Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 19/2011

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
11 September 2011
You can download back issues (2005 - 2011) of this newsletter at: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/links/newsletters/hesp-news-and-notes or search all issues there with:

Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality............................................................ 4 Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty .......................... 4

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 4
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 4
Health Technologies and Innovation in the Global Health Arena ........................................... 4 Global Fund Round 11 Call for Proposals............................................................................... 5 Getting Engaged with the Global Fund: Learning from civil society in Southeast Asia and the Pacific ...................................................................................................................................... 5

HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 5
Mind the gap: HIV and AIDS and older people in Africa ......................................................... 5 HIV in Asia and the Pacific: Getting to zero ............................................................................ 6 AIDS Research in Brazil.......................................................................................................... 6 Exploring task-shifting practices in antiretroviral treatment facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa............................................................................................................. 6 A Tale of Two Countries: Rethinking Sexual Risk for HIV Among Young People in South Africa and the United States ................................................................................................... 6 Integrating maternal, newborn and child health into community-based HIV programmes ..... 7 Can integration of HIV with other health services strengthen the health response? .............. 7 Exposé of fallacious claims that male circumcision will increase HIV infections in Africa ...... 7

Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................... 8
Strange bedfellows: bridging the worlds of academia, public health and the sex industry to improve sexual health outcomes............................................................................................. 8 The World at Seven Billion: Global Milestone - A Reflection of Individual Needs .................. 8 A Journalists’s Guide to Sexual and Reproductive Health in East Africa, 2011 ..................... 8 Strategies for Encouraging the Abandonment of Female Genital Cutting: Experiences from Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali ............................................................................................ 9 Unintended Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in Colombia: Causes and Consequences...... 9 COPE® for Male Circumcision Services ................................................................................. 9

Maternal & Child Health............................................................................................ 10
MCHIP Pre-Service Education Toolkit .................................................................................. 10 MCHIP Pre-service Program Roadmap ................................................................................ 10 Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities................................................................... 10 Practices in adopting a human rights-based approach to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and human rights .................................................................................................... 11 Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given Shortly After Birth Stimulates Effective Antibody Concentrations and Primes Immunological Memory for Sustained Infant Protection........... 11

Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 11
Integrated Approach to Malaria Control ................................................................................ 11

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 1

Relation between falciparum malaria and bacteraemia in Kenyan children: a populationbased, case-control study and a longitudinal study .............................................................. 12 Vaccines against malaria ...................................................................................................... 12 African Malaria Control Programs Deliver ITNs and Achieve What the Clinical Trials Predicted ............................................................................................................................... 12 We Control Malaria: Participatory Learning and Action Planning ......................................... 12 Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine - more evidence needed?................................................................................................................................. 13 Preventing the Reintroduction of Malaria in Mauritius: A Programmatic and Financial Assessment ........................................................................................................................... 13

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 13
Priorities in Operational Research to Improve Tuberculosis Care and Control .................... 13 Incidence of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients Before and After Starting Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in 8 Sub-Saharan African HIV Programs........................................... 14 Reduced tuberculosis case notification associated with scaling up antiretroviral treatment in rural Malawi ........................................................................................................................... 14 Guidance to develop GF Round 11 proposal for tuberculosis control .................................. 14 Aidspan Review of a Study by I. Katz et al. on “Factors Influencing Performance of Global Fund-Supported TB Grants”.................................................................................................. 15

Other Infectious Diseases......................................................................................... 15
Microfluidics-based diagnostics of infectious diseases in the developing world................... 15 Weekly Epidemiological Record: Leprosy update, 2011....................................................... 15 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits......................................................................................................................... 16

Non-communicable Diseases ................................................................................... 16
NCDs: It’s Time for a Change ............................................................................................... 16 Time for action in New York on non-communicable diseases .............................................. 16 Non-Communicable Diseases: Will industry influence derail UN summit? ........................... 17 Will 2011 be the year for taking NCDs seriously?................................................................. 17 Informing the 2011 UN Session on Noncommunicable Diseases: Applying Lessons from the AIDS Response..................................................................................................................... 17 Global Noncommunicable Diseases - Lessons from the HIV-AIDS Experience .................. 17

Essential Medicines .................................................................................................. 18
Preventing substandard, falsified medicines and protecting access to generic medicines in Africa ..................................................................................................................................... 18 Draft Guidelines for the Development of Pharmaceutical Services in Primary Health Care 18

Social Protection....................................................................................................... 18
Working for life: making decent work and pensions a reality for older people...................... 18 Disaster Microcredit: A Mechanism for Recovery ................................................................. 19 Microfinance & Microinsurance: Learnings from Market Studies in Latin America & Africa . 19 Engendering Social Security and Protection......................................................................... 19 Social Safety Nets: An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2000-2010 ................................ 20 Cash Transfers, Children and the Crisis: Protecting Current and Future Investments......... 20 Liberia’s Cash for Work Temporary Employment Project: Responding to Crisis in Low Income, Fragile Countries ..................................................................................................... 20 Towards Improved Measurement of Financial Protection in Health ..................................... 21 Insured persons dilemma about other family members: a perspective on the national health insurance scheme in Nigeria ................................................................................................. 21 Integrating Public Works and Cash Transfers in Ethiopia: Implications for Social Protection, Employment and Decent Work ............................................................................................. 21 Child and HIV-sensitive social protection in Eastern and Southern Africa ........................... 22 Lessons from Social Protection Programme Implementation in Kenya, Zambia and Mongolia ............................................................................................................................................... 22 Stopping Child Poverty in its Tracks: The Role for Social Protection in Vietnam ................. 22

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 23
Small-Scale Water Providers in Kenya: Pioneers or Predators? .......................................... 23 Newsletter - Rio+20: Making it Happen................................................................................. 23

Human Resources.................................................................................................... 23
Exploring the Human Resources for Health Landscape for Adult Male Circumcision Rollout in Four Districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya ......................................................................... 23

Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 24 HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 2

Expansion of the private health sector in east and southern Africa ...................................... 24 Building the Field of Health Policy and Systems Research: An Agenda for Action .............. 24

Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 24
Delivering on the promise of information technology to strengthen health systems............. 24 Broadband in Kenya: Build it and They Will Come ............................................................... 25 The future of cloud computing............................................................................................... 25

Education ................................................................................................................. 25
Futures Stolen: Barriers to Education for Children with Disabilities in Nepal ....................... 25 Building Support for Gender Equality among Young Adolescents in School: Findings from Mumbai, India ........................................................................................................................ 25 Climate Change Starter’s Guidebook.................................................................................... 26

Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 26
What has tax got to do with Development: A Critical look at Mozambique’s and Zimbabwe’s tax system ............................................................................................................................. 26 What Happens to Social Spending in IMF-Supported Programs?........................................ 27 Incentive Proliferation? Making Sense of a New Wave of Development Programs ............. 27 Aid effectiveness: bringing country ownership (and politics) back in .................................... 27 Aid Risks in Fragile and Transitional Contexts: Improving Donor Behaviour ....................... 28 Development aid reaches an historic high in 2010 ............................................................... 28 Universal Health Coverage: A Background Document developed for the Belgian Development Cooperation..................................................................................................... 28

Others ...................................................................................................................... 28
Getting it Right from the Start: Priorities for Action in the New Republic of South Sudan .... 28 How to read health news....................................................................................................... 29 A journalist’s guide to reporting research findings ................................................................ 29 Health Care in Danger: Making the Case ............................................................................. 29 World Report on Disability - EasyRead version .................................................................... 30 Surgery in Africa Monthly Reviews: Surgical Safety ............................................................. 30

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 30
The World Bank - Social Protection Datasets ....................................................................... 30

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 31
Global Health Check ............................................................................................................. 31 African Portal on Medical Education ..................................................................................... 31 aidinfo: Better Information, Better Aid ................................................................................... 31 Kiss Malaria Goodbye ........................................................................................................... 31 The Encyclopedia of Life: Global access to knowledge about life on Earth ......................... 31

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 32
Blended Learning Course “HIV/AIDS & Gender: From basic knowledge to good practice” . 32 Distance learning course: Health and Human Rights ........................................................... 32

CONFERENCES................................................................ 33
2011 European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE) ............................................................................................................................ 33 5th Entertainment Education Conference (EE5) ................................................................... 33

CARTOON ......................................................................... 34
…more about blogs ............................................................................................................... 34

TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 34
What does “DPI” mean?........................................................................................................ 34 Mouse Browse....................................................................................................................... 34 4-word Password Generator ................................................................................................. 34

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 3

BOOKS
Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality
by Kathleen Stratton, Andrew Ford, Erin Rusch et al. Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 2011 800 pp. 17.6 MB(!): http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=13164&free=1 The book reviews the epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence regarding adverse health effects associated with specific vaccines including varicella zoster vaccine, influenza vaccines, hepatitis B vaccine, and the human papillomavirus vaccine, among others. For each possible adverse event, the report reviews prior studies, summarizes their findings, and evaluates the epidemiological evidence. It finds that while no vaccine is 100% safe, very few adverse events are shown to be caused by vaccines. ***

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty
by Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo 320 pp., 2011 Price ca. 15 US $ See chapters’ overview at: http://pooreconomics.com/chapters/1-think-again-again To order online go to: http://www.goodreads.com/buy_buttons/follow/1?book_id=10245602 Billions of government dollars, and thousands of charitable organizations and NGOs, are dedicated to helping the world’s poor. But much of their work is based on assum ptions that are untested generalizations at best, harmful misperceptions at worst. This book is radical in its rethinking of the economics of poverty, but also entirely practical in the suggestions it offers. Through a careful analysis of a very rich body of evidence, including the hundreds of randomized control trials the authors’ lab has pioneered, they show why the poor, despite having the same desires and abilities as anyone else, end up with entirely different lives.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health Health Technologies and Innovation in the Global Health Arena
by Sidhartha R. Sinha and Michele Barry N Engl J Med 2011, 365:779-782; September 1, 2011 4 pp. 424 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1108040 In recent years, interest in both global health and health care innovation has grown tremendously, and there has been increasing recognition of the importance of medical deHESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 4

vices and other non-pharmaceutical health-related technologies to all aspects of health care. Many appropriate technologies, however, are inaccessible to the majority of people who need them, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The recognition that the “right to health” should include access to certain devices comes more than 30 years after similar recognition for essential medicines. ***

Global Fund Round 11 Call for Proposals
The Global Fund Round 11 Call for Proposals is now open, with a submission date of 15 December 2011. At its 23rd meeting, the Board approved a new policy on eligibility criteria, counterpart financing requirements, and prioritization of proposals for funding from the Global Fund which is now available for download as Adobe PDF file (13 pp. 303 kB) at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8427 ***

Getting Engaged with the Global Fund: Learning from civil society in Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Khmer HIV/AIDS NGO Alliance (KHANA), August 2011 12 pp. 672 kB: http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/Khana_final_small %5B1%5D.pdf This report summarises some of the key challenges facing civil society in engaging with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, and sets out recommendations to improve civil society participation and success in Global Fund proposal development, Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) engagement, and grant implementation. Aimed at all key stakeholders including the Global Fund, grant recipients and potential recipients, and technical support providers, the report reflects the experience of civil society across Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

HIV - AIDS - STI Mind the gap: HIV and AIDS and older people in Africa
HelpAge International Briefing, 2011 8 pp. 1.0 MB: http://www.helpage.org/silo/files/mind-the-gap-hiv-and-aids-andolder-people-in-africa.pdf HIV affects older people in two main ways. Large numbers of older people are themselves living with HIV. Many are also taking on vital caring responsibilities for loved ones living with HIV and the children orphaned by AIDS. This briefing sets out the need to strengthen the response to HIV in Africa by providing interventions on the basis of genuine need rather than age. It also cites examples of interventions that have changed the lives of older people and those who depend on them. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 5

HIV in Asia and the Pacific: Getting to zero
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), August 2011 144 pp. 9.8 MB: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/u naidspublication/2011/20110826_APGettingToZero_en.pdf This report provides the most up to date information on the HIV epidemic in the region in 2011. While the region has seen impressive gains - including a 20% drop in new HIV infections since 2001 and a three-fold increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2006 - progress is threatened by an inadequate focus on key populations at higher risk of HIV infection and insufficient funding from both domestic and international sources. ***

AIDS Research in Brazil
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - August 15, 2011 Volume 57 - Supplement 3 All articles accessible at: http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2011/08153 ***

Exploring task-shifting practices in antiretroviral treatment facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa
by Katinka de Weta, Edwin Woutersa, and Michelle Engelbrecht Journal of Public Health Policy (2011) 32, S94-S101 8 pp. 64 kB: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v32/n1s/pdf/jphp201130a.pdf There is good progress with the implementation of South Africa’s antiretroviral treatment program. The country, however, faces human resource shortages that could be addressed through appropriate task shifting. During 2009, the authors studied task shifting from nurses to community health workers (CHWs) for HIV treatment and care at 12 primary health-care clinics in Free State Province, South Africa. They found inefficiency in nurse deployment, and nurses spent considerable time on training, counselling, and administrative tasks that could be shifted to CHWs. ***

A Tale of Two Countries: Rethinking Sexual Risk for HIV Among Young People in South Africa and the United States
by Audrey E. Pettifor, Brooke A. Levandowski, Catherine Macphail et al. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 49, Issue 3, pp. 237-243, September 2011 8 pp. 1.4 MB: http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/1054139X/PIIS1054139X10004970.pdf Young people in the United States report riskier sexual behaviours than young people in HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 6

South Africa (SA), despite the much higher prevalence of HIV infection in SA. Factors above and beyond sexual behavior likely play a key role in the ongoing transmission of HIV in South African youth, and thus should be urgently uncovered to develop maximally effective prevention strategies. ***

Integrating maternal, newborn and child health into community-based HIV programmes
International HIV/AIDS Alliance HIV Update No. 11; August 2011 12 pp. 604 kB: http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/Alliance_HIV_upda te_MNCH.pdf This technical update was developed in response to the increasing attention and calls for greater integration of HIV with reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). It provides an overview of the different components within RMNCH, the importance of linking RMNCH and HIV, and key interventions that link HIV with RMNCH. It also highlights that strategies to reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality must use key windows of opportunity such as the Global Fund Round 11 to scale up coordinated and integrated RMNCH services within HIV responses. ***

Can integration of HIV with other health services strengthen the health response?
by Theo Smart HIV & AIDS treatment in practice (HATIP) #181, September 7th, 2011 14 pp. 265 kB: http://www.aidsmap.com/pdf/page/2066591/ This edition of HATIP looks at the question of integration between HIV services and other types of service within the health system. Integration has become a buzz-word in the HIV field over the past few years, but what do we mean by integration, who does it benefit, and where should the integration take place? ***

Exposé of fallacious claims that male circumcision will increase HIV infections in Africa
by Brian J. Morris, Jake H. Waskett, Ronald H. Gray et al. Journal of Public Health in Africa 2011; Vol. 2, No.2:e28 6 pp. 600 kB:
http://www.publichealthinafrica.org/index.php/jphia/article/download/jphia.2011.e28/pdf

In a recent issue of the Journal of Public Health in Africa, Van Howe and Storms claim that male circumcision will increase HIV infections in Africa. Here we review the statements they use in support of their thesis and show that there is no scientific basis to such an assertion. We also evaluate the statistics used and show that when these data are properly analyzed the results lead to a contrary conclusion affirming the major role HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 7

of male circumcision in protecting against HIV infection in Africa. Researchers, policy makers and the wider community should rely on balanced scholarship when assessing scientific evidence.

Sexual & Reproductive Health Strange bedfellows: bridging the worlds of academia, public health and the sex industry to improve sexual health outcomes
Wendy Knerr and Anne Philpott Health Research Policy and Systems 9(Suppl. 1): S13, 16 June 2011 9 pp. 274 kB: http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-9-S1-S13.pdf The public health response to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV, has been and continues to be overwhelmingly focused on risk, disease and negative outcomes of sex, while avoiding discussion of positive motivations for sex like pleasure, desire and love. Recent advocacy efforts have challenged this approach and organisations have promoted the eroticisation of safer sex, especially in the context of HIV prevention. ***

The World at Seven Billion: Global Milestone - A Reflection of Individual Needs
by Susan A. Cohen Guttmacher Policy Review, Summer 2011, Volume 14, Number 3 4 pp. 207 kB: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/gpr/14/3/gpr140302.pdf The fact that the world’s population continues to grow apace and will reach seven billion later this year presents numerous economic, developmental, environmental and social challenges. Many of these pressures can be effectively addressed by doing more to empower women and couples around the world to decide for themselves when to b ecome pregnant and how many children to have. Especially in the developing world, millions of women and couples are still unable to control the timing, spacing and total number of the children they have because of the barriers they face to obtaining and using contraceptives. ***

A Journalists’s Guide to Sexual and Reproductive Health in East Africa, 2011
by Deborah Mesce and Karin Ringheim Population Reference Bureau, 2011 56 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.prb.org/pdf11/east-africa-media-2011.pdf The media play a critical role in bringing sexual and reproductive health matters to the attention of people who can influence public health policies. This guide aims to help journalists educate the public and policymakers on these issues by bringing together the HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 8

latest available data on sexual and reproductive health for seven East African countries. ***

Strategies for Encouraging the Abandonment of Female Genital Cutting: Experiences from Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali
by Nafissatou J. Diop and Ian Askew Chapter 6 in: Female Circumcision - Multicultural Perspectives Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights Series, 2007 15 pp. 2.2 MB: http://www.k4health.org/system/files/FGC%20Multicultural%20pers pectives.pdf This essay evaluates strategies employed to encourage the abandonment of Female Genital Cutting (FGC) in three adjacent nation-states: Mali, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. This includes evaluations of two strategies that focus on changing the behaviour of traditional practitioners and health care providers, and the findings from an evaluation of one of the best-known examples of a community-wide behaviour changes strategy, the Village Empowerment Program. ***

Unintended Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in Colombia: Causes and Consequences
by Elena Prada, Susheela Singh, Lisa Remez, Cristina Villarreal Guttmacher Institute and Fundación Oriéntame, September 2011 72 pp. 701 kB:
http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/Unintended-Pregnancy-Colombia.pdf

The first assessment in two decades of abortion in Colombia shows that one in 26 Colombian women had an abortion in 2008 and that approximately 30% of all pregnancies ended in abortion. The authors recommend that to reduce unsafe abortion and help women plan their births, contraceptive services must be strengthened, the coverage and quality of post-abortion services must be improved, and the 2006 court decision on abortion (Sentencia C-355) must be better implemented to provide access to legal abortion services. ***

COPE® for Male Circumcision Services
A Toolbook to Accompany the COPE® Handbook by Fred Ndede, Mark Barone, Feddis Mumba et al. EngenderHealth, 2010 102 pp. 1.9 MB: http://www.engenderhealth.org/files/pubs/qi/cope_for_malecircumcision_rev_final_for-web.pdf Like any surgical procedure, Male Circumcision (MC) requires quality service delivery to promote informed and voluntary decision making and to ensure medical safety and quality assurance. COPE (which stands for “client-oriented, provider-efficient” services) is well suited to improving these elements. COPE is both a process and a set of tools HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 9

that together assist staff in addressing the issues that are within their reach. Among the first and most critical questions that facilitators ask participants during the first COPE exercise are: “What is quality?”

Maternal & Child Health MCHIP Pre-Service Education Toolkit
http://www.k4health.org/toolkits/pse This pre-service education toolkit outlines key programmatic steps, highlights lessons learned, and identifies key resources to assist country programs, donors, and governments to develop quality and relevant pre-service education interventions. Although targeted for midwives, this toolkit may be used for other cadres as well.

MCHIP Pre-service Program Roadmap
Mother and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) and Jhpiego, July 2011 13 pp. 301 kB: http://www.k4health.org/system/files/MCHIP%20Preservice%20Roadmap%20Au g%2011%202011%20v1.2.pdf The program guidance outlines key steps, identifies available resources, and shares lessons learned to help country programs, donors, and governments to develop quality and relevant pre-service education interventions. Although this document focuses on health workers needed to deliver maternal and newborn health care, the process may be applied to any pre-service program. The sections need not be completed in this order, but all are essential to the process. ***

Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities
by Mikkel Zahle Oestergaard, Mie Inoue, Sachiyo Yoshida et al. PLoS Med 8(8): e1001080 (30 August 2011) 13 pp. 843 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=4122BA2DDDDB3A2EFEBC790B 33CFFDEB.ambra02?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001080&representation=PDF

Neonatal mortality (deaths <28 days of age) has received limited attention, although such deaths account for about 41% of all child deaths. To better assess progress, the authors developed annual estimates for neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) and neonatal deaths for 193 countries for the period 1990-2009 with forecasts into the future. They conclude that neonatal mortality has declined in all world regions. Progress has been slowest in the regions with high NMRs. Global health programs need to address neon atal deaths more effectively if Millennium Development Goal 4 (two-thirds reduction in child mortality) is to be achieved. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 10

Practices in adopting a human rights-based approach to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and human rights
Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, July 2011 19 pp. 130 kB: http://www.hst.org.za/sites/default/files/HRC%20Effective%20practices%20MMM %20A-HRC-18-27.pdf The study contains an analytical compilation of good and effective practices in adopting a human rights-based approach to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and morbidity. It identifies the common features of such practices, analyses how they embody a human rights-based approach, and showcases some good practices that have been effective in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. ***

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given Shortly After Birth Stimulates Effective Antibody Concentrations and Primes Immunological Memory for Sustained Infant Protection
by J. Anthony G. Scott, John Ojal, Lindsey Ashton et al. Clin Infect Dis. 53(7): 663-670 (1 October 2011) 8 pp. 204 kB: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/7/663.full.pdf+html In developing countries, newborn immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) could protect young infants who are at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) but might lead to immune tolerance. Immunization of Kenyan newborns with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is safe and immunogenic. Compared with the Expanded Programme on Immunization schedule beginning at 6 weeks, it stimulates similar antibody concentrations at 18 weeks and induces equal responses to a 9-month booster dose.

Malaria Integrated Approach to Malaria Control
by Clive Shiff Clinical Microbiology Reviews, April 2002, pp. 278-293 16 pp. 716 kB: http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/15/2/278.pdf This article discusses historical and current strategies to combat malaria, and makes the case for a more integrated approach to malaria control. It assesses the Roll Back Malaria global control strategy and examines basic concepts of malaria control, tools for malaria control, techniques for the implementation of insecticide-treated net programmes, and strategies based on the biological characteristics of malaria. It also explores the issues associated with diagnosis, insecticides, vaccines, and climate change. *** HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 11

Relation between falciparum malaria and bacteraemia in Kenyan children: a population-based, case-control study and a longitudinal study
by J Anthony G Scott FRCP, James A Berkley, Isaiah Mwangi et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 7 September 2011 8 pp. 333 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS014067361160888X.pdf Malaria infection strongly predisposes individuals to bacteraemia and can account for more than half of all cases of bacteraemia in malaria-endemic areas. Interventions to control malaria will have a major additional benefit by reducing the burden of invasive bacterial disease. ***

Vaccines against malaria
by Adrian V. S. Hill Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2011) 366, 2806-2814 9 pp. 446 kB: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1579/2806.full.pd f#page=1&view=FitH In recent years, there has been progress in developing anti-parasite vaccines for humans. The first is almost certainly going to be a malaria vaccine and it is likely that a variety of different types of malaria vaccine will be licensed in the next 5–15 years. Development of an effective malaria vaccine has been a great challenge for medical science but findings and approaches pioneered in efforts to develop a malaria vaccine are proving useful in developing a whole range of vaccines against other difficult diseases. ***

African Malaria Control Programs Deliver ITNs and Achieve What the Clinical Trials Predicted
by Thomas P. Eisele and Richard W. Steketee PLoS Med 8(9): e1001088 (6 September 2011) 2 pp. 70 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=3DD0FEA8B022702E703BE 1EF52CF7BA0.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001088&representation=PDF

This Perspective discusses a new study published in PLoS Medicine where the authors report findings from a multi-country analysis of household survey data on the association between possession of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and child mortality and parasitemia. Scale-up of net coverage was associated with a substantial reduction in childhood mortality and in parasitemia prevalence. ***

We Control Malaria: Participatory Learning and Action Planning
by Mayling Simpson-Hebert Catholic Relief Services East Africa Regional Office and Ethiopia Country Office, 2008

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 12

62 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.crsprogramquality.org/storage/pubs/health/We_Control_ Malaria.pdf The “We Control Malaria” facilitators’ guide is designed to assist community facilitators to use participatory methodologies to help community groups to learn more about malaria, its prevention, and treatment, as well as make a community plan to control the disease. ***

Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine more evidence needed?
by Jakob P Cramer, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, Gerd D Burchard et al. Malaria Journal 2011, 10:256 (7 September 2011) 12 pp. 149 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-10-256.pdf Rapid and fast acting anti-malarials are essential to treat severe malaria. Quinine has been the only option for parenteral therapy until recently. While current evidence shows that intravenous artesunate is more effective than quinine in treating severe malaria in endemic countries, some questions remain regarding safety profiles and drug resistance. Here, the implications of existing evidence for the treatment of imported severe malaria are discussed. ***

Preventing the Reintroduction of Malaria in Mauritius: A Programmatic and Financial Assessment
by Allison Tatarsky, Shahina Aboobakar, Justin M. Cohen et al. PLoS ONE 6(9): e23832 (2 September 2011) 11 pp. 318 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=2B926FB28AEFFB04C5C7 171FA787E4D2.ambra02?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023832&representation=PDF

The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the re-establishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius’s enabling conditions. Although the cost of prevention of reintroduction (POR) is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking on elimination should quantify and plan for potentially similar POR operations and costs.

Tuberculosis Priorities in Operational Research to Improve Tuberculosis Care and Control
by Christian Lienhardt, Andrew Ramsay, Afranio Kristski et al. World Health Organization, August 2011

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133 pp. 1.2 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548250_eng.pdf The publication describes the current areas where gaps in knowledge are hindering the optimal implementation of TB control activities and how these obstacles can be removed. The document has been designed for national TB control programmes and research institutions in countries with a high burden of TB and gives guidance on operational research issues, how to develop, conduct and strengthen operational research projects, and how to raise resources for this area of work. ***

Incidence of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients Before and After Starting Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in 8 Sub-Saharan African HIV Programs
by Sarala Nicholas, Kalpana Sabapathy, Cecilia Ferreyra et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, Vol. 57, Nr. 4, August 1, 2011 8 pp. 162 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/141405/1/Nicholas %20JAIDS%20TB_incidence%20.pdf The objective of the study was to describe the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis before and after the start of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) and investigate associated risk factors. The findings show the high burden that tuberc ulosis represents for HIV programs and highlight the importance of earlier ART start and the need to implement intensified tuberculosis finding, isoniazide prophylaxis, and infection control. ***

Reduced tuberculosis case notification associated with scaling up antiretroviral treatment in rural Malawi
by R. Zachariah, M. Bemelmans, A. Akesson et al. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(7):933-937, 2011 6 pp. 648 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/141437/1/Zacharia h%20IJTLD%20Reduced%20TB%20notification%20with%20ART.pdf The authors report on the trends in new and recurrent tuberculosis (TB) case notifications in a rural district of Malawi that has embarked on large-scale rollout of antiretroviral treatment (ART). They conclude that high ART implementation coverage is associated with a very significant declining trend in new and recurrent TB case notifications at population level. ***

Guidance to develop GF Round 11 proposal for tuberculosis control
by Salah-Eddine Ottmani, Malgorzata Grzemska, Karin Bergstrom et al. World Health Organization, August 2011 79 pp. 406 kB: http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/global/tbfriends/STB1091Guidance%20for%20GF%20R11-Inis_Aug24_final%20edit%20SF.pdf HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 14

This document is intended for country and other stakeholder applicants, writing committees and consultants supporting TB proposal development for Global Fund Round 11. It aims to provide guidance on key aspects of the process of proposal development. ***

Aidspan Review of a Study by I. Katz et al. on “Factors Influencing Performance of Global Fund-Supported TB Grants”
by David McCoy Aidspan, 24 August 2011 MS WORD file (8 pp. 119 kB):
http://www.aidspan.org/documents/aidspan/aidspan-review-re-katz-on-tb-2011-en.doc

Global Fund-supported grants do not all work as well as they should. Some grants do well, while others struggle to be effective or efficient. Understanding the reasons for this variation may be useful. Global Fund employees recently published a study that sought to describe the factors influencing the performance of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis (TB) grants. How was this study conducted and what did it say?

Other Infectious Diseases Microfluidics-based diagnostics of infectious diseases in the developing world
by Curtis D Chin, Tassaneewan Laksanasopin, Yuk Kee Cheung et al. Nature Medicine Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 1015-1019 (August 2011) 6 pp. 797 kB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/downloadcentre/doc_download/964 An easy-to-use diagnostic chip could be a game changer in the field of cheap diagnostics for remote regions, claim the authors who developed it. Tests of the ‘mChip’ on blood samples collected in Rwanda showed that it can diagnose HIV/AIDS and detect 100 per cent of cases in just 15 minutes - with the same accuracy as standard laboratory tests that can take weeks to give a result. The chip is roughly the size of a postage stamp and can be cheaply mass produced. The authors say that the same technology could be used to diagnose other diseases, such as malaria and hepatitis. ***

Weekly Epidemiological Record: Leprosy update, 2011
WER, 2 September 2011, Vol. 86, 36 (pp. 389-400) http://www.who.int/wer/2011/en/ ***

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 15

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits
by R Machemedze, R Loewenson, P Nyagura SEATINI, TARSC, Policy Brief 25; May 2011 4 pp. 343 kB:
http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/EQ%20Pol%20Brief25%20PIP.pdf

The sharing by countries of influenza virus samples is important for vaccine development, and for understanding how viruses are mutating. This policy brief outlines the o pportunities that African countries have to negotiate for equitable benefit sharing in the use of viral resources, through international treaties. The brief provides information on their enabling clauses and outlines the options that African countries may consider in their negotiations for an equitable system.

Non-communicable Diseases NCDs: It’s Time for a Change
Global Health Magazine, Fall 2011 Read online at:
http://www.globalhealthmagazine.com/summary/ncds_its_time_for_a_change/

This issue of GLOBAL HEALTH magazine highlights the mounting global epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as heart diseases, cancers, chronic lung diseases and diabetes. The scale and economic toll posed by NCDs is increasingly clear, requiring urgent action. The burden of NCDs is only projected to worsen, particularly among countries least able to respond. Solutions must come from a variety of fronts, and future social and economic progress will undoubtedly be shaped by how the global community understands, prioritizes and responds to NCDs. ***

Time for action in New York on non-communicable diseases
The Lancet Editorial Early Online Publication, 1 September 2011 1 pp. 73 kB: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%29613895/fulltext?utm_source=Newsletter+Contacts&utm_campaign=2db538f0efihpn_133_target9_2_2011&utm_medium=email A major opportunity to advance global health is in danger of being lost. On Sept 19-20, heads of states and governments will gather in New York, NY, USA, at the UN HighLevel Meeting on Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) to approve a political statement on responding to the global NCD crisis. This is too good an opportunity for improving global health to be missed. We will be judged harshly, and rightly so, if we fail to make a major advance in addressing this neglected aspect of the health of people worldwide. *** HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 16

Non-Communicable Diseases: Will industry influence derail UN summit?
by Deborah Cohen BMJ 2011; 343:d5328 4 pp. 195 kB: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d5328.full In the run up to the UN summit on non-communicable diseases, there are fears that industry interests might be trumping evidence based public health interventions. Will anything valuable be agreed? ***

Will 2011 be the year for taking NCDs seriously?
by Bettina Borisch and Ashley Bloomfield Journal of Public Health Policy (August 2011) 32, 399-403 5 pp. 56 kB:
http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v32/n3/pdf/jphp201116a.pdf

The UN High Level Meeting of the General Assembly in September 2011 presents an historic opportunity to rethink the global response to NCDs and to substantially step up support for developing countries to address their disproportionate share of the NCD burden. Public health professionals worldwide can play key roles, individually and collectively, in ensuring that the opportunity is not lost. This will require sustained advocacy and mobilizing the full range of ‘tools’ proven to support effective public health action. The stakes are high and the potential benefits are large, especially for the world's poorest people. ***

Informing the 2011 UN Session on Noncommunicable Diseases: Applying Lessons from the AIDS Response
by Peter Lamptey, Michael Merson, Peter Piot et al. PLoS Med 8(9): e1001086 (6 September 2011) 3 pp. 67 kB: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001086&representation=PDF The September 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on Noncommunicable Diseases provides an opportunity for the international community and national stakeholders to raise awareness and launch an effective global response to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Valuable policy lessons have been learned in the control of AIDS that can help inform the global dialogue when designing a NCD response in developing countries. ***

Global Noncommunicable Diseases - Lessons from the HIV-AIDS Experience
by K.M. Venkat Narayan, Mohammed K. Ali, Carlos del Rio et al. N Engl J Med, Vol. 365, No. 10; September 8, 2011 Read online at: http://healthpolicyandreform.nejm.org/?p=15249&query=home HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 17

HIV-AIDS has taught us the value of societal engagement: successful programs have actively involved the affected communities, harnessed the goodwill and support of highprofile celebrities, and energized advocacy and political support and will. Above all, we have learned that the fight against diseases such as HIV-AIDS is global and that solutions can emerge from anywhere. The importance of both HIV-AIDS and noncommunicable diseases was initially recognized in high-income countries, but these diseases affect all countries; they may therefore inspire increased global collaboration in research and public health action.

Essential Medicines Preventing substandard, falsified medicines and protecting access to generic medicines in Africa
by R Machemedze, R Loewenson, P Nyagura SEATINI, TARSC, Policy Brief 24; May 2011 4 pp. 300 kB:
http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/EQ%20Polbrief24Counterfeits.pdf

This policy brief defines counterfeit, substandard and falsified medicines. It points to the separate measures and mandates needed to combat each: for dealing with fraudulent trade mark and intellectual property (IP) infringement in counterfeit medicines by IP authorities, for ensuring that any anti-counterfeit measures protect TRIPS flexibilities, including for access to generic medicines; and for national drug regulatory authorities to ensure that substandard and falsified medicines do not compromise health. ***

Draft Guidelines for the Development of Pharmaceutical Services in Primary Health Care
by Nelly Marín, Adriana Mitsue Ivama, Dalia Castillo et al. Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), September 2011 82 pp. 1.1 MB: http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid =14678&Itemid= The focus of this document is to guide the countries in the Region of the Americas for the implementation of pharmaceutical services based on PHC. The guidelines can be used by Ministries, State Secretariats and Departments of Health, academia, NGOs and all those civil society organizations that are working with PHC with a renewed vision by PAHO/WHO. Since it is a work in progress, the document is dynamic and there is the expectation that the contributions of everyone will enrich it.

Social Protection Working for life: making decent work and pensions a reality for older people
by Annie Kelly, Julia Pitman and Thiong’o Ngugi - HelpAge International, 2011 HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 18

28 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.helpage.org/download/4c3cfab169f5e This report examines the key issues of decent work; what it is, whether it is a way out of poverty and decent work in EU development co-operation. It also looks at issues around older people and work and whether pensions are an affordable strategy. This paper draws on the experiences and insights of older people in Bangladesh, Peru and Uganda. ***

Disaster Microcredit: A Mechanism for Recovery
by LW Loving and JA Sandusky Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD), September 2010 26 pp. 250 kB: http://www.microfinancegateway.org/gm/document1.9.53240/Disaster%20Microcredit.pdf This report documents a study on the potential of microcredit as a disaster relief tool. The study surveyed available literature and interviewed professionals in related fields. It identifies both challenges and benefits of microcredit as well as the types of businesses most likely to be aided by a microcredit system. The paper proposes that microcredit could be a good disaster relief mechanism. ***

Microfinance & Microinsurance: Learnings from Market Studies in Latin America & Africa
by Sabrina Régent, Sophie Chauliac, Benoit Rigollet PlaNet Finance and PlaNet Guarantee, 2011 119 pp. 11.2 MB(!): http://admin.planetfinancegroup.org/upload/medias/fr/pfgroupmarket_study_microinsurance_2011.pdf Microinsurance has huge potential for helping low-income populations confront financial risks, for allowing insurers and intermediaries to enter new markets, and for enabling governments to complement their intervention by relying on privately run insurance. Access to the financial risk management tools of credit, savings and insurance is a key to fighting poverty. But microinsurance is still an infant compared to microfinance. Today, much remains to be done in order to provide people with simple, understandable, accessible, value-based, and efficient products. ***

Engendering Social Security and Protection
Challenges for Making Social Security and Protection Gender Equitable by Shahra Razavi Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, June 2011

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14 pp. 275 kB: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/08212-20110725.pdf The recent global crisis has underlined the important role of social security and protection. However, in practice there are going to be significant variations in crisis response across countries. What is the best way of equalizing social protection outcomes, especially for women? ***

Social Safety Nets: An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2000-2010
Jennie Litvack, Victoria Monchuk, Ursula Martinez et al. The World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, 2011 218 pp. 8.8 MB:
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/content/dam/ieg/ssn/ssn_full_evaluation.pdf

Events of the past decade have underscored the vital need for social safety net (SSN) programs in all countries, especially in times of crisis. When hous eholds are hit by shocks, SSNs can be used to protect particularly vulnerable people by providing liquidity, offering short-term employment, and discouraging negative mechanisms for coping with the setbacks. Many countries, especially high- and middle-income countries, have some form of targeted SSN programs, and they are spreading to lowincome countries, too. ***

Cash Transfers, Children and the Crisis: Protecting Current and Future Investments
by Ariel Fiszbein, Dena Ringold, Santhosh Srinivasan The World Bank Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 1112, June 2011 32 pp. 169 kB: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resourc es/SP-Discussion-papers/Safety-Nets-DP/1112.pdf This paper aims to describe how conditional cash transfers have been used by different countries to respond to the food, fuel and finance crises of 2008-2009 (e.g. by expanding coverage and/or increasing benefit amounts), distill lessons about their effectiveness as crisis-response programs, identify design features that can facilitate their ability to respond to transient poverty shocks, and assess how they can complement other safety net programs. ***

Liberia’s Cash for Work Temporary Employment Project: Responding to Crisis in Low Income, Fragile Countries
by Colin Andrews, Prospère Backiny-Yetna, Emily Garin et al. The World Bank Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 1114; July 2011 53 pp. 228 kB: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/SPDiscussion-papers/Safety-Nets-DP/1114.pdf The paper looks at the experiences of Liberia’s Cash for Work Temporary Project in reHESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 20

sponse to food crisis. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative evaluation, the paper explores lessons on the operational performance and policy experiences emerging from program implementation. The evaluation shows that although implementing social pr otection programming on tight timelines is difficult in a post-conflict setting with poor infrastructure and government capacity, private actors and community structures can offer flexibility. ***

Towards Improved Measurement of Financial Protection in Health
by Rodrigo Moreno-Serra, Christopher Millett, Peter C. Smith PLoS Med 8(9): e1001087 (6 September 2011) 6 pp. 249 kB: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001087&representation=PDF Most health systems fail to offer adequate financial protection to citizens because of insufficient financial risk pooling and prepayment mechanisms. The harm caused by inadequate financial protection goes well beyond that measured by conventional indic ators such as catastrophic and impoverishing health spending. A broader set of metrics is required to better inform policy development on financial protection, including new indicators that identify citizens who cannot afford to use health services and may have very low or no health spending. ***

Insured persons dilemma about other family members: a perspective on the national health insurance scheme in Nigeria
by Nasir Umar and Shafiu Mohammed Journal of Public Health in Africa 2011; Vol. 2, No. 2:e31 2 pp. 52 kB: http://www.publichealthinafrica.org/index.php/jphia/article/download/ jphia.2011.e31/pdf Results of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) survey in Nigeria revealed that respondents (heads of households) have generally viewed the NHIS favourably, but consistently expressed dissatisfaction over the terms of coverage. Specifically, because the NHIS enrolment covers only the primary insured person, their spouse and only up to four biological children, in a setting where extended family is common. Dissatisfaction of enrolees could affect their willingness to participate in the insurance scheme, which may potentially affect the success and future extension of the scheme. ***

Integrating Public Works and Cash Transfers in Ethiopia: Implications for Social Protection, Employment and Decent Work
by Maikel Lieuw-Kie-Song International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC - IG) Working Paper #84, September 2011 31 pp. 355 kB: http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper84.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 21

What is the relevance of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), the se cond largest social protection programme in Africa, for other countries, especially for India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA)? Are there policy lessons to be noted and operational innovations to be learned from? This paper aims at answering these questions by reviewing and analysing the employment and social-protection aspects of PSNP. ***

Child and HIV-sensitive social protection in Eastern and Southern Africa
Lessons from the Children and AIDS Regional Initiative (CARI) by Keetie Roelen, Jerker Edström, Rachel Sabates-Wheeler et al. Centre for Social Protection at the Institute of Development Studies, UK, September 2011 39 pp. 733 kB: http://equityforchildren.org/descargar-child-and-hiv-sensitive-socialprotection-in-eastern-and-southern-africa/496/index.html The report explores child- and HIV-sensitive social protection implemented under the umbrella of Children and AIDS Regional Initiative (CARI) in five countries: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and Tanzania. A synthesis of the findings across the five country case studies is presented to explore overarching themes and lessons learned. Finally, the authors draw a number of conclusions on positive and promising developments, the challenges ahead and also the potential for expansion of social pr otection schemes. ***

Lessons from Social Protection Programme Implementation in Kenya, Zambia and Mongolia
by Carl Jackson, Saul Butters, Enkhtsetseg Byambaa et al. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), July 2011 42 pp. 224 kB: http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/rr69.pdf This paper researches how social protection programming can interrupt the intergenerational transfer of poverty (IGT) through investments in human capital (education, health, nutrition). Research was conducted on three case studies: the Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CT-OVC) in Kenya, the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) in Zambia, and the Child Money Programme (CMP) in Mongolia. Research aimed to u nderstand which factors in social protection programming (e.g. design, implementation) account for success. ***

Stopping Child Poverty in its Tracks: The Role for Social Protection in Vietnam
by Keetie Roelen Institute of Development Studies (IDS) Working Paper Nr. 371, September 2011 15 pp. 95 kB: http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Wp371.pdf This paper explores the role for social protection in reducing child poverty in the specific HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 22

case of Vietnam. Although the country has experienced rapid economic growth with a concurrent rise in living standards, inequalities are widespread across demographic and social groups and deprivation persists in both income and non-income dimensions.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Small-Scale Water Providers in Kenya: Pioneers or Predators?
by Degol Hailu, Sara Rendtorff-Smith and Raquel Tsukada United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), August 2011 48 pp. 2.3 MB: http://www.beta.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Poverty%20Re duction/Inclusive%20development/Kenya%20paper%28web%29.pdf In 2008, 83 percent of Kenyans living in urban areas, had access to safe drinking water – down from 91 percent in 1990. This gradual deterioration in urban water access is mainly due to growing demand caused by rapid population growth, especially in the informal settlements. Small-scale private water providers have entered the market to fill the gap left in public service provision. This study examines what role they play in ensuring affordable, safe and reliable water supply. It finds that small-scale providers increase water supply coverage and reduce time poverty. ***

Newsletter - Rio+20: Making it Happen
Volume 2, Issue 16, 31 August 2011 2 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/content/documents/Volume%202,%20Issue%20 16%20(31%20August%202011).pub.pdf Volume 2, Issue 16 of Rio+20 Making it Happen newsletter highlights the “Stockholm Statement to Rio+20” calling for safe drinking water for all by 2030, the International Year of Water Cooperation 2013, and the launch of the UN Office for Sustainable Development in Incheon, Korea.

Human Resources Exploring the Human Resources for Health Landscape for Adult Male Circumcision Rollout in Four Districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya
by Paul Perchal, George Odingo, and Melinda Pavin EngenderHealth, 2011 44 pp. 2.4 MB: http://www.engenderhealth.org/files/pubs/hiv-aidsstis/engenderhealth-mc-hrtna-report-final.pdf Research on adult Male Circumcision (MC) in Kenya and in other countries may shed light on some of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) questions. As part of the Male Circumcision Consortium, EngenderHealth is conducting several studies to assess the safety, quality, and acceptability of various service delivery approaches, including task HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 23

shifting to non-physician clinicians and the use of outreach teams.

Health Systems & Research Expansion of the private health sector in east and southern Africa
by Jane Doherty Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (EQUINET) Discussion Paper 87, August 2011 35 pp. 180 kB: http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/EQ%20Diss%2087%20Private%20HS.pdf This review explores the implications of expansion of the private for profit health sector for equitable health systems in East and Southern Africa. It explores whether there are signs of increasing for-profit private sector activity in the region. The report then identifies issues of concern on private for profit activity in the health sector. Comprehensive policies on the private sector need to be developed, together with a robust regulations and state capacities to monitor private sector activity and enforce regulations and sanctions. ***

Building the Field of Health Policy and Systems Research: An Agenda for Action
by Sara Bennett, Irene Akua Agyepong, Kabir Sheikh et al. PLoS Med 8(8): e1001081 (30 August 2011) 5 pp. 160 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=019222D0C4C28046D8EC CBE815B56FA4.ambra02?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001081&representation=PDF

The lack of clarity and shared understanding regarding the scientific foundations of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) potentially has very negative consequences for the field. This final paper in the “Building the Field of HPSR” series turns to practical questions concerning how to remove structural barriers that currently inhibit the development of the HPSR field and thus unlock HPSR capacities.

Information & Communication Technology Delivering on the promise of information technology to strengthen health systems
by David Lubinski PATH, June 2011 2 pp. 190 kB: http://www.path.org/files/TS_hmis_delivering.pdf From tracking tuberculosis in Africa to providing better maternal and child health care in India, PATH’s work in health information systems is bridging the gap between global health and information and communication technology using a different approach - a user-driven enterprise architecture and technology that addresses user requirements. HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 24

Broadband in Kenya: Build it and They Will Come
by Mandla Msimang, Michael Minges, Tim Kelly et al. infoDev / The World Bank, 2011 48 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.1108.pdf This case study, one of seven that contribute to the Broadband Strategies Toolkit, considers the case of broadband in Kenya and the manner in which the country has tackled its capacity challenges. The Kenyan experience has been inspiring but at times imperfect, and exploring this history will yield valuable lessons for other countries. ***

The future of cloud computing
by Janna Quitney Anderson and Lee Rainie Elon University and LPew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, June 2010 26 pp. 853 kB: http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Future_of_the_Internet_cl oud_computing.pdf By 2020, most people won’t do their work with software running on a general-purpose PC. Most people will access software applications online and share and access information through the use of remote server networks, rather than depending primarily on tools and information housed on their individual, personal computers. Technology experts say that cloud computing will become more dominant than the desktop in the next decade.

Education Futures Stolen: Barriers to Education for Children with Disabilities in Nepal
by Shantha Rau Barriga, Joseph Amon, Rebecca Schleifer et al. Human Rights Watch, 2011 76 pp. 799 kB: http://www.crin.org/docs/nepal0811ForWebUpload.pdf This report documents the hurdles that children with disabilities face in obtaining a quality education in Nepal. Some children with disabilities experience abuse and neglect at home and in their communities, making it harder for them to gain access to schooling. These barriers result in low attendance and high dropout rates for children with disabilities compared with their non-disabled peers. ***

Building Support for Gender Equality among Young Adolescents in School: Findings from Mumbai, India
by Pranita Achyut, Nandita Bhatla, Ajay Kumar Singh et al. MacArthur Foundation and Nike Foundation, 2011 HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 25

12 pp. 495 kB: http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/GEMS_Building_Support_for_ Gender_Equality_Adolescents.pdf There is increasing recognition that to reduce gender inequality programs must start with youth. Yet there has been limited engagement of both girls and boys during early adolescence to challenge and shift gender norms that contribute to girls and women having less worth, opportunities and decision-making ability than boys and men. Such inequitable gender norms can have a host of harmful consequences for girls and boys during childhood and beyond, including poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, violence and school drop out. ***

Climate Change Starter’s Guidebook
by Alejandro Deeb, Amber French, Julia Heiss et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), August 2011 72 pp. 9.1 MB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002111/211136E.pdf The aim of this guide is to serve as a starting point for mainstreaming climate change education into curricula lesson plans and programs. It provides an introduction and overview for education planners and practitioners on the wide range of issues relating to climate change and climate change education, including causes, impacts, mitigation and adaptation strategies, as well as some broad political and economic principals.

Development Assistance What has tax got to do with Development: A Critical look at Mozambique’s and Zimbabwe’s tax system
by Marta Cumbi and Leonard Maveneka AFRODAD, July 2011 Mozambique (36 pp. 439 kB): http://www.eurodad.org/uploadedFiles/Whats_New/Reports/what% 20has%20tax%20got%20to%20do%20with%20development%5B1%5D(1).pdf?n=3094 Zimbabwe (40 pp. 421 kB): http://www.eurodad.org/uploadedFiles/Whats_New/Reports/zimbabwe%20tax%2 0system-web%5B1%5D.pdf If developing countries were able to collect sufficient tax revenues, they might be able to increase their independence, the provision of social protection, infrastructure and basic services such as education and health care which are crucial for development. The two reports on Mozambique and Zimbabwe reveal that mobilising domestic resources as a means to financing development has become an important development issue, a shift from the past emphasis on financing development from aid and external borrowing. *** HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 26

What Happens to Social Spending in IMF-Supported Programs?
by Benedict Clements, Sanjeev Gupta and Masahiro Nozaki International Monetary Fund (IMF) Staff Discussion Note, August 31, 2011 20 pp. 918 kB: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2011/sdn1115.pdf The effect of IMF-supported programs on social spending continues to be widely debated. Critics argue that during these programs, countries are required to cut public spending to meet fiscal targets, thereby squeezing priority expenditure on education and health and hurting the poor. This note finds that education and health spending have risen during IMF-supported programs at a faster pace than in developing countries as a whole. Over a five-year period with IMF-supported programs, spending for education increases by about ¾ percentage point of GDP; and for health, by about 1 percentage point of GDP. ***

Incentive Proliferation? Making Sense of a New Wave of Development Programs
by William Savedoff Center for Global Development, August 2011 26 pp. 600 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425405_file_Savedoff_Incentive_Proliferation_FINAL.pdf A new wave of development programs that explicitly use incentives to achieve their aims is under way. They are part of a trend, accelerating in recent years, to disburse development assistance against specific and measurable outputs or outcomes. With a proliferation of new ideas under names such as “payments for performance,” “output-based aid,” and “results based financing,” it is easy to lose sight of basic underlying similarities in these approaches and to miss some significant differences. ***

Aid effectiveness: bringing country ownership (and politics) back in
by David Booth Overseas Development Institute (ODI) Working Papers 336, August 2011 24 pp. 193 kB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4928.pdf How can international actors support the emergence of country-owned development efforts? Since Paris and Accra, however, attention has been focused on a subtly different question. The assumption is tacitly made that most countries already have development-oriented political leaderships. This paper considers that assumption untenable and agrees with those arguing that ownership should be treated as a desirable outcome, not an achieved state of affairs. It then asks the corresponding question: whether external actors have any useful role in assisting the emergence of developmental country leaderships. ***

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Aid Risks in Fragile and Transitional Contexts: Improving Donor Behaviour
OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), 2011 8 pp. 816 kB: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/0/17/47672264.pdf How can donors manage the risks of engagement in fragile and transitional contexts without constraining aid’s potentially high impact in such environments? The current risk-averse approach to aid generates slow and inflexible procedures and, at times, perverse results: appropriate risk taking is essential to effective engagement in fragile contexts. Donors need political backing and more flexible processes. Collective approaches to managing risk show promise. ***

Development aid reaches an historic high in 2010
Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD-DAC), September 2011 Read online at: http://www.oecd.org/document/61/0,3746,en_2649_34447_47515235_1_ 1_1_1,00.html In 2010, net official development assistance (ODA) flows from members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD reached USD 128.7 billion, representing an increase of +6.5 % over 2009. This is the highest real ODA level ever, surpassing even the volume provided in 2005 which was boosted by exceptional debt r elief. ***

Universal Health Coverage: A Background Document developed for the Belgian Development Cooperation
by An Appelmans, Luc Van Leemput, Raoul Bermejo et al. Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp (ITMA), September 2011 37 pp. 825 kB: http://www.itg.be/itg/Uploads/Volksgezondheid/wpshsop/WP3%20%20ITM%20UHC%20Technical%20Policy%20Note.pdf Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has sparked a lot of debate over the years, both conceptually and in terms of directions on how to move towards achieving it. It continues to do so. Nevertheless, there is now a broad consensus on the objective of UHC in line with previous milestone targets as health and health care for all. Current challenges such as reaching illegal migrants or keeping health care affordable with an increasingly ageing population show that UHC is not a one-time achievement but rather a “work in progress”, even in developed countries.

Others Getting it Right from the Start: Priorities for Action in the New Republic of South Sudan

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 28

by Rebecca Barber on behalf of a coalition of 38 organizations providing humanitarian, development, and peace-building programs in South Sudan - Published: 6 September 2011 39 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/20110906-southsudan-getting-it-right-from-the-start.pdf Amidst jubilant celebration, the new Republic of South Sudan entered the international stage in July 2011 albeit as one of the least developed countries in the world. The challenges and opportunities are enormous, and donors, the government, implementing agencies and most importantly the people of South Sudan have a lot at stake – but much more to gain. This paper presents ten areas that the Government of South Sudan and donors must prioritize in the first years of the country’s independence so as to e nsure the best possible results for the people of South Sudan. ***

How to read health news
by Alicia White NHS Knowledge Service, January 2009 Read online at: http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/Howtoreadarticlesabouthealthand healthcare.aspx If you’ve just read a health-related headline that has caused you to spit out your morning coffee (“Coffee causes cancer” usually does the trick), it’s always best to follow the Blitz slogan: “Keep Calm and Carry On”. On reading further, you’ll often find the headline has left out something important, such as, “Injecting five rats with really highly concentrated coffee solution caused some changes in cells that might lead to tumours eventually. (Study funded by The Association of Tea Marketing)”. ***

A journalist’s guide to reporting research findings
Panos, London, June 2011 7 pp. 1.7 MB: http://panos.org.uk/wp-content/files/2011/06/A-journalists-guide-toreporting-research-findings.pdf This practical guide is for journalists and editors passionate about development issues, who see the value of publishing stories based on development research findings. It will also be of interest to communications staff in universities, think tanks, or civil society organisations responsible for promoting research findings. Although there are many advocates of communicating research through the media, there are few practical guides on how to do it well. ***

Health Care in Danger: Making the Case
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), August 2011 24 pp. 25.6 MB(!): HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 29

http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/963 Attacks on health-care facilities, health-care personnel and medical vehicles, and impediments to the wounded and the sick reaching health-care services have become common in conflicts and upheavals all over the world. Violence, both actual and threatened, against patients and health-care workers and facilities is one of the most crucial yet overlooked humanitarian issues of today. This publication first looks at the general disruption to health care that occurs during conflict and civil strife, before looking more closely at specific types of violence. ***

World Report on Disability - EasyRead version
This paper has been designed and produced for the World Health Organization by the EasyRead service at Inspired Services Publishing Ltd., June 2011 36 pp. 2.7 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240685215_easyre ad_eng.pdf This is the EasyRead version of the “World Report on Disability” by Tony Kahane, Bruce Ross-Larson, Angela Burton et al.; World Health Organization & the World Bank Group, 2011: 349 pp. 3.3 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240685215_eng.pdf ***

Surgery in Africa Monthly Reviews: Surgical Safety
by Andrew W. Howard Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, September 2011 6 pp. 158 kB: http://www.ptolemy.ca/members/current/Surgical%20Safety/Surgical%20Safety.pdf Hospitals are dangerous places, and surgical care in particular is a dangerous undertaking. Recent developments in surgical safety are proven effective at improving the process of surgical care and preventing those deaths and complications which are avoidable. Surprisingly simple tools, such as checklists, can reduce surgical morbidity and mortality.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
The World Bank - Social Protection Datasets
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALPROTECTION/EXTSAFETYNETSANDTRANSFERS/0,,contentMDK:22986320~menuPK:282766~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282761,00.html

The Social Protection (SP) databases consolidate comparable country data on program benefit incidence, targeting accuracy, cost-benefit, poverty/inequality impacts, overlap, spending, and performance under a unique platform. The data provided intend to support countries make evidence-based decisions on what works and does not work in SP, and ultimately focus assistance on cost-effective programs.

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 30

INTERESTING WEB SITES
Global Health Check
http://www.globalhealthcheck.org/ Global Health Check is an online space intended to provoke debate and conversation on health financing and service delivery. It seeks to challenge the limited terms of debate which currently exist in the international health sector, and encourage discussion on difficult, and often controversial topics confronting the narrow menu of options for health care reform promoted by some donor agencies. ***

African Portal on Medical Education
http://www.samss.org/ The Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) website is a portal for information on medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. It highlights reports and articles that shed light on the current state of medical education in the region and describes innovations and trends that will shape the future of medical education in Africa. ***

aidinfo: Better Information, Better Aid
http://www.aidinfo.org/ “We work to accelerate poverty reduction by making aid more transparent. We believe that aid will work better – and that poverty reduction will come about more quickly – when information about aid can be accessed quickly, easily and cheaply. In short, we think that better aid will result from better information”. ***

Kiss Malaria Goodbye
http://www.comminit.com/malaria-africa/content/kiss-malaria-goodbye Launched in 2011, Kiss Malaria Goodbye is an initiative implemented by Doctors Without Borders in South Africa that works to raise awareness, support, and funds for malaria treatment and eradication activities in Africa, particularly artemisinen-based combination therapy and malaria rapid diagnostic tests. The initiative uses new technologies such as SMS and online social networking platforms, and encourages people to record kisses as part of the message to “Kiss Malaria Goodbye.” ***

The Encyclopedia of Life: Global access to knowledge about life on Earth
http://eol.org/ The Encyclopedia of Life launched EOLv2 - a new design and new features for this daHESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 31

tabase of all life on Earth. The Encyclopedia of Life contains some 700,000 pages, each listing a different living thing. The redesign is meant to increase ease of use - and allow users to personalize the site and to interact with fellow enthusiasts worldwide.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Blended Learning Course “HIV/AIDS & Gender: From basic knowledge to good practice”
11 November 2011 - 11 March 2012 GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH This course provides a starting-point for developing a clear understanding of the global HIV epidemic, as well as an opportunity for participants to examine their own beliefs and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and those affected by the disease. Considering the 'feminisation' of the HIV epidemic in Sub-Sahara Africa, the course addresses a gender focus and gives priorities to multipliers with gender-sensitive responses to HIV and AIDS. The online course is designed for non medical professionals who deal with HIV and AIDS issues in various contexts, e.g. health, education, civil society, business, or development co-operation. According to the main GIZ partner countries we are specifically inviting applicants from Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania. A 1 day start-up seminar (planned in the capital of each country) will precede the start of the course. During the seminar participants will have the chance to familiarise themselves with the online environment and the various communication tools that will be followed by an online introduction of 10 days. After the online phase, a five-day face-toface seminar will be conducted in Tanzania. The detailed programme of it will be deve loped based on the specific interests of the course participants. For more information download the course flyer (Adobe PDF file - 3 pp. 94 kB): http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/965 Application deadline is 14 October 2011. Application form: (MS Word file - 4 pp. 83 kB) http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/966 ***

Distance learning course: Health and Human Rights
November 2011 - April 2012 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Course Content: Health and human rights norms and principles, the legal framework, a human rights based approach to health, how to analyze and assess public health policies and programmes from a human rights perspective, how to apply a human rightsbased approach to the own work, recognize key linkages between health and human rights, Understand the legal framework, analyze and assess public health policies and programmes from a human rights perspective, apply a human rights-based approach to the own work. Target Audience: Public health and human rights practitioners, government officials, HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 32

NGOs, WHO staff and other UN agencies etc. from Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania. Language: English Entry Requirements: Fluency in English, internet access. For more information contact: Nikola Hüging Tel.: +49-228-4460-1588 Fax: +49-228-4460-1844 mailto:nikola.hueging@giz.de For more courses and conferences see also: http://www.going-international.at/index.php?lang=EN

CONFERENCES
2011 European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE)
6-8th November 2011, Stockholm, Sweden The conference aims at: (a) strengthening and expanding the human network of all involved in applied infectious disease epidemiology (b) sharing scientific knowledge and experience in this field in Europe and internationally and (c) providing a dedicated pla tform for EPIET/FETP (field epidemiology training programme) fellows to present their work. For more information download the ESCAIDE Flyer (2 pp. 2.1 MB): http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/ESCAIDE/Documents/1106_ESCAIDE_2011_Flyer.pdf ***

5th Entertainment Education Conference (EE5)
“For Health and Social Development Focusing on Women and Children” 17 - 20 November 2011 India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India The conference is for communication professionals, artists, public health practitioners, entertainers and others who work for a cause. EE5 will explore the state-of-the-art in Entertainment-Education and position the field for the next generation of innovations. It will bring together a variety of stakeholders from around the world to examine best practices and new advances, conduct hands-on, participatory learning and explore techniques to improve effectiveness. For more information see: http://www.ee5conference.org/home ***

HESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 33

CARTOON
…more about blogs

TIPS & TRICKS
What does “DPI” mean?
Digital images are essentially made up of little “dots”. We use DPI (Dots per Inch) as a measure of resolution. Generally speaking, the higher the number, the higher the res olution and the sharper the picture. 300 DPI is considered to be photo quality. Generally speaking, you won’t notice much difference in quality by going higher than 300 DPI. In fact, if an image is being used on the web or for computer screen purposes, then it needs to be 72 DPI, since that is all most computer screens can display anyway. ***

Mouse Browse
If you have a mouse with a scroll wheel on it, here is a cool trick. Try Holding the Shift Key on your keyboard and then spin the mouse wheel. In both Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox you will go forward or back a page depending on which way you spun the wheel. ***

4-word Password Generator
Many people still struggle when it comes to creating good passwords. To think the trend of passwords like ‘123456′ and ‘qwerty’ would have died down years ago, but you would be surprised to know that the vast majority of people still use easy to guess passwords. It is understandable, no one likes passwords which are cryptic and tough to remember. However, it is common knowledge that more cryptic the password, harder it is to crack. We need a password which is easy to remember, non-cryptic and something which cannot be easily guessed or cracked using automated programmes. There is a password generator which uses 4 random words of English language and generates an easy to remember yet hard to guess password. As simple as it sounds, it has proven to be very effective when you think about it. 4 random words of English strung together, and you have a complex yet un-cryptic password. Additionally the proHESP-News & Notes - 19/2011 - page 34

gramme lets you generate passwords in English, Spanish and French. Usually, when someone tries to guess your password they will most probably try your date of birth or your dog’s name or other such personal details. The last thing on their mind will be a password consisting of 4 random words. Click here to generate a new password for yourself.

Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD
_____________________________________________________________________________
Fair Use: This Newsletter is produced under the principles of 'fair use'. We source relevant news articles, resources and research documents and strive to attribute sources by providing reference and/or direct links to authors and websites. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GIZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes. While we make every effort to ensure that all facts and figures quoted by authors are accurate, GIZ and the editor of the Newsletter cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies contained in any articles. Please contact dneuvians@gmx.de if you believe that errors are contained in any article and we will investigate and provide feedback.

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