situated on the top of a hill of height 10 m. If tan β = 5/12.e. Q20. Then find out the time of flight of the missile from the instant it was launched until it reaches sea level. An aircraft drives towards a stationary target. After some time at point P it is moving at right angle to its initial direction of projection. Another ball B 300 cm from origin on a line 370 above horizontal is released from rest at the instant A starts. fire on shot each with the same speed 5√3 m/s at some interval of time. A body projected from the top of a tower horizontally with an initial velocity 20 m/s hits the ground at an angle of 450. Find out the time of flight from O to P. If R is the range of a projectile on a horizontal plane and h is its maximum height. The initial velocity of the missile is 410 m/s. A particle is projected with a speed V from a point O making an angle of 300 with the vertical. Then find out the ratio V/v. Then find out how far will B have fallen when A hits it. Q23. then find out the maximum horizontal range with the same velocity of projection. at an angle β above the horizontal. A golfer standing on level ground hits a ball with a velocity of u= 52 m/s. Q21. Q18. in a direction making an angle θ below the horizontal where tanθ = 9/40.(C) Distance PQ (D) Vertical height h of P from O (E) Maximum height from O. A particle is projected from a point O with a velocity u in a direction making an angle a upward with the horizontal. Two guns. A ball A is projected from origin with an initial velocity v0= 700 cm/sec. The two particles reach H.
u the initial velocity of projection and α the angle of projection. Q28. and the ball is projected at the instant B on the top of the truck appears at point C. The inclination of the plane with the horizontal is θ and P is h meter above the foot of the incline as shown in the figure. Q31. If θ be the semivertical angle of the cone. At the initial moment the particles were located at one point and moved with velocities 3 m/s and 4 m/s horizontally in opposite direction. A cricket ball thrown from a height of 1. The projectile grazes the vertex and strikes the hill again at a point of the base. A projectile is projected from the base of a hill whose slope is that of right circular cone.an angle of 600 with the horizontal. How far were the two men apart? Q29. and (B) the coordinate of the point P. (b) Determine the velocity with which a stone must be projected horizontally from a point P. so that it may hit the inclined plane perpendicularly. Take origin of the coordinate system at the foot of the hill right below the muzzle and trajectories in xy plane. Find the distance between the particles at the moment when the velocity vector become mutually perpendicular. Two particles move in a uniform gravitational field with an acceleration g. Find (A) the time interval between the firings. whose axis is vertical. Q30. The shots collide in air at a point P. Q26. then find out (i) Relationship between θ and α (ii) Velocity of projection in terms of h and θ . determine the positions when the ball strikes the top of the truck.7 m/s on a horizontal road. The man throws a ball in such a way that it returns to the truck after the truck has moved the distance of 58. In an effort to hit the top surface AB of a truck traveling directly underneath the boy on the bridge. Q27.4 m/s at an angle of 600 to the horizontal.8 m at an angle of 300 with the horizontal at a speed of 18 m/s is caught by another field’s man at a height of 0. If the truck maintains a constant speed u=15 m/s. A person is standing on a truck moving with a constant velocity of 14. . (a) A particle is projected with a velocity of 29. Find the range on a plane inclined at 300 to the horizontal when projected from a point of the plane up the plane.6 m from the ground.8 m. A boy throws a ball horizontally with a speed of v0=12 m/s from a bridge. H its height.
Figure shows an 11. A body falling freely from a given height ‘H’ hits an inclined plane in its path at a height ‘h’ As a result of this impact the direction of the velocity of the body becomes horizontal. β and θ . Q36. find the interval between the instants at which the height of the projectile is h sin2a.7 ft wide ditch with the approach road at an angle of 150 with the horizontal. What then is the radius of the circular arc approximating the projectile’s motion near the top of its path? . Q35. with what minimum speed should a motorbike be moving on the road so that it safely crosses the ditch? Assume that the length of the bike is 5 ft. A spherical bowl with innumerable holes is placed in a lawn at a distance ‘d’ from the wall of a building.(a) If the maximum height of projectile above a horizontal through the point of projection were h and a be the angle of projection. and it leaves the road when the motorbike runs out of the approach road. Consider a projectile at the top of its trajectory. Q32. (a) What is its speed in terms of v0 and θ 0? (b) What is its acceleration? (c) How is the direction of its acceleration related to that of its velocity? (d) Over a short distance a circular are is a good approximation to a parabola. At what ratio v1/v2 of the velocities of the cars will their drivers see the hailstones bounced by the windscreen of their cars in the vertical direction? Assume that hailstones fall vertically. (b) Two particle are projected simultaneously from the same point at angles of projection α and β respectively. Q37.Find the speed and the angle of projection (a) as seen from the truck. that the portion of the wall that is hit by the jet water is bounded by a parabola. If they simultaneously strike the top and the bottom of a vertical pole subtending an angle θ at the point of projection. The slopes of the windscreen of two motorcar are β 1=300 and β 2=150 respectively. For what value of (h/H) the body will take maximum time to reach the ground? Q33. If R is the maximum range of the jet that is produced when the bowl is connected to the nose of a fire engine. then find out the relationship between α . Find the height and breadth of the bounded parabola. (b) as seen from the road. Q34.
A projectile aimed at a mark which is in a horizontal plane through the point of projection fall a meter short of it when the elevation is α and goes b meter too far when the elevation is β . at what angle of elevation should he throw the stone? Q41. sin 370= 0. A shell is fired from point A at the instant when particle is at C. If his aim is to strike the target in the quickest time possible. If. . A particle is moving along a vertical circle of radius R=20 m with a constant speed v=31. (Take π =3. the bird were to fly away horizontally with uniform speed. at the instant of projection.4 ms1 as shown in figure. A target is fixed on the top of a pole 13 m high. if the stone still hits the bird while descending. Q43. Find (i) the time when B is hit by A (ii) the height through which B falls. then find out the proper elevation for projection. A person standing at a distance of 50 m from the pole is capable of projecting a stone with a velocity 10√g m/s. before it is hit by A (iii) the direction and magnitude of velocity of A at the time of impact.6 & cos 370 = 0. calculate (a) Smallest possible value of the angle θ of projection (b) Corresponding velocity u of projection. If the velocity of projection be the same in all cases. find the ratio between the horizontal velocities of the bird and stone. 4 m away from O on the line of initial velocity of A.14 and g=10 ms2) Q42.Q38. is released from rest at the instant A is projected. A ball A is projected from O with an initial velocity 8 m/s in a direction 370 above the horizontal. Two identical shells are fired from a point on the ground will same muzzle velocity at angles of elevation α =450 and β =tan13 towards top of the cliff.8] Q39. [Take g=10 m/s2. A stone is projected from a point on the ground in such a direction so as to hit a bird on the top of the telegraph post of height h and then attain the maximum height 2h above the ground. A ball B. Straight line ABC is horizontal and passes through the center of the circle. If distance AB is 20√3 m and shell collides with the particle at B. 20 m away from point of firing. If both the shells reach the top simultaneously. Q40. calculate (a) Muzzle velocity (b) Height of the cliff and (c) Time interval between two firings.
The velocity of projection is equal to that due to falling freely under gravity through 5 m from rest. Q47. Find out the interval between their passings through the other common point of their path. Find the magnitude and direction of the ball. Horizontal and vertical separations between points A and B are 22 m and 9 m respectively. y) of the point of collision. two bodies are thrown simultaneously towards each other. (B) the coordinates (x. Two particles are projected from a point simultaneously with velocities whose horizontal and vertical components are u1. . From points A and B. Two persons simultaneously aim their guns at a bird sitting on a tree. Q45. at the respective height of 2 m and 6 m. Calculate (A) the distance of the foot of the tree from two persons and the height of the tree. Assume that the trajectory lies in a single plane. v1 and u2. Calculate (A) the initial velocity v of the body thrown at an angle 450. The second person is ahead of the first by a distance of 50 m and fire his shot with a speed of 80 m/s. (D) the velocity of two bodies at the instant of collision. Q48. (g=10 m/s2) Q50. A gun of muzzle speed v0 is situated at height h above a horizontal plane. (C) the time of the flight of the bodies before colliding. A projectile is fired from a point on a cliff to hit a mark 10 m horizontally from the point and 10 m vertically below it. How must he aim his gun so that both the shots hit the bird simultaneously. Two particles are simultaneously thrown from roofs of two high building. one is thrown horizontally with a velocity of 8 m/s and the other. downward at an angle of 450 to the horizontal at an initial velocity such that the bodies collide in flight. Find out the angle at which it must be fired so as to achieve the greatest range on the plane. Their velocities of projection are 2 ms1 and 14 ms1 respectively. A ball is thrown from ground level so as to just clear a wall 4 m high at a distance of 4 m and falls at a distance of 14 m from the wall.Q44. (B) With what velocities and when do the two shots hit the bird. Calculate the minimum separation between the particles in the process of their motion. Find out the two possible directions with angles of projections and time of flights respectively. v2 respectively. The first person fires his shot with a speed of 100m/s at an angle of projection of 300. The horizontal distance between points A and B equals 8 m. Q46. Q49. as shown in fig.
(B) How much time after the collision does the particle Q takes to reach the ground. If the horizontal range of a projectile were a and the maximum height attained by it was b. Q54. In the frame of reference of the cart. Determine the smallest value of v0 for which sand can be deposited on the stoke pile at B and the corresponding value of a. A person on the cart throws a stone with a velocity of 6 m/s relative to himself. Each particle has an initial speed of 49 m/s. Find out (a) Value of θ (b) Velocity with which the particle strikes the plane Q53. the point of projection being on the plane. Take (g=10 m/s2) Q56. knowing that the conveyor belt moves at the constant speed v0.Q51. Both particles travel in the same vertical plane and undergo a collision. The initial velocities of P and Q make 450 and 1350 angles respectively with the horizontal AB. as shown in the figure. A particle is projected from point O on the ground with velocity u= 5√5 ms1 at angle α = tan1(0. the stone is thrown in yz plane making an angle of 300 with vertical zaxis. where θ is the angle of projection. Q52. A cart is moving along + x direction with a velocity of 4 m/s. After collision P retraces its path. Particle P and Q of mass 20 gm and 40 gm respectively are simultaneously projected from points A and B on the ground. (b) Maximum height from the ground to which the particle rises. calculate (a) Coordinates of point C in reference to coordinate system shown in figure. Q57. then find out the velocity of projection in terms of a and b. Determine (A) the position of Q when it hits the ground.5). A particle is projected under gravity v in a direction making an angle θ with respect to an inclined plane and having gradient α . If the motion is in the vertical plane and the particle strikes the plane at an angle α to the horizontal. then find out the increase in the range of the projectile. If the bullet is fired with the same angle from a car traveling at 36 km/h towards the target. If the particle does not rebound. Take (g = 9. The range of a rifle bullet is 1000 m. It strikes at a point C on a fixed smooth plane AB having inclination of 370 with horizontal. The separation AB is 245 m. Sand is discharged at A from a conveyor belt and falls onto the top of a stockpile at B. At the .8 m/s2) Q55.
Find u and the time after which the stone hits the object. An object of mass m is thrown from the top of AB horizontally with the velocity of 10 ms1 towards CD. A boat is moving directly away from a gun on the shore with speed v1. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance ‘d’ apart as shown in figure. (B) The length l of the string such that the tension in the string becomes zero when the string becomes horizontal during the subsequent motion of the combined mass. In what direction should he throw a stone with a velocity of 16 m/s and parallel to the ground so that the resultant motion of the stone may be at right angles to the direction of motion of the cyclist. A small ball thrown at an initial velocity v0 to an angle a to the horizontal strikes a vertical wall moving towards it with a horizontal velocity v and is bounce to the point from . At time t=0 the plank starts moving along the +x direction with an acceleration 1. Q58. All the motions are in xy plane.5 m/s2. Determine: (A) The speed of the combined mass immediately after the collision with respect to an observer on the ground. Q63. The gun fires a shell with speed v2 at an angle of elevation α and hits the boat. A cyclist moves along a straight line with a velocity of 9 km/h. collide in mid air and stick to each other. A gun is fired from a moving platform and range of the shot are observed to be R1 and R2 when the platform is moving forwards and backwards respectively with velocity v. A completely inelastic collision occurs. (a) Calculate the distance between the tower and (b) Find the position where the objects hit the ground. in which the stone gets embedded in the object. the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically from the branch of tree by means of a strings of length L. Simultaneously another object of mass 2m is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 600 to the horizontal towards AB with same magnitude of the first object. Find out the distance of the boat from the gun at the moment it is fired. Find the elevation of the gun in terms of the given quantities. Q59. Q61. An object A is kept fixed at the point x=3 m and y= 1.highest point of its trajectory. Q62. The two object move in the same vertical plane. At the same instant a stone is projected from the origin with a velocity u as shown. AB is 20 m high and CD is 30 m high from the ground. Q60. A stationary person on the ground observes the stone hitting the object during its downward motion at an angle of 450 to the horizontal.25 m on a plank P raised above the ground. Take g=10 m/s2.
Q67.5 m away from the center of the boat. Q68. Find (a) The equation of the point‘s trajectory y (x). At what angle to the horizon should a stone be thrown from the steep bank of a river so that it may fall into the water as far as possible from the bank? The height of the bank is h and the velocity of projection is v. find the minimum and maximum angles of projection for successful shot. . A particle is projected with a velocity u and it strikes at right angles α plane through the point of projection inclined at an angle β to the horizontal. A particle is projected from the ground to graze the four upper vertices of a regular hexagon whose side is 2a and which is placed vertically with one side on the ground. Find (a) the time of flight. Determine the time t from the beginning of motion to the moment of impact. What is the height? The room has a ceiling height of 5 m. A point moves in the plane xy according to the law x = at. the moment t0 at which the velocity vectors forms an angle π /4 with the acceleration vector. y = at(1α t) . (b) range on the ground. Q66. The man stands 18 m from the wall and throws a ball at a speed of v0=15 m/s. Q64. where a and α are positive constants . He wishes to throw an apple into the boat. A man is sitting on the shore of a river. (b) The velocity v and the acceleration w of the point as functions of time. He is in the line of a 1. Q69. Determine the angle at which he should release the ball so that it strikes the wall at the highest point possible. Assume that the point of projection and the edge of the boat are in the same horizontal level.0 m long boat and is 5.which it was thrown. plot this function. If he can throw the apple only with a speed of 10 m/s. Rain appears to fall vertically downward to a man moving with a velocity of 10 m/s. neglecting friction losses. Q70. Find the height of the point strike above the horizontal plane through the point of projection and the time of flight up to that instant. then what is actual velocity of the rain? Q65. When he doubles his speed then the rain appears to strike him at an angle of 600 from horizontal. and t is time.
Find how the velocity of the particle depends on x ‘provided that its velocity is negligible at the point x = 0 Q76. The equation of motion of the particle has the form y = ax – bx2. A particle moves in the plane xy with constant acceleration w directed along the negative yaxis. Q72. Find the velocity of the particle at the origin of coordinates. the point was at rest. Find out the horizontal drift of the balloon as well as total. where a and b are positive constant. After having fallen the distance h. Q78. the ball rebounds elastically off the inclined plane.Q71. A point moves in the plane so that its tangential acceleration wt = a. (b) of an ellipse (x/a)2 + (y/b)2 = 1. how would you adjust θ 0 and v0. Find how the curvature radius R of the points trajectory and the total acceleration w depend on the distance covered s. A ball starts falling with zero initial velocity on a smooth in inclined plane forming an angle α with the horizontal. Consider a balloon that rises from the surface of the earth. and t is a unit vector coinciding in direction with the velocity vector at a given point. Find the acceleration of the particle at the point x= 0 and the curvature radius of the trajectory at the point x = 0 and the curvature radius of the trajectory has the from (a) of a parabola y = ax2. where a and b are positive constant. assuming that v0 can be varied from . Q73. tangential and normal acceleration of the balloon. Projectiles are hurled at a horizontal distance R from the edge of a cliff of height h in such a way as to land a horizontal distance x from the bottom of the cliff. If you want x to be as small as possible. A cannon and a target are 5. Q77. A particle A moves in one direction along a given trajectory with a tangential acceleration wt = a t where a is a constant vector coinciding in direction with the x axis as shown in fig. and t is time. At the moment t = 0.A particle moves along the plane trajectory y (x) with velocity v whose modulus is constant. At what distance from the impact point will the ball rebound for the second time? Q 74. and its normal acceleration wn= bt4. How soon will the shell launched with the initial velocity 240 m/s reach the target in the absence of air drag? Q75. Now the blowing action of wind causes the balloon to gather horizontal velocity component vx= ay where y is height of ascent.10 km apart and located at the same level. a and b are constants here. The ascension rate is constant and is given by v0.
The roof is standing at an angle of 450 to the horizontal as shown in figure. H = ½ gt2. A canon fires from under a shelter inclined at an angle α to the horizontal (fig). R = u √2H/g = H tanθ or θ = tan1 √2u2/gh Ans 15: (D) Ans16: R = nb. Determine the maximum range Lmax of the shell. Y = V0 sinα (r/ V0 cos α ) – 1/2g (R2/ V0 2 cos2α )= R tan α . H = nh= ½ gt2.9 m Ans11: V = 10√3 & Vh= 10.½ gR2/ V0 2 cos2α (A) Ans20: At the highest point v = u cos 450= u/√2. KE = 1/2mv2= 1/4mu2 = 1/2E Ans21: Change in momentum ∆ p = 2mv sin450 = √2 mv . (a) At what point the projectile hits the roof. The initial velocity of the shell is v0. Exercise 1: Ans10: H = (u sin θ ) t +1/2 g t2. nh = ½ gxn2 b2/u2 or n = 2u2 h/gb2 Ans17: v0 cosα Ans18: Time of motion =10 / 20 cos60= 1s. t = √2H/g. (b) What is the velocity of projectile when it hits the roof? (c) What should be the angle of projection of the particle. and its trajectory lies in the plane of the figure. At time t. Y = 12. ut = nb.32 m Ans19: T = R/ V0 cosα . 10 = 10 √3 – 10t. Q79. The canon is at point A at a distance l from the base of the shelter (point B).zero to some maximum finite value and that θ 0 can be varied continuously? Only one collision with the ground is allowed (see figure). so as to reach the roof in minimum time and what is the value of this minimum time? Q80. H= 61. A projectile is fired with a speed of 40 m/s at an angle of 600 with the horizontal towards the standing roof of a building. t = (√31)s (D) v Ans12: Angular momentum = m (v cos 450)= M v3/4√2g (B) Ans13: (A) Ans14: R = H tan θ . t = nb/u.
1= cot α tanθ –g h cot 2α /2 u2 cos2θ also h(cot α + cot β )=u2 sin 2θ /g. V sinθ = gT/2.y – mv. y = x tan α . tanα =1 or α =450. tan θ = 4 Ans28:Tf = 2u sinα /g. α = 150 & 750 Ans27: Since R=Hmax .8. Tf1/Tf2 = tan θ Ans29: (B) Ans30: Rm = u2 /g. 80.260. True Ans3: (A) True. s = 242m Ans31: α = π /25π /36=13π /36 rad 4 Ans32: Rm = v2/g .x.5 km Ans23: y = x1/2x2. x = 210m. 30 = (30)2 sin2α /g. y=x tan θ g x2/2u2cos2θ . tanθ =tanα + tanβ Ans5: R = u2 sinα /g. y = u sinα t1/2gt2= 50 t – 5t2. tf = 5. L continuously changes Ans2: False. u = √5x103g. sin2α = 1/3.91s say 6. t= 4. tf = 2u sinα /g Ans24: R = u2 sin2α /g. R1/R2 =1:1 Ans25: (D) Ans26: R= u2/g.730. R/2 = (√Rg)2 sin2α /g = Rsin2α.2s. x = 50t. g/u2 cos2α = 1. h= h cot α tanθ –g h2cot 2α /2 u2 cos2θ . Tf1 = 2u sin θ /g. u = √Rg. Tf2 = 2u cosθ /g. y = 121.Ans22: Rm = 5 = u2/g. (C) False (D) True Ans4: Let α and β be the base angles of the triangle and θ be the angle of projection of the projectile. (B) True. u = √2g. α = 9. u = 50√2 m/s. ∆ p = mgT ↓ .r = mu.0s . tf = 2u sinα /g. sin α = ½. A = π v /g2 = 2/√g (B) Exercise 2: Ans1: ∆ p = 2mv sinθ . L = mv. Hm = u2/2g = 2. u2 sin 2θ /g=u2 sin2θ /2g.gx2/2u2 cos2α. tan30 = 50t5t2/50t.
29s. y1 = u1 sin θ 1 t – ½ gt2 . v = u/2.u cos45t = 350. en2 er+1=0 Ans15: Let u1. (ca)h==( w cosγ u cosα )t=k5 t. T = l/vu+l/v+u= 2lv/v2u2 = 2l/v{1u2/v2}= t0/1u2/v2 (b) sinα = u/v. u= g sinθ Tr & 2u = g sinθ Tn. T2 = 2u sinβ /g. T1/T2 = sinα /sinβ =tanα =cotβ (A) True (B) True Ans12: (A) False. (bc)h=( w cosγ 1 2 vcosβ )t=k t 3 (bc)v=( w sinγ v sinβ )t=k4 t. t1h+t2h = u1 sinθ 1/g + u2sinθ 2/g= 2u1 sinθ 1/g = 2u2 sinθ 2/g = time of flight or either one. Ans7: Consider the vertical motion of projectile 4. s=(a+b+c)/2.31 ft/d. t = 4. Hmax = u2/4g. (B) False Ans13: (ab)h = (u cosα vcosβ )t=k t. θ 2 be the values for other one then position of particles at any instant t. x2 = u2 cos θ 2 t . (3/4 u2/2g)= ¼ u2. θ 1. v = u/√2. Area =1/2√s(sa)(sb)(sc)=K t2 Ans14: Tr=2 v/g cosθ (1+e+e2+e3+….0 = 4 sin45t1/2gt2 . t1 = l/v cosα =l/v√1u2/v2. t = 2t1=t0/√1u2/v2 Ans11: T1 = 2u sin α /g . t2 = 320/u cos45 = 4. y2 = 29’. ½ mv2 = ½ mu2/2. x1 = u1 cos θ 1 t . a=√(ab)h 2+ (ca)v2. Hmax = Rmax/4 Ans9: H = u2/2g.+e(r1))= 2 v (er1) /g cosθ Tn=2 v (en1) /g cosθ . b=√(bc)h 2+ (ca)v2. (ca)v==( w sinγ u sinα )t=k6 t a=√(ab)h 2+ (ab)v2. Ball clears the fence by 5’ Ans8: Rmax = u2/g.Ans6: u12 sin2θ 1 = u22 sin2θ 2. u1 sin θ 1 = u2 sinθ 2. be the velocity and angle of projection of first particle and u2. u = 105. (ab)v = (u sinα v sinβ )t=k t. v2 = u2 – 2g. t’ = u/2g =T/2 Ans10: (a) t0 = 2l/v.70s.
gt22u sinθ t + 2h = 0 .9) = 1/2x10x(180/u)2. t=u sinθ /g ±√ u2 sin2 – 2gh/g. t= 2 Ans6: t = 180/u. v0 sin 45t = 4. d = u2/g or u = √gd. t=2u sinθ ± √ 4u2 sin2θ 5gh/2g. g/2u2 cos2α = b. (5510. u = gt cosβ /sin(α β ) Ans4: y1 = u2 sin2α /2g= 3u2/8g. X = √2ghx√2h/g=2h Ans14: t = √2H/g. Distance PO=1/2 g sin 30 tf2 =10 m . y2 = u2 sin2 (π /6)/2g = u2/8g= y1/3 Ans5: 70= . tan α = a. Vy = 8. t1/2gt2. ∆ y = (u2 sinθ 2u1 sinθ 1)t . v0 = 8√2 = 11. Vx= dx/dt = 6 so V=10 m/s Ans3: tanβ = u sinα gt/ u cosα .31 m/s Ans16: tf = u/gcos30 = 2u/√3g = 2s.t one ∆ x = (u2 cosθ 2 – u1 cosθ 1)t. u =a√H/2g Ans15: (8+v0/√2)t = 8 . Ans11: v = k1 i^+k2xj^. t = √2h/g = 20 s. X = aH/g = u√2H/g. VA = √3/2 VB. Hm= u2sin2α /2g=a2/4b Ans10: H = 1/2gt2. VB sin 30 = Vc. dx/dt = k1 or x = k1t. t1+t2 = 2u sinθ /g = time of flight Exercise 3: Ans1: R = u2 sin2θ /g .25t+1/2x10t2 =5t225t. Ans13: Time of flight = √2h/g. VB = 2Vc. u2 = g/2b (1+a2).y2 = u2 sinθ 2t – ½ gt2. h’ = u2 cos2α /2g.gx2/2u2 cos2α . y = k2/2k1 x2 Ans12: VA = VB cos α. H = ½ gt2 . Vv = gsin30t= 10m/s. hh’ = u4/16 g2 (4 sin2α cos2α ) = u4/16g2. ∆ y/∆ x = (u2 sinθ 2u1 sin θ 1/u2 cosθ 2u1 cos θ 1) = k Ans16: h= u sinθ .60 m/s Ans7: Average velocity = distance between points / time= u cosθ Ans8: R = u2 sin2α /g. h= u2 sin2α /2g .r. Hmax= u2/2g = d/2 Ans2: dy/dt = 810t . dy/dt = k2x=k1 k2t=>y = 1/2k1k2t2. At t = 0 . t=1/2s. u = 60. u = √8yg/3. t = 7. VA: VB: VC = √3:2:1. v0/√2t=4. sin22α hh’ = 1/16 R2 or R = 4√hh’ Ans9: y = ax – bx2 = x tanα . Relative position of particle 2 w.
Maximum height attended = h +(usin60) 2/2g= 16.92 s.0 s Ans24: T = 2v sin30/g sin60 = 2v/√3g. t = u/g sinα = u/g cosecα Ans23:1390 = 90t + 5t2. 2 u sin θ /g= 4 ⇔ u sinθ =2g.27 s. ∆ t = 1s. t = 1.6 m/s . (i) R/h= 4 cotα .4 cos30t – 1/2g cos600 t2= 58.20 = 18 sin30t – 1/2gt2. 2u2 tanα /(1+tan2α ) = 2gh tanθ . v2 = 4i^ + gtj^. Applying principal of energy conservation from P to Q 2 2 ½ m u =1/2 m Vv + mg∆ h.7= 4s.t.12 +g2t2 = 0.322+102= 20 m Ans17: BA = 300 sin3707002 sin2 37/2x980.8/14. H = u2 sin2α /2g.88 s. v1 . v2 = . y = 5m Ans26: Time of flight=√2h/g=1. BA= 90 cm Ans18: Time of said motion =Time of flight2(t15)=2 sec Ans19: Vcos 300=v. Position of ball=(u v0)T=3. u cosθ =0 ⇔ θ =π /2 and u=19. x = 18 cos30x 1.3 i^+gt j^.92 = 29.t2. t = √12/g. u2=gh/2 (4+tan2θ ) Ans30: v1 = . V/v=2/√3 Ans20: R = u2 sin2α /g = 2u2 sinα cosα /g.25 m.8 m (b)t = u/g cotθ . tanθ = 2 cotα (ii) R = u2sin2α /g = 2h tanθ . S = v cos30 (2v/√3g )1/2g cos60 (4v2/3g2)=30 m Ans25: 5√3t = 5√3cos600(t+∆ t). t = 5. R = 29. coordinate of P. R/2h= tanθ . h cosθ = u sinθ t +1/2 g cosθ .Hence h= PO sin 30=5m.81 m Ans27: (a) 0 = 29.20 = 0. t= 10. ∆ x = 2.92 m Ans29. ∆ h =10m. R2 = 4u4/g2 sin2α (1sin2α ) = 48h/g (u22gh) Rm = u2/g= R2/8h+2h Ans21: 20 m/s Ans22: u=g sinα .4 sin30t – 1/2g sin600 t2. 5t sin60(t+∆ t)+1/2g(t+∆ t)2= 1/2gt2. t = ∆ t. u = √2gh/(2+cot2θ ) Ans28: In a vertical motion 1. PQ = √17. 5t2 – 9t – 1. x = 5√3.42 m Ans31: Time of flight (T)= 58.
49 ft/s Ans36: (a) h = u2 sin2α /2g.gx/u2 cos2α.5 tan2α .62 =24. VA = 6.tanα 2 tanα = gx/u2 cos2α or u = (√gx)/sinα. Y = d tanα .tanθ . R = V2/g = u02 cos2θ 0/g Ans38: t = 4/u. tanα =1/√3 =>α =300.3 m/s.01 Ans39: H = 20 tanα . V2/R = g.gx2/2u2 cos2α.gx102/2u2cos2β .gx102/2u2cos2α = 20 tan β . B = 2√R2D2 Ans34: Let v be the velocity of fall of hailstones falling vertically with respect to the Earth 0 frame. R=20√3 = u2sin2α /g . 12. a = g↓. u = 20 m/s . dy/dα = d sec2α .4. (dy/dx) = tanα . tanβ = tanα tanθ Ans37: V = V0 cosθ 0. gx/2u12 cos2α = tanα . dy/dx=. dT/dh=√ 2/g{1/2√h1/2√Hh}=0. Vf = √2gh cosα .gd2/2u2 (2 sec2α tanα ) tanα = u2/gd=R/d.gt =0.gx2/2u2 cos2α. u = √25(sec2α sec2β )/ (tanα tanβ ) u = 20 m/s. tanφ =0.960 Ans41: Tf = 2u sinα /g=2s. u22 sinβ cosβ /u12 cos2α = tanα tanθ .25m.gd2/2u2 sec2α. since u1 cosα = u2 cosβ .Then 2v1 cot2β 1=v0 and 2v2 cot2β 2=v0. Ans32: Time of flight (T)=√ 2(Hh)/g +√ 2h/g.5 =0. Vf2 = Vi2 – 2gh sin2α.gx2/2u12 cos2α. u = √2gh/sin2α = √2gh/sinα. u = 32.5 m/s at angle of 530 from horizontal.60.52’. o = x tan β . H=2h or h/H=1:2 Ans 33: Y = x tanα .6. Ym = (R2d2/2R). tanα = 3. At x =(11. a⊥v. (b) u22 = √gx/2 sinβ cosβ .50tanα +25. x tan θ = x tanα .38 m/s.gx2/2u22cos2β . VHA = 6.gx2/2u2cos2α.and relative to earth v=√14. VvA = u sinα . 0. α = 73.960 Angle of projection for quickest time of throw is with least sinα that is= 30. t =1/2s. v1/v2=tan 2β 1/tan 2β 2 =3 Ans35: y = x tanα .72 s Ans40: y = x tanα . H=10m & ∆ t=1.1m/s. BF = 1/2gt2 = 1.7+5 cos 150)= 16. 30.72+19.
t2 = (2√2) √h/g. v1 t1 – ½ gt12 = v2t2 – ½ gt22 . R =u2sin2θ /g= u2/g(asin2β +bsin2α )/(a+b). Vertical Separation =(912/√2t). u cosα{ t2.27 m Height of tree = 100 sin30 t – ½ gt2 = 82. At any instant Horizontal Separation = 22(16/√2) t.07 s. cos2α = gh/v02+gh. 9/4 gt2 – ½ gt2 = 4. sinθ = 5/8.50 m Ans45: u cos θ t = 4. x = 6 m Ans48: gt22v0sinα t2h = 0.71 m/s. α 1 = 67. v1/t1 – 1/2g = u2 (t2/t1)1/t1 – ½ g(t2/t1)2. θ = 51. 10 = 10sinα t5 t2. t= (2+√2)√h/g.50 Ans50: 8t+vcos45t = 8.27 Distance of foot of tree from second person x2= 80 cosθ t = 129. u cosα /v= t2 /(t2.t)=(2/√2+1) Ans44: 100 cos30. Distance of foot of tree from first person x1 = 80 cosθ t + 50 = 179. t = 2v0 sinα ± √ 4v02sin2α +2gh/2g.Ans42: g(Ra) = u2 sin2α . t = 1/cosα . R = v02sinα cosα /g+v0cosα /g√v02sin2α +2gh dR/dα = 0.)t – 1/2gt2. g(R+b) = u2 sin2β . vt = 4√2. t2 = 2u1 (u2u1u1v2)/g(u22u12). t = 0.47 s u = 13.31 m/s. v sin45t = 4.50. v = 11. u sinθ /g t = 9/4.t}= v t2. α 2 = 22. Since t2/t1 = u1/u2 so t1 = 2u2(u2v1u1v2)/g(u22u12)’. tanα =(1±√ 2)/2.t – ½ gt2 = 80 sinθ t –1/2 gt2. u2 sin2θ /g = 18 . u sinθ t – ½ gt2 = 4. α = ½ cos1 {gh/v02+gh} Ans49: u=√2gh=10m/s. θ = ½ sin1(a sin2β +bsin2α )/(a+b) Ans43: h =(u sinα . dz/dt =0. ∆ t = t1t2 = 2(u2v1u1v2)/g(u1+u2) Ans47.t = 80 cosθ t + 50. Z=(2216/√2t)2 +(912/√2t)2. t=1/2s. . 100 sin30. t = 2.630 Ans46: u1t1 = u2 t2 .
Vh = v cosθ . ½ m Vp2=m g h. α = 26. Vp=7. hm = h+Y=4.41s. ½ 2m(v’)2 = 2mgl.89. tan2α = Vv/Vh (1+3tan2α ) tanθ = 2tanα Ans53: 2u2 sinθ cosθ /g =a . UBY = u/√2gt=0 mu/√22mu/√2 = mu/√2+2mu’x.v’. tanα = g(R1R2)2/4v2(R1+R2) Ans61. V’ = 2.25 m. u=√104/sin2θ . V0 sinα t= 5t26. UAY = u/√2 – gt=0 .32 m Ans58: 16cosα = 2. MC=5√5 sin θ t1/2 g sin 370 t2=4. u=(R1+R2)v/ (R1R2). R1/R2 =(u+v)/(uv). u2 sin2 θ /2g = b. At the instant of collision . t = 2/√3 .5 m/s. cosα = 0. 15t = d.5. Vv = vsinθ + g cosα t. α = 810 Ans59: X = (v2 cosα v1)t1= 2v2sinα /g(v2cosα v1) Ans60: R1 = (u+v)tf . dz/dt = 50t+100(2/t3) = 0. u = √2g(b+a2/16b) Ans54: At the point of collision UAX = u cos 450 = u/√2. (10sin60t+1/2gt2)(1/2gt2)= 10 m. R2 = (uv)tf. ∆ Rn = (√104/sinθ cosθ +10) (200/√sin2θ )sinθ /10103 = 1000/7 √tanθ Ans57: At highest point Vh = √Vn2+vz2 = 5 m/s. tanθ = 4b/a.d = 17.8 m/s.50s. t = 2u sinθ /g.(2vsinθ /gcosα ). Mv+0= 2m. l=0.08 m. V02t2 = 25t460t2+100. sinθ =4b/√a2+16b2.32 m.940 Ans52: t = 2v sinθ /g cosα.7510/3 cos 370= 2.30m/s. t = 1.45 m Ans56:103 =u2sin2θ /10.15.Ans51: V0 cosα t = 8.gsinα . Z = V02=25t2+100/t260. X=5.560. Hence body Q falls freely under gravity Ans55: 10/3 sin 37=5√5 cos θ t+1/2 g cos 370 t2 where θ =79. t = 0. u’x = 0. UBX = u/√2. V0 = 6.75m AC=4. cosα = 0.0m & Y=1.
u cosα = usinα +gt. Possible range of shot=5.50+0.570. α m = 18. VvA = 1/2gt2 = 20/3. tan600 = Vcosα /20Vsinα.75t2 . and 5. VvB = 10/3 (√3+2). h=2 u2 sin2 β /g(1+3 sin2β ).50 – 0.VnA = 10 .430 or 71.50 = 6 m. T=v0sinα (v0 cosα +2 v)/g (v0 cosα +v) Ans64: Vsinα = 10. 2√3 a= (b+3a) tanα . Hence α can have value between 150 and 18.430 .g (b+a)2/2 u2 cos2 α.14 Ans 70: Equation of the motion in the plane x= at. So Range R=4a +2b=2√7 a Ans67: t= 2un/g cosβ . Y = (v0sinα gt)t1+1/2gt12. R=v2/g tanα . 2√3 a= (b+a) tanα . y = at(1α t). 750 (Sin2α )m = 3/5. VnB = 5.28 m/s Ans63: X = v0cosα t. v = ai + (a2aα t)j w = (2aα )j .g (b+4a)2/2 u2 cos2 α On solving (u cosα )2=(√3 a g/2) And b= (√72)a.g b2/2 u2 cos2 α. y = x (1α x/a). V cosα = 10√3. tanα =v/√v2+2 gh Ans66: Let the origin be at the point of projection and b is the abscissa of the first vertex of the Hexagon above plane √3 a= b tanα .570 and 750 Ans69: Let hmax=v0 sin2 θ /2g ≤ 5⇔sinθ ≤ 2/3 Also h=18 tanθ 36/5 (1+ tan2θ ). h=3. t = 1s. For dh/dθ =0 tanθ =5/4>2/3 hence take θ =sin1(2/3) . Y = v0sinα t1/2gt2. X = (v+v0cosα )t1. up= 2 un tan β so un=u / √ 1+4 tan2β . Differentiating both sides with respect to α .25+5t2. α = 150. From principal of conservation of momentum m(10) – 2m(5) = 3m(Vn).g (b+3a)2/2 u2 cos2 α . V = 20 m/s Ans65: h=R tanα +1/2g/v2 R2(1+tan2α ).50 = 5 m. √ 3 a= (b+4a) tanα . R = u2 sin2α /g. u = 7. u sinα t = 1. Vn = 0 Hence particle after collision falls vertically at distance=10t = 20/√3m from AB Ans62: u cosα t = 3+0.71. Ans68.
tm = 2v0 sin α /g. d2y/dt2 = 0. d2x/dt2 = av0. v cos α (2v sinα )/g = L m 0 v02 sin2α /g = L. w = constant = k j where k is positive constant.86. atotal= 2 v 2a (b) ellipse (x/a)2+(y/b)2 = 1. Also R= {1+(dy/dx)2 }3/2 / d2y/dx2 = a/2. Normal acceleration wn = bt4. Since v = constant implies tangential acceleration is zero at every point and acceleration is directed normal to path.140 or 59.angle the velocity vector makes with the y axis tan α = a/(2aα t . dy/dx = a – 2bx. w= dvy/dt=2 bvx2.40 min and 0.850. α total = av0. sin2α gl/v02 = 0. v = Ans73: Time to reach peak tp = v cos ∝/ g cos ∝ = v/g Total time of motion up to second collision = 2v/g Distance traveled along plane (AB) = 4v2/g sinα =8 h sinα Ans74 : let the α be the angle projection for minimum time of flight so v0 cos α t = L. tanθ =dy/dx= v0/ay. vx = √w/2b.2b. t = 1/α Ans71: dy/dt = V0.140/10 = 0.y2 Ans72. and d2y / dx2 = . s = at2/2. α t = α total cos θ = α total /√1+ tan2θ . dx/dt = ay .v/ v .bv2/a Ans78: Time of fall of height h(t)= √ v2sin2 θ +2 g h /g –v sinθ /g x=v cosθ{√ v2sin2 θ +2 g h /g –v sinθ /g } =√(R2+2h/g v2 cos2θ ) –R/2 . v = √2 a x √w/2b {i + (a – 2bx)j} Ans76: Tangential acceleration wt = a.69 min Ans75: dv/dt = aτ = a. α t = a2 v0 y/√v02+a2. α = 30.a) = 1. Hence wn =b(2s/a)2 total acceleration = √a2 +b2 (2s/a)4 = √a2 +16b2s4/a4 Ans77: (a) equation of motion y = ax2. vdv/dx = a . radius of curvature = a2v2/bv2 = a2/b a=an= [ba v 2 3 /a ]= . vy =dy/dt= vx(a2b x). tm = 2 x 240 sin 30.
α = π /4 Ans80: tanα =V0 sin θ . Sin2α = V02/ (V02+ 2gl) or α ≥ (V02+ 2gl) } Then Lmax = V02/g .For x to be minimum v cosθ should be minimum or v sinθ should be maximum which is for v to be vmax and θ be the corresponding max value given by ½ sin –1(R g/vmax2) Ans79: 8sinα tt2 = 48cosα t {cosα t+sinα dt/dα }2tdt/dα = {sinα t +cosα dt/dα }. θ =450 and path is tangent to shelter Also { l +V0/√2 t} tanα = V0/√2 1/2 g t2 . t= V0 /g(1. Lmax=V02/g{sin 2(α + sin1√ gl sin 2α / V0} ½ sin1 {V02/ . If α< ½ sin1 {V02/ (V02+ 2gl) }.g t/ V0 cosθ .tanα ) since for Lmax.
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