Freemen

Armageddon s Prophets of Hate And Terror

(Third Edition June 1999)

The Kitsap County Prosecuting Attorney s Office Presentation On

Freemen
Armageddon s Prophets of Hate And Terror
A Washington Association of Prosecuting Attorneys Lecture June 25, 1999

Pamela B . Loginsky Staff Attorney Washin gton Asso ciation of Prose cutin g Attorn eys 206 10th Avenue S.E. Olympia, WA 98501 (360) 753-2175 pamloginsky@olywa.net

Jeffrey J. Jahns Chief Deputy Prosecuting Attorney District & Municipal Court Division Kitsap County Prosecuting Attorney s Office 614 Division Street, MS-35 Port Orchard, WA 98366 (360) 337-4982

wa.jjahns@co.us .kitsap.

J E F F R E YEFF REY J. auditors. KitsapKitsap CKitsap County Pro Kitsap County Prosecutor s Office in 1988. Pam was assigned to the ap AA local Freeman hasA local Freeman has statA local Freeman has stated that Pam is well known to the Constitutional her &active role in bringing charges against Patriots in various courts. From 1991 to 1998 . assessors. SinceSince joining the Kitsap CountySince joining th e Kitsap Cou nty Pr ose Since joining the Kitsap County Prosecutor s O attorney of the District and Bremerton Municipal Court Division. edu catio nal and resear ch p urp oses. All rights reserved. JeffJeff was a partner in the law firm ofJeff was a p artn er in t he l aw firm o f Kindig & Jahn s in T Jeff was a partner in the law an associate in the Port Orchard. as well as to schools and universities for educationaleducational and research pueducational an d research purpo ses.ABOUT THE AUTHORS P A M E L AAMELA BB. . on t he co ndit ion t credited.) of the Court of AppealPam cle rked for Ju dge R ob ert W. W inso r (R et Pam is currently splitting her time between her duties at WAPA and the Kitsap County Prosecutor s Office. and also heads the appellate unit. PermissionPermission to repro duce any po rtion of these materials is graPermission to reproduce any portion of these materia aud itors. COPYRIGHT AND REPRODUCTION © 1999 Kitsap County Prosecuting Attorney s Office. Pam re ceived h er un dergra dua te d egree fro m the Universit y of Wa shingt on in 1985 and her law degree from the University of Washington School of Law in 1988. PamPam clerked for Judge Robert W. Jef Jeff received his undergraduate degree from the University of Puget Sound in 1978 and his law degree from the University of Puget Sound School of Law in 1981. and any other government agencies. L O G IN S K Y. J AA H N S . Washington law firm of Ronald D. Ness & Associates from 1987 to 1994. Winsor (Ret.

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....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Clearing Freemen Liens ........................................................................... ii Conte nts ................................................................................. iv 1 Part I Introduction A New Government At Any Cost ............................................................................................................................. 101 What Should Auditors/Assessors Do? .............................................................................................................................. 15 A One World Government .............................................. The Tribulation 2...................................................................... 184 ii ............................................................. ........................? .... 41 Christian Jural Societies Trespassing on My Venue What is Wrong With Our Public Defenders and Prosecutors? .........................................d..................................................................... 169 Citizen Com plaints ....................... 126 Trial Issues ...... 86 So Who is the Enemy? .......... 24 The Christian Identity Movement a.................................. 97 What Should Jail Personnel Do? .................... 74 A New Banking System ......................................................................................Summary of Contents Sum ma ry of C onten ts ................................ 181 Final Thoughts on O ur Responses .......................................................k.....................................................................................................................000 a............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 The Flag ........................ 96 What Should Law Enforcement Do? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 173 Cop ing With Freem en D ocum ents ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 Freemen-Speak A Reference Char t ......................................................... 27 An Interim Government ........................................ 14 Econ omic Cris is ........... 110 Procedural Aspects of Prosecuting Freemen .. 93 Postscript on Their Theories .................... 94 Part III Our Responses .............................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Christian Israel...................................................................................................................................... Kingdom of God ... Christian America......................................................................................... 66 Money ............................................ 80 What Is A Christian Appellation? ............................................................................................ 71 The C omm on L aw and Its Co urts ............................................... 104 Cha rging Optio ns How to Fit a Squ are Peg Into a R ound Hole ................................................. 12 Part II Their Theories Freem en Roo ts The Conspiracy ............................................................a................ 159 Infractions ................... 2 Ackno wledgm ents .............

............................................ Mohr... 1 Bring ing the Mi litia to Justice.... 110 iii ....................... 439 P.......................................................................C................................580............... 80 Common Law Court Criminal Complaint against judges and prosecutors seeking $6............ 45 Sample Free men Docum ents Refusal for Cause Without Dishonor U.. Turner............ 34 Russell D...... 24 Dyett v........................... 3 Kehoe Republi c.......................................................2d 266 (Utah 1968) (page 47) ..... 30 No............................ 62 Affidavit of Publication of Declaration of Independence of David Carroll...... 60 Distress Bond to distress all funds of the Lewis County Treasury .......................................................... 81 Demand for Particulars to police officers (resulting in barratry charge) ............. and International M otorist card .. Intelligence Report...................... Issue 90...... 1.................................................. et............................................... 85 Criminal Complaint for Unlawful Practice of Law against prosecutors ............... 103 Declaration returning improperly mailed documents ..... WSBN May 1996 (cited at page 2) ..........C..................... Doctrinal Statement of Beliefs (page 32) ........00 ..................................................100....................................................................................... 78 UC C-2 F ixt ur e Filin g agai nst jud ge .......... The Prosecutor.............................. 31 Hon.. 3-501 on Infraction ...................... 25 Department of Corrections Division of Prisons.............. 93 Demand to Abate Prosecution due to lack of corroboration of police officer ................................. Issue 92.. 37 Findings of Fact and Conclusions o f Law............ Sh ea... Vol.............................. Intelligence Report............... Winter 1999 (page 11) . Right to Travel identification................................................... Stephenson ........... Intelligence Report. 68 State Militia Right to Bear Arms................. 3-501 on Notification ............................................ How to Deal With Extremist and Fringe Groups (page 126) .. 96 Certificate of Administrative Judgment by GR 8 Judicial Officer terminating Sovereign s participation ........... Oath of O ffice (page 142) ......................................................... 79 Writ of Habeas Corpus removing felony case to Common Law Court ........... 66 Notice to Washington Secretary of State revoking all contractual relationships with Natural Citizen .. Frost..... Stephenson ................... 17 Kingdom Identity Ministries....................... 185 Edward F.................................... Hauge...... 6 Active Hate Groups in the United States in 1998.................. January/February 1996 (page 7) ......................................................................................................... 61 Declaration of Independence of David Carroll.............................. WSBA President...... 38 Sample Forms and Pleadings for Invalidating Liens (page 183) . 21 Declaration of Independence (page 44) .............................914.... al (page 173) ..................... Spring 1998 (page 17) ................... 99 Remo val of in fractio n to federa l dist rict co urt b ased on fo reign d iversity cl aim ........ 91 Demand for Facts requiring answers to interrogatories .App endix ......... Common-law Courts?......................................................... 59 Refusal for Cause Without Dishonor U............................... Gregory P.....................................00 ... Kirtley v............................................................ Fall 1998 (page 9) ...................................................................C............................. Issue 93. 15 Roo ts of Com mo n La w...................C.............................................................................000....... 73 Cl aim of C om mer cia l Li en agai nst jud ge ....... 109 Land Patent ................................................................................................................... Force Feeding of Offenders (page 103) ...................... 71 Common Law Lien against judges and prosecutors for $7..............

........................................................................000 a........................................... 38 Christian Identity Martyrdom .......................................................................................................................................................................................a............................................ Kingdom of God Introduction Christian Israel.................................................................................... 22 The Bible ... .................................................................................. 2 Freemen Prosecutions in Kitsap County .............................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Ruby Ridge...........................................................................................................................................................................................k....................... Waco and Oklahoma City ...................... 23 The Tribulation 2...................... 26 The Christian Identity Movement a............................ 2 Preface to Third Edition ...................................... .......................................................... a Posse Hero ................................................ 38 We th e Peo ple a re no t Racist s! ............ 24 The Tribulation and Freemen Recruiting Techniques .............................................................................................................................................. 22 One World Government ............. 32 Baal Worship and the Phinehas Priesthood ..................................... 3 Why Care About Freemen? ......................................................................... 17 The Posse Comitatus ..............d.... 40 iv .......................................................................................... 28 Christian Identity Expansion .............. iv 1 Part I Introduction A New Government At Any Cost ...................................................................................................... 12 Part II Their Theories Freem en Roo ts ................................................ 17 Gordon Kah l............................................ 15 The 1 980 s Farm C risis ...................................................... 27 Christian Fundamenta lists v..... Christian America............................................... 15 A Synopsis of Their World .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Ackno wledgm ents .......................................................................................................................... 14 Econ omic Cris is ...............................................................Contents Sum ma ry of C onten ts .............................................................................................................................................................................. 35 The Washington Monument? ....................................................................... 5 Freemen Actions Nationally You Better Pay Attention! ........................ the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous............................................................ 27 America is the Promised Land of Israel ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ii Conte nts ........................................................................................................................................................................ 30 Christian Identity Beliefs 101 .............. 21 The Conspiracy A One World Government ....................................................................................................................... 18 The Posse Comitatus in Our World 13 USC § 1385 ............................................................... 15 An H istoric al Pe rspec tive The Land ............................................................. 24 The End of the World .................? .......................................................................................................... Christian Identity Believers .......................... 38 THE TURNER D IARIES .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 29 A Histor y of Ch rist ian Ide nt ity Th eo lo gy ......................................

.. th e UCC ....................... 41 Ho w to B ecom e a S ove rei gn .................................................................................................................. Tompkins (19 38) )........................................................................................................................................ the Fed eral Rul es of Civil Pro cedu re.................. 72 The Ultimate Crime and Punishment ................................................................ 46 The C ivil War A mend ment s The 16th Amendment Crea tion of an In ferior C itizen ship ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Ship in a Harbor ....... Private Law Violent Freemen Actions Compurgation Diversity of Jurisdiction .........................The C omm on L aw and Its Co urts ........................................................... 71 The American Flag of Peace ...... D ......................................... 66 A Public Defender s Conflict of Interest ? ..................................................... an d F lag Fri nge ................................................................................................................................... 70 Trespassing on My Venue The Flag ............................................................ And the Right to Contract ............................................................................................... Ad mira lt y Co ur ts................................................................................................................................................ 63 Jural Societies Must Remain Anonymous ........................ 61 Christian Jural Societies An Interim Government ......................... 66 Lawyers Prohibited From Serving in Government ................................................ 47 Income Taxes ............................................................ 46 Amendments to the Constitution ................................................ 44 The Declaration of Independence ....................................................................... 49 Sovereign Rights Over Corporations and States....... 67 Janet Reno? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14th Amendment Citizens ............. Private Law .............................................................. 66 Bar Associat ion Ap proval to Practice La w The Missing 13th Amendment The Prosecutor s Svengali A Title of Nob ility ? .................................. 41 Sovereign Citizens v........................................... 69 The International Bar Association .......... 58 Non-Violent Freemen Actions ............... 44 The Magna Carta ................... 51 Public Law vs........... 56 Ecclesiastical Courts ...................................................................................................... 43 What is the Common Law? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 2.......................................... A New Christian Government Now! ............................. 72 The Protective Shroud of the American Flag of Peace ....................................................................... 45 The Organic Constitution .............................................. 66 The Freemen Counselo r ........................................................................................................................................................ 54 Secret Common Law Military Courts .......................... 44 The United States Constitution We the People & .........................000 A ........ 50 The Common Law s Demise (Erie v... 73 v .......... 41 America On Trial ................. 60 The Third Continental Congress 1996-1997 ................................................................................ 63 The Only True Government .................................................................................................................. 59 Medieval Acquittal ................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Overlapping Law Theirs and Ours ............................................................................. 71 Flag Fringe Treason Velcro Anyone? .................................................................................................... 71 Crimes Committed Against Freemen ................................................................................................................................... 65 What is Wrong With Our Public Defenders and Prosecutors? ............................. 54 Public Law vs.................................................................. 63 A Self-Sufficient Government With All Power at the Local Level ...............................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 The M ark of th e Beast ........................................................................................................ 97 Obstructing an Officer The Stop and Identify Statute .......................... 104 Non-Statutory Abatement .......................... 99 When You are Served with a Freemen Document ............................................ I ll Sign B ut On ly Und er Dur ess Custodial Arrest on Probable Cause Permitted for Certain Traffic Crimes ..................................................................................................................... 99 Develop Intelligence and Know Your Freemen ........................ 102 Non-Lawyer Sixth Amendment Counsel .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Corruption of the Constitution 1933 ................................................................................. 100 What Should Jail Personnel Do? ............................................................... 85 The Common Law Seal Your Thumbprint ................................................................................ 83 A Secu lar Ch allen ge and O ur Re spon se ............... 94 Part III Our Responses .................................... 75 The Bank Con servation Act of 1933 A National Bankruptcy The Mark of the Beast Why Do Green Pieces of Paper Called Dollars Have Value? .................................................. 85 Sui Ju ris .......................................................................................................................... 78 A New Banking System . 101 Refusal to Leave Cell ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 102 Legal M ail ........................................................................................................ 1933 ......................... 99 A Lien is Recorded.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86 So Who is the Enemy? .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 106 vi ..................................................................................... 85 Capitals Indicate a Corporation? ..................................................................... 102 Visitation .................. 85 Freemen-Speak A Reference Char t ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 Arraign ment s Let t he Ga mes Be gin ............................................ 93 Postscript on Their Theories ........................................................................................ 80 What Is A Christian Appellation? .............................................................................................................................................. 78 The Future of Money ................. 98 So You Want to Issue an Infraction? ....................................................... 103 What Should Auditors/Assessors Do? ........................................................................................................................................................................... 99 Criminal Citation and Notice to Ap pear in Court ............. 96 What Should Law Enforcement Do? ........................... 97 First Contact ................................................................ Last? ....................................................................... 97 ................................Money ........................................................................................ 98 OK...................................................................................... or Citizen s Complaint Received ............................................................................................................ 84 Capit alizat ion C oun ts Capit alizat ion C oun ts A Freeman s Name Why First Middle.................. 103 Hunger Strikes ..................................................................... 97 The Traffic Stop . 74 The Federal Reserve and Removal From the Go ld Standard ... 99 Officer Safety is Number 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Involuntary Bankruptcy Filed............................................................................................................................................................................................. 77 June 5.................................. 101 Identification .... 104 Allodial Freeholds and Land Patents ..............

.................................................................................................................. 143 Ch allenge s to th e Lega lit y of t he Jud ge ..................................... 142 Applications for Writs of Quo Warranto ............. 134 Disruptive Behavior of Pro Se Defendant ...................................... 110 Available Charges .... 126 Prefer red H ono rific ................................................ I ll Take Your Attorney Withdrawal of Pro Se Status ............. 126 Jurisdiction Over a Non-Citizen .............. 137 OK............ 110 Barratry ......... 127 I am n ot a Pers on bu t a Hu man Be ing ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Sir or Sire Correct Na me ............ 106 Referring Questions to Prosecutor s Office ................................................... 128 Refusal to Enter Plea ................... 107 General Suggestions .............................................. 138 Freemen Request for Non-Attorney Counsel ....................................................................................................... 126 I am not a Citizen of Your Jurisdiction I am Here Under Duress I have Immunity Is this an Admiralty Court? Re fusal for Ca use Involuntary Presence in the Cou rt ................. 140 Challenges to the Legality of the Prosecutor ....... 147 vii ........................... 143 Challenges to the Legality of Courtroom Personnel .. 132 The Court has no Jurisdiction Absent a Grand Jury Indictment ...................................................................................................................... 123 Unlawful Practice of Law ................................................................................................................................................................................ 140 Court-Appointed Attorn ey s Request to Withdraw ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109 Cha rging Optio ns How to Fit a Squ are Peg Into a R ound Hole ................................................................................................... 123 Procedural Aspects of Prosecuting Freemen .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 117 Malicious Prosecution ...................................... 139 Standby Coun sel ............................................. 110 Charging Considerations and Proper Penalties ............................................................................................ 114 Int imid ating a Jud ge .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 138 I Want the Assistance of Counsel Hybrid Representation .......................................................................................................... 128 Fringe on the Flag ......................... 131 Refusal to Sign Promise to Reappear ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 122 False Representation Concerning Title ..................................... 131 Speedy Trial .................................................................................................................................................................... 139 I am in Control Attorney as Mouthpiece . 134 The Right to an Attorney ............................... 147 Prosecution Violates Freemen s Constitutional Right to Travel in a Private Vehicle ........................................................Documents Presented by Individual in Name of Non-Legal Entity ........................ 130 Diplomatic or Sovereign Immunity ......................................................................................................................................... 131 Requ est for a Bill o f Particu lars ................................................. 111 Intimidating a Public Servant .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 131 Re tu rn of P lead ings ................................... 146 Challenges to the Legality of the Jury ..................................... 126 I am not the Pe rson on the Docket Call Me Sover eign......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 145 Challenges to the Legality of the Revised Code of Washington ................ 107 Oaths of Office and Bonds ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Etc.................................................................................................................................. 160 Physical Restraints ....................................................................................................................... 160 Disruptive Defendant .................................................................................................................................C..................................... 164 Freemen Request for Subpoenas for Judges and Other Elected Officials ........ 181 Final Thoughts on O ur Responses ................................................................................................................................... 166 You Cannot Ask Me Any Questions I Did Not Intend to Violate Your Laws I Was Acting in Self Defense in Response to Your Violence Jury Nullification ........................................... 172 Further Review ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 165 The Defense of Necessity ............................................................................................................. 149 I Do No t Tr ust Yo ur Re co rd Let Me Out of Jail Now!!! You Owe Me Money I Wa nt My Own T ap e o r Vi de o R ecor din g ...........................................S......................... 184 App endix .................................................. 150 Writs of Habeas Corpus ................ 159 Witness Etiquette .......................................................................................................................................... 169 Waiver of Fees Waiver o f Fees Indigency ............................................ 171 Prob abl e Me rit .................................................. 185 viii ................................. 172 Cost Awards . 173 Model Pro cedure ..................................................................................... 167 Juror Protection .............................................. 156 Fingerprints.................................................................................................................... 164 Cross-Examination of Defendants .......................................................... 149 Pros ecu tion for Drivin g While Susp end ed W hen Susp ensio n Du e to Failu re to Pay Tic kets is Unconstitutional Imprisonment for a Debt .................... 177 Cop ing With Freem en D ocum ents ....................................................................... 164 I Cannot Swear Challenges to the Witness Oath ....................................................................... 173 The Citizen Complaint Court Rule Is Unconstitutional ......................................... 157 Challenges to Payment of Court Obligation with Paper Money ........................... 159 Defendant s Clothes .................................. 162 Conflicts of Interest Due to Courtroom Personnel as Witnesses ..... 172 Citizen Com plaints .................................................................................................. 1983 ................................................. 168 Infractions ......................................................................... 167 Testimony Regarding the Law .................................................................................. 156 Removal of Action t o Federal Court Damages Under 42 U............................................................................................................... 176 Post-District Court Review .................................................................................................................................. 178 Clearing Freemen Liens ...................................................... 169 RALJ Appeal RALJ Appeal RALJ A ppe al RALJ Appeal Waiver of Fees .......... 169 The Infraction Calendar ............................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... 150 Diversity Claims ................................My Religious Beliefs Prevent Me From Getting a Driver s License ... 157 I Want My Property Returned Trial Issues ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 159 Defen dan t s Refus al to Leave t he Ja il ............................................................................... 165 Ignorance of the Law and Mens Rea ...................................................................................

June 1999) 1 .Part I Introduction F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.

Un fortun a resresult. 950 89 Wn.Su pp.Sup p. 230 (N.In old English la w. Greenstreet.Ap p. 367.S. the word des cribe d a fre ehold er or t enant b y free serv ices . the United State s Con stitut ion an d its B Inde pende nc e .result.A NEW GOVERNMENT AT ANY COST LitigantsLitiga nt s suc h as Mr. 23 0 (N. 950 P. or other similar misnomers to describe this group. 89 Wn. Tex. v.2 d 10 18 (D iv. the Declaration of Independence. B LACK S LAW D ICTION ARY 793 (4th e d. 9 5 Wn. the Magna Carta. 91 Wn. AA significant number of members in this community are armA significant number of members in this community ar rightsrights as conceived in their law and others have brights a s c onc e ive d in the ir la w a nd othe rs hav e been kil l ed orights as law but their own .D. This community. 22 4. the U nite d Stat es Consti t ut ion and discussion. and was the opposite of slave. or a member of any municipal corporation invested with full civic rights. Gre ens tre et sh ou ld no t b e un der esti mat ed. 224 .Ap p. We reject the terms Patriots. 957 P. 912 F. U. In the Roman law.D 912 F. turn ing to co mmon l aw co urts. along with subseque proprosecprosecutionsprosecutions of other Freemen forced us to pay attention to this phenomenon since we were deluged with documentsdocuments an d lien-filing activities that made absolu tely no sense to us. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and know how to wo rk the system.App.U. Stephenson (State v. though. Tactresult . This community rejects the power of the courts of the federal and state government over the So vere ign Sovereign Citizens of this separate community.Indep end ence . Knowles. Tactic s such a s decl aring on eself a sovere ign. are time consuming for courts to process and routinely futile. one who was not a v illein. it denoted one who was either born free or emancipated. Held: financing statements fraudulent and void ab initio).2d reviereviewr eview d en i review denied . Greenstreet andand kn ow ho w to wo rk the sysand know h ow to work the system. For thinc luded i n t his m anual and st em anan ironic thank you for helping to make us aware of the high potential for dangerousness in the criminal Freemen movement. 794. its own court There is a community scattered among u militias.2d 1 029 (1998 )). the community is willing to risk death as well as murder.App. 2 199 8) an d Veryl Edw ard. Constitutionalists. The following quote is often cited by members of this group to describe themselves Freeman.f il i ng act ivit i es t includedincluded in this manual and stemmed from the Stephenson and Knowles actions.App. 230 (N. 89 Wn. Te x. The y are oftLitigants such as Mr.militias.Su pp. Stephenson. 794. 224 . 196 8). 794. it is the appellation of a member of a city or borough having the right to suffrage. 136 Wn. Mu doc ume nts a nd l i en. Preface to Third Edition ThereThere is a community scattered among us with its own law.. challengingchallenging the jurisdiction of state and federal trial c ha lle nging the juris dic tion of st ate and feder al t r ia res erve reserve notes are not legal tender arreserve notes are not legal tender are reserve no tes are n ot le gal ten de however. as dis tinguished from a fassa l or feuda l tenant. June 1999) 2 .S. A person in the possession and enjoyment of all the civil and political rights accorded to the people under a free government.D. 912 F. They call their law Commonour judges and government officials. 199 6) ( HomeHome Administration for declaratory and injunctive relief in response to UCC-1 H ome A dminis tr at i on for decl ar at or y an byby borrowerby borrowers by bo rrowe rs against fed eral em plo yees wh o were named as deb tors by Co mmon L aw co urt b borrowersbo rro wers w ere ne ver p ro vide d w ith lawfu l mo ne y un de r th e o rigibor rowe rs were never p rovide d wit h lawfu l mo gold or silver. cla Sovere ign Cit i zens of t his sepa (should(shou ld we in terfere with its c itizens in some way pro scribed b y (s hould we interfere w ith its ci t izens in som e way p ourour judges and government officials. K now les (State v.2dWn. WeWe became aware of Freemen 1 i ideo ideology and criminal activity through our 1995 and 1996 prosecutions ofof David Carroll. 1 We use the term Freemen throughout these materials to describe members of the Common Law anti-government movement. Their actions and beliefs have nothing to do with patriotism or the United States Constitution as we define those terms. In the name of their law. In feudal law. 367. The Stephenson and Knowles cases. 9 91 Wn. They call t descendentdescendent of the God-given unalienable rights found in the Bible. it designate d an allod ial proprie tor.. In mode rn legal phras eolo gy.

2 d 10 29 (D iv.00 in liens an d UCC -2 fixtur e filings filed against judges 2 A somewhat humorous description of a Seattle area Freemen couple using a similar fraudulent check scam is made in the book D ALE AND C ONN IE J AKES WITH C LINT R ICHMOND. a t 175 -76. ou r coun ty Over the past three years. indicating the judge would be in contempt of their court and a $300 million fine levied and secured by a lien to be filed against judge s property if Defendant not released from custody and theft charges were not dismissed. 957 P. Knowl abil itieabilitiesabilitie s to rese abilities to research and understand their Sovereign Citizen and Common Law theories.3 ÿÿintimida ting a pu blic ser vant ($7 . understandingunderstanding of the Freemen movement and their beliefs expanded. our co ÿÿtheft (purchasing a $40. Wash inWashin gton au ditor s associat ion. mu ch le ss lead us tour preparation of any manual on Freemen. Defendant convicted.A pp. Dub bed the Odd Couple. It ihave had with Freemen sympathizers. and will c excessive amo unt s of pub lic servant time an d taxp ayer s dol lars. WeWe certainly did not know at the time that ouWe cer tainl y did n ot kn ow at the t ime tha t ou r pro seWe ce rtain ly did not ourour p repar ation of any ma nua l on Freeme n. WeWe are pleased to note that sWe are pleased to note that since We are pleased to note that since our office made necessarynecessary to pro secute Freemen who ch ose to co mmnecessary to prosecute Freemen who chose to commit crimin newnew threats or lien filings against public servants (of which we are aware.tolerated. who expect the departme ddedicatedded icat ed s taff ded icate d sta ff.2 d 79 7. W ashingto n ass Washington audito legislative committees. While certainlycertainly entitled to their religiouc e rtainly e ntitle d to the ir re ligious and pocertainly entitled to their religious and politi tolerated. much less le withwith many different groups of public employees. Freemen Prosecutions in Kitsap County toto their law as the only legitimate law. WeWe a re a maz ed w ith th e pe rvasive nes s of c on tac ts me mbe rs o f tWe are amazed with the pervasiveness of contacts m ha vehave had with Freemen sympathizers.Step hen son s.100 . the book describes how the couple bragged to Montana Freemen followers about their new Ford crew-cab pickup obta ined w ith frau dule nt chec ks. Defendant convicted. review denied. and threatened the judge with prosecution under 42 USC § 1983). W e will con tinu e to be ever vigilant a gainst t his th reat . myr iad of c rime s. F ALSE P ROPHETS T HE F IRSTHAND A CCOUN T OF A H USBAND-W IFE T EAM W ORKI NG FO R THE FBI AND LIVING IN D EEPEST C OVER WITH THE M ONTANA F REEMEN (Do ve B ook s 19 98).000 vehicle with a document appearing to be a check that was drawn off a nonexistent debt allegedly owed to the defendant by the federal government). our count y has experiOver the past three years. Knowles. Thnew threats or lien filings a Freeme n with who m we cu rrent ly engage is bu t a ha ndfu l. As the b ook note s. which is not su rpris ing given their views that they could barely tolerate vocal women in general. including the Washington prosecutor s association. June 1999) 3 . 2 ÿÿintimidating a judge (documents issued from one supreme Co urt of Washington. One of the Montana Freemen believed that the woman might have be en a witch sinc e she cla imed to b e a cla irvoyant who could re ad the Fre emen s auras . though. Knowles and subsequent criminal Stephenson s. It is obvious that thave had with Freeme ofof in Washington State. 91 W n. W tolerated. and will continue to be a criminal threat requiring a respoof in Washington State. we came to realizeunderstanding of failurefailure of prosecutors to respond to initial Freemen criminal activity resultedfa ilure of pros e cutors to r espond t o i nit i al F respo nse by Freeme n against pub lic emp loyee s. in clud ing We have prosecuted Freemen defendantto th eir law a s the o nly le gitimate law .Stephenson s. anyway). TheThe vast majority of Washington s govTh e vas t ma jor ity of W ash ingt on s gove The vast majority of Washing assessor)assessor) are eleassessor) are elected to theiassessor) are elected to their posts by the citizenry. an d th eir iden tities are w ell kn own to u s. The Free men we re not i mpre sse d with the pus hy and braze n girlfriend . 2 199 8). WashingtonWash ington aud itor s assoc iation . Kitsap Coun ty. this farright. and will a ssist you in an your similar efforts. Knowles and subsequeStephenson s. and court person nel. OverOver the p ast three years. 136 Wn. We tol erat ed. The F reeme n mo vement s dec ision t o ta rget pu blic empl oyee s to fu rthe r the ir agend nothingno th ing s nothing short of a nothing short of a direct attack on th e citizenry s democratically elected government. T he co urt hel d that t he reta liatio n prong o f the cr ime d oes not vio late t he Firs t Ame ndment F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.914 . far-o ut Sa mantha torme nted the Monta na Fre eme n while s he wa s at t he Fre eme n comp lex. 3 Div ision II affi rmed the intim idati ng a jud ge co nvicti on in State v. 367 .

89 W n. 47. COA No. 950 P. Tim othy Charles. JudgesJudges who have not dealt with such defendants are likely to try to understand Judges who have not dealt with such questionsque stion s of th e Fre eman defen dan t. 236028-II. ÿÿbarratry (writ of habeas corpus from ecclesiastical court requiring Kitsap County Superior Court to transfer theft prosecution to common law court). 2637 (1979))..looki ng. Defendant convicted. See State v. 99 S.S.2d 357. Th is inevitquestions of the Freeman defendant. ÿÿtax evasion (prosecution under city code for chiropractor s refusal to pay city taxes because the city lacked jurisdiction over him and his business). 136 W n. D uffey. Defendant convicted. Their mo dus o peran di is to file a s much pap erwor k as po ssFree men go al. ÿÿbarratry (traffic infraction defendant who served officer with lengthy documents that compelled a response from the officer under threat of monetary judgment).Ed. DealingDealing withDealing with FrDealing with Freemen defendants takes an extraordinary amount of a prosecutor s tim FreemenFreeme n goal. and ÿÿunlawful possession of a machine gun (AR-15 that was modified with M-16 parts to allow full au to mat ic fir e) b y gun sh op ow ne r wh o a lso teache s NR A gu n c ou rse s. Defendant acquitted. Defendant convicted. pending appeal with oral argument held in Division II on June 15. review denied. c ase is p en din g. 2 199 8).and prosecutors properties due to their failure to dismiss 1993 theft charges). Defendant convicted. ÿÿunlawful practice of law for filing habeas corpus writ on behalf of girlfriend who was being detained pending trial on felony drug charges and represented by a public defender. Defendant convicted. 19 99.1(c) attempting to charge both Jeff and Kitsap County Prosecutor Russell D. Texas.Ct. Hauge with unlawful practice of law in retaliation for charges brought against defendant). Defendant convicted.2d 10 18 (Div . Freemen refuse representathigh volume c a se loa ds. At the next couof part i cular s si nce thi s ap this process begins anew. 4 Div ision II affi rmed the intim idati ng a pu blic s erva nt conv ictio ns in State v.2 d 38 .gl ass experi o fof of particulars since this appears to be what the Freeman defendant is seeking. 443 U. Important court time is often reduced to a ple thora o f quest i ons t o t he jud dialoguedialogue between the Freeman defendant and the dialogue between th e Freeman defendant an d the cou rtdialogue betw resultresult of this th rough -the -loo king-glass expe rience is that t he p rosecu tion is re s ult of this through-the. ÿÿunlawful practice of law (attempting to represent child in juvenile court proceedings both in court and through filed pleadings despite repeated admonitions from court).A pp. Fre eme n refuse re presentat i onhigh volume c mandatorymand ato ry memb ership in a b ar asso ciatio n of a p olit icmandatory membership in a bar association of a political ent autho rity over them. ÿÿmalicious prosecution (defendant filed citizen complaint under CrRLJ 2. June 1999) 4 . 61 L. case dismissed. Th eir mod us op eran di is to asas permitted in an effort as permitted in an effort toas pe rmitte d in a n effor t to brin g our sy stem t o a scr eech ing hal t by giving cancan be an especially effective strategy in a court of limited jurisdiction that is trying its best to deal with high high volume caseloads. This inevitablyquestions o plethora plethora of questions to the judge. and that superior court judges were public servants within the meaning of the statute. 794 . The court held that the intimidating a pu blic se rvant statu te was no t unconstitutio nally overbroad and did not violate free speech protections of the First Amendment. Stephenson. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. ÿÿintimida ting a pu blic ser vant (th reat t o sho ot o fficers if they tried to en ter ho me made durin g fresh pursuit after traffic law violations). Defendant acquitted. 4 ÿÿobstructing a public servant (traffic infraction defendant who repeatedly falsely gave his name as Brown v.

ordered the United States government and Roman Catho $93$93 trillion for 150 years of plundering (a Texas group called $93 trillion for 150 years of plundering (a Te convicted. it is a mWhile membership is probably sm widespreadwides prea d geogra phic al are a witw ide spre a d ge ogra phic al a re a w ithin awides prea d geogra phic al are a with in a re anonymous method of instantaneous communication.199 2. it b ebeginningbeginning to take the form of a government in which different branches of the movement perform separate tasks. depicted in the film D E A T H A N D TAXESG O R D O N K AHL S S TORY and discussed in JAMES C O R C O R A N. liens. OurOur research oOu r res ear ch o f Our r esear ch o f their l aw. it is becoming increasingly complex andAs t he Fre eme n m ove men t e vol ves. It is complex. w hich is perm eate d wit h rac ism. Common Lawtasks. and so diverg in l aw is o fte n a n im pe dim en t t o o ur un de rst an din g. we bel ieve t hat of their law who are seeking martyrdom through often violent means. set up common law juries. and so divergent from conventional legal doctrunderstand. with 160 attendees (a virtual Who s Who of the radical Right. use of the militia to seize property or a tte mpt ed t o be enf or ced t h creditor s filing of an involuntary bankrupt cy against the judgment debtor. and Christian Identity believers) of various groups F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. dead). WhileWhile membersh ip is probabl y smaWhile membership is probably small. Freemen Actions Nationally You Better Pay Attention! WhileWhile we hope that we are simply over-rWhile we hope that we are simply over-reacting to a teWhile we ho pe th at than peaceful resolution as we approach a new millennium. and wife Vicki Weaver who was shot on August 22. the Aryan Nations. ÿÿRandy Weaver s siege with the FBI and ATF at Ruby Ridge. an ti-Se mitism an d to a less WeWe do not prete nd t o be expert s in the ir law. mainstream Baptist and Mennonite fundamentalists. 1990). Common Law cotasks. Marshal agents on June 3. AsAs the Freemen movement evolves.tasks. on e on ly nee ds persons certainly do no newspapernewspaper to learn of bombings. Common Law courts have joined forces with the militias for the obviou courtscourts to hand out judcou rts to han d ou t judgmen ts and secou rts to han d ou t jud gments a nd se nte nce s and the militias t o e their syst em are n ot p rison t erms. B ITTER H ARVEST . bu t dea th sen tenc es. we believe that prosecutors cannot ignore the potential fis doome d in our syst em . Th ere are many p arts o We do n ot prete nd to be experts in th eir l RomanRoma n Cat hol icism. reveals a biblic al cal ling to a n espe cially viol ent re spon seRoman Catholicism. Matthews was the leader of The Order. gun rights followers. set up cliens. set up co mmoliens. armed battles with governnewspaper to learn of bombings. October 22. and issued execution warrants for public officialscon victed. Their law is both personally and professionally frightening. infra. ÿÿRo ber t Jay Ma tth ews Dec emb er 8 . 1983 (Kahl and police officer dead.understand. including the Montana Militia. a nd issu ed exe cutio n warr ants fo r pub lic off LawLaw court s against government employees with w hom Law courts against government employees with whom Freemen attemptedattempted to b e enforced throu gh the filing of liens. robberies from armored cars ($4 million taken) and attacks on federal officers modeled after T HE TURNER D IARIES .Why Care About Freemen? OverOver 100 Common Law couOver 10 0 Co mmon L aw co urts Over 100 Common Law courts have been established ar liens. after two federal marshals and state officer killed in shoot-out with Kahl two and a half years earlier wherein Ka hl escaped ). Examples include ÿÿGordon Kahl s death in a shoot-out with FBI and U.officials. reveals a bibl officials.convicted. Ye t. a Christian Identity group engaged in a series of bombings.S. It is un fair to p aint a par ticu lar me mber in th is coalitioncoalition with one brush scoalition with one brush since eaccoalition with one bru sh since each group often rejects s p personsperso ns cert ainly d o no t advoc ate viole nce n or th e po litics of h ate. 19 84 dea th in a fire st art ed b y FB I flare s afte r a 3 5-h ou r sta nd off on Whidbey Island near Seattle. understand. ÿÿRocky Mountain Rendezvous. 1992. FrFreeme FreemenFree men c onsist of a lo ose c oal ition of man y group s. Their law is both persona isis doomed in our system. G O R D O N K AHL AND THE P OSSE C OMITAT US : M URDER IN THE H E A R T LA N D (New York: Viking Penguin. armed battles indictments of Freemen sympathizers to quickly recognize the increasingly violent nature of this coalition. tax protesters. It is complex. Idaho in August 1992 (14 year old son. June 1999) 5 . While we are coofficials.

who would n ever normally sit down together met to discuss the Weaver incident, and left with an understanding of a common enemy the federal government. And a common goal a new Christian government. This meeting may have been the birthplace of the modern Freemen movement. ÿÿDavid Koresh and the Branch Davidian siege and conflagration in Waco, Texas involving FBI and ATF, from February through April 19, 1 993 (80 dead). ÿÿJuly 20, 1993 bo mbing of an NAACP office in Tacoma by three white supremacists as part of an abort ed series of co mmando raids plan ned b y the n eo-Naz i group Ch urch o f the Creat or. The next targets the trio had planned were rap music figures Ice-T and Ice Cube. ÿÿTimot hy M cVeigh , Terr y Nich ols a nd t he Ap ril 19 , 19 95 M urra h Fe dera l Bu ildin g bomb ing in Oklah oma C ity, in which some o f the A TF an d FB I officials in volved in th e Wac o inc iden t ha d th eir offices (in respo nse t o de ath sent enc e ord ered by Co mmon Law co urt fo r dea ths o f its foll owe rs in Waco?) (168 dead, over 500 injured).
5 ÿÿJustus Township s 81-day standoff from March 25 through June 13, 1996 between the FBI and the Montana Freemen, who had issued Common Law bounties, indictments, liens, fraudulent checks and various execution warrants, including one for Nickolas Murnion, the part-time prosecutor in Garfield County, M ontana.

Murnion sMurnion s first experience with the Freemen was a $500 million lien owed and paMurnion s first experience silver.silver. Shortly after the lien, Murnion found his name posted on lsilver. Shortly after the lien, Murnion found his million bounty for his arrest. The posters read

TheThe su m of on e million dol lars The su m of on e million dol lars o The sum of one million dollars of money w personperson who sperso n wh o succ essfperson who successfully causes the arrest and subsequent conviction of the fol suspe cts. Also Also named A ls o n amed in Also name d in t he p oste r was t he Ga rfield Cou nty S heriff, wh o al ong wit h M urn ion w ere foreclosureforeclosure of the Freemen s property. While the poster did not mforec los ure of the Fr eem en s pr opert y. inquiry disclosed that upon capture both men were to be hanged.

L e R o yLeRoy LeRoy Schweitzer, leader of the M ontana Freemen , and his disciples gave birth to the mod ern FreLeRoy Sch we movement.movement. Schweitzer taught his antigovernment stumove me nt. Sc hw e itz e r ta ught his ant i governm ent st uden upup Common Law courts, and create pseudup C ommon La w c ourts , a nd cre a te ps e udo-banki ngup Common Law justicejustice into casjustice into cash. It is beljustice in to ca sh. It is bel ieved th at over 1 800 peo ple a tten ded Schw ei cou rsecourse and took their newfound wisdom back to their own communities where it icourse and took their newfound toto still more people today. Forto still more people today. For an excellent to still more people today. For an excellent see D A L E A N D C ONNIE JAKES WITH C LIN T LIN T R I C HM O N D , F ALSE P R O P HE T S T HE F I RS T H A N D A C C O U N T O F O F A H U S BA N D -W IFE T EAM W ORKING FOR THE FBI A N D L IVIN G IN D E E PE S T C O VO V E R W IT H T HOVER WITH THE M O N T A N A F REEMEN (Dove Books 1998).

Mu rMurnionMurnion received the prestigious 1998 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award on May 29Murnion receive forfor enfo rcing the law d espite d eath threa ts from an tigovernme nt milit ants. Garfield Cou nty h as a prosecutor, prosecutor, Murnion, his secprosecutor, M urnion, his secretaryprose cuto r, Mu rnion , his secre tary, t he Sh erif judicialjudicial subcommittee in 1998 on crime: I think there s a greater chance that the Unjudic ial su bco mmitte e in 1 9 sendsend 20 ,000 t roops to help th e peop le of Bosnia th an that I get any help to p rotect th e peop le of my county. See Appendix, at 3-5 for articles about Murnion.
5

Although the me dia pe rpetuate d the myth that the M ontana Free men were a bunch of dim witted bu t harmless Bubba s by citing to

the Fre eme n s pe rceiv ed mi ssp elling o f Jus tice, t he nam e Ju stus had a far mo re se rious mea ning. The name Jus tus w as s ymbo lic to the Fre eme n cau se. Jus tus w as a n obs cure bibli cal c harac ter in Colossians 4:11. He was a follower of Christ. Because his name was also Jesus, he took the name Justus, which means righteous in Hebrew. The man was also a converted Jew. The Freemen misinterpreted the verse, though. They thought that this person was Christ. A careful reading of this passage makes it clear that J ustus was ano ther biblica l figure entirely. Ironically, the anti-Sem itic Freem en actua lly named the ir capital a fter a converted Jew. But they liked the sound of the name Justus and referred to their township as just-us.

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ÿÿApril 29, 1996, a pipe-bomb goes off outside the Spokane City Hall set by Chevie Kehoe and Daniel Lewis Lee. ÿÿIn Ma y 19 97, a six-da y siege be twee n Tex as law enfo rceme nt a nd a Free men gro up c alle d th e Rep ubl ic of Texas ended in the arrest of leader Richard McLaren and five of his followers. More than 100 officers surrounded the remote compound at Fort Davis after the group shot at a neighbor s home and kidnapped the man and his wife (to be tried by a Common Law court?) for their protests of years of paper terrorism and threats of violence against citizens in the resort community. One armed insur rect ionist was kill ed an d an oth er esca ped . Indic tmen ts all eging $1. 8 bil lion in ba nk an d mail fraud w ere ret urne d against the R epu blic o f Texas memb ers. ÿÿJuly 1997 arrest of nine members of the Washington State Militia on explosives and conspiracy charges. ÿÿJuly 1997 convictions of Charles Barbee, Robert Berry, and Verne Jay Merrell for twice robbing a U.S. Bank branch (April 1 and July 12, 1996) and for bombing a Planned Parenthood abortion clinic in the Spokane area. The men left literature about the Phineas Priesthood (a description used by some white supremacists based on a skewed reading of various biblical passages justifying violence against Jews and minorities) at each crime scene, signed with the cap ital letter P superimposed on a cross.

AfterAfter A fter an A p ril 1 9 9 7After an April 1997 hung jury (one juror), the three were convicted at their second trial in Ju Barbee sBarbee s defense in the second trial was that he read a book detailingBarbee s defense in the second trial was convertedconverted tconverted to thco nve rte d t o t he Ch rist ian Ide nt ity do ctrin e. A ll th ree men are mem be rs o f th e Id ah o m associationsassociations with Amassociat ions wit h Amer ica s Passociations with America s Promise Ministries (APM), Idaho. ÿÿMay 14, 19 98 dismissal (pending appeal) by U.S. District Court Judge Edward J. Lod ge of involuntary manslaughter charges filed by the Bound ary County, Idaho special prosecutor (after the Justice Department concluded no prosecutable offenses were committed) against Lon Horiuchi, the FBI sharpsho ot er w ho sho t and kil led V icki We aver o n A ugu st 2 2, 19 92 at Ru by Rid ge, Id ah o. Jud ge Lo dge ruled that the agent was properly performing within the scope of his duties and accordingly was constitutionally protected from prosecution. The effect of this ruling on Freemen followers is unknown, but likely will be considered further proof of the need for Freemen action against an unholy government which has declared war on t he Chosen Peo ple. ÿÿOn July 1, 1998, Jason McVean and Alan Monte Pilon were seen near Montezuma Creek, Utah after months of hiding in the southeast Utah desert after their alleged killing in a blaze of automatic gunfire on Ma y 29 , 19 98 of Da le C lax to n, a Co rte z, C ol ora do po lice office r, d urin g the office r s sto p o f a sto len wat er t ruc k ou tsid e to wn . Th ey an d a t hird man , Ro ber t M aso n, r epo rte dl y wo un ded she riff s dep ut ies as th ey fle d in to a maz e of c any on s alo ng th e Co lo rad o-U tah bo rde r. M aso n kil led hims elf a week later after wounding a Utah depu ty near the town of Bluff, Utah, about 20 miles from where McVean and Pilon were seen. The two men are both wilderness survivalists with Freemen views and are be lieved to be living off pro visions stash ed in d esert ca ches. ÿÿOn Ju ly 8, 199 8, a fed eral jury co nvicte d LeR oy Sc hwe itzer a nd t hree top comr ade s (Dal e Jaco bi, Daniel Petersen, and Russell Landers) of conspiracy and bank fraud for a massive scheme involving issuing billions of dollars in bogus checks. Twelve defendants were charged in a 41 count indictment with a t otal of 126 charges in clud ing con spiracy t o co mmit ban k fraud, mail an d wire frau d, th eft, false claims to the IRS, interstate transportation of stolen property, threatening to murder a federal judge, armed robbery of two television news crews, and firearms violations. The jury deadlocked on 63 other charges. The remaining counts were streamlined and retried in November, 1998, with guilty verdicts on 36 counts delivered against nearly all involved.

ProsecutoProsecutorsProsecutors called the conspiracy a fraud of epic proportions saying the Freemen created and issuePro 3 , 4 3 23 , 4 3 2 b o g3,432 bogus checks totaling $15.5 billion on a Norwest Bank Butte Anaconda savings account 3,432 bog

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nevernever contained more than $116. Losses from those checks totaled $724never contained more than $116. Losses fr losses from the conspiracy to disrupt the nation s banking system totaled $1.8 million..

OnOn March 16, 1999, U.S. District Court Judge John CoughenoO n M a rc h 16, 1999, U .S. D istrict Cour t Judge John Cou prisonpr iso n fo r 2 5 c on vict ion s. P eters on , Sk ur da l and Jac ob i al so r eceive d l en gth y se nt en ces. C ou ghprison for 25 convic explainedexplained that the expla ined t hat t he se explained that the sentences reflected the crimes seriousness and send those who pass this hatred and ugliness around....Be forewarned, your personal liberty is at stake. ÿÿTh e Ke ho e Ga ng o f Co lvil le, W ash ingt on . Fa th er K irb y Ke ho e, a nd son s Ch evie an d C he yne, h ave been convicted of multiple federal offenses for their scheme to overthrow the federal government and set up a whites-only nation in the Pacific Northwest. An article on the family from the IN T E LL IG E N C E R EPORT is in the Appendix, at 6-14.

KirbyKirby was sentenced on July 21, 19 98 to 51 mon ths in prison by U.S. DiKirby was sentenced on July 21, 1998 WhaleyWh ale y afte r Ke ho e pl ead ed gu ilty to po ssess ing a s ho rt- bar rel riflWhaley after Kehoe plead ed guilty to possessin gun.gun. Kehoe has Argun. Ke hoe has Arka nsa gun. Kehoe has Arkansas charges pending for conspiracy to revolt against t createcreate a whites-only nation. Defense cocreate a whites-only nation. Defense counsel,create a white s-onl y natio n. D uniqueunique individual who had adop ted an isolated 18th century lifestyle unique individual who had adopted an i landland withou t electricity. Assistant U.S. Attorn l a n d wi t ho u t e le c t ri c it y . A s si st a n t U . S. A tt o r n ey E aland without arrangedarranged boobarran g ed b o oby tra psarranged booby traps around his home to trigger if law enforcement officers arr the weapon s cache was to be used for a movement against the United States government.

Che vieChevie and Cheyne first came tChevie and Cheyne first came to the natChe vie and Che yne first came t o th e nat io policepol ice was c p o lice w as cau ghtpolice was caught on videotape an d broadcast n ationwide. There was a second exch with other officers minutes later. Both brothers have been sentenced.

OOnOn May 10, 1 999, Ch evie was given three life sentences without the possibility of parole for tOn May 10, 1999, Chevi murdersmurders of an Arkansas family as part of a scheme to overthrow the federmurders of an Arkansas family as part of AryanAryan People s Republic in the PaAryan People s Republic in the Pacific NorthweAryan People s Republic in the the irtheir 8 year old daughter were suffocated with plastic bags, weighted down with rocktheir 8 year old daughter were suff westernwestern Arkansa west ern Arka nsa s ba you fowestern Arkansas bayou following a robbery. A week earlier, co-defend ofof r acket eerin g,of rack etee ring, co nspir of racketeering, conspiracy and three counts of murder. Jurors rejected the dea defendants. Both mothers testified against the co-defendant s.

ProsecutorsProsecutors argued that the enterprise to overthrow tPros ec utors a rgue d tha t the ent er pri se t o over t hr ow WashingtonWashington couple Washin gton co upl e JiWashington couple Jill and Malcolm Friedman; the 1995 murder o robberyrobbery of Mueller; the 1996 robbery and murderobbery of Mueller; the 1996 robbery and murders of the Muellr SpokaneSpokane City Hall; the August 1996 murder in Idaho of Jon Cox ofSpokane City Hall; th e August 1996 murd murders of police officers Robert Martin and Rick Wood in a February 15, 1997 shootout in Ohio.

TheThe Southern PoverThe So uthe rn Povert y LThe Southern Poverty Law Center s website (visited May 17, 1999) <http

h uhundredshun dred s of incid ent s of ha te crim es an d ha te grou p act ivities occ urrin g thro ugho ut t he Un ithundreds of inciden Since hate activities are o ften n ot rep orte d, th e listing un dersta tes th e true level of b ias incide nts. 6
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The 19 98 incide nts occu rring in Washington listed b y commu nity are Auburn "June 19, 1998 A 16-year-old was arrested for arson and harassment after a car was burned and a note with racial slurs was left at an interracial couple s residence. Bellingham "May 21, 1998 National Socialist Vanguard and Aryan Nations literature was distributed to high school students. Everett "February 1998 A threatening, racist flier was posted on a bulletin board at Everett Community College. Everett "Feb. 12, 1998 Racist, threatening fliers were posted on bulletin boards at Everett Community College. Everett "July 2, 1998

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1998 Two swastikas were burned outside a residence. 22. Lonnie Joe Goolie . Seattle "Sept. pos ses sing exp losiv es a nd being a felon in po sses sion of a lo aded firearm afte r being pulled over at a rest are a. 15. wa s charged with maliciou s harass ment. who has a Nazi swastika cared into his arm. being a felon i n pos ses sion o f a fire arm a nd de struc tion of jail p rope rty. 1998 National Socialist Movement and European American Educational Association literature was mailed to a man s residence. a 44-ye ar-old white m an. The purpos e. Vancouver "March 17. 1998 A racia l slur was spray -painted o n a car ow ned by a man of Chines e des cent. Rosalia "March 18.TheThe Southern Poverty Law Center web siteThe Southern Poverty Law Center web site lists severThe Southern Pove Aryan Nations member Michael R. told authorities that he was a member of the white-supremacist Aryan Nations. Goolie. Pullman "Feb. was being deta ined and c harged with burning a c ross in the y ard of a multiracial family in Spokane. 1998 White Ary an Re sist ance litera ture w as a lleged ly se nt to a w hite wo man who was dating a blac k man. Everett "Sept. Pullman "March 18. 19. In early May . P ope had A ryan N ations litera ture i n his po sse ssio n during the arrest. 1998 Rep orted white s upre mac ist M athew M. B rack en. A married black man and white woman with three children live at the home. Lamont "March 18. 1998 A swa stika a nd the letters "KKK" we re written on a minis ter s car d oor. H e wa s co nvicte d in D ece mber of ma licio us ha rass ment and ordered to perform 120 hours of community service. P ope . 25 . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Langley "Dec. the purity of our white families. at 15 ye ar old. 24. 5. 1999. Polic e found b omb-mak ing materials in the car. bu rglary . 1998 A Go nzaga University gay activ ist alleged ly receiv ed a threa tening letter. magazines targeting blacks and Jews have been found in Issaquah and Bellevue mailboxes. 199 9. 1998 World Church of the Creator literature was sent to several residences. In January and February. 17. 1998 A lynched doll was left at a black family s residence. is to fight for the surviva l of our white heritage. 1998 Swastikas were scrawled on a Black History Month display at Washington State University. wa s arre sted for al leged ly as sau lting a p olice offic er. 35. From Ma rch through June. Spokane "Dec. Issaquah "June 8. 1999. 43. surrendered to police on a first-degree murder charge after being sought for allegedly murdering a man in June. was cha rged with malicio us haras sment for alle gedly sc rawling the letters "KKK " on the car o f a white woma n who wa s da ting a bl ack man. Bean. 24. Pullman "Feb. one flier rea ds. Yelm "Nov. 1999 at the same northeast Spokane home. white su premac ist fliers hav e bee n found in the Enumc law area inviting white reside nts to Enumclaw City Ha ll for a White Pow er rally on Ju ly 4. Spokane "Oct. 1998 Anti-Semitic graffiti was written at a residence hall at Washington State University. 1998 A Native American woman was allegedly threatened and run off the road by three men who wore Klan-like outfits. 5. 1998 Alle ged w hite s upre mac ist Ed ward D. 1998 A 21-year-old white man was charged with malicious harassment for allegedly placing a cross in an interracial couple s yard. 1998 Donald Richards . 28. Goolie is one of three juvenile males identified by police as participants in cross burnings February 14 and April 13. Wallace "June 18. 7. Nelson. Medina "Feb. June 1999) 9 . 19 99. C hristopher J. was a rrest ed o n sus picio n of au to thef t.

Sumas Northwest Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.A .W. Patriot publications. cost by contacting the SPLC 0548. Puyallup Washington Sta te Unorganized M ilitia. The list was compiled from field reports. at 3 8-39 . Mo ntgomery. Eve rett World Church of the Creator. Bellingham Lake Chelan Citizens Militia. TheThe Southern PoThe Southern PovertyThe S out hern Povert y Law C ent er web site al so list s 17 W ashin gton hat e grou 1998. Chelan Washington State Constitutional Rangers. Seattle Northwes t Knights of the Ku Klu x Klan. Chelan National Citizens Alliance. Bremerton Christian Israe l Cove nant Church. The following Washington groups were identified Citizens for Liberty. Oppo rtunity Nation o f Islam. Wint er 19 99 (Issu e 93 ). for a listing by state of the SPLC s Active Hate Groups in the United States in 19 98.8 A ma A map of the active hate groups in the United States taken from the Sou thern Poverty Law Center s INTELLIGENCE R EPORT . Y akima C ounty The following Washington groups were identified World Church of the Creator. P. Federal Way Nationa l Socialis t Vanguard. is inclu ded in the App end ix to th ese mate rials. Pa triot gro ups define thems elve s as opp ose d to the "Ne w Wo rld O rder" or ad voc ate o r adhe re to e xtreme antigov ernme nt doctrines. When known. LawLaw enforcement and government agencies may subscribe to thLaw enforcement and government agencies may subs cost cost by c onta cting the S PLC at S outh ern Po verty Law Cen ter. G oldenda le Remnant of Israe l.O. town or county where they are located. 7 The Intelligence P roject ide ntified 523 "Patriot" gro ups that w ere ac tive in 199 7. Tacoma Wenatchee Minutemen Militia. Snoho mish Co unty Populist Party of Washington State. Se attle Jural So ciety. the Internet. Ge nerall y. 53 were "common-law courts" and the remainder fit into a variety of categories such as publishers. Wa shingto n Sta te cu rrent ly has 1 2 kno wn ac tive Patrio t Append ix. law enforcement sources and news reports. Wenatchee Yak ima Co unty Militia. ministries. Seattle Right Way L. Tacoma World Church of the Creator. groups are identified by the city. citizens groups and others. Sea ttle Na tional Soc ialis t White Peo ple s Pa rty. Spo kane World Church of the Creator. June 1999) 10 . at 15-16.. Mountlake Terrace Citizens for a Constitutional Washington. Listing here does not imply that the groups advocate or engage in violence or other criminal activity.existexist in texist in the United Stateexist in th e Unite d Sta tes. C olville World C hurch of the C reator. Seattle World C hurch of the C reator. 221 we re militias. Sp oka ne Worl d Chu rch of t he C reato r. Of the se group s. Tacoma International Keystone Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Machine Skinheads 8 F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Box 54 8. Repub lic Populis t Party of W ashington State .

com> ÿÿAmerica s Promise Ministries (located in Sandpoint. Antisem itism in the World Tod ay: the Uni ted States of Am erica (visited June 5.cr eato r. This website has a pretty useful links section.htm> ÿÿTh e W or ld Ch ur ch of t he Creato r Ho mep age (visited Ju ne 5.org> (a Pacific Northwest study and activist group and members of The Right Way . ÿÿJOEL D YER .a. The Pope and One Wor ld R eligion /Go vernme nt.uk/antisem/americas/usa/index. membership is $150 per year) ÿÿThe Civil Rights Task Force for the peo ple of the uni ted States of Am erica (visited June 5. Smart Cards. Federal Reserve. The website includes discussion on Hebraic/Jewish Roots and the Babylon Mystery (The Illuminati.milit ia. Doctrinal Statem ent of Beliefs (visited June 5. (learn and win !). The Phinehas Priesthood.com/Heartland/ 2175/babylon. with over 400 links.missiontoisrael. 1999) <http://www.o rg> ÿÿ The Order website on the 14 Word ( We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White child ren. multiple topics F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.watchd og. 19 99 ) <h tt p:/ /w ww. 1) IN WhileWhile we have spent hours reading anWhile we have spent hou rs reading and reWhile we have sp ent h ours r e LA W AND LITERATURE . no.org. or g> ÿÿTh e Sou th ern Po vert y La w C en ter we b si te (visited Ju ne 5. Miscegenation. Trilateral Commission. The Two Seedline Issue. 1999) <http://www. The Women s Liberation Movement. a continuing legal education project (visited June 5.org>. The Antichrist. 19 99 ) <h tt p:/ /w ww.o rg> ÿÿThe Ri ght Way . l. The website includes discussion on Israel s Modern Identity. Commun ism.. ÿÿMissi on to Israel (visited June 5. Th e Bab ylon ia Worship Day From Sabbath to Sunday. June 1999) 11 . 1999) <http://www. F ALSE P R O P HE T S T HE F I RS T H A N D A CCOUNT OF A H U S BA N D -W IFE TEAM W ORKING FOR THE FBI A N D LIVIN G IN D E E PE S T C OVER WITH THE M O N T A N A F REEMEN (Dove Books 1998) ÿÿInstitute for Jewish Policy Research.rightwaylaw.. kingidentity.w.o rg> ÿÿSusan P. 1999) <h tt p:/ /amp ro m. The Jewish Question. Koniak.a. The CRTF.crtf.org> (Members receive discounts on seminars and materials on Common Law topics. 1999) <http://www. in conjunction with The International Bar Association. Waco.jpr. North American Chapter. One World Government. ÿÿHebraic Heri tage Ministri es Int l (visited June 5. Babylonian Holidays of Christmas and Easter. H ARVEST OF R A G E : W H Y O K LA H O M A C ITY IS O NLY THE B E G IN N IN G (Westview P ress 1997) ÿÿD A L E A N D C ONNIE JAKES WITH C LIN T R I C HM O N D . ) Press Homepage (visited June 5. Constitution for the Federation of the Earth. conducts continuing legal education seminars in the Pacific Northwest by instructors and tutors recognized by The International Bar Association. l. 8. 1999) <http://www.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS seminar ma terials w oul d no t be p ossible witho ut info rmation from th e follo wing work s ÿÿThe website on links to extremist websites.geocities. One World Religion. C A R D O ZO S T U D IE S spring/summer 1996 (vol.com/do ctrine.14 words.html> ÿÿKingdo m Ident ity Min istries. Ruby Ridge. 19 99 ) <h tt p:/ /sp lcen ter.. The Militia Watchdog (visited June 5.html>. Ecu menic alism B etwe en C ath olic s and Prot estan ts.w study club ). 19 99) <ht tp://www. 1999) <http://www. and The New World Ord er. When Law Risks Madness. Oklahoma City Bombing. ID) Homepage (visited June 5..

If you are interested in a sources and visiting your favorite bookstore and/or the internet. Jr. and the M ark of the Beast). 1999) <http://www.on the Cat holic Church .herein.html> ÿÿDevin Burghart and Robert Crawford. we have c hose n to not heavily foo tno te or e ndn ote t he au tho rities for th e state ments even possible).edu/ ~w127/aarlong.cc.com/lawsite/history.com> SinceSince our mat erials are not inte nded t o be the treatise on th e FreemeSinc e ou r mate rials ar e no t int end ed t o be the eveneven po ssible). F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Lawyer Views Legal Hi story (visited June 5.com/CAQ/CAQ57 ComnLaw. Vigilante Justice: Common Law Courts.americanreligion. June 1999) 12 . If you a re inte re s ted in a more in-herein. If you are interested in a morhe re in.columbia.html> ÿÿJ. we ha herein. Director of the Institute for the Stud y of American Religion.. RALJ Brief from In re the Citi zen Com plain t of Tim Bucha nan. Spokan e Coun ty. reprin ted on the in ternet (visited May 18. 1999) <http://caq. 1999) <http://www. 1999) <http://www. Spokane Co unty Supe rior Court Cause No. CovertAction Quarterly (visited June 5. 1999) <http://www.org/cultwtch/identity. Apocalypse Now! The Realized Eschatology of the Christian Identity Movement. The Identity Movement (visited June 5.b illingsgazette.html> ÿÿThe Billings Gazette Online (visited June 5. ÿÿPatrick Minges. 9 8-2-025 47-1 (June 1998) ÿÿMassachusetts LawyerViews. Senior D eputy Pro secuting Attorn ey. lawyerviews.html> ÿÿKevin Korsmo. Paper Presented at the March 1994 Meeting of the Mid-Atlantic Region of the American Academy of Religi on (March 19 94). Gordon Me lton.

Part II Their Theories

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F REEMEN ROOTS E CONOMIC CRISIS
A Synopsis of Their World

OurOur examination of and experience with the Freemen movement has shownOur examination of and experience with the

anan entirely different world than we do. From our world, thean en tirel y differen t wo rld t han we do . Fro m ou r wor ld, the centralcentral tenet of that law is that their members are Freemen or Sovercent ral te net o f that l aw is tha t the ir member s are lacklack any jurilack an y ju ris d ictio n . A fundlack a ny ju risdict ion. A fund amen tal m ove in t his grou p s prac tice is t he filin g ourour system against those in our system who are charged with vour s ys te m a gains t thos e in our s yst em who ar e char ged conceivedconceived by their law. While our c c onc e ive d by the ir la w . W hile our c ourts uniconceived by their law. While our filingfilin g of fur th er l ien s, th e bu rde n o n o ur s yste m is tr eme nd ou s. In filing of further liens, the burden o n our system is tr activities look bizarre, but in their world these actions make logical sense. TheThe connection is the land. To become a Sovereign Citizen one files a Quiet Title Action The connection is the la

court.co ur t. Th e p ers on must a pp ear an d p res en t a bir th cer tificate sho win g court. The person must appear and present a birth t h ethe th e un ion and no t Wa shin gton , D. C., whi ch i s co nsid ere d u nd er t he l egitim ate con tro l o f the fethe union an d not government.

InIn our legal system, a In our legal system, a quiet In our legal system, a quiet title action is an action brought by the own

onon the title. It declares property, not people, free from the holon th e tit le. It de cla res p rop ert y, n ot peo pl e, fre e fro m th e h intointo a meth od o f settin g peop le free suggests a st ron g ident ifinto a method of setting people free suggests a strong ident existence.existence. existence. Additionallexistence. Add itionally, th e use of liens to p enalize tho se who den y the group s identification. InIn our world, these liens are viewed as troubling nuisanceIn our world, these liens are viewed as troubling nuisa

prosecuprosecutors prosecutors who are cprosecutors who are called upon by our government officials to do something about th hashas labeled these liens soft or paper terrorism, but there is reason to believe has labeled these liens soft or paper t liens are much more poten t and accord ingly we believe prosecutors should avoid describing them as soft.

An Historical Perspective

The 1980 s Farm Crisis

BeforeBefore we discu ss the sp ecific bel iefs and t enet s of their world , an h istorical backgro und is iBefor e we d iscuss t he

WhileWhile Norman Rockwell s version of rural America is dead, if it evWhile Norman Ro ckwell s version of rural America i ofof tof the Unof th e Unit ed S tate s den omin ated as rura l is massive po verty an d de spair. For d ecad es, farme rs and the ir familiesfamilies families have families h ave pl ead ed fo r hel p wit h lit tle if an y resp onse from o ur gover nmen t. As w e sha ll neglect provide d a pe rfect vacu um wh ich was fill ed b y Freeme n an d th eir bel iefs. InIn the 1970 s, the Department of Agriculture, bankers and university extension offices told farmers that

theythey must get big or get out. The rate othe y must get big or get ou t. Th e rate of in they mu st get big or get out . Th banks banks and government lenders were encouraging farmers to ba nks a nd gove rnment le nde rs were encour aging far m er additionaladditional farmland. As a direct result of this new money enteradditional farmland. As a direct result of thi skyrocketedskyrocketed askyrocketed as farmerskyrocketed as farmers tried to outb id each o ther. Le nders wo uld a ctual ly call farm eveneven more money because many lenders were at the time beie ven more mone y be ca us e ma ny le nder s wer e at the t i me b they could loan.

ButBut all this chB u t all th is ch an ge d But all this changed in 1979. Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker decided that inf

control,control, and madecontrol, and made the dec control, and made the decision to shrink the money supply by raising int heights. He succeeded in halting runaway inflation, but th ere was a side effect the farm crisis.

FarmlF armlan dFarmlan d pro perty Farmland property values collapsed at the same time the interest rates on farmers loans cl

sight.sight. Bankers began to take a more realistic look at the value of a fars ight. B a nke rs bega n to ta ke a m or e r eal ist ic l ook thethe items would bring at auction. Th the items would bring at auction. The farthe items would bring at auction. The farm

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lost lost everythinglo st e very th ing w lost everything when the loans were called, o ften prior to any default by the farmer unde Commercial Code (more on the UCC later).

AtAt the peak of this crisis in 1986-1987, nearly 1 million people were forced At t he p eak of th is cris is in 1 98 6-1 98 7, n e

twelvetwelve month period. Yeartwelve month period. Years before antwelve month period. Years before and since have b fromfrom their land annually. The number offrom th eir lan d an nua lly. T he n umb er of d isfrom their land annual ly. The numb simplysimp ly l ess far mers . Fo r th e ro ugh ly 2 0 p erc ent of tsimply less farmers. For the roughly 20 percent of the Unitesimpl this continuing loss is a crisis that compares with the Great Depression. FarmersFarmers had but two lawful options shamedshamed any farmer, an d ende d in the same resu lts generations, and a loss of a way of life.

leave voluntarily or proceed thro ugh bankruptcy. Ei Farme rs had but two law

the loss of the family farm os ha med a ny fa rmer , and ended i n t he s

ForFor a farmer, losing the land is much more than For a far mer, lo sing the l and is much mo re tha n an econ om

identity. identity. It is his connection with ide ntity. It is his c onne c tion w ith God identity. It is his connection with toto his children. Not surprisingly, the suicide rate among farmers during this crisis was a staggering three timestime s th e ra te o f the gene ral po pu lat ion . Ma ny o f the suic ide s in r ura l Am eric a ar e a r efle ctio n o f times t he r at e of t he gener culture culture and belief system. A farmer who killed himself to allow hiculture and belief system. A farmer who killed him save the farm is often thought to be hon orable in the subculture of rural America. T h eTh e lo ss o fThe lo ss of the famil y farm was cu ltur al an d spiritu al as we ll as ec ono mic. At su ch mo ments, The l oss of t h

seekseek out new understandings, and new interpretations of reality to make sense of this experience. Rural farmersfarmers would often rather die than give up the farm to evil forces that hafarmers would often rather die than give up the Many will kill before they give it up. AnAndAnd not onl y farmers an d ran chers h ave been effected b y the glo baliza tion o f the Un ited S tates

econ omy.economy. Industries such as mining, oil, and timber economy. Industries such as mining, oil, and timber have governmentgovernment regulation and dwindling resources at home have made it more profitable for gover nm ent r egu multinationalmult inat iona l co rpo ratio ns to take t heir b usine ss to T hirmultina tional c orpora tions to ta ke t hei r busi ness to Thi rd smallsmall businesses in rural towns have withered asmall busin esses in rura l to wns h ave with ered away, often bein small largelarge discount store. This trend of conla rge disc ount s tore . This tre nd of c ons olida tion hlarge discount store. This t with t remen dou s suffering, anx iety an d de pressio n for ru ral Ame ricans.

TheThe psyc ho lo gical effeThe psychological effect of foreThe psychological effect of foreclosure and the concurrent c

underestimated.underestimated. Foreclosure often takes monthsund erestimat ed. Fo reclo sure o ften ta kes mon ths. underestima possiblepossible to save the farm. Working harder and more hours for months on end, it is only a matpossibl e t o save t he far beforebefore the pressure and stress of fighting the inevitabefore the pressure and stress of fighting the inevitable lobefo re violence, and death by heart attack or stroke significantly increased in rural America. thin kin th ink ing, thinking, judging type, whereas the typical farm woman was introverted, sensing, feeling, and judging. thinking, th e kn ow n si xte en pe rso na lit y ty pe s, fa rm p eo pl e sc or ed as t he most c on ser vative a nd ha rd wo rkin g. WhatWhat better place for a message of thWhat better place for a message of the What better place for a message o

AA 1989 Nebraska study of 500 farmers determined thatA 1 98 9 N eb ras ka s tu dy of 5 00 farm ers de te rmin ed th at th e ave A

destructiondestruction was avoidable? And worse, the message includes a belief that this destruction wasdest ruct i on was avoi dab pplaplanned plan ned and orch estrat ed b y an evil forc e tha t has t aken o ver our go vernmen t. Wh y not con vict ban kers, judges,judges, prosecutors and police with crimes since they caused the financial stress that resuljudge s , p rosecutor s and pol i ce w thethe farm by ou r system s liens, q uiet t itle act ions an d ba nkru ptcies, and the d eath of the farmer by su icides, heartheart attacks and other illnesses? Our government officials who caused this death are viewed as mu rd ere rs. Qu ite na tu ral ly, th eir co ur ts s ho ul d se nt en ce th ese cri min als wit h d eath by ha ngin g.

The Land
Christ ians,Christians, Patriots, Constitutionalists, and Freemen. As we will see, their message is anti-Semitic, racist, a n da n d haand hate ful. It was l udicr ous, b ut so me farmers list ened . Sure the me ssage was craz y, bu t was iand hateful. crazier than the cataclysmic events destroying the farmer s world?

T h eThe FreeThe Freemen message was carried into rural America by extremist apostles who called themselTh e F ree me

It

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or he could confess and subject hims trial. the Posse system would eliminate offensesoffenses involving drugs. The pAt this point. InIn the Posse s cour t system. and a belief that pLaw philosophy on a are bo rn with certain God -given rights. the perpetrator had to be proven guilty by the evidence alone. AtAt this point. This jury was to bw a s subje c t to a rre st by t he Posse and tr i al she riffsheriff from sheriff from citizens of the local jurisdiction because the present method of impaneling juries by the Courts was unlawful and was to be repudiated. and driving. the Common Law could compel the trespasser to answer. T he P osse s co de o f carried out. TheThe Posse s courts met infrequently in only a few staThe Posse s courts met infrequently in only a few states and earlyearly Common Law courts would send out arrest warrants to public officials who theyearly Common Law courts would se of a crime (usually related to farm foreclosure). The Posse s code of justicecarried out. the per pet r at or had t o b (see(see the 5(see the 5th Amendment). Spring 1998 (Issue 90). If performperform his or her duties under the Common Law. al of violence and abuse. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Bu offenses involving drugs. ForFor their community. It is n atu ral t o find tha t th e qu iet tit le ac tion is transformedtransformed into a patran sfo rme d into a pa th to ftransformed into a path to freedom. at 29-31. OnOn the on e hand. alcohol. Bu t wh at th is grou liens cannot be understood without stepping into their world. foreclosureFor the ir c ommunity. An Interview With An Expert On The 9 Posse Comitatus. the se legal devices are not similarlIn our world.trial. The Sheriff could do nothing without a sworn Complaint signed by the inj(see the 5th party. are seen as a powerful weapon to be turne d against one s enemies. these tools have real meaning backed by divine guidance. June 1999) 16 . foreclosures. th ereby to the Sheriff and sign a formal Complaint Sh eriffShe riff was th en t o ta ke th is sworn Com pla int t o a ju She riff w a s the n to ta ke this s w orn Com pl aint t o a judge Comp laint upo n th e perso n wh o co mmitted the t respass. The Posse Comitatus Today sToday s Common Law court system is an expanded version of the PToday s Common Law court system is an power power of the county ) system created in the 1970 s and 198 pow er of th e cou nty ) system cre ated in the 19 antigovernmentantigovernment groups to incorporate Common Lantigovernment groups to incorporate Common Lawantigovern LawLaw philosophy on a combination of old English common law. at 17-20. no crime had bee waswas free to do anythingwas free to do anything he or swas free to do anything he or she pleased provided another s person or waswas injured ( trespassed against ) [note reference to The Lord s Prayer]. the Common Law could ComplaintCom pla int h ad t wo ch oices defen d or con fess. TheThe c ore o f the P osse b elieThe core of the Posse belief was that The core of the Posse belief was that the supreme powe onlyonl y legal law e nforc emen t office in the Unit ed S tate s. The Posse s code of justice. AnyAny government official who attempted to enforce unconsAny government official who attempted to enforce uncon waswas subject to arrest by the Posse and trial by a Citizens jury. The sherifonl y legal la w enfor cemen t office in th e Unite d Sta te whichwhich is based upwhich is based upon a which is based upon a particular county s local custom and precedent. a copy of which is in the Appendix. But wh at this group ca worl d an d th e new .AndAnd the message h ad o ne ce ntra lizing t ene t the lan d. spell ed o ut th e basic se spelled out the basic sen spell ed o ut th e basic se nten ce for n early a ll crimes He s For a more det aile d di scu ssi on of the P oss e C omit atu s mo vem ent. and droffenses involving drugs. it was the Posse s duty to remove the sheriff and/or enforce the Common Law. It makes sense that liens. these legal divide in their world. B ut wh at th is grworld and the new. cloude worldwo rld an d t he ne w. the Magna Carta. c loude d tFor their community. fore c losure s . laid ou B LUE B O O K . n o crime h ad b een c ommitte d un less th ere was In the Posse s court system. these legal devices are not sIn our world. but that was the extent of it. the Posse system would eliminate our On the on e hand. the complaining persw a s in j ur ed ( t r espassed agai toto th e Sheriff and sign a forma l Comp laint against t he per petrat or. alcohol. He could not be compelltrial. InIn our world. If the p arty kn ew he was guil Complaint had two choices defend o demurdemur and suffer demur and suffer the civil pdemur and suffer the civil penalties. see Roots of Common Law. TheThe sentences given out by the CThe s ente nc e s give n out by the C hris tia n Ide ntThe sentences given out by the Christi THE carriedcar ried ou t. the ca and a too l of the bankers. INTELLIGEN CE R EPORT.

Common Law practitioners claim thato the Posse s system t the irtheir courts grant sovereign status to someone. Kahl pronou violenc KahlKahl was sKahl was sentenKahl was sentenced to one year in prison and five years probation. I r eal ize anan eternityan eternity in thean eternity in the Lake of Fire. In 1981. Kahl pronou nced the sup reWith those words. He t h driver sdriver s license and his airplane pilot s license.tele vision. The Ihe d o so. the body remaining until sundown as an example to those who wo uld subvert the law. Kah l refused t o ent er a plea of guilty ofor 1973 and 1974. the idea that in is different enough from State doctrine to lead to the obvious result that such an exemption does not exist. the martyr State very submission to State violence mocks State law by demonstrating its inability to coerce compliance. a presidential unit cmedals. Notpayin g taxes. following Kahl s advice from tele vist e l e vis io n . In 1976 Kah driver s license and his airplane pilot s license. Kahl c ontin ued t o refuse to pa ThisThis move is somewhat more intThis move is s omew ha t more intelligible in ouThis move is so mewha t more inte Non ethe less. his lawyer contended that Kah l wajuris diction ove r him . an a tte mpt to fend of religious institutions). Kah l joine d Po sse Comit atus. Kahl. a hehe do so.medals. Kahl the martyr made the transition to rebel. and ac t in essence as if he or she wa s a separate sovereign entity. Nonet hel ess. Kahl spo ke the lan guage of martyrdom II felt I had a ch oic e to make . Today sTod ay s Com mon Law co urts are d ifToday s Common Law courts are different Toda y s Commo n Law c ourt s TheyThey ar e con siThey are con siderably mo They are considerably more widespread. nine battle stars and two Purple ChristianChristian Identity mo vement in th e 195 0 s. AfterAfter his release from prison. justic Gordon Kahl. Nonetheless. June 1999) 17 . Ka hl joine d Po sse Com it at us. the IRS seized his land. that person can legally stop path eir co ur ts gr an t so vere ign s ta tu s to som eo n state law s. He fought in Wor l d Wa medal s. Th e IRS t hen tried to se iz WhileWhile law enforcement officers do not usually respond to misdemeanor warrants (thiW hile la w enfor cement off icer s do F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Not surprisingly. He joined the Co nstitut ional P arty in No rth Dako Chr i st i an Ident i ty m ove tthat that advocatethat advocated Common Law principles. the move was nonviolent. He th ereafter reclaime d his In 1973. the IRS thereafter charged Kahl with willf forfor 197 3 and 197 4.toto the most pto the most populated intersection of streets in the township and at high noon hung by the neck. I rea lize d I co ul d b e ca st in to pris on her e or I cI fe lt I ha d a c hoice t o m ake. Th at s all I have to say. In 1976 payingpaying taxes. Common Law courts have added a new function unknown toto the Posse s system the grant of sovereignty to citizens. AlterKahl transferred ownership of h Kahl. in great part due to LeRoy Schweitzer s t disseminationdissemination of information over the internet. It seems to me that the choice of the two would have to be whate ver punish ment I have to receive here. N ot su rprisin paying taxes. as was Kahl s reaction to thNonetheless. an attempt to fend o ff State law (the income tax) with State law (the exemption froKah l. It is the martyr at prayer th at the se words su ggest. Kahl sKahl s martyrdom began to change when he learned that a friend. In 1967 h e wrote to the Internal Revenue Service to inform it that he could no longer pay tithes to the Synagogue of Satan &. eaG ordon K a hl w a s a fa rme r. Kahl pronounced the With those word s. hi expressedexpressed his views on television about the income tax and not for his failure to file. the ideamus t pay ta xe s . Kahl refused to enter a plea of guilty o jurisdictionjurisdiction over him. the IRS seiz ed h is lan d. albeit with some fine tuning. However. a presidential unit citation. WithWith those words. the ide a tha t indimust pay taxes. the move was nonviolent. However. conviction. He entered Leavenworth prison where he served eight months of his sentence. InIn 197 3. StateStat e vioState violence to kill o ff his law. Kahl was convexpressed his view Addressing the co urt before it impo sed sentenc e. recognizesrecognizes that the exemption relied upon is relevant to the question of State lawrecognizes that the exemption re mustmust pay taxes. While his case was KahlKahl transferred ownership of his farm to Gospel Doctrine Church of Jesus Christ. thatthat t he governmen t had induc ed th e heart attack to silence th e law bo th he and h is friend wou ld spea k. How e ve r. a presidential umedals. He fought in World War II. a Posse Hero GordonGordon Kahl was a farmer. Kahl continued to refuse tAfter his relea se from prison .Nonetheless. h ad sim television. OurOur experience shows that theOur experience shows that the Posse Our experience shows that the Posse s world. In 19 81. had similarly been imprisoned for tax evasion and died of a heart attack in prison.

The tales also teach that validity of the community s visi has a terrible price. was found. the fact thOf course. 197 9). As the Oklahoma Cwa nn ab es is frigh te nin g. in our world. Kahl s story has become legend amonl i kened K thethe Freemen commun ity. in our world. K ah l s ope n dparole). Kahl sKahl s funeral was attended by over 250 peopl e cKahl s funeral was atten ded by o ver 250 peo ple comi Kah l i ke n elikenedlikened Kahl to various American heroes. as since a mend ed. a nd o for many of the ir prop osition s. Dilley. 724 P. Kahl somehow escaped capture. the f Posse-b ased ar gument s. h owe ver. K ahl s open d efiance of State law generat ed a typical resp onse from the time Kahl escaped capture. A shoot-out ensued. Tales about Kahl s alleged actions are as an importthe Freemen commun ity. eventually though. June 1999) 18 . including Patrick Henry. Since FrWashington ca se law has discussed th e Act. Kahl. 3 1986) (use of Air Force technician to administer breathalyzer test to civilian did not violate Posse Comitatus Act).Rev.Who ever. re ads: Whoever. law en forcemen t as foll ows OurOur court system has summarized the purpose of the PosOur co urt syst em has su mmarized the p urpo se of the Posse C RespondingResponding to app areRespo ndin g to app arent abu seResponding to apparent abuses in the use of the milit Con gress adop ted t he Po sse Comit atus A ct in 1 878 which . OfOf course. though. wannabeswannabes is frightening. the fac The Posse Comitatus in Our World 13 USC § 1385 WhileWhile Posse adherents do not directly link their theories with the Posse CWhile Posse adherents do not directly link WashingtonWashington case law has discussed the Act. or both.000 or ie xe cute the law s shal l be fi ned not mor not more than two years. exce pt in c aseWhoever. th is act h as be en u sed in a variety of factu al situ atio Wi t hin t he l ast 10 ye inin bo th st ate a nd fe dera l co urts by d efend ant s seekin in b ot h st at e an d fe de ral co ur ts b y d efe nd an ts s ee kin g obtainedob tain ed i n vio lat ion of th e sta tu te. CityCity of Ai rway Heigh ts v. AA trap was finally set for Kahl on a road outA trap was finally set for Kahl on a road outside Medina. 87 (1960). Kahl was shot and died before the fire. in our world. 45 Wn.A trap w KahlKahl managed to elude arrest for two aKahl managed to elude arrest for two and a halKahl managed to elude a suggestesuggesteds u gg ested suggested that State force can be overcome. N o W a s hington ca s e has di scussed t he18 US Wit With inWith in th e last 10 y ears.2d 407 (Div. B L A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 1046 (5 th ed. ReRestricti Restrictions UU p o n U p o n U s e o f th eUpon Use of the Army Imposed by the Posse Comitatus A ct. 87 . Unlike Washington s tale. Tales about K h ihistoryhistory as George Washington s bravery is to our history. 85. officers. fn. Furman. Kahl was shot and Kahl died from shots received from Kahl during the last seconds of Kahl s life. for exaassistance in certain cases. No W ashin gton case h as dis18 U SC § 1385. except in cases and under circu aut hor izauthorizedauthorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress. Shots were fall. The re a re n o ca ses fo obta ined in viola tion of the stat ut e. This time the Stat all-outall-out in confronting Kahl who was inside a building. Kahl and his adult son and two friends chose to fight.parole). and two federal marshals killed. Ther e ar e no F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Since Free D I C T IO N A R Y for many of their proposition for ma ny of the ir propos itions. for exampl arrestingarresting felons. Posse Posse comitatus constitutePosse comitatus constitutes thPosse comitatus constitutes the po wer or force of the populationpop ulatio n of the coun ty apopulation of the coun ty above the age pop ula tion of th e cou nty a bove t assistanceassistance in c ertain ca ses. with Kahl s son aofficers.App.officers. for examassistance in certain cases. Kahl sp aro le). 7 Military L. and ComitatusComitatus under our common lawComitatus under our common law. As th e Ok la ho ma C ity bo mb ing wannabes is shatter our world. the fact that these talOf course. building.parole). 95. the fComitatus under our common law. willfully uses anaut hor ized by the Co part p art o f th epart of the Army or the Air Force as a posse comitatus or otherwise to executeexecute the laws shall be fined no t more than $10 . ex cep t inWho ever. 1. 1818 U SC § 1 385 .out in co nfron ting Ka hl w ho w as insid e a b bu ild ing. but he claimed one more victim thebuilding. Kahl history as Ge myt ho lo gymythology celebrates and affirmmythology celebrates and affirms the umythology celebrates and affirms the use of validityvalidity of the community s vision that the State is despotic. Kahl and state officer wounded.

forbids. BasedBased upon the langBased upon the languagBased upon the language. Dilley to take thenot force Mr. forb ids.regulates. 38-40.Ap p. either presently or prospectively? Accord ingly. 165 4.2d 19 9 (1993) (even if Posse Comitatus Act violated by national guardsmen s search. or compulsory in nature.) ÿÿState v. Dilley. Dilley to thethe Fairchild Air Fothe Fairchild Air Force Basthe Fairchild Air Force Base front gate for testing because Fairchild mostmost convenient place to administemost convenient place to administer the exmost convenient place to adm BreathalyzerBreath alyze r te st in t he sam e wa y a c ivili an tech nic ian wo ul d h aveBreathalyzer test in the same way a civi notnot force Mr. 775 P. Dilley to take the te st. forbids.S.) See also ÿÿState v. if so. given the practically nonexistent military bebe wrong to engage military force to enforce civilian law. cert. Congress exc essiveexcessive use oexcessive use of federalexcessive use of federal troops to preserve order and maintain Rep RepublicanRepublican carpetbaggers in the southern states. or cregulat es. history and apparent purposes of the whichwhich is to have local authorities handwhich is to have local authorities handle local matwhich is to have local particularlyparticularly in policing state elections. Casper. andpa rtic ula rly in polic ing sta te ele c tions. C ongress underpinnings of the act.excludedexcluded evidencex clu d ed e vide nc e be ca usexcluded evidence because of a violation of the statute. InIn determining what military involvement is forbidden. Short. 113 Wn. 970. the preferred remedy under the Act is a fine and not suppression). [United StatesUnited States Uni ted States v. cameras and planes to fly surveifurnishing military personnel. 276-77 .Accordingly. June 1999) 19 .power. while acting undercover in Kitsap County. it cann waswas violated . Since Airman Garcia was merely operating the machine andand not forcing Mr. 45 Wn. (Citations omitted. While protecting civilians from beRep ubl ican c arpe t subjectsubject tsubject to the exercise of regulatory or proscriptive military authority. the court stated at 1278: WereWere Army or Air Force personnel used by the civilian law enforcementenforcement officersenforc ement officers enforcement officers at Wounded Knee in such a m militarymilitary personnel subjected the citizens to the emilitar y per sonn el su bject ed t he cit izens to t h powpower power w power which was regulatory. proscriptive. he r conand not forcin g Mr. when these concepts are evaluat militarymilitary involvement does not vmilita ry involveme nt doe s not viola te themilitary involvement does no regulat es. we must examineexamine whether a violation occurred and. 97 S. Vald obin os. purchased drugs from defendants. denied. Setting a standard to deteuprising violated the act.2d 270. Dilley to take the a nd not forc ing M r. or c ompe ls so regulates. not force Mr. when these concepts are evaluated Accordingly.S. evidence.S. 52 L. 122 Wn. whether evidence examine whether a violation occurred and. we look to the historical un de rp inn ings underpinn ings of the act. Nor is prosecutionprose cutio n was p ursue d for viola tion o f the act .U. it on ly a pp lie s to Arm y an d A ir F or ce pe rso nn el. 1976 ). In app lying the statu te. 970. the act also subj ect t o t he aimed t o pro tect t he milita ry from overu se by lo cal civil la w enfor cemen t aut horit ies. 970U. at 89-92 . Court held that even if the Po sse Co mit atus A ct was viol ated . Dilley to take the test. hence we do not address whether evidence seized in violation of the act must be suppressed.2d 35.2d 3 62 (1977)] the cou rt had to determine whe militarmilitarymilitary involvement in law enforcement activities during the 1973 Wounded Kmilitary involvemen uprisinguprising violated the act. and to pparticularly power.Ed. 858 P.2d 1275 (8 th Cir.2d 458 (1989) (Naval Investigative Service agent. an d n ot to Navy personnel. 541 F. InIn Casper. or compels some conduct on the pa furnishingfurnishing military personnel. cameras adviceadvice to those dealing with the disorder does not connote the active participation proscribed by the act. dis po sitivedispositive of the issue. D ille y to take the te s t.S. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.Ct. 430 U. we find no violation of the act here. Officer Anderson transported Mr. Setting a standard t o determi had occurred. Thus. 97 S.Ct. power. given the prac tically n onexisten t military fwas violated. enbe wrong to engage military force to enforce civ alonealone dalon e do es alone does not violate the act. 1 U. Cund erpin nings of th e act.

F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and violence at abortion clinics. June 1999) 20 .Ruby Ridge. send a clear message. The Fr movementmovemen t and its follo wers are not afraid to advoca te an d use moveme nt a nd it s follo wers a re no t afraid to a dvoca te biblical support. the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. Waco and Oklahoma City TheThe h istorical significance o f these p laces a nd e vents was d iscusseThe historical significance of these places and event alongalo ng witalo n g w ith th e b o mb ialong with the bomb ing that rocked the Atlant a Olympic Games (seen as proof of a one world thethe arson fthe arson firesthe arson fires against black churches.

Onc e influ ential pers ons ha d fall en for t he lies .knight. and physical harm. B ut the n the s ky did fa ll for farme rs in the 1980 s. With events. but the cla ims lack proof and often conflict w ith known facts . Th e Freem ason s and Ill umina ti are su ch p erceived e xampl es. Freeme n claim. 1830. Suc h training was to be provide d by granting sc holarships . th e con spirac y the orie W hile the groups ha ve ne w na me s . ButBut then the sky did fall for farmers in the 1980 s. the conspir acy t heor ies antigovernment dogma are being created and carefully controlled by the radical leaders of the old guard. Churches would also be transformed into synagogues. ma ny co nverted to an d be came an ti WhileWhil e th e grou ps ha ve new name s. In 1783. a Catholic priest. public exposure. followed by Posse Comitatus in the 1970 s. and spiritually. and recommend them for special training in Internationalism. All influential people who were trapped to come under the control of the Illuminati. With the lackevents. The Illuminati is alleged by some in the Freemen movement to have taken over the American government. theory. threats of financial ruin. So me in the orde r clai med r esp onsib ility fo r the French Rev olution in 178 9. to members who progressed through various degrees of teachings. The sect is also credited with creating the conspiracy that led to the French Revolution. events. Source : The C atholic En cycloped ia. 2. W ith th e lack o f a bett er expl anat ion. even death to themselves and loved members of their families. propagated a new religion and a universal democratic republic wherein man would be enlightened through secret tutelage to outgrow the religious and political needs of the Church and nation state. and te mpta tions o f the Illuminati. they were to be held in bondage by application of political and other forms of blackmail. pr edictin g that t he sky wa s falling. June 1999) 21 . plus the students who had been F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. mentally. and tolerance could only be accomplished.htm>. Weis haupt renou nced all s ecret s ocietie s in 1787 and reconciled with the Catholic Church by his death on November 18. though.theory.THE CONSPIRACY A ONE W ORLD GOVERNMENT One World Government TheThe antigovernmentThe antigovernment movemeThe antigovernment movement has been in existence for decades. Bavaria. The roots of a one OldOld and New Testaments contain many prophecies that haO ld a nd N ew Te sta me nts c ontain many pr opheci es t hat have be thethe end of the world will be the result oth e en d o f the wor ld will be t he r esu lt o f the end of the world will be Antic hrist. is allegedly composed of wealthy Jews whose main goal is to own all the land and wealth in the world. and in 1776 organized the Illuminated Freemasons in Ingolstadt. joined the Freemasons in Germany in the late 1770 s hoping to create a powerful secret organization to support him in the conflict with his adversaries and in the execution of his rationalistic schemes along ecclesiastical and political lines. These secret schools of wisdom would lead to the fall of princes and nations so that the human race would become one family. banks and legal system.org/advent/cathen/07661b. 3. up on pe nalty o f dea th. that We ishaupt w as funde d by internatio nal banke rs and sta rted the Illuminati as a sata nic plot in orde r to establish a one world government. as they were known. th ese grou ps. 10 10 Adam Weishaupt. But until the last few years. the anarchis tic tendenc ies of the o rder prov oked p ublic de monstrations which led the Ba varian gove rnment in 178 9 to b an the o rder a nd any recru itment b y its m embe rs. Weishaupt s plan of operation required the Illuminati to perform the following tasks to accomplish their purpose 1. existe d in re lative ob scurity w ith few mem bers. Weishaupt determined that a new secret society would be needed. dec eits . fraternity. though. And RubBut th TheThe scenario prophesized by these unsuccessful gThe scen ario pro ph esiz ed b y th ese u nsu cce ssful grou ps fi The scenario pr events. The Illuminati who were on the faculty of colleges and universities were to cultivate students possessing exceptional mental ability and who belonged to well-bred families with international leanings. to those sele cted by the Illumina ti. though. Illum inati (visited June 4. Moneta ry and se x bribery wa s to be used to obtain c ontrol of men a lready in high plac es in the va rious lev els of a ll gove rnments and o ther fie lds o f ende avo r. The root s of a one world government conspiracy theory can be traced directly to th e Bible. which exists today. though. Chris suchsuch as the Ku Klux Klan first appsuch as the Ku Klux Klan first appeared such as the Ku Klux Klan first appeared in the BirchBirch Society came along in the 1950 s. The Illuminati. This redemption of mankind by the restoration of the original freedom and equality through illumination and universal charity. ParamountParamount to toParamount to today s Freemen movement is the rather complex nature of the one world govern theo ry. like the Rhode s Schola rship. Upon closer inquiry. 1999) <http://www. A ll suc h scho lars w ere to be fir st pe rsua ded and the n conv inced that me n of sp ecia l tale nt and brains had the right to rule those less gifted on the grounds that the masses do not know what is best for them physically. relegating everyone else to slavery in one form or another. The order.

ThisThis one world biblical theory has been enhanced This one w orld biblic a l the ory ha s been enhanced thr ough meansmeans for interpreting the very Bible from whime a ns for inte rpre ting the ve ry B ible from w hic h t he t hemeans for interp and conspiracy are inseparable. The most sacred document of rural AmericaAmerica was brilliantly used by twiAmerica was brilliantly used by twistiAmerica was brilliantly used by twisting it int theth e mo vemen t. h thethe Bible justifies or even demands that they rebel against the current Americanthe B ible justifie s or even dem ands t hat thatthat th e Bible deman ds rebellion compels th ese rural warriors to see themselves as an armythat t he Bibl e deman ds rebel lion ratherrat he r th an as a tre aso no us for ce attemp tin g a co up . though. Some groups teach that the Constitution was derivedderived directly from the Bible and is therefore a sacred document. we re to b e us ed a s age nts and plac ed b ehind the sce nes o f all go vernm ents a s exp erts a nd specialists. iV ario u s fa c tions . inc ludVarious factions.ca/clyde/illumin. su ch as b One m playingplaying a role in this saga of rural restrpla ying a role in this sa ga of rura l re s truc turingplaying a role in this saga of whichwhich are almo st obscured by the co nspiracy beliefs religion. PeoplePeop le are be ing t People are being taught tPeople are being taught that our founding fathers intended the country to b theythey wrote the God-inspired Constitution with that in mind. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. a losing economic war was transformed into a the move soul. 4. th e mow hic h are al most obscur ed by t h cont rol. including David Koresh and the Branch Davidians. Many in their world believe that now is the time for this armed insurrection. The Bible HowHow did the old guard of the antigovernment movement turn rural Americans against a governmHow did the old g thatthat rural Americans had heretofore staunchly supported? The Bible. a nd mo rality. tho ugh. a lo sing e con omic war was t ran sfothe movement. in the long run. such One mu st no t ignore t he rea l forces. VariousVarious factions. Th ey b elieve rather than as a treasonous force attempting a coup. the Con stitution. Given this background. under God & ) and the Lord s Prayer.htm>. it only makes sense that when the world is crashing down. Source : Thirs t for J ustice A Satanic Plo t for a One World Gov ernm ent. Recruitsderived directly from the Bible and is the SecondSecond Amendment (the right to keep and bear arms) for an important reasonSecond Amendment (the right to keep and werewere to be used to force the government back towards a godly couw e re to be us e d to force the governm ent back t owar its Christian underpinnings. June 1999) 22 . T and that a proper understanding of its prophecies leaves true Christians with little choice but to fight. Th e Wor ld Con spira tors: the Illumina ti (visited June 4. 1999) <http://www. and bring about the destruction of the governments and religions they were elected or appointed to serve. mono polies. a Christian explanation is needed. They would advise the top executives to adopt policies which would. with strong leanings towards Protestant Christianity.prolognet. StudiesStudies have shown that o ver Studies have shown that over 80 percent oStudies have shown that over 80 perce RuralRural America is predominately Christian. serve the secret plans of the Illuminati s one world conspiracy. The ff o u nfoundationfoundation for this Christian influence has been laid by our history and supported by such customs as recital oo fof the of the Pledge of Allegiance ( &one nation.qc. OneOne must not ignore the real forces. The y we re to o btain a bso lute c ontrol of the p ress so tha t all ne ws a nd inform ation c ould be s lanted to co nvince the mas ses that a o ne wo rld gov ernme nt is the only s oluti on to o ur ma ny and varie d pro blem s. int ernatio nal tra de agreemen ts. T hey w ere a lso to own a nd control all the national radio and TV channels. spe ciall y ed uca ted a nd trai ned.

and Dall as. u shby Ch rist ian s. Jesus said ] For nation will rise against nation. famine. AtAt the co nclusion of the Millen nium. by the mark of the Beast (the symbolic numbe 666)666) being put on the bodies of those wor666) being put on the bodies of those worshiped Sa666) being pu creatio ncreatio n o fcreation of a one world government headed by the Antichrist.Then. and gather a n army o f follow er tthethe living saints. But things are merely the beginning of birth pangs. June 1999) 23 . the more we will experience pestilence. all the d ead souls reThen. and consume Satan the living saints. and will mi slead man y. Th isnatio ns and peo ple. A fire w follo wers. S atan will be imprison ed in a bot toml ess pit. all the dead souls remaining willThen. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. most people s love will grow cold. though. And because lawlessness is increased.THE TRIBULATION 2. AndAnd at that time many will fall away and will deliver up one anoAnd at tha t time m any will fall away an another.For n there will be famines and earthquakes. and will kill you. and wil nation s on accoun t of My name. and kingdom against kingdom. a nd gat her a n arm y of foll owe rs. period of peace known as the martyrsmartyrs (the dead souls who had b een beheadma rtyrs (the de ad s ouls w ho ha d be e n beheaded fmartyrs (the d SatanSatan nor accepted his mark) willSa ta n nor a c c e pte d his ma rk) w ill c omSatan nor accepted his mark) will com Millenn ium. ItIt It is at the end of this period of tribulation that the Battle of Armageddon the final battlebat tle bet wee n Je sus forc es o f gba ttle betw e e n Je s us force s of goodbattle between Jesus forces of good and S byby Ch ristians. The death and destruction are real. and kingdomFor nation will rise against nation. And ma ny false prop hets will ari se. and by the persecution creation of a on murd er of Ch ristians.? [In[In response to the disciples questions about signs[In response to the disciples questions about signs that[In resp and the end of the world. and G forever. Satan will be released and atte mpAt the conclusion of the Millennium. thethe closer we getth e clo ser w e get to tha t dathe closer we get to that day. and God will cast Satan into a lake followers. ThenThen they will deliver you to tribulation. The summary we provide 11 app ears to us to be the mo st co mmon.000 A. S at an wil l b e im pr iso ne d in a periodperiod of peace known as the Millenniperiod of peace known as the Millennium.D. Then. Sat nationsnat ions a nd p eop le.followers. The rest of thM ille nnium. anThen they will deli ver you to trib ulation . Matthew 24:7-12 The End of the World IsIs the TriIs th e T rib u latio n at h and?Is the Tribulation at hand? It is certain that a holy war is blazing across Americ terrterro ristterrorist bombings in places like Oklahoma City. Spokane. They also beBible-influence ThisThis is all part of the Tribulation a time many Christians believe will be defined by thethe appeath e ap pea ran ce o f the appearance of new technologies. all the dead souls remaining will stan ofof Life wil l be ope ned and the dead soul s will b e juof Life will be opened and the dead souls will be ju We re cognize that the re are sev eral d iffere nt interp retat ions o f the end times as d esc ribed in Revelation.Millennium. Atlanta. A fire will come down from Heaven. The re s t of the de a d sMillennium. The rest of the dead Millennium. Los Angeles. summary of one interpretation11 of th e mea nin g of Revelation 20 is as follows Bible-influencedBible-influenced Freemen groups believe that Jesus will one day return to earth. Wterrorist bombings in holyholy war iholy war is the oholy war is the one described in the Bible or the one started by people who decided the Bible ve taking too long to get here does not really matter. and God will cast Satan into followers.

poverty. LEWIS. they believe that it is a sin nohas arri ved. t hou gh. the messa movement. they ar Consequently. n by citing to current events as proof of the coming Tribulation. the government is already under the control of the demon Jews who are seekIn t hei r vi ew. perhaps th 12 The recently released $5 million film R EVELATION. of course. Christian authors have created sc ie n cscience. Most fundamentalist Chthe time of mome momentmo men t with ou t any war nin g a C hr istian dr ivin g do wn th e ro ad wil l su dd en ly d isap pe ar. After mo vem en t. Otherwise. now is the time for a holy war. th Consequently. THE B OOK H AS B EEN O PENED (independe nt Canad ian film 1999 ) starring Jeff Fahey. t he gover estab lishestablish a one world government. First we are the ir dooms day me ssages have escal at ed f o ofof a century. th ese preachers are t rusted by ru ra antigovernment conspiracy theories as the Freemen. AtAt some point during this tribulation process. and more profitable. etc. the se prmovement. th ey b elie ve th at it is a sin no t to fight o n b eha lf o has arrived. willwill have to wait until the conclusion of the 1. WhileWhile pre-trib Freemen believers are just as strongly opposed to thWhile pre-trib Freemen believers are just as post-trib post-trib brethren. After all. If the current government isis being influenced by the supernatural forces of the Antis being influ ence d by t he sup ernat ural forces o f the An tichrist aga faithful follower not join this divinely-inspired movement which quotes scripture? interpretations of biblical prophecy in Revelation. th ere isFor the mid. ForFor t he mid. or an y oth er devast poverty. InIn their view. Most funthe time of Christ s second coming. perh aps through the Un ited Nations or establish a one world government. 13 An example of a post-trib rapture is provided in C.. HowHow radical these followers eventually become depends to a large extentH ow ra dic a l t hese fol l owers even TheThe vast majority of Christians fall into on e of three camp The vast majority of Christians fall into one of three cam tribulation.000 year Millennium rather rapture.science. AnotherAnother Another re Another reason for the increase in end-of-the-world th inking is that the media have made the d e ofof apocalypto f ap o caly p tic in fof apocalyptic information easier.S. faster. June 1999) 24 . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Mid-trib and pos live live thlive through part or alive through part or all of the Tribulation before they will be raptured. leavin g tmoment witho to careen out of control.. they b staystay alive until the rapture.tribulation.000 yearwill have to wait until the conclusion of the 1. refusing to pay taxes. Historians have noted that apocalyptic scenarios always escalate beof a century.WhoeverWhoever Whoever is not written in the Book of Life will be cast along with death and hell intWhoever is not w lake of fire (the S econ d Death ) for etern ity. ItIt should come as no surprise that when televangalists preachIt should come as no surp rise that when televangalists peoplepeo ple t hat t he govern ment is e people that the government is evil/speople that the government is evil/satanic.a nd pos t-trib F r eemen f oll ower s. ChristianCh risti an t eac her s ha ve be en w arn ing th eir fo Christian teachers have been warning their follChristian teachers ha the irtheir doomsday messages have escalated for a number of reasons. Pre-trib Chris byby th e rapt ure b efore th e Tribu latio n be gins. Otherwise. t he lo ss of a farm. many Christians believe rapturA t s ome point during t hi s t r ibul at ion pr ocess thethe redeemed) will take place. The rapture is the simultaneous ascension of all Christians who arthe redeemed) will take pla thethe time of Christ s second coming.13 They are thus left to facultiesfaculties to determine at what point thfaculties to determine at what point they have entefaculties to determine at w poverty. Mid-trib and post-trib Christians. A fte r a ll. T HE C HRONICLES OF N ARNIA T HE LAST B ATTLE (1956). the loss of a farm . they are not likely to nownow is the time for a holy war. they are more likely to exhibit that opos t-trib bre thre n. such as Common Law courts.an d po st-tr ib Free men fo llo wers. that now is the time for an all-out h oly war. the y a re more likel y t o exhibi t t hat oppo defiance against the unholy government.12 Consequently. t hou governmentgovernmen t and estab lishing a C hristgove rnment a nd e sta blis hing a C hris tia n tgovernment and establishing a Chr hashas arrived. not to mention a pretty good living out of their final chapter interpretations of biblical prophecscience.movement. or any o povert y. once dead and assuming one is listed in tstay alive until the rapture. Historians have noted that apo and not just amo ng Christ ians. RuralRural America believes in following the precept of one nation under God. Nick Mancuso and Carol Alt provides a look at the Tribulation after a pre-trib rapture takes place. the loss of a farm. o Tribulation has started and . Pre-trib Christians believe that if alive at the second coming. they will be ctribulation.

inin their view, this is not some intellectual, po litical or spiritual war in their view, this is not some intellectual, political or s real war of guns, assassinations, bombs, and death.

The Tribulation and Freemen Recruiting Techniques
Today sTo da y s Fr eemen ha ve b ecom e es pe cia ll y su ccessful at co nve rti ng e Today s Freemen have become especially suc

the irtheir fold. They work the their fold. They work the ctheir fold. They work the crowds at foreclosure sales, telling people planplan to control the food supply of Christians. They tell people that the Conpla n to c ontrol the food suppl y of Chri sti ans. toto pay income tto pay income tax. They promise farmers their land can be recovered even after it is sold at auction. They describedescribe how the government took the United Sdescribe how the government took the United Stdescribe how the gove wealth.

TheThe m ovemen t ha s had great su ccess w itThe movement has had great success withThe movement has had grea

memb ership membership with strategies using other religious/political debates involving abortimembership with strategies u schooling, and doctor-assisted suicide. overover these issues thover these issues that thover th ese issu es th at th ese rel igious an d po litica l issue s of th e day are al l pa rt governmentgovernment to desensitize them to perversion and murder, steps necessary to eventually enthrone the Antichrist during the Tribulation. OneOne of th e movem ent s most su ccessfu l recr uitOne of the movement s most successful recruitiOne of the movemen

TheThe movement carefully constructs its message to convince people who are alread The movement carefully constructs it

groupsgro up s th at op po se t he gove rn men t are o vegroups tha t oppos e the gove rnment a re ove rflow in ggroups that oppose the becambecamebecame frustrated with what they perceived to be mainstream pro-life s less than radical approabecam e f r ust r stoppingstopping the murder of children. Pro-life factions topping the murde r of c hildre n. Pro - l if e fact ions ent er t h understandingunderstanding that theunderstanding that there understanding that there is no room for compromise. It is the w these these factions no choice but tth es e fa ctions no c hoice but to pursue thethese factions no choice but to pursue their ultim thatthat will treat abortion as murder and strike down any statutes that contradict their intetha t w ill trea t abor ti on as m ur der and law. GivenGiven the su ccess of the c onversion of the an ti-abor tion co ntingent , the Fr eemen will likely aGiven the success of

andand al l anti groups, ta rgeting the bre akeand all ant i grou ps, tar getin g the bre ake rs o f hand all anti group s, targetin andand oth er an d o th er min oand other minorities; doctors who perform abortions; people in mixed race marriages; proponents relireligionsreligions such as Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and New Age believers; manufacturers of products deemreligions suc toto be offe nsi veto be offensive (especiallyto be offensive (especially involving pornography); and media personnel whose re blasp hemo us.

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THE CHRISTIAN IDENTITY M OVEMENT A.K.A. C HRISTIAN A MERICA, C HRISTIAN ISRAEL, K INGDOM OF GOD
Introduction America is the Promised Land of Israel

Whil WhileWhile Freemen pleadings and Common Law court opinions often do not provide or recWhile Freemen ple

underlyingunderlying nature of the impact of Christian Ideunde rlying na ture of the impa c t of C hristi an Ident i ty beunderlyin impact of these beliefs on Freemen would be a great mistake.14 FewFew court opinions or pleadings in our system recount the tale of our RevFew c our t op inion s or p lead ings in o ur syst

surroundingsurrounding the adoption of the Csurro und ing the a dop tion o f the Co nst surro und ing the a dop tion o f the Co nstitu tion basic basic and central underpinnings for granted. Indeed, an opinion that recounts these ba s ic a nd c e ntral underpi nnings f or gra signalssignals either that an extraordinary challenge to our system has been made or that a nosignals either that an extraordinary to b e sanct ioned by ou r cou rts, wh ich seek t o legitimize t he mo ve by tying it b ack to basics.

Therefore,Therefore, desp ite the fact that most of the Co mmoThere fore, d espite t he fact that most o f the Co mmon L

ChristianChristian Identity story in full, we are prepared to call the sto ryChristian Identity story in full, we are prepared to ca the Freemen movement. tt h ethe damthe damned. That division predicts the division of American citizenry into two classes Law/Sovereign Citizenship and 14th Amendment Citizenship. Common

TheThe fused Commo n Law Ch ristian Ident ity sThe fu sed C ommo n Law Chr istian Iden tity st ory d ividThe fused Commo

So vere ignSovereign Citizenship, which belongs to their members as a matter of birthright, guarantees freedom

f r o mfrom tfrom tyranny (the exercise of jurisdiction by federal and state illegal governments and courtfrom tyranny (th recr e c o gn irecognizesrecogn izes on e s God -given una lienab le rights. F ourt eent h Amen dmen t citizen ship is no t on ly less ennoblingennobling but is akin to the mark of Cain, a badge of slavery, made for lesenn obl ing but is akin to the ma rk of Cai AmericansAmericans and others considered n on-white. The oth er United States, our w A me ric a ns a nd ot her s consider ed nonAmendmentAmen dmen t slave a s opp osed to t heir Amendment slave as opposed to their united Amendment slave as opposed TheThe C hris The Christian Identity story dictates just such a distinction a distinction between the Chosen People and the misbegotten others that populate the earth. TheThe The sto ry The story also locates the group in relation to the government. It suggests that the State has somehow beenbeen corrupted and is exercising power unjustly over God s Chosen People. The story provides meaning forfor the odd moves made by Freemen, like for the odd moves mad e by Fr eemen , like divest for the odd moves made taxes , mo ves n eede d t o r eclaim o ne s bi rth righ t as a fr ee an d S ove rei gn b ein g.

Most Most import antl y, the story n ot o nly u nites t M os t importantly, the s tory not only unite s the peoplMost importantly, t

g ro u pg rou p in group in rela tion t o ot hers, it fuses the group s ident ity with t he la nd. T he la nd is wh at Go d pro misegroup i n r el ChosenChosen People, according to the Bible. The quiet title action,Chosen Peo ple, according to the B ible. The quiet title ac fusesfuse s ide nt ity w ith lan d. T he C hris tian Iden tity sto ry gives a dd ed m ean ing to th e filin g of lfuses identity with land. T

14

We b eliev e that a thorou gh unde rstand ing of the Chris tian Ide ntity mo veme nt and the ir bel iefs i s crit ical t o an a ppre ciati on of the

pote ntial s eriou snes s and dange rous ness of the F reem en mov eme nt. We do no t pret end to be expe rts in Chris tian Ide ntity the ology or the Bible. Nor do we claim to be trained scholars who can provide a point/counterpoint response from a Judeo-Christian perspective. It is not our intent in any way to offend anyone s spiritual faith or understanding of these topics. If our discussion of these topics has inadvertently offended, we sincerely apologize and ask forgiveness for our ignorance.

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enemiesenemies of thenemies of their group. Those who are not God s Chosen People can never have clear title to the landenemi most,most, those people may occupy the lanmos t, thos e people ma y oc c upy the la nd so lmost, those people may occupy the l People. Liens give expression to that message, clouding title precisely as the story suggests is just. ItIt is easy t o trivial ize th e rhe toric al exc ess of th e Ch ristian Iden tity mo vement and disIt is easy to t rivialize th e rhet orical

element.element. However, it is important to note that Christian Identity numbers have grown from perhaps 2,000 tot o 5 , 0 0 0to 5 ,000 in 19 86 t o mor e tha n 30 ,000 tod ay. Apa rt from th e regula r membe rship in the c hurc hes,to 5,000 in 198 estimate d th at to day th ere are nearl y a qu arter o f a million peo ple w ho ma y be Ch ristian Ide ntity fo llow ers.

TheThe Christian Identity movement ties young to old, aThe Christian Identity movement ties young to old, anThe Christ

thethe white supremacist movement into a coherent ideological force. Propthe w hite s upre ma c is t movem ent int o a coherent i d racialracial h oly wa r, guided by a d estiny in which God s pracial h oly wa r, guided by a d estiny in which God s pu understandingunderstanding themselves as part of an historical tradition, Christian Identiunderstanding themselves as p surprisingly effective.

WhileWhile one can b e lulled into a false sense of security in thinking that the Christian Identity s percWhile one can be lu

warwar is over, in reality it has yet to begin. Christian Identity advocates wait patiently andwar is over, in reality it has yet t WhileWhile still secretly holding onWhile still secretly holding on to th eir While still secretly holding on to their identity, become become a part become a part of our systebecome a part of our system, and betray it from within. Many more quietly wait areare called upo n to beco me a warrior and strike a blow for their are called upo n to beco me a warrior and strike a blow them on the shoulder and tells them it is their time.

Christian Fundamentalists v. Christian Identity Believers
Most Most of the people in the Freemen world fall into two Most of the people in the Freemen world fall into two

ChristianChristian Christian fundamen Christian fundamentalists (composed of mainstream mostly Protestant denominations) adhereadhere to some or all of the teachings of Christian Identity. Both camps believe in a newadhere to some or all government,government, with the Cgovernment, with the Chrigovernm ent , with the Chr istian Iden tity b eliever s seekin g to acco rdan ce with their u niqu e bibl ical int erpre tatio ns. similar. Nothing could be further from the truth.

TheThe religious terminology used by both fundamentalists and Identity believers at first blush aThe religious terminolo

FundamentalistsFundamentalists view Identity beliefs as heresFun damen talists view Ide ntity b eliefs as he resyFundament

mimisledmisled Jew-misled Jew-loving traitors. The Identity movement relies heavily on its interpretation of the Old Testament toto justify its beliefs that white people are the true nation of Israel, that to just ify its beliefs th at wh ite peo ple a re the true n a that oth er mino rities are so ulle ss animals. FundamentalistsFundamentalists believe that Jews are the true nation of Israel

an idea that infurFundam ental i st s be

believers andbeliever s and that all p eop le regard less o be lie vers an d t ha t a ll pe op le rega rd le ss o f rac e an d ge believers makemake n o argu ment to ju stifmake no argument to justify racimake no argument to justify racism while Identity-influenced gr Klux K lan a ttemp t to d o so b iblical ly, th ereby justifying the ir supre macist an d/o r separ atist ide as. AA further comparison of these two groups reveals that IdentityA furt her c omp arison of th ese tw o grou ps revea ls th at

Their Their white supreTheir whit e sup remac isTheir white supremacist and/or separatist theology practically demands violence. thatthat they are God s enforcement arm, thereby oblitha t th ey are God s enfo rceme nt a rm, th ereb y ob ligated to p unis that th ofof the Old Te stamen t s of the Old Testament s laws, of the Old Testament s laws, which frequently require death up TestamentTest ame nt com pel s de ath foTestament compels death for a multiTestament compels death for a multitu de of sexua aduladultery adultery (Leviticus 20:10), homosexuality (Leviticus 20:13), and bestiality (Leviticus 20:15-16). Identity followersfollowers feel compelled to execute followe rs fe e l c ompe lle d to exe c ute this de a th followers feel compelled to execut andand for those having bestial sexuaand for those having bestial sexual relatiand for those having bestial sexual r soulless animals).

TheThe theology of the Non-IdenT he the ology of the N on-Ide ntity Free me n gThe theology of the Non-Identity Freem

follo wers,followers, but there are efollowers, but there are except ions. followers, but there are exceptions. How dangerous a gro leadersleaders interpret biblical prophecies. Within leaders interpret biblical prophecies. Within bothleaders interpret biblical thethe belief that the violence-filled period described by the Bible andthe belief that the violence-filled period described b

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the pastor is removed. Oufulfillment of biblical prophecy. the nativist movement focused upon the mas sivemassive influx of Roman Catholic immigrants. and non-native born. the p astor is r converted. A History of Christian Identity Theology FromFrom tFrom th e very bFrom the very beginning of colonialism. the settlement of North America. PastorsPastors have also been recruited direcPastors have also been recruited directlyPasto rs have al so bee n recr uited direc WhileWhile some pastors leave when the Identity message is taught. the pastor is removed. A great dealdeal of its recent success can be deal of its recent success can be attributedeal of its recent success can be attributed to its thethe guise of the antigovernment evil enemy theme. The theological differences will be sorted out once the existing democratic regime. AnAnti-RomanAnti-Roman Catholicism. Many Common Law courts are meethave nothing to ofof their government is then expected to carry out the senof the ir governmen t is then expec ted t o carr y out the se nten ce a the Bible. In increasingly defined e America. ThisThis nativist thought arising out of the econoThis nativist thought arising out of the economic aThis nati increasinglyincreasingly defined evil as those who were non-white. Ruby Ridge. Given the Iden tity s expl ana tion of wh o is de stro ying rur al Ame rica. For t hat reaso n. In the early nineteenth century. and slow p pastorspasto rs of the infected con gregations figure o ut wh at is going on . t heir succe sssuccess is understandable considering the percepsuccess is understandable con sidering the perception that ru success is suchsuch modern agendas as affirmative action. They see themselves set above the rest of humanicho sen n atio n. American Christians have considered themselves chosenchosen nation. it is too late. aHow did Freemen otherother current events for the diother current events for the diverot he r cu rre nt even ts fo r th e d iver se c oa lit ion s th at c Christian Identity teachings. the Revelation F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. TheThe Identity movement s techniques for spreading its message are working surprisingly well. as a threat to America s internal secsecurity. Christian Identity Expansion Ho wHow did Freemen ever provide the unifying ideology to explain Gordon Kah l. the environmental movement. at le ast un til a ne w membe r s ade-em pha sized b y the F reemen . Identity followers can now interact with non-Identity pepeople people for l peo ple for lo ng per iods o f time. security. global such modern agendas as affirmative a abortion. Eith er the pasto r is pastors of the in converted.approachingap pr oa ch ing o r h as a lre ad y ar rive d. th ey b elieve approaching or has ha vehave nothing to lose. and even the Civil War established that God was powerfully at work in our midst. the wars against the French and the IEngl ish Refor m ati on. t h American Revolution. at le ast u mmovement smovement s long-held concept of a white America has now been given a new. more acceptable monmovement s such as Christian America or Christian Israel. or a siza believer s. flag burning and pretty much any other cause taken up by the ACLU. Th ey see t hemse lves set a bove t he fulfillmentfulfillment of biblical propfulfillment of biblical prophecy. school prayer.congregation. June 1999) 28 . Bcongregation. non-Protestant. so d oes t he p romo tion of viole nce by th e Fre emen moveme nt. and slowly over time begin to insert their Identity doctrines into meetings.con verted. many others stayWhil e some past ors le ave wh en t h teach ings to th eir con gregations. Our history is replet thethe United States is the culmination of God s unfolding plan for the Manifest Destiny of all nthe Unit ed S tate s is the cul m English English Reformation. gun control. it is critical to ca refull y examine the b eliefs of Iden tity ad heren ts. Sin ce th e en d o f th e wo rld is fas t app ro achin g. especially the Irish. TheThe racism that had long been the chief barrier to Identity recruiting effortThe racism that had long been the chief bar de-emphasizedde-em pha sized b y the F reemen . ItIt has become commonplace for IdenIt has become co mmonpla ce for Identity memb It has become commonplace for Id congregation. or a sconverted. WhileWhile some fundamentalists and Identity believers disagree with manWh ile s ome fun dam ent alis ts an d Id ent ity b e ththese these groups have been increasingly able to set aside their disagreements to fulfill their one these groups h ave bee goal agoal a new Cg o al a n ew Ch rgoal a new Christian government. Anti-Catholic sentiments viewed the Catholic Church as the Whore of Babylon. Many Common Law couhave nothing to lose. AsAs Id en tAs Iden tity sp read s. evil did not exist as an abstract force but in a very real world personification.

W. and protect the pubdangers of Romanism. This bestseller was brought to the Un States during the latter years of the nineteenth century by Rev. A mo nast ery Cath olic Catholic riots erupted in New York and Philadelphia (where a seminary and two churches weCatholic riots erupted i andand an a nt i-Ca th ol ic p art y. The most profound i The mo st pro foun d in The mo st pro foun d infl uen ce up on t he fo rmatio thethe the ological movement from th e nineteen th cent ury known as Anglo-Israelism othe theological movement from the Anglo -IsraelismAnglo-Israelism places the nations of Europe as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. nativist thought combined religious and racial supremacy into a single component and focused uponupon the Jew as the locus of evil in American society. Ari sin g beastly. 1 through No. Arisin be ast ly. edited by William J. limit immigration. Carroll argued that A beastly. published and sold ID E N T IF IC A D E N T IF IC A T I ON D E N T I F I C A T I O N O F T H E B RITISH N ATION WITH LO S T ISRAEL. June 1999) 29 . Following the Civil W thethe nativist movement began to re-frame ethe nativist movement began to re-frame evthe nativist movement began to re-f THEHE N E G R O A B EAST exemplified this mo exemplified this movement. sw ept lar ge nu mbe rs in to po liti cal offand an anti-Catholic party. W h yWhy Goo d FreeW h y G o o d Fr e em e n D ri v e F oWh y Goo d Free men D rive F ords The Je wish C onsp iracy. 15 One we bsite a sserts that it provide s an exact rep rint of the original P ROTOCOLS OF ZION refer red to in the la te 17 00 s and published in the early 1800 s. the maintenance of white suprem clannishness. The website includes Protocols No. Anti-AfricanAnti-African Anti-African AmericAnti-African Americanism The Ku Klux Klan. 24. and without a soul. Cameron. the American Protect dangersdangers of Romanism. the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Pulaski.ptialaska. BritishBritish Israelism. TheThe official aThe official application for The o fficial ap plic atio n for c hart er memb ership to t he KK K esta blish es th at o ne thethe tenets of Christianth e ten ets of C hristia n rthe tenets of Christian religion.century. Tennessee on Christmas Eve. centu ry. puppet politis upply through a c a ba l of ba nke rs . 1999) <http://www. 1865. and includes the following subheadings Gold Right Is M ight We A re Des pots We Sha ll End Liberty Destructive Education Poverty Our Weapon We Support Communism Jews W ill Be Safe We Shall Destroy God Masses Led By Lies Monopoly Capital We Shall Enslave Gentiles Universal War Jewish S uper-Sta te Christian Youth Destroyed Our Goal World Power Poison of Liberalism We N ame Pre sidents We Shall Destroy We Are Wolves We Control The Press Free Press Destroyed Only Lies Printed We D eceiv e Work ers We Shall Forbid Christ Secret Societies Gentiles Are Stu pid Gentiles Are C attle We Demand Submission We Shall Be Cruel We Sha ll Change His tory We S hall D estro y T he C lergy Government By Fear We Shall Destroy Capital We C aus e D epre ssio ns Gentile States Bankrupt Tyra nny Of Usu ry King Of The Jews Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (visited June 5.15 P ROT OC OLS promoted a one world gover promoted a one world government co promoted a o ne world government conspi whowho sought to seize world power by manipulating and ultimately taking over the wowho sought to seize world power by ma supplysupply through a cabal of bankers.1717 description of the great ha17 description of the great har17 description of the great harlot living on the blood of ChristiansChristians astray intoChristians astray into idolatry for tChr istian s astra y into idol atry fo r the Ant ichrist . and with out a sou l. The newspaper w i t h a seven year campa ant i-Semit icanti-Semitic conspiracy theories about Jews conta nti-Se mitic cons pira c y theories a bou t Jews cont r ol l inganti JewishJewish fuele d co mmun ism) exp loit J e w is h fue le d c ommunism) e xploiting theJewish fueled communism) exploiting the O asas aa s an ev il relig io u as an evil religious force out to destroy Anglo-Saxon America. Fo llo wing th e CivCivil War. and protec paroch ial system. the Ameri CivilCivil Wa r. gained notoriety in the 19edi t ed by Wi ll i withwith a seven year campaign against what Ford termed the international Jew. Within Ford s work are the alleged detai ofof the High Jewish Council s (the Sanhedrin) and the Masonic Order s quest for totalof the H igh J ewish Council s ( t he Sa based o n the consp iracy boo k THE P ROTOC OLS OF THE M EETINGS OF THE LE A R N ED E LDERS OF ZION .Identity s founder. Edward Hine. Following the Civil WCivil War. and the p rinciples of pure Americanism. bea stly. Arising out danger of race-mixing. Edward Hine. Edward Identity s founder. limit immigration.net/%7Eswampy/illuminati/zion. Automotive tycooupon the J ew a s the l ocus of evi l in newspapernewspaper T HE D E A R BO R N IN D E P EN D E N T . Car exemplified this movement. H. and t hesupply t Christian Identity literature. an d w ith ou t a sou l.html>. puppe t polit i cians. Identity sIdentity s founder. Following the Civil War. In 1871. Poole o f Detroit. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. th e Am eric an P art y.

who was to sprea d th e te KKK and neo-Nazis in the early 1960 s under the auspices of his Church of Jesus Christ Christian.Swift. As a follower of Butler puts it. June 1999) 30 . Wesley Dr.a. But th movement continued. Wesley Swift. wh ich Identity.Israe lism. The ir belief in the literal tru th of th e Bible is man ifested firmfirm belief in the biblical account of creation afirm be lie f in the biblic al a c c ount of c re a tion a s descr ibed i n G Genesis. British IsraChrist ian Iden tity. RubyRub y Ridge s Ran dy W eaver is an assoc iate o f Richa rd B ult er an d Kevin Harris Rub y Ridge s Rand y Weaver is an Kahl since high school. the returnreturn of Jesus to earth. head of the Kingdom of Yahweh. or K ingd om o f GIdentity. an ordained Alabama Methodist m I d eIdentityIdentity theology. As such direc be God s Chosen Peop le. into Christian Defense League rhetoric. Christian Identity fthe true identity of the Jews. a gr ThTheThe Minutemen were arrested in 1968 after blowing up a police station and attempting to rob several bThe M inuteme n wer OneOn e of it s mem ber s. An glo. While affirming their belief in God. Dr. especially Anglo-Israelism. Wesley Swift. a former Ku Klux Klan Kleagle. does not Identity. Germanic. which is still in operation in Hayden Lake. a Swift-recruit and Presb PresbyterianPresbyterian who received his ordination through the mail) and a handful of his congregation Presbyterian w IdahoIdaho near Hayden Lake tIdaho near Hayden Lake toIda ho ne ar H ayd en Lak e to e sta bl ish a Pro mise d L an d a wh ite s-o andand continueand continued Identity teacand continued Identity teachings. and the final battle to be fought between the Israel of God and the enreturn of Jesus to earth. and the Holy Spirit. A s such d irect desce ndan ts. Celtic. an d a m emb er o f One of its members. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. was possibly the first person to combine a beliefbelief in the Identity hypothesis with the keeping of the Sabbath on Saturday and thbe lief in the Ident i ty hypot hesi s wi t h of the Hebre w name s of the C reato r and His Son (Yahw eh an d Yah shua ) in pl ace o f God an d Jesus. Anglo-Israelism. for a Ch ristian Ide ntity c hurc h s stateme nt o f beliefs. a group that formed the core of late 1960 s revolutionarRan gers in th e earl y 19 60 s. Christian Identity Beliefs 101 ChristianChristian Identity. and FollowingFollowing the tradition of free church Protestantism. a Swif When Swift died in 197 0. and related peoples (ofte thethe direct racial descendantsth e d irect rac ia l de s c enda nts of the tribethe direct racial descendants of the tribes of Israel and thethe tru e ident ity of the Jews. they gengenerallyg en erally s to p generally sto p shor t of belief in th e Trinity. a t 21 -23. Swift Swift expanded on h is Identity beliefSwift expanded on h is Identity beliefs by asserSwift expanded on his Identity thethe moveme nt a nd t o he lp e stab lish it the move me nt and to he lp e sta blis h its goathe moveme nt a nd t o he lp e stab lish it s RangersRangers in the early 1960 s. or Kingdom of God. In 1946. Joe Jeffers. See the A ppe ndix. From this central churc gospelgospel of Christian Identity would be used to consolidate the splinter groups of the hgosp el of C hr ist ian Ide nt ity wo ul d b army of God against the evil United States government a. who was to sprSwift. Dr. Christian Israel. a SwWhe n Sw ift died in 19 70. You have Detroi we llwe ll have the Northw e ll h ave th e N orthw e st for ourwe ll have the Northwest for our Aryans. Christ ChristianChristian Identity is most at variance with the larger body of Christian theology with its belief thaChristian Id Anglo-Saxon. a former Ku Kl ux Kl an Kl eagle. and a member of Swift s churchOne of its mem bers. ZOG Zionist Occupation Government. SomeSome Christian Identity groups have also adopted b oth sabbath arianism and sacreSome C hri sti an Ident i ty gr oups fromfrom Adventism. the heirs of all God s biblical promises to Abraham and his progeny. which is also known as Christian America. Idafoun ded the C hurc h of Jesu Swift. and a memb aa plot to bloa plot to blow up Mara pl ot t o bl ow u p M artin Luth er Kin g at th e Hol lywo od P alla dium . Following World War II and the Holohand of Jewish consp widwidesprewidespreadwidespread audience that had previously accepted this hidden hand message began to wane. Iden tity . two ordinanFollowing the tradition o f free church P communion are practiced. Jesus. Celtic.k. WhenWhen Swift died in 1970. Anglo-I butbut rather believes itself to be a group of orthodox Christians who acceptbut rathe r belie ves itself to b e a grou p of or th hencehence literally true Word of God. CelAnglo-Saxon.Anglo-Saxon. Scand inavian. AfterAfter W orld Wa r II. ScanAnglo-Saxon.Ford sFord s conspiracy theories andFord s con spirac y the ories a nd t he p opu lar im Ford s conspiracy theories and the pop h hand hand of Jewish conspirators influencing history. Freeme FreemenFreemen commonly use th e word Usurers to describe Jewish bankers whom they claim are ruFree men c om our country through ZOG. SIden tity t heo lo foundedfounded the Church of Jesus Christ Christian. Oth er Sw ift foll owe message thr ougho ut th e Unite d Sta tes.

and Baal Worship and the Phineas Priesthood. C hr ist ian Ide nt ity mak es a sh Israelites ) and present day Jews (Judah). and the c ounty gove rnment (Holy Spirit ) wou ld be head ed b y the le gisla tive b ranch. the toda y a s J e w s a re ac tua lly a n A s ia n ra c e. Some blacks and other nonwhiteswhites are descenw h ites are d es cenda ntwhites are descendants of the seed of Satan through Cain. Christian Identity makes a sharp distinction between present dwa s to do . The true from scratch like Adam. rules and polices. are sharply ancientancient southern kingdom centered around ancient southern kingdom centered around Jerusalemancient southern kingdo somesome Levite s. The Revelation to John. the former northern kingdom. Isaac s white sons (Sa theth e Ca uca sus M ou nt ain s hu nd red s of ye ars b efor e th e bi rth of Jthe C auca sus Mo unt ains hu ndre ds of year s before the formingformin g British Israel. which Freemen use as an interchangeable description for the currentcurrent government. Th common with beasts than men. The R evelation to J this struggle between whites (good) and evil (Jews. Eve then gave birth Seth. Cain . whic h are termed foreign governments. is the pra history o f this struggle. Roman Catholics). Th rough out the h istThe dir ect d o fof of humanity. ChristianCh risti an Id ent ity s ro ot s co me fro m its r ead ing o f GGenesi Genesi s. S inEve was from from scratch like Adam. codes. c rucified Je sus. the white race is biblical Israel. the Khazars ( Ashktoday a SatanSatan (the serpent) which was planted in Eve s womb when she was seduced by Satan (who waSata n (th e serp ent ) whic h asas a white man) and the Fo rbidden Fruit in the Gard en of Eden. Christian Identity sees Israel first of all as a Brita inBritain andBritain and the Britain and the United States possess what God decreed Israel was to possess. TheThe Ne w Coven ant first me ntion ed b y the p roph et Jerem iah was ma de with Israel. GodGod the n cre ated whit God the n cre ated whit e Ada m inGod then created white Adam in his own image. the descendan aa history of this struggle. Tof humanity. See Numbers 25:1-18. minorities. an d Jesus C hrist camecam e to con firm th at c oven ant and hen ce t o re dee m Iscame to confirm that covenant and hence to rede em Israel. Thus. The people kno w todaytoday as Jews are actually an Asian race. the spaw n of S atan . all who serve mixing prophets of Baal. regulations. and the n Ad am s whit e son Abel . TheThe heirs of Satan and Cain created Baal. infra. or the Apocalypse.TheThe te n lo st tribe s The ten lost tribes of IsraeThe ten lost tribes of Israel. Sc hweitzer taught that a de jure go vernment mus t be es tablished pursua nt to the Holy Scripture s. and wa s therefore supe rior to state or federa l governments. These de jure governments would constitute a Trinity of government as follows the national branch (God) would be headed by the supre me judic iary branc h. are the people of Western Europe.Eve wa s the reafte r crea ted from o ne o f Adam s ribs. thereby ensuring survival of God s white race. T his de jure government wa s orde red by G od. Seize the prophets of Baal. Th is Montana Freemen LeRoy Schweitzer s Common Law course materials give clear direction on what to do about the prophets of 16 Baal. Cain Cain C ain th eCain then ran away to live and inter-breed with the subhuman non-whites. the state gove rnment (Son) would be head ed by the executiv e branch. AccorA cco rd in gAcco rdin g to Ch risAccording to Christian Identity. slew Abel after God rejected Cain s s set a mark upon Cain so that no one wo uld kill him. the serpent copulated with Eve &) EveEve first gave b irth t o Ca in. (Jewish Talmud. and are doing waswas to do. YebamotYebamoth 1 103a-103b. slfirst effort to eliminate whites. under color of law & Once the modern-da y Satans are remo ved. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. females must be patriarchs and those Godpatriarchs and those God called his Chosen People. Christ ian Iden tity sees Israe l first of all as asome Levites. Thus. betweenbetween Israel and God that was broken at between Israel and God that was broken at th e time just pribet wee n Isra el a Kings 17. females must be subordinate to males.16 T h eThe direThe d irect d escen dan ts of Cain . creating and passing manmade laws. Identity teaches that God s first creation produced produced the beasts of the field or mud people along with the other soulless animals and prod uced the b easts o These These beasts lived outside thThese beasts lived outside the GarThese bea sts lived o utsid e th e Gard en o f Ede n. all who serve as government employees are deemcurrent government. inEve fi r st gave bir t h t o C firstfirst effort to eliminatefirst effort to eliminat e white s. Adam was no EveEve was t herea fter crea ted fro m one of Adam s ribs. the peo ple c alled Jews to day. June 1999) 31 . let not one of them escape &and kill them there! &Prophets of Baal represent our so-called congress and/or state legislators &Satans of today. wher e th e Cho sen P eop le event ual ly rec eived Go d s Magn a Car ta. the descendan ts of Satan/Cain have attempted to eradicate the progeny of Adam. Blacks.

people. is very rea l to Iden tity b eliever s.migrationmigrat ion to th e Br itish Isles occ urr ed a rou nd 97 5 B . Thu s. subhumanssubhumans called mud people. a shift occurred from a religious concep racialracial one. the people obenevolent King Cyrus and the Persians. E phraim was to become ainta ct t hr ough t he Caucasus nations the British Commonwealth.C. Ina c t in a ma nner c ons is te nt w ith this ide ology. the h ighest expression of good. ThJudah fell und product pro duc t of th isproduct of this period is the Babylonian Talmud. Israel. InherentInherent in Identity thInherent in Identity thought is a dualiInherent in Identity thought is a dualism. Ident ity adherents advocate keeping a well-sbattle is close at hand. It is during this period that the Identity movement seeBab ylon ians an d tra ns separatingseparating itself from its Old Testament backgrounseparating itself from its Old Testament background an separatin JuJudahJudah fell under th e influence of pagan beliefs and were introduced to the black magic of Satan. It is the c onstruc tion oracial one. the people of Jude rebuildrebuild the Holy Temple of Solomon. Thus. the Identity movement offers salvation.C. Armageddon. Thus. God s laIn o rd er fo aa great batta gre at ba tt le be tw ee n go a great battle between good and evil. the Southern tribes of Judah were conquered byNorthern tribes BabyloniansBabylonians and transported into exile. TheThe second son of Joseph. the highest expression of good. Since there is no rapture. Identity adherents advocat survival gear. must also con struct an evil. . the united States of America is the holy country of the H settledsettled it are entitled to the country thset tl ed it a re e nt itl ed to th e co un try th ro ugh divi settled it are entitled to the countr fathersfathers are considered sacred and stand in continuity with the covenant ofathers are considered sacred and stand in co ntin respondres po nd to th is h ighres p o n d to t his highe r la w a ndrespond to this higher law and morality as defined in the Bible and writings of o ur fou ndin g fathers. and anyone el standsstands in the way of their effort to establish a Christian Identity goverstands in the way of their effort to establish a Chr battlebattle is close at hand. gay s.government. with the Edo mites (Africans) and began to take on t he dark features of the native Africans. IdentityIdentity (which rejects rapture) also condemns the Rapture Hoax as being sponsored by state supportedsupp orte d (th ose ch urch es rsupp orte d (th ose c hur che s receiv supported (those churches receiving tax-free sta marshmallow marshmallow Christianity into a false s marshmallow Christianity into a false sense of sec marshmallow C fromfrom having actifrom having active concerfrom h aving act ive con cern abo ut t he imme diacy and even t he n ecessit y of th e imp thisthis sense of necessitythis sense of necessity that this sense of necessity that pushes the Identity movement into viole governmentgovernment to pgovernment to precipitate a rgovernment to precipitate a race war. JustJust as with tJust as with the earlJust as with the earlier nativist movement.In a ddition. re governgovernmengovernment. During this period. As the Assyrians were transporting the NNorthern Northern tribes of Israel in the eighth century B. During this period. Ephraim and M intactintact through the Caucasus Mountains into northwestern Europe. Identity followers will wage an all-out war against ZOG. A mytholo Israel. AllAll people not of NortA ll p eo p le not of Northe rn EurAll p eop le no t of No rthe rn E urop ean e xtract ion ar e lump ed b When the people of thsub InIn order for the second co ming of Christ to occur. they committed a crime against God by having intercourse with beasts. Leviticus 20:15-16. th e great est th r F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. InIn addition. etc . one of the central documents of the Jewish religion apr the foun dation o f Rabbinical Jud aism.Rights. In this battle.Israel. therebuild the Holy Temple of Solomon. th e un itRights. mu st also co nstr formform of th e faform of the false children of Israel what we call Judaism. race traitors. A salvation by race alone. When the peop le subhumans called mud people. mino rities. Two of the ten tribes.. the forces o Israelites will Israelites will b Isra el ite s wil l b e p itt ed aga Israelites will be pitted against the armies of Satan.In order for the second coming of Christ to occur. Manas teachestea che s th at t he M ana sseh trib e cr osse d t he A tla nt ic ab oar d t he M ayfl ow er t o Am eric a. These These are theT h es e are th e end-These are the end-times and the signs are everywhere apparent to those who h ave t WhileWhile tWh ile th e th rWhil e th e th reat from Jew s. It is the consracial o n e. wh en t he t en n ort her n t ribe s of migration t o th e British Isles oc andan d t ake n in to cap tiviand taken into capt ivitand taken into captivity by the Assyrians. Manasseh. the pe opl e of Judea fel l int o benevolentbenevolent King Cyrus and the Persians. It is the construction of evil in starkly racial t personperson recognizes his or her identity as a member of the Nation of Israelperson recognizes his or her identity as a me actact in a man ner con siste nt with th is ide ol ogy. June 1999) 32 . was to become a great nation the UnitedThe second son of Joseph. the people of Judea fell into even greater desertion of their faith. Id fulfilled in their midst because evidence of the Tribulation is so clear. the united StaRights. In t he apocact in a ma biblically destined to come. In teaches that the Manasseh tr gavegave them such sacred docugave them such sacred documengave them such sacred documents as the Declaration of Ind Rights.

a ra c is t. from city-living white whowho have succumbed to Judeo-Christianity are beingw ho ha ve s uc cumbe d to J ude o-Christia nit y ar e bei ng l ed bwh blindness of the threat that is posed by a Satanic conspiracy to end the white race. quoted in Simon WincheRichard Butler. 4. May/June. who are of non-Aryan blood shall be terminated or expelled. As Identity Pastor Richard Butler preached from his pulpit in Hayden Lake TheThe responsibility for the salvation oThe resp on sibil ity fo r th e sal vatio n o f tThe responsibility for the salvation of the w TheThe white youth of this nation shall utilize everThe w hite youth of this na tion sha ll util i ze ever y met hod aThe toto neutralize and. Identity gospel teaches that those who overcome evil and sur vivesurvive Rahowsurvive Rahowa (t survive Rahowa (the racial holy war) will be the Elect of the new Kingdom of God. T he p riest ho od grou p is h ighly fana tica l. regardless of intellect. a racist. quite possibly. q uoted in Tense 14: no. can grasp this simple explanation. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. June 1999) 33 . Baal W orship and the P hinehas Priesthood TheThe Priests of Phinehas (also spelThe Priests of Phinehas (also spelledThe Priests of Phinehas (also spelled Phinea veryvery radical fringvery r adi cal fringe of t very r adi cal fringe of th e mo vemen t. Priests of Phinehas believe thatcopulation. quite poto neutralize and. That is the appeal of the Identity movement. engage in the wholesale exterm non-Aryannon-Aryan pnon -Aryan peo ples f non-Aryan peoples from the face of the North American continent. P riests of Ph ineha s bcopulation. quoted in Simon Winchester anRichard Butler. Men children. and educating themselves regarding their identity and its ensuing responsibility. at 10. Matthew 15:24. a p Nation of Israel. quto n eu traliz e a nd. Ounited States of America. without appeal. Life sLife s complexities are rendered negligible within thLife s comple xities are rend ered n egligible within th is ideolog controlled controlled and manipulated by this hidden and powcon tro lle d an d ma nip ul ate d b y th is hid den and po wer fucontroll ofof the Bof the Bible of the Bible and the coming Battle of Armageddon between good and evil as described in Revelat vvirtuallyv irtu ally d evirtually demands a prompt and holy response. RichardRichard Butler. and a Jee xtre mis t. One must remember that Jesus is distinc extremist. TheThe most vile of all evils to a Phinehas Priest is to be bioloThe most vile of all evils to a Phinehas Priest is to b (who(who alone are the true Israelites) mixing bloodli(who alone are the true Israelites) mixing bloodlines with(wh copulation. Anyone.extremist . strugglestruggle to endure and overcome the Tribulation.fromfrom city-living white Christians and do-gooders who have fought for the rights of these groups.cop ulat ion. 1987. a par amilitarist . The Priests especially may well be involved in bombings of abortion clinics and black churche s. TheThe Jesu s oThe Jesus of the IdentiThe Jesus of the Identity faith is a member of the House of David and of the true Nat unitedunited States of America. e eveneven beyond the wildeseven be yond the w ildest tene ts o even beyond the wild est tenets of Identity. united States of America. Priests of Phinehas sto pp ing. T soldier soldier saviors who have pr s o ldie r s aviors w ho ha ve pre pa re d f sold ier saviors who have pr epare d for th e Tr sstockpilingstockpiling weapons and supplies. and a J e w-ha ter whose onextremist. a pa ra milita ris t.

or Ball of Lebanon. and often was discussed in relationship to geographic locations such as Baal of Tyre. At several shrines. 17 18 25:1-18. and perhaps not infrequently children of both sexes were burned in sacrifice to Baal. of wealth.org/advent/cathen/ 02175a.TheThe name for the brotherhood comes from the Old Testament in Numbers 2 25:1-18. or baal. After Ba laam s failed attempts . Since the various baals were not everywhere conceived as identical. GodG o d w as p leased wGod was pleased with Phinehas zeal and told Moses of this good act. Wors hip pra ctice s incl ude d bu rning of inc ense and p erfum es.000 had died through batt les with other clans. htm l>. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. AnAn Israelite priest named Phinehas. at 37-38. An Israelite priest n ofof God from fo f G o d fro m fu rth er p la gue byof God from further plague by driving a spear with one mighty thrust throug membermember of the tribe and at the same time through the belly of a Midianite wommember of the tribe and at the copulcopulaticopulatingcopulating in their tent after purposely fornicating at the door of the tabernacle in full view of Moses an thethe whole Israelitethe who le Israelite commu the whole Israelite community. The C atholic En cycloped ia Baal. Knight. God promised an everlastin PhinehasP h in eh as P ries ts b ePhineha s Priests believe that the M idianite woman kille d by Phin ehas was black b ecause the MidiMidianiteMidianite to them Midianite to them is a code-word for midnight (and dark skin). Balaam failed in his attempts. 1999) <http://www. And they believe that th resrespo nsiresponsibilityresponsibility for cleansing the races by killing those who mix races. were a nomadic tribe who moved their flocks from Southern Arabia to Egypt and the Dead Sea. and ultimately took a Midian wife. long trains of priests clad in special attire perfo rmed the s acred function of sho uting to Baal. but only after 24. Gen esis 25:1-2.org/advent/cathen/023886b. if not required tm en of I sr ael . 19 They com mitted o pen ac ts of phys They com m it t ed open act s pro of pro of of t proof of their allegiance to Baal as required by that god. Al on participateparticipate in their evil worship of Baal of Peor. Moabites and Midianites worshipped the ir worshipped their pagan worshipped their pagan god Baal. the women strongly influenced. (Moses sought refuge with the Midianites when he was fleeing from Egypt. For their obscene open acts and worship of Baal. Zipporah. Baal of Tarsus. So. Balak de velope d a su cces sful plan to use the d aughters o f Moab and Mid ian to entice the Israelite men to participate in the obscene worship of Baal. God severely punished Israel for being easily seduced into leaving their spiritual allegiance to Yahweh to adopt the sensual pagan religion of Baal. Balak feared and hated the Israelites because of their numbers and Israel s recent victory over the Amorites. 17 Lot. Shortly before Israel s final advance for Palestine. la y wor shipp ers p raye d. June 1999) 34 . 1999) <http://giraffe. Numbers 25. B alak hired Balaam to curse the Hebre w tribes.htm>. of a field. that dwelt there. 19 Baal-peor (or Beelphegor or variations thereof) was the baal of Mt. worship demanded public copulation and prostitution at the alter with much sensuality to ensure fertility of the land for crops. Along with the pleasures. Gen esis 19:37. the son An Israelite priest named Phinehas. a mountain of Moab. 1999) <http://www. kne eled .knight. in honor to Baal (as the male of reproduction) and his mate. In the mea ntime. imp regnate d his e ldes t dau ghter who gave birth to Moa b ( from my father ) and his des cend ants t he Moabites. Sacred woode n poles (a sherot) were erecte d in Ashe rah s honor. Numbers 22-24. Judges 6:25. and in their frenzied e xcitement cu t themselv es with knive s until they w ere a ll cov ered with blo od. bothboth carnal and spiritual whoredom. Both were placed near the alter in a Canaanite shrine. Ab raham s nep hew. A N EW D ICTIONARY OF R ELIGIONS (Penguin Books Ltd.28. Source s: Baal: Th e Paga n God of Fe rtility (visited June 5. owner. Phogor.htm>. H INN ELLS. or even of a wife. that every tract of ground owed its productivity to a supernatural being. the Canaanite goddess Asherah. Phinehas act resulted in God stopping Israelites. Ballim (visited June 5. though. Moab s king. Baal was also used to describe innumerable ancient local deities controlling fertility of the soil and the forces of nature. and p aid the ir homa ge by kiss ing images or symbols of Baal. A general belief existed. and the expected curses were divinely changed into blessings. fruit and cattle. 381-82. priesthood for Phineh as and his descendents. is a word which belongs to the ancient Semitic peoples. of cattle. See Exodus 34 :13 . c onsu mptio n of lib ations .rmplc. or Peor. the Midianites (Madianites). the son of Eleazar. 18 Baal (Hebrew Ba al).uk/eduweb/sites/sbs777/snotes/ not e1 11 2. The modern Priests of Phineha organization is the heir to that covenant. they may not be regarded as local variations of the same deity. Balak contacted the elders of Midian to fo rm a tempo rary allianc e against the Isra elites. Baal of Harran. sac rifice s of o xen and other a nimals . along with the ere ction of sto ne pillars (ma sseb ot) in honor of Baa l. 1995). and primarily means lord or So in Hebrew a man is styled baal of a house. J OHN R. Midian s descendants. The Catholic Encyclopedia Beelphegor (visited June 5. or the plural Baalim. Baal-peor was the god of the fertility of the soil and the increase of the flocks. Exodus 2:15-22 ). Women from these tribes offered th menm e n o fmen of Israel. the Moabites had been deprived of some of their territory. da ncing around the a lter. Midian was one son by Abraham and Keturah.co. In several shrines.

sexual acts between relatives (D e u te r o no m y 27: 22-2 3. the hp ries th o o d . the highest order in the Phinehas brotherhood.u n law fu l.org/ PhinehasHood s. WhiWhileWhile While many in the Christian Identity movement reject the Phinehas Priesthood. The obe lisby R ome. Gen esis 18: 20-2 1. they are entitled who commit b loo d-mixing with Anglo. St . SuchSu ch a deb ate will be l eft fo S u c h a de bate w ill be le ft for a notSuch a debate will be left for another forum. T h ounlawful. b ut ra the r was Mose s to kill the t ransgresso rs. a member h Phinehas killPhinehas kill a woman or man who indulged in race mixing. and bestiality (Exodus 22: 19. Weiland. Leviticus 18: 23. Pe te r s Squa re . Peter s Square. TheThe Phinehas Priest movement is apparently of the PhinehasThe P hineh as Priest mo vement is ap paren tly of priesthood. The Wacopies byby Ro me. Peter s S 20 For a n inter est ing Ch risti an Ide ntity s trong re spo nse a gains t the P hineha s Pr ies thoo d.e. WWhenWhen the civil authority fails to execute righteous judgment that is.htm l>. And conspiraa s e ve re divine punishme nt. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. the hipriesthood. WhetherWhether the story of Phinehas proves as Phinehas Priests claim thaW he the r the s tory of Phi nehas pr oves as Phi n tot o a c t u n lto act unlawfully by the sword is certainly subject to debate. Rom e. which is not a circle. Thdocuments of God s law and of the found punctuated punctuated by the er punctuated by the erection of the obelisk in Washington s name. Thec opie s the one in St. D e u te r o no m y 27:21).given righ t t o vio lent ly a ct as d id P hin eh as a gaGod -given right to violent ly act a s did Ph ineha s against God -gi worthy of judgment. they are entitlto s a ve C hris tia n Isra e l. Proverbs 6:3 2.priesthood. 1 Corinthians 6:18). b ut ra the r was ac ting la wfull y as a mem ber o f a group spec ifnot actin g unl awful ly. The Phinehas Hoods A Biblical Examination of Unscriptural Vigilantism (visited June 5. Exodus 20: 14. see Evangelist Ted R. June 1999) 35 . T he arti cle a rgues that if the sin G od p unishe d in Numbers 25 was race-mixing. then Moses promoted race-mixing since he spared the Midianite virgins for the Israelite men as permitted by D e u te r o no m y 21:10-14. Jeremiah 23: 14). Leviticus 20:10. A nd c ons pira c y follo wa severe divine p unis government that must be rejected. Leviticus 20:12). Peter s Square. Rome. The Washington Monument? by Rom e (i. Leviticus 20: 16. Roma n Cath olics). Leviticus 19:29. Lineage followers concede that there is no way for onebecome such a priest. an d rep resen ts th e sha dow of th e Egyp tian sun go d Ra . and th ose who b elieve that onl y men of Phineh as lineage from Aaron ma one become become such a priest. TheThe P riesth ood is divThe P riesth ood is divid The Priesthood is divided into two schools of thought those who believe o n eone to become one to become a memb er. the y are e ntitle d to mto save Christian Israel. their writings strongly imp that such action by select private individuals is authorized directly by God. but s uc h a minor probl em does not seem t o ma upon sanction of death if one attempts to leave the brotherhood. Gen esis 13: 13. homosexuality (Leviticus 20:13.TheThe Priests defense for their taking violent The P riests d efense for th eir tak ing violen t act ion a The P riests governmentgovernmen t refuses t o sto p is tgove rn men t re fus es t o st op is th at be ing t government refuses to stop is that being the p God-givenGo d. to signify intercourse and otthe cir cl e. St. th unlawful. a phallic obelisk th copiescopies the one in St. Though not advocating outright taking of the lives of the ungodly. D e u te r o no m y 23: 17. Numbers 31:17-18. Ide ntit Baal worship i ttoto make any effort to curb various biblical sins of morality21 (or for government leader (or for governmen t lead ers to ac involvedinvolved in such activities) for which Israel was punished duinvolved in such activities) for which Israel was punished aa severe divine punishment. Mainstream faiths believe that Phinehasto act unlawfu notnot actin g unl awful ly.e. UA a ron. Be assu toto save Christian Israel. i. wh o are th e Antich rist s agents.Saxon s.Aaron. but suc h a minor problem do es not seem to matter. Romans 1:18-32).missiontoisrael. f ornic atio n/who red om (s exua l ac ts b etwe en unm arrie d pe rso ns fo r ple asu re o r pro fit.20 most believe that BaalBaal worship is rampant in our sex crazed wBaal worsh ip is ramp ant in ou r sex cra zed worl d. homosexualityPhine has ki ll a wom an or m an w list of mo rtal sin s. a nd repr esent s t he shadow of th ethe the circle. uphold biblical lW hen t he civil aut hor it y f givengiven these Priests th e autho rity to execute t hat judgmegiven these Priests the authority to execute that judgment. 21 Baa l-Pe or s exua l de bau cher y inc lud e ad ulte ry (s exua l ac ts wi th a p ers on ot her tha n you r sp ous e. Here is th eir theo ry IdentityIdentity followers offer the Washington Monument as proof that our governmIdentity followers offer the Washing RomanRoman law overlays the land and is the law ofR oma n law overla ys the la nd and is t he law of t he documentsdocuments of God s law and of the found ing fathers. Lineage follow Aaron. 1999) <http://www.

They are controlled by ofteoftenoften Black police known as Human Rights Councils. stand off on W hidb ey Island near S eattl e. In this violent and racist novel.k. the Great Revolution is accomplished in &thIn the end. InIn the end. T H E H E T U R N EURNER D IARIES describes the struggle of Earl Turner against the jewish-liberal-democrat describes the plague plague that has turned Ameripla gue tha t ha s turn ed Am erica in plague that has turned America into a swarming ho pub licpublic hap u b lic h as b een d is arme d apublic has been disarmed as a result of gun control legislation.k. T HE TURNER D IARIES (Arlington: National Vanguard Books. the m public. TheThe book meticulouThe book meticulously detaThe book meticulously details a series of terrorist bombi assassinat ions. Pierce described his book as a blueprint. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. June 1999) 36 . public. T HE TURNER D IARIES became the blueprint for a series of paramilitar origoriginatingoriginating out of Identity encampments throughout the United States in the middle of the 1originating out of I Order. Tpublic. it is easy to see why the adherentsadherents have a hard time believing that they are racists. infra . a fusion of KKK campca mp aign camp aig n o f 1 9 7 2campaign of 1972. and wholesale m waningwaning years of the twewaning years of the twentiwaning years of the twentieth century. who dO rde r w a s le d by R obe rt J a y M a tthe w s. thereby establishing a political order based on the ethnic cleansing of the population. armed car and bank robberies. th e Order ) wage war a gainst th e governme nt o f the Un ited S tates.Order.Alliance.a. one s erected beside the alter of Baal. In this violent andpublic. THE TURNER DIARIES InIn 1978. a fusion of KKK and Nazi organizations that evolved out of George WallacAlliance. See the discussion of Baal-Peor in the previous section. armed car an d bank ro bberies. In this violent and racist novel. The resulting secret religious system isis the Beastly government. which iis the B e a stly gove rnme nt. and the exhibitionists are parading theThe queers. a Handbo ok for White Victory. the fetishists. the Great Revolution is accomplished in t h ethe Old Era the Old Era just 110 years after the birth of the Great One [Adolph Hitler] world finally became a certainty. the M E IN K AMPF of a new generat of a new gene ra tion w a s publ of a new generation was published un Alliance. IdentityIdentity followers also argueIdentity followers also argue that the mIdentity followers also argue that the monume We the People are not Racists! AfterAfter obserAfter observing thAfter observing the Identity interpretation of biblical creationism. w hic h is a sha dowis the Beastly government. Officials h standoff on Whidbey some of th e money. 1978).abominableabominable actions by demonic gods with the earth. In the final cataclysmic st assaultassaultsas sau lts are lau n cassaults are launched upon a number of metropolitan areas so as to secure control of the United the Organization. w ho died i n a 1984 fOrder stan do ffstandoff on Whidbey Island near Sea ttle. ForFor mo re informa tion o n Ro me s For more informa tion on R ome s plFor more information on Ro me s place in this What is a Christian Appellation?. which is a shed ding of bl ood of the Christ ians. William Pierce onlyonl y deta ils the c oming rac e war b ut al so lays o ut th e strate gy and me chan isms only de tails the c om ing race war but al so l a Identity teachings. Turner elite sec ret soc iety. written MacDonaldMacDonald a. the fetishists. an organizatio n direct ly inspired by T H E T URNER D IARIES . engaged robberiesrobberies (obtaining $4 million from armored carobberies (obtaining $4 million from armored cars) anrobberies (obta OrderOrder was led by Robert Jay Matthews. the mixed-race couples. &th that the dream of a Whthe Old E AlthougAl th ou gh Alth ough ficAlthough fiction. including mu rd er a nd gen oc ide th ro ugh ethic cleansi ng. William Pierce (director of the National Alliance) is an apocalMacDon ald a. assassinations.a. an organization directly inspireOrder. Rape laws have been ruled discriminaoften Black police k sexualsexual debauchery has reached a level that would sex ua l d eb au ch ery ha s rea ch ed a l eve l t ha t w ou ld ha vesexual d TheThe queers. After a dhe re nts ha ve a ha rd t i me bel ieving t hat t hey chicken s?chickens? Can you be called a racist for despising Satan achicken s? Can you b e call ed a ra cist for d espising Sat an a ifif the group you arif th e gro up you are acc use d o f sif the gro up y ou a re acc used of sub jugatin g is not e ven hu man? Of co logicallogical end opens the door to far more heinous transgression and violence than mere racism. andassassinations.

and are fully committelimitless.GordanGordan Kahl. all w earin g ident ical p laca rds ar oun d th eir necks. Identity flourishes in prison where ra wherewhere Identity ideology serves as a link between the prisoners and those who run the prisons. He find s tha t fo r h im. TheThe most rec ent bo ok b y th e au th or o f THE TURNER D IIAR IARIES . the dark enin g comp lexio n of t he p opu latio drugs. already been declared. swel ls. faces a defense depar t ment consu q u question. the darkening complexion of the population as the t d swells. limitless. the growing influence of drugs. II shuddered and quickly went on my way. vertical line of rope disappearing into the branches above. June 1999) 37 . As a black prisonerpriso ner fro m Luc asvilprisoner from Lucasville Pprisoner from Lucasville Prison in Ohio described the situation follow therethe re is stra ight-u p po litthere is straight-up politithere is straight-up politics on the white side. and the death or impri NotNot surprisingly. the open homosexuality. leader was the greatest man of our era. t her e is no choice at whichwhich afflicts America in the 19w hic h afflic ts A me ric a in the 1990 swhich afflicts America in the 1990 s: his co it is inconceivable. They are well organized and heavily armed. There are many thousands of hanging femalefemale corp ses like t hat in th is city to night. B L O O D I N T H E F A C E (New York: Thunder s Mouth Press. depicts the assassinations of interracial couples. th ere is no ch oice at al l: h s w e lls . Finally I could makemake out the thin. They ar e the white w omen who were mar ried to or living with Black s. the ideologic IdentityIdentity thrives on martyrs. Above the placard leeletters: I defiled my ofof a young woman. Paul Franklin. THE TURNER D IARIES (Arlington: National Vanguar(A rlington: N a tiona l V a n guar d Book(Arlington: R I D GE W A Y. given the uncanny appearwoman s feet were resting on the pav standing upright of its own volition. OOscarOscar Yeager. They will continue to be a deadly force in America for many years to come. dru gs. d epicts t he assassin atio whatwhat one man can do before the final solution wh at o ne m an c an d o b efor e th e fina l so lu tio n o f T HE TURNER D IARIES . with Je ws. necks. a former combat pilot in Vietnam. W ILLIA MILLIA M P I ER C E. Above the letters: I defiled my race. wh ose sto ry w as d iscu sse d p revi Gordan Kahl. WhileWhile maWhil e man y of th e vioWhile many of the violent Identity leaders were arrested in the 1980 s. 1995). TheThe first thing I saw in the moonlight was the plaThe first thing I saw in the moonlight was the placa The f lette rs:letters: I defiled my race.question. RecognizingRecognizing the inevitability of loss in a military confrontation with th e United States governRecognizing the ine OnOn the 10 0th ann iversary of Adolf Hitler sOn t he 1 00t h an niversar y of Ad olf Hit ler s bir On the 100th anniversary of ItIt is clea r tha t rad ical Id ent itIt is clear t hat ra dical Id entit y follo wers It is clea r tha t rad ical Id ent ity foll owe rs thirst for rig They are well organized a Christian Identity Martyrdom notnot decreased Identity s appeal to numbers of dispossessed and disenchanted young penot decreased Identity s appeal outlet for their frustrated ambitions. Apparently thethe rope had slipped a bit or the b the rope had s lippe d a bit or the bra nc h to w hich the rope had slipped woman swoman s feet were resting on the pavement. entitled HUNTER (Arlington: National VanguardVanguard Books 1989). He surveys the race mixing. whose sto Mc VeighMcVeigh was in possession of excerpts from the book at the time of his arrest for the Oklahoma City bombing (which was patterned on a similar bombing depicted in THE TURNER D IARIES ). convicted of the sniper murders of at least two black men. or with oth er no n-wh ite male s. limitless. her mouth agape. now a comfortable yuppie working as aa defa defen se dep artmen t con sulta nt in t he Virginia su burb s of the n ation s capita l. newnew theory of war in H UNTER has been advance ha s be en a dvanc e d in has been advanced in recognition of decentralized terrorism and the relative inability of the government to respond to such a threat. Jews and pol198 9). whose story was discussed pGo rd an Kah l. at 12. her eyes wide open and bulging. He finds tha t for him . Identity floNot su rprisingly. the Aryans control everythin F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. biblicalbiblical message among an audience who already feels besieged and can easily explain polbibl ical me ssage amo ng an a within the contexts of conspiracy theo ry. Ident ity flou rishes i Not surprisingly. and the death or imprisonmenIdentity thrives on martyrs.

R andy Wea ver s famiGord on K ahl . beginning w GordonGordo n Kahl. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.ththethe best jobs. and the thatthat the ent ire Waco Holocaust was precipitated by the Anti-Defamation Leth at t he e nt ire W aco Ho lo cau st was p againstagainst the A nglo-Israelite D avidians beca use of the ir Identity b against the Anglo-Israelite Davidians because of thei furtherfurther the agenda of a one world government and the elimination of Christianity. Randy Weaver s family. VirVirtVirtuallyVirtually any action taken by o ur government is seen as proof of the accuracy of Identity teachings. Their prfurthe r the a genda o f a one w significancesignificanc e on the fact th at th e CS gas used againsignificanc e on the fact th at th e CS gas used agains signific military and has been used by the Israelis against Palestinian refugees. What was seen as a punishment for sedition is producing a whole new generation othe best jobs. insurre ction aries. While many Identity f m o m e n tmoment moment when th ey will be called upo n to beco me a warrior and strike a blow against Satan s governmoment w our w orld shou ld n ot u nde restimat e the pow erful imp act o f Identity teach ings on t hese b elievers. whichwhich are more than williwh ich are mo re t ha n w ill ing which are more than willing to use violence. June 1999) 38 . andand martyrs certainly inspire othand martyrs certainly inspire othersand martyrs certainly inspire others in their world. Photographs of the seventeen childre Photographs of the seventeen children Photographs of the seventeen children who die routinelyroutinely printed as proof of this uniquely American routinely printe d a s proof of this uniquel y Amer ican t r agedy TribulationTribulation than the murder of Identity children at the hands of the sataniTribulation than the murder of Iden oftenoften conclude by asserting that Identity followers are not some volunteer force in God s Christian Aoften con clude b y as but were ch osen (or d rafted) by Go d to follo w His will a nd t each ings. Ran dy W eaver s famil Gordon Kah l.. What was AsAs discusAs discussedAs discussed in the Introduction. the Identity movement has no shortage of martyrs.

. it invites anarchy. If not. 9 44 (192 8) (Brandeis. security. Summary judgment was granted. 72 L. Summary judgment assistance of non-bar association persons. TheThe Freemen movement s Common Law cThe Freemen movement s Common Law coThe Freemen movement s WhileWhile our government authorities play catch-up trying to cope with the threat While our government author movement smovement s militias. Our government is the potent.law.scrupulou sly. it teaches the whole p eople by its example becomesbecomes a lawbreaker. Terpstra claimed facts.E. then it is a huge co F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.facts. th en So vereign Citize ns will simply govern themse lves. 48 S. they are more rooted in economics. In a gove ofof laws.) America On Trial watchingwatching people with money get preferential treatment. June 1999) 39 . and Tfacts. 277 U. To de cl ar e that i n tunto himse thethe end justifies the means to decl are that th e government may commthe end justifies the means to declare tha toto secure the conviction of a private criminal would brto secure the con viction of a private criminal would b ri that pernicious doctrine this court should resolutely set its face. it breeds contempt for law. dissenting). the itit teaches the whole p eople by its example. Common Law courts have surged past the militias as the most influential and rmoveme nt s mili growing element of the Freemen phenomenon. Ter pstr a cla imed a ctio n was at la w. the to ensure success when.3 Dist. it invite s ana rc hy. 5 64. Sovereign Citizens v. en titlin g himremove cloud from title. AtAt the onset we note At the onset we note our belief thAt the onset we note our belief that the common de beforebefore us is Terpstra s failure to grasp the legal principles germanebefore us is Terpstra s failure to gras Terpstra Terpstra sTerpstra s brief anTerpstra s brief and reply brief reflect the careful typing effort put into them.Ct. as here. as h to ensure success when. 43 8. existence of the government will be imperiled if it fails to observe of laws. but as with many of the movement smovement s beliefs.Ed. but areare sound legal arguments supportedare sou nd l egal argume nts su ppo rted by pe rsu are sound legal arguments extractsext rac ts a sen tenc e o r tw o fr om a ca se c on taini ng extracts a sentence or two from a case containing languag tthethe very grave danger of misstating the law or reaching inappropriate legal concluthe very grave da nger o f missta AA sinceA sincere subjective belief by a party as to the correctness of his argument is not enA sincere subjective belie toto en sure su ccess wh en.S. existence of the governm scrupu lousl y.App. Farmers and Merch ants B ank.2d 749 (Ind.Decency. J. it bre untounto himself.watching people with money get preferential treatment. as here. Crime is contagious. 1985) (Terpstra filed numerous C o m m o nCo m mo n Common Law liens against real property owners and bank. United States. Owners and bank brought equitable actCom m on rem ove remo ve clo ud fro m titl e. ThesThese These self-designated Sovereigns claim that their actions are political. the omnipre scrupulously. and Terfacts.THE COMMON LAW AND ITS COURTS Decenc y. Terpstra s lack of trained legal counsel surely contributed to the substantive and proc edu ral flaw s evident in his br iefs. Summary judgment was granted. the arguments are b llalaw. To declare that unto hims e lf. Our government is the potent. they armovement s beliefs. Olmstead v. 575 . and liberty alike demand that government officials shall be subjectedsubjected subjec ted t o th e sasubjected to the same rules of conduct that are commands to the citizen. while offoff to our overflowing prisons and/or havoff to our ove rflow ing prisons a nd/or ha ve losoff to our overflowing prison s and/o TheThe Common Law courts that now exist in alThe Commo n Law cou rts that no w exist in almo The Common Law co urts th forfor one simple reason Common Law proponents claim that their system puts the poor on an equal footing with the monied and the powerful. it invites every man to becombecomes a lawbreaker. 448 483 N. 14th Amendment Citizens TheThe touchstone of the FreeThe tou chstone of the Freemen moThe touchstone of the Freemen movement is the citicitizenscitizens can take certain steps to legally remove themselves from the authority of our governmencitize ns ca n ta ke cer tai is that if th e governme nt wil l no t hel p. TerpstraTerpstra v.

have had run-ins with the IRS. InIn most instances. Sovereignty is a complicated. tIn most instances.C. AA Declaration of Independence o A Declaration of Independence o r AfA Declaration of Independence o r Affidavit of withwith the county recorder (auditowith the county recorder (auditor). RuralRural Americans are having trouble making ends meet. Natural Natural citizens are born in this country. those wishing to revert tbound by our governm ent s r es statusstatus must renounce their United States citizenship (federal citizes ta tus mus t re nounc e the ir U ni t ed St at es ci t izenship ( f Am e n dAmendmentAmendment adhesion contracts. Sove re igns do not ne ed to bgiven and unalienable. including rescinding one s social security number. June 1999) 40 . and the other 1 4th Amendmen t adhesion con tracts discussed previously. doctor. en gineer. an d se nt F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. the movement s sovereignty concept is derived from a hyper-li FourteenthFou rtee nth Amen dmen t citiz ens a re th ose w ho r eceived the ir citize nship Fourte enth A mendment cit i zens ar e t h shortlyshortly after th e Civil War through th e Recon struction Ame ndmeshort ly after t he Civil W ar thr ough t he Re con struct ion ofof citizenship as second class because people granted citizenship byof citizenship as second class because people granted ther efore ab ide by it s rules a nd re gulatio ns. contrived argument designed tfurther. a status which has converted a Sovereign sSover eign s Natu ral R igS o v ere ign s N a tura l R ights intSovereign s Natural Rights into government issued Pr contracts to which Freemen refer include ÿÿsocial security numbers and cards ÿÿpassports ÿÿhaving filed a federal tax return ÿÿdriver s licenses ÿÿveh icl e re gistrat ion s an d t ags ÿÿvoter registrations ÿÿprofessional licenses (attorney. S bestowsbesto ws rights to His peo ple. So. driver s license. document Fourteenth Amendment citizens and natural citizens. contr system that they can no longer financially afford to support. Sovereigns do give n and una liena ble . S ten-squareten-square mile area around Wasten-square mile area around Washington. etc. Freemen teach that people can reclaim thei sovereigntysovereignty status by rescinding all their illegal (often termed adhesion ) 14th Amendment contracts withwith thewith the government. t h ethe Constitution.) ÿÿbirth certificates ÿÿbeing a director of a corporation ÿÿgovernment marriage licenses ÿÿhaving children in a government school How to Become a Sovereign ButBut naturalBut natural cBut natural citizens can be unduped. D. Sovereignty is a complicated. and/or are in bankruptcy court. inc lud ing taxes. with the government. If these people did not have to pRural Americans are having t andand federal taxes a and federal taxes a distinctan d fe de ral taxes a d istinc t b en efit of b ecom ing a sove rei gn th eir lim i further. architect. cannot afford to have taxes taken out of their paychecks.ten-square mile area around Washingt auth ority o nly p ertain s to Fo urte enth Amend ment c itizens. Sovereigns claim that there are two types of citizens described in the foundithe Con stitu tion .further. Freemen recognize that those accep ting 14th Amendment citizenship an d boundbound by our government s restrictions on that citizenship. and sent twit h t he co un ty r ecor de r (a ud ito r). and are Sovereign at birth Natural citizens are born in this country givengiven and unalienable.majorimajoritymajority of sovereigns owe back taxes. Sovereigns c laim th at th e federa l governme nt s true ju risdbesto ws rights to His peo ple. SovereigntySovereignty disciplesSovereignty discip les say t Sovereignty disciples say that most natural citizens have bee stst a t u sstatus by estastatus by establishing a contractual relationship with the government. thIn most instances.

Overlapping Law Theirs and Ours TheThe p recep ts th eir grou p co nside rs law overla p in p art w ith o urs. howev the Bib le is not. Fre emen se e the doc umen t as Go d-insp ired. We will at tempt to d escribe it based on o ur Fre emen e xperien ces. Onc e all 14t h Ame ndm ent adh esion con trac ts are rescin ded and not ice of t preparedprepared and servp rep ared an d serve d on the prprepared and served on the proper parties. the income tax is unconsUnder their law. UnderUnder their law. the only source of their l claim claim to be the legitimate followers of the law. sta te laws r eq uir ing l ice nse s to dr ive ( exc ep t fo r th ose tra veling citizenship. altho ugh usua lly the term comm on l aw.status. alth ough us worl d rad ically d iverges. Once all 14thstatu s. however. t he Co mmon L aw an d its cUnfortunately. The Magna Carta TheThe Magna Carta was the culmination of a protest against The M a gna C a rta w a s the c ulminat i on of a pr ot est agai usingusing governmental powers for selfish and tyrannical purposes. and white! What is the Common Law? One sOn e s att emp t to defin e th e Co mmo n La w of t hei r syst em is fa r frOne s attempt to define the Co mmon Law of th eir movm o ve men tmo veme nt ha vemovement have developed their own local versions of the Common Law. libert ies was bu ilt. t he on ly s the Bible is not. On the other hand. T hisThe precepts their group considers law overlap recruitingrecruiting efforts since our basic legal documents discussed in anrecruiting efforts since our basic legal documents underlyingunderlying basis for theunderlying basis for theiund erlyin g basis for t heir l aw. the Bible is not. Unfortu natel y.cit ize nsh ip. and so long as you do not res onlyonly place seen by Freemen as exclusive federal citizenship). if not most. June 1999) 41 . On the other hand. is la ourour courts. the income tax is unconstituUnd er the ir law. an d cite t o th e last s article F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. a law bast ardiz c they claim adherence to documents we also recognize. While Freemen consult the Bible as often as they D I C T IO N A R Y. Some see it as only th Othe rs see a so mewha t expa nde d view. however. state laws requiring l CommerceCommerce Clause) are a violation of their conCom merce Clau se) are a violat ion o f their c onst itCommerce Clause) state court jurisdiction over Sovereign Citizens is invalid. givgivengiven law in contrast with statutory manmade law which is not. If you are male. Th e Bill of Right s. their group rejects many. FreemenFreeme n cal l the ir law Commo n Law and their c ourt s CFreemen call their law Common Law and their cou Court. the Common Law and its courts reveal Unfortun WhileWhile every system h as While every system has weaWhile every system has weaknesses. As Freemen put it. R ules Sovereign Regula tions. a Common Law couronl y plac e seen b y Freeme n as exc lusi recognizing your sovereign citizenship. Commo n Law is t o be distinguish ed from st atut ory la w. On June 15. and Freemen s legal The C ommon Law is law pursu ant t o th e W withwith biblical rwith biblical referenwith biblical references and quotations. just Court. The document announced the rule o kings.statu s. CommonCommon Law not only trumps statutory law (at leC ommon La w not only trumps s ta tut or y law ( at l east f orC TheThe Common Law is law pursuant to the Word of God. t he inc ome citizenship. Once alstatus. is a Legislative Demo cracy wit h Legislat ive Cour ts tha t app ly Sta tuto ry Law. an d provide d thekings. whother United States (one entity with SoverSo vere ignSovereign C itizens.kings. Cou rt. a law claim t o be the legitimat e foll owe rs of th e law . for ex ampl e. and provided the foundation upon wh ich the entire structure libertiesliberties wasliberties was built. 1215us ing gove rnment al powers for self ish thethe chart the charter because the charter because of the threat of armed might by barons.Unfort una tely. in their unigiven law in c ont rast with AmericaAmerica (a group of sovereign States banded together) the Law (Common Law) prevAme rica (a gro up of so verei gn St otherother United States (one entity with 50 political subdivisions called states). although usualthe te rm common law. and provided thk in gs .our courts. Common Law is to be distinguished from s thethe term common law. th eir group rejects man most Am erican s and b y our ju dges. they are rarely so vividly appare purportspurports to jpurports to judge our Statpurports to judge our State is powerful because it mocks the notion that any law (their courts).

i. The United States Constitution We the People & SecondSecond to the Bible. liberty.e. at 24. Freemen go to great lengths to point out that the Declaration and the first ten IndependenceIndependence and the Constitution were created (Independence and the Constitution were created (thInd People.) TheThe d ocu ment is repl ete w ith d iscussio n ab out the rights o f free men and the irThe documen t is replete with discussio statementstatement that any infringement of liberties granted therein shall be invalid and void. for Preamble PPeople.WeWe have granted moreover to all free free men of of our kingdom for us and our heirs forever allall the liberties wrall th e lib ertie s w ritte n all the liberties written below. As Freemen correctly point out. People. and the pursuit of happineliberty. andand to i nstitute a and to institute a new government &But when a lo ng train ofof abu seof abuses and usurp of abuses and usurpations. shall be vested in one supreme Court. there is no greater iSe c ond to the B ible . Thliberty. & (Italics( I talics ad d(Italics added. and the pu rsuit of happiness. for Preamble People. and the pu rsuit of institutedinstituted among men. this spelling is vindication of their belief system. i. a citizenship which cannot be relinquished or forfeited without the Sovereign Citizen s consent. 1776 revolutionary document is significant in bot WeWe hold these truths to be selfW e hold the se truths to be s elf-e videWe hold t hese truths to be self-evident: t endowed. For Freemen . 1776 revolution aryThis July 4. this secon d class (federal) citizenship theory is precisely wha t Freemen cla im dis cussed. by their Creator.Constitution.discussed. it is their duty.statement that any infringement thatthat developed over the centuries due to the Magnatha t de ve lope d ove r the ce nturie s due to the Magna Car t a i s beth inspired by God.) See the Appendix. the re is no gre a ter influencSecond to the Bible. to be had and holden by themselves and their and our h eirs. and to provide new guards for their future security. for Preamble People. with certain unalienable rights. pursing invariably the same object. Article III describes the judicial branch and the one suprbra nc he s. A rtic le III de scri bes t he j udici al br a congressionalcon gression al ac tion con stitc ongre s siona l ac tion cons titutcongressional actio n constitu te Article I Legislative Court Court. states The The judicial Power of the United States. Article III. had no title bu t simply began We the Peop le. t he Basic C onst itut ion is law. Constitution. (Italics added.e. that whenever any form o f governmen t becomes destr uctivewhenever any form of government becomes destructive of these en people to alter or to abolish it. origi the peop le (and God ). The Declaration of Independence references to God as proof of their right to ignore any government that h as clearly lost its godly way. Freemen derive the names for their legitimate courts from the Constitution. The Constitution of the united States of America. to throw o government.e. Freem class class or lessor beings [note Christian Identity beliefs about minorities]. Indeed. inIn their united States of America. just as the Bible class or lessor beings [note C discussed. This Citizenship existed from the time our government was created. evinces a design to reduce themthem under th em u n d er abs olutthem under absolute despotism. men. with certain u liberty. men. the Basic Con a n da n d and the first ten amendments but little else. 1776 rThis July 4. ThisThis July 4. t hi s second cl ass the govern ment t o mino rities with the C ivil War Amen dmen ts. As Freemen correctly point out. thaendowed. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. June 1999) 42 . for a copy of the Declaration of Independence for the thirte the A united S tates of America. i. Section I. and in suchsuch inferior Courts as the Congress may from tisuch inferior Courts as the Congress may from time tsuch (emphasis added [by the co mmunity]) NoticeNotice that it states one Notice that it states one supre Notice that it states one supreme Co urt and separate estab lishestablishedestablish ed by l established by legislative acts of Congress and that those legislatively created Cour F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. by their Creator. it is their right. TheThe Preamble People s CiThe Preamble People s CitiThe P reamb le Pe opl e s Citize nship was n ot creat ed nor CitizenshiCitize nship Citizenship was won by war with England.endowed. originally the Constitution. gr ItIt is this It is this Basic CoIt is this Basic Constitution that is central to Freemen. as is the division of government in bran ches. branches. InIn th eir un ited Stat es of Ame rica. men.

Freemen conclude. and al l other l egislatively created courts. Article I. Prior to the war of revolution with England a central government exis ted which wa s controlle d by the King. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. of We the Peop le. 1999) <http://www.S. Sou rce : Am eric an Pa triot Ne twor k. stipulated that common law jury trials are inviolate except for orders of retrial at common law. They submit tha Supreme Supreme Court is not the oSupreme Court is not the one sSupreme Court is not the one supreme Court referred to powerpower to create courts inferior to the one supreme Cpower to create co urts inferior to the one supreme Co urt. Sections. The people (not the individual or the government) when acting as a law making body became the sovereigns in any issue of law or fact. 1789 . all actions taken by a State onotwithstand ing. Amendment XI. 23 22 Freeme n asse rt that the U. reorganize and otherwise control their common law. 1 S tat . is n ot th e on e su pre me C ou rt o f Art icle III. So. S upre me C ourt. 8. Article III. Freemen accordingly refer to their courts as con stitut ional cou rts. igno red the Cons titutio nal C ourt p rovid ed fo r in the C onstit ution.civil-liberties. T he C onstit ution s imply repla ced a king w ith a fede ral autho rity. Amendment XVI. shall be the supreme u statestate shall be bound thereby. So. Su preme Cou rt. Amendment IX. 73 . by an act o f Congres s when it pas sed a Ju dicia l Ac t that c reate d the U . Amendment VII.com/commonlaw/common. Section 2 made actions at common law when diversity existed in original (but not exclusive) federal sub ject m atter juris dicti on. a Freemen court. lines and Amendments of the Constitution of the government purportedly perform this objective: 1. a ny Thing in t he Const it ut i on ostate notwithstand ing.S. reaffirmed that the judicial power of the central authority only supplemented common law jury trial by enforcing it's judgements.22 FreFreemenFre eme n co rrec tly po int ou t th at A rtic le V I make s cle ar t hat : This Co nst itu tio n. 9. According to the Common Law Court of the United States of America.S. all actions taken by a Stat e or no tw Citizen. T he King was overthrown because he refused to allow the people to be self governing by giving full faith and credit to their common law cou rts. Amendment 1 stipulated that the government may be sued by any individual to redress a grievance. thFor Freemen. The total effect was to create a central authority that was prosecutable and controlled with actions at common law when a citizen of a free state prosecu ted this type of relief. shall be thunder the Autho rity of the United States. a nd th e La ws o f Freemen corr UnitedUnited States which shall be United States which shall be madUnited States which shall be made in Pursuance thereo underunder the Authority of the United States. 2. SinceSince the one sup reme Court was already creSince th e one su preme Co urt was al ready cre ated b y Since the o ne lackedlacked power to create a court with auth ority over tlacked power to create a court with authority over thlacked po neededneeded to creatneeded to create Congreneeded to create Congress or the President. an d frequ entl y con sider th emselves to be co nstitu tiona lists. 4. June 1999) 43 . as discussed by Article III.Court. o rdained a nd estab lished on Se ptembe r 24th. Section 9. therefore. power t clau seclause clau se an d in A rticl e III deno tes for Free men t hat the Unit ed S tate s Sup reme C our t of th e Jud iciaclause and in Art 17 89 . protected the rights to the people to change. that t thethe U. their courts are the one supreme Court provided for by th trump trump all othetru mp all o th er co utrump all other courts claiming jurisdiction over Sovereign Freemen. T he C onstit ution w as d esigne d to no t only c reate a ce ntral a uthori ty bu t to fo rce thi s enti ty to r eco gnize the highest law ma king body to be a common law jury. Article IV. the following Articles. T he state go vernments jo ined together to recrea te this form of gov ernment to reso lve p roble ms a rising u nder the Artic le of C onfed erati on. 23 Constitutional Basis for the Supremacy of the common law jury. Clause 2 preserved the right of Habeas Corpu s Ad Subjiciendum. The C omm on La w C ourt o f the Unite d State s of Amer ica (visited May 13. Amendment 2 protected the right of common law (free) states to maintain a militia. Artic le IV. their courts are For Freemen. especially after a Common Law court (the one supreme Court) has granted sovereign citizenship. 10... any Thing in ths ta te s ha ll be bound the reby. The one supreme Co urt being a Constitutional C ourt ForFor Freemen. limited the taxing power of the central authority to government controlled states (the several states) and not the free states. must b e inferior to the o ne supreme Court. Section 1 stipulated that full faith and credit would be given all common law actions and created the need for rules to enforce these jury decisions.inferiorinferior inferior tinferior to the one supreme Co urt. S upreme Court. 5. 7. 3. notwithstanding. Se ction 4 stipu lated that the final ru le of l aw wo uld b e a c ourt a ction.html>. 6.

439 P439 P. all Amendmentsact of the legislature. do they create toto th e o rigito the original. also whether these last sixteeA me ndme nts (com m on law vs. The Reconstruction Congress of 1866 then replaced those Souther th ey d id. 1968). 19 68). a status Freemen argue ware belie intended by our founding fathers and required by the Bible. O r ga n ic L a w . the y are u nla wful a nd in were n ever r FreemenFreemen argue th at President An drew John son enco uraged the al l-white governmeFreemen argue that President Andrew toto reject the 14th Amendment (privileges and immunities. and allowed the military States to rejoin the Union only upon their acceptance of the 14th Amendment. Th e R ec on str uc tio n C on gres s of rule. Tayl or.2d 266-276. written or unwritten. who frequently cite Marbury v. S. th e go al is to ret ur n t o t he or gaWithin the mor Constitution theCon stitu tion the origConstitution the original vConstitution the original version in which blacks. dto reje ct th e 14 th Ame ndme nt (p rivileges and imm unitie s.2d 43 9 (U tah 19 83 ). F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. An act of Congress conferring powers of government upon a territory. (Cr 5 U . TurDyett v.S. Phi llips.S. 540 P. BLACK S LAW D ICTION ARY 1251 (4 th ed. (C ra nc h) 137. how many were ratified correctly.2d 4 39 (Ut ah 19 83). Madison. A is in the Appendix. The fundamental law. Tur ner. 1975). repugnant to the constitution. ci tin g Marbury v.S. BLACK S LAW D ICTION ARY 1250 (4th ed. TheThe Utah case referred to. that law or system of laws or principles which defines and establishes the organization of its government. do they create a flegal. 14Freemen make several d FreemenFreemen assert that the AmendmentFreeme n assert that the A mend ments w Freeme n assert that the A m AmendmentsAmendments took effect (not ratified like the BiAmendments took effect (not ratified like the Bill of Ri werewere nevwere n ever ratified by th e app rop riate n umb er of S tate s dur ing pea cetime . Madison. ). Freemen assert that the 14th Ame nd men t is void . 5 U. Since these procedures were not authorized by the Constitution. and. consequ ently. equ legal. As discussed in the Christian Identity section. ( Cer( Certainly( Certainly al( Certainly all those who have framed written constitutions contemplate them as forming the fun andand paramount law of thand paramount law of the natiand paramount law of the nation. The Civil War Amendments Amend ments. immig seconse c o n dsecon d-cl asssecond-class citizenship with no right to vote. For further studies a good place to begin is with the articl Utah Supreme Court on the 14th Amendment. these peop areare believed are believed to be soulless subhumans and/or subservient to white males. etc.rule. 24 Organ ic Act. or constitution. ForFor Freemen. The first 10 Amendments are labe Equity Law. (Cranch) 137.Amendment. due pr theythey did. The first 10 A AmendmentsAmendments are listed with a date preceded by either the word adopted (11th and 12th AAmendments are listed thethe words took effect (the 13th through the the words took effect (the 13th through the 26ththe words took effe BO O K TookTook effect is used aTook effect is used as there is a greTook effect is used as the re is a great d eal o f s AmendmentsAmendments (common law vs. equity).2d 93 6.2d 266 (Utah 1968) is a remarkable unanimou opinionopinion in which Justice Ellett of the Utopinion in w hic h J ustic e Elle tt of the U tah opinion in which Justice Ellett of the ConstitutionConstitution was not validlConstitution was not validlyConstitution was not validly adopted and thus is not significantsign ifica nt spa ce in t he op ini on to dis cu ss why th e U. 177. A c opy o 66 4 P . at 25-30. 439 P. For to the original. 17 5 U. June 1999) 44 . the theory of ev actact of the legislature. 664 P. State v. Creation of an Inferior Citizenship FreemenFreemen make several different arguments concerning the validity of the 13th. Dyett v.legal. 941-43 (Utah 1975). how many were ratified correctly. Su pr eme Co ur t h as so b ad ly e rre d in its ho ld ings significant sp JusticeJ u st i ce E lJustice Ellett reaffirmed his views in a concurring opinion in State v. and the remaining Amen Equity Equity Law.The Organic Constitution WithWith inWit hin th e mo re r ad ica l elemen ts o f th e Free men moveme nt . a derisive term. majori ty opin ion d isavo wed. etc. Amendments to the Constitution FreemFreemenFreemen see the Freemen see the Bill of Rights as part of their Common Law. repugnant to the const and must be ignored since they were improperly enacted. of a state or nation. a derisive term. is void.

at 406-7. federal citizenship.States. as recognized by t jurijurisdictionjurisdiction of the fede ral governmen t and the feder al cou rts. look at the defini LAW D I C T IO N A R Y TheThe Fourteen th Amendment. the A mendme nt onConstitution was enacte in the Dred Scott case. and for formed by them. e very perso n. R athe r. 60 U. every perso n. forbids the anyany state of any any st ate o f any la w abr idgin any state of any law abridging the privileges and immunities of c State s. Freemen argue. 691 (1857) (suit by Scott for his a thethe Athe Amenthe Amendment did not create a federal citizenship because such citizenship was created when the ConstitutionConstitution was enacted. OurOur law explains that this clause was a repudiation ofOur law explains that this clause was a repudiation of the Negro.393. an d every class a nd d escrip It is true. 15 L. and secure s all perso ns against an y stat F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. free (granted citizenship by a State) or slave.S. The result. and itsIt became a part of the organic law July 28. theC ons titution wa s e nac te d.FreemenFreeme n cla im that the p rivileges and imm unitie s cFreemen claim that the privileges and immunities clause of inferiinferio inferiorinferior form of citizenship to guarantee its power. AsAs for the due process clause of the 14th Amendmen A s for the due proc e s s c la use of the 14t h Am endm ent . look at the definiunt il 18 68. the Amendment grants federalfederal citizens to protections againsfederal citizens to protections against ifederal citizens to protections against interf thethe lawsth e law s. could institute a lawsuit in federal couN e gro. Unite d Sta tes. it ma de h im a citizen of the United State s. ru les an d regul ation s. and for them anformed by them. After a ll. an d every cl ass and descrip tion o f timetime of the adoption of the Constitution recognized as citizens in the stime of the adoption of the Constit becamebecame also citizens of this new political bbecame also citizens of this new political body [the Un became also formedformed by them.Ed . citizen is no longer capitalized.Ed . Rather.Negro. FurtherFurther proofF u rth er p ro o f of thiFurther proof of this dual citizenship can be found in the spelling of the ConstitutiConstitution. in 1868. The p rivileges and immunities cl ause saysjurisdict All All p ers o n All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof.citizenship. When our nation was founded. whose po toto extend oto extend over the whole teto extend over the whole territory of the United States. a mu ch mo rthe laws. each of the individual sovereign states had their own CitizensC whichwhich is always spelled with a capital C in the Constitution . as recognized by the originalcitizenship. And it gave to each cit andand privileges outside of his State which he diand privileges outside of his State which he did n ot before and everyevery other Staevery other State upon a perfevery other State upon a perfect equality with its own citizens as to r rights of pr ope rty. After all. 1 5 L. 1868 specialspecial mention. a much more limited form of freedom. and for them and their posterity. Dred Scott. which is always spelled with a capital C in the Const inin 1 86 8. state citizenship. After all. as d istUnited States. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. 1868.Constitution. l ook at th e defin ituntil 1868. fr ee (grant ed cit i zenshi p waswas not a citizen of the United States when the Constitutionwas not a citizen of the United States when the Constitution was ado 393. focommunities into one po litical family. who se p ow er. Instead. bu rightsrights andrigh ts an d rights and privileges guarantied to citizens of this new sovereignty were intended to embraceembrace those onlembrace those onlyembrace those only who were then members of the several State comm shouldshould afterwards by birthright should afterwards by birthright or oth should afterwards by birthrigh pr ovip ro vis io n sprovisions of the provisions of the Constitution and the principles on which it was founded. ItIt is tru e. to be contrasted with sovereign. as distinct from that of the states. 691 (1 857) (su it by Scott for h is and his family s freedom a393. as distinct froUnited States. citizen is no lon ger capitalized. It creates or at least recognizes for the first time a citizenship of the UnitedUnite d Sta tes. is incre governmen tal co ntro l over a fed eral cit izen th rough our l aws. June 1999) 45 . and secures all persons against any state action wState s. It was t unionunio n of th ose wh o were at th at time me mbers o f distinct and seunion of thos e who wer e at t hat t i communitiescom mun ities int o o ne p ol itica l fami ly. Freemen c unt iluntil 1868. The Fourteenth Amendment of theThe F our teen th A mend ment of th e con stit T ItIt became a part of the organic law July 28. cit ize n is no lo nge in 1868. It of course goes without saying th governmentgovernment can regulatgovernment can regulate the privileges it has granted. our protectionprotection of the Bill of Rightprotection of the Bill of Rights to prevent protection of the Bill of Rights to prevent duedue process clausdue process clause means that fdue process clause means that federal citizens are not guaranteed the guaranteedguaran teed to So vereign Citize ns bec ause t he Bil l of Right s was guaranteed to Sovereign Citizens because the B AmendmentAmen dmen t fede ral cit A men dme nt fe de ra l c itiz e nsAmendment federal citizenship. as recognized by the original (ancitizenship.

a message certainly palatable to any Freemen prospect. the one supreme Court. It may be merely This term ha s several meanings. two United States of America. Th e 1 4t h A men dm en t and Ch rist ian Ide nt ity be lie fs as sign Freemen a privileged position in relation to others who occupy the same geographical space. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. BL A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 785. Freemen must remove all vestiges of this federal citizenship (passport. and most of the precepts concern ing the sovereignty of Sovereign Citizens have already been discussed. their reading of the 14th Amendment shows how profoundly FreemPerh aps mo st int er The 16th Amendment Income Taxes FreemenFreemen single out income taxation as one of the most abhorrent of the governmFreemen single out income tax federalfederal citizens. one classes of citizenship. In the C omm on Law wor ld.nations. liberty. SinceSince the 14thSince the 14th Amendment cSince the 14th Amendment created a new federal citizenship. Su ch a r ead inCo nst itu tio n w as w rit te n. it com forfor the good of We the People undertaken with the full for the good of W e the People under t aken wi th t he ful aan dan d is n oand is not to be confused with the practice of Law as purveyed by the various Bar organiza tions. though. In our world. Freemen claim that all post-Bill First .). though. or property without due process of law or denial of the equallife. sove rei gnsovereign occupying the position analogous to that of other soversovereign o ccup ying the p osition ana natio ns. as previously discussed. PePerhapsPerhaps most interesting. having income. or property without due p laws. as p revio usl y dis cus sed .life. Freemen cla ha vehave n o effect on t he cl ass of So vereign C itizhave no e ffect on th e class of So vereign Citizens th at exihave n Accord ingly. but as beasts. I t al so iAmer ConstitutionCon stitu tion was writ ten . ratified by the appro priate number of states. th e foll owin g discl aimer was n ote d at the con clu sion o f a Free men in tern et art icle o n th is topic after a discussion of the Income Tax Package that could be obtained for $150 ThisThis wo rk is edu cation al in n atur e. ThisThis Freemen argument re sonate s with the ir Christian Ide ntity This Fre emen a rgument reson ates with their C hrist AmendmentAmendment created a lesser form of citizenship reinforces the racist theme Amendment created a lesser form AmericansAmericans not as true men. 1968). transformtransform the meaning of our documents. Once federal citizens. First. it may designate territory over natio ns. liberty. and re-obtain their Sovereign citizenship through a Common Law court.Lastl y. Fr eem en c laim th at a MMarbury v Marbur WeWe will notWe will not dwell on thWe will not dwell on the extensive rationale underlying the Freemen s position sinsincesince a len gthy esince a len gthy ex amina tion of th e IRS C ode thro ugh F reeme n eye s is just n ot w orth our effort h er (Freemen(Freemen definitions for words in the IRS Code such(Fre eme n de finitions for w ords in th e IRS Code such as may. June 1999) 46 . stat e/So vereign C itizen s. liberty. 17 03 (4th ed . it may d esig may be collective name of the states which are united by and under the Constitution. UnitedUnited States. ha ving inc ome . and are thu s unlawful and void. ontw o na tions on one soil. thatIt is of interest to note. social securiAccor dingl y. it co mes with no gua rant ee exp resseThis w ork is e ducat i onal i n nat ure. p r o p eproperlyproperly Madison. it ma y designat e territ ory over which sonat ions. Lastly. ItIt is of interest to note. In the Common Law world. This term has several meanings. having income. life. he or she is not o bliged t o pa y eithe r state o r federa l inco me taxes.Accordingly. though. and must mema y. It alsA me ric a ns not a s true me n.First. sta te /S ove rei gn C itiz e communityco mmu nit y with th e C ho sen Peop le th eme . a message certainl beco me a So vereign Citize n. may. a nd mus t me a ns ma y thrmay. the Reconstructiontransform the mean ing of our docu ments twotwo nations on one soil. that Stat spec ificspecific Republic since all states with an income tax use one s pe c ific R e public s inc e a ll st ates wit h an i ncom e prerequisiteprerequisite to state income tax (ipre requis ite to sta te inc ome tax (inc ludingprerequisite to state income tax (includin 14th14th Amendment citizen wh14t h Ame ndm ent citizen who is14th Amendment citizen who is required to pay federal incom rescind all sta te adh esion con tract s and in form th e state taxing au tho rity of th e Sovere ign statu s. that SIt is of interest to note. Fr eem etc. but a s beasts.

370. FreemenFreemen read the aFreemen read the above as a vindication of their Common Law/natural law philosophy F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and demanw he the r the y had be e n a buse d.Ct. and that the subm itsubmit its books and papers for an examination at the s ubmit its books and pa pe rs for an exam i nat i on at t h maymay stamay stan d u p o n h imay stand upon his constitutional rights as a citizen.Sovereign Rights Over Corporations and States. It is presum incorporatedincorporated for the benefit of the public. h aving cha rtere d a co rpo ratio n to make u se of ce rtain franch ises. Wh ile an in dividual may lawfu lly refu se to a nswer in criminat ing que s protectedpro tect ed b y an imm unit y stat ute . anc an only be tak e n fr om hi m by due process of Constitution. Its rights to act as a corporation are only preserved to it so long as it ob lawslaws of its creation. Co nce ding tha t the. His power to contract is unlimited. 26 S. and (commit violenc e against me ) unl ess a Free men tr espasses o n an oth er s rights. And the Right to Contract FreemenFreeme n trac e ou r law t hrou gh its roo ts fFre e me n tra ce our la w through its roots fromFreemen trace our law FreemenFreemen claim that this law recognized. To it. UponUpon theUpon the other hand. the corporation is a creature of the state. 201 U.. may refuse to show special priv abu se of such privileges. Co nc ed ing t . This quote also supposupe riority o f the So ve comitatuscomitatus view that a Freecomitatus view that a Freemcomitatus view that a Freemen owes nothing to the public. Its rig hts to acharter.franchises. Freeman and slave. and on bAmendment privilege against self inc rejecting a corporate Fifth Amendment privilege. we are of the opinion betweenbetween an individual and a corporation. (190 6).S. co uld not . and thabetween an individual and a corporation. at least until the death of the Common Law by the Supreme Court in Erie v. There is a reser andand finand find out whether and find out whether it has exceeded its powers. (Emp hasis added. havtha t a sta te. it do es no t foll ow t hat a cor por atio protected b y an immunity statute specialspecial privileges and franchises. we are of thbooks and pa pe rs. 26 S. Hale. two classes of men free and unfree. Henke Hale v.Conceding that the witness was an officer of the corporation under thatthat he was entitled to assert the rights of corporation with respectha t he wa s e ntitled to a s ser t t he r i ght s of cor por boo ksbooks and papers. at l east u ntil (1906). papers for that purpose. at Footnote 1 . . While an individualit. and the im himselfhimself and his properhimself and his prop erty from himself and his property from arrest or seizure except u owes nothing to the public so long as he does not trespass upon their rights.. June 1999) 47 . ma y ple ad t he cr iminwhich is ch arged with a c rimi suchsuch corporation as a refussuch corporation as a refusal tosuch corporation as a refusal to produce its books. and ho lds them sub ject to the l aws of the state an d the limifran chi ses. the court said . The defense amounts whichwhich is char ged wit h a cr iminal violat ion o f the st atu te. HeHale v. at 37 8-79..) susuperioritysuperiority of the Sovereign citizen over the state and its corporations. See the B L A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y definition of freeman at the beginning of our materials. It receives certain special privileges and franch ises. Icha rter. in thethe exercise of its sovereignty. at least (19 06) . FFreemenFree men c laim th at o ur ca se law has al so mad e just such a distin ctio n be twee n th e ind ivFr eemen cl aim (Freeman)(Freeman) and the corporation/state (slave) in Hale v.. ch arter. Henkel. It would be a strange anomaly to hold thatthat a statethat a state. th Upon the other hand.. (1906). beyond thereceives nothing therefrom . or to open his doors state or to his neighbors to divulge h soso far as it may tend to criminate him. charter. 43.Conceding. a nd de mand whether they had b paperspapers for that purp ose.Ct. Its po wers a re limit ed b y law. suchsuch as existed bysuch as existed by the law of the land long antecedent to thesuch as existed by the law of the land lo cancan only be taken from him by due process of law. w e a re of the opinion books and papers. He is entitled to carry on his private busin essbusiness in his own way. The defense papers for that purpose. He owes no such duty to s o far as it m ay te nd to cri mi nat e hi m. H receivesreceives nothing therefrom. and whetherwhether they had been abused. Amon g his rig Among his rights are a Among his rights are a refusal to incriminate himself. While an iit. . Its charter. at least until the illegal actions of PresideFreemen claim that this law recog CivilCivil War.charter. There is a reserved right in the legislature to investigate laws of its creation..it. He owes H is pow e r t o contract i s unl i mi t ed statestate or tostate or to his neighbors to divulge his business. It can make n o co ntra ct n ot a uth orize d by itcharter. beyond the protection of hi s life and property. and ho ld s th em su bj charter. inquire how these franchises had been employed. Tom involvedinvolved a secretary/treasurer (Hale) of a corporation who refused to answer questions or bring docui nvol ved a secr et ar forfor a grand jury investigating Sherman antfor a grand jury investigating Sherman antitrust violatifor a grand jury inves AmendmentAmendment privilege against self incrimination both individually. may refspecial privileges and franchises.

1188 (1 938). 3 0 4. CommonCo mmo n L aw be lie veCommon Law bel ievers areCommon Law believers are not legal positivists. the Common Law sacredsacred to Freemen. with all contacts with our government being TheThe Common Law s Demise (Erie v.) InIn a world in which the Common Law is not only one s birthright. Erie appears in virtually every lea app ears in virtual l textbooktextbook on civil procedure an d is an important case in our wte xtbook on c ivil proc e dure an d i s an i mpor t ant case many law review articles to list herein. Blackstone. 81 7. It c hoconstitutional rights. at 82 2. theth e Un ifor m Com mer cia l C od e. It chose to highlight this through dicta by descr case ha d no thing to do w ith an citizen s rights over co rpor ation s or stat es. the Sup reme Court suspend ed the Con Con stitution that re mains suspen ded even toda y. be they commercial law or their nature or clau se in th e Con stitut ion p urpo rts to con fer such a pow er up on t he fede ral co urts. Tompkins (1938)).WeWe read Hale quite d q u ite d iffere nt quite differently. Tyson. and Flag Fringe died. most mainstream experts deny that Er allall common law.guessi n Freemen Common Law. Of course. TTher e is no f eder al g ener al co mm on l aw.S. no federal common law. and are not of themselves law. Admiralty Courts. TheThe end of the Common Law came in 1938 wThe end of the Commo n Law came in 19 38 with o ur Sup remeThe e FreemenFreemen claim to have resurrected the Common Law. 1. wit h a ll co nt ac ts w ith ou r go Thus. 1. Whigovernment are contracts which Sovere toto contract wto contract with o ur to contract with our government and accept the benefits and restrictions thereof (through 14 citizenship).. Congress has no power to declaredeclare substantive rules of common law applicadec lare subs tan tive rul es of co mmon law a ppl icabl e in dec l the irtheir nature or general. 304 U. with all contacts with Th us. In essence. Common law that varies froc ommon la w . Erie. Erie is the smoking gun since the case cl smoking gun since the case clearl smoki ExceptExcept iExcept in matters governed by the Federal Constitution or by acts of Congress. In the Freemen world. a type of natural law ordained by God.In a world in w hic h the C ommon Law is not onl y one therethere coth ere co u ld b e n o mo rthere could be no more horrific statement. at most only evidence of what the [Common Law is]. 82 L. it would Their &hardly &hardly be c &hardly be conte &hardly be contended th at the decisions of Courts constitute [the Common L are. And whether the law of the state shall be declareddeclared by its Legislature de c la re d by its Legis la ture in a s ta tutdeclared by its Legislature in a statute or by its ofof federal conce o f fed er a l co nc e r n.Ct. though.S .died. The Supreme Court was establishing that corporations lack individ constitutionalconstitutional rco n s titu tio n al rights. (Italics added. a Sovereign is also free to rescind these contracts pursuant to Hale.E d. fre e of f eder al second. 58 S. 10 L. 41 U.Ed . the law toto b e app lieto b e ap p lied to be applied in any case is the law of the state. 16 Pet. as already discus United States Supreme Court for the one supreme Court of the Constitution. 64 . ForFor the Freemen co mmunity. co nt rac tin g Thus. Thus. as already discussed. After E r i e. More on the UCC later. 58 S. Aftersacred to Freemen. The story. Hale is also i is also imp is also important in the Freemen world due to its statement that an individual s power to contract isis unlimited.Ct. They explain Erie as the triumph of the right of state courts to articu as the triumph of the right of commoncommon law. Swift v. The story. the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. the UCC. which implies that theFreemen claim to have resurrected th To mp k i n s. be they commercitheir nature or general. Hale. June 1999) 48 . the Freemen community asserts that our law becam LawLaw that should Law that should reiLaw that should reign and once did. the Freem. supra. 86 5 (18 42). This belief forms the basis of Freemen ideology that al This b elief for ms the basis o f governmentgovernment are contracts which Sovereign Freemen are free to rescind. begins with the tale of how the Judiciary Act of 17died. o verruled b y Erie. free of federal second-guessing. Erie did d id ab an d o n Swift s understanding of common law as Blackstone s natural law. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. m ust be str ict ly fo ll ow ed by Fre eme n t o a void un wit tin gly with our government. supra.

A s a resu lt. the Supreme Supreme Court anSup reme Co urt an nou nced its Supreme Court announced its indifference on the source of that law: bebe declared b y its Legislaturebe declared by its Legislature in a statbe declared by its Legislature in a statute or by its hi concern. betweenStates. the Federal Rules could not have meant that Common Of course. be tw ee n C itiz en s of th e sa me S ta te cl a F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. to all Cas es aff under their Authority. the La underund er the ir Auth ority. have replaced constitutionally mandated Common Law courts. actions at law and suits in equity. like th e issue p resent ed b y ped estrian Tomp kins. F reeme n freq uen tly cl aim to not be i privity of contract with our government. Moreover. InIn the Common Law In the Common Law woIn the Common Law world the result in Erie (state privity of contract law E r i e substi substituted contract law for the Common Law. that equity suits were to be treated no t as if they were Common Law actions. the UniforU CommercialCommercial C ode s pree pree min preeminence for Freemen when dealing with our world since we should follow own cont ract law (the only law t hat exists after Erie). to al l Cases un der th eir A ut ho rity . Freemen claim that b efore 1938. betw een a State and Citizen s of ano ther State . Freemen see the connection as an important piece of the puzzle.argue. to Controvers whichwhich t he Unit ed Sta tes shall be a Part y. justAlso. the Uniform Commercial Code. which at the time im foreseea ble o ther s. just as o Also. this langua systemssystems in favor of ill egitimate legislat ive demo cracie systems in favor of illegitimate legislative democracies. bet ween a Sta t States.which the United States shall be a Party. the Federal Rules could not have meant t equityequity suits because Erie had abolished the Common Law.) TheThe judicial Power shaT h e judic ia l Pow e r s ha ll e xte nd The ju dicial Pow er sha ll ext end to a ll C ases. which at the time imposed a duty of care . to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction. between Citizens of the same State claiSt at es. to aConsuls. just as our world has been long intrigued with the connection between Erie and the adopti samesame year of the Fede ral Rules o f Procedure. so too th e Freemen co mms a me ye a r of the Feder al Rul es of Proce confluenceconfluence of these two events. it put in its place the law of the State. in Law Constitution. Alas. Unlike in our world. NotNot onN o t o n ly d id E r i e ab an d abandon the Common Law. TheThe Co mmo n La w co mmu nit y s disc ussio n o f Erie emphasizes that the state emphasizes that the state la emph asizes t WhenWhen injured. WhileWhile equity While equity is not generaWhile equity is not generally seen as central to understanding the conn FederaFederalFederal RulesFederal Rules. Th e Fed eral argue. Tompkins had been walkWhen injured. to Cowhich the States. FreemenFreemen believe that commercial law (contract law) reigns in the federal and state courts.Erie is als o an impo rta nt pie ce o f is also an important piece of the tal is also an important piece of the tale that expl States (the federal and state governments) as a legislative democracy with legislative courts. betw een C itizens Stat es. The point is that Erie supp orts supp ort understandingunderstanding that is foreign to our worldunderstanding that is foreign to our world that invalunderstanding th C o m m o nCommon LawCommon Law. limited the railroad s duty of care to those with who m the railroad was in privity of contract.Also. The Feder had abo lished the C ommon Law. the Laws of the United StatConstitution. the Laws of the United StateConstitution. OfOf course. but after 1938 federal courts applied state substantive law through federal procedure. admira lty ju risdict ion ( inte rnat iona l law ) bein g the t hir suits. that eargue. Tompkins h someonso meo n esomeo ne n ot in privit privity of contrac t with the railro ad. this language is read as encouraging states to abandoIn the Common Law world. Also. betweenState s. to all C ConsulConsuls. June 1999) 49 . a concFreemen believe th that t h a t h as en othat has enormous implications for how they should respond to our law. toCo n s u ls.Constitution. InIn the Common Law world. Fosyst guaranteedguarante ed by guaranteed by the Constituguaranteed by the Constitution is the Common Law system. targue. that case. The Common Law po placesplaces enplaces enormous significance on the fact that the Federal Rules of 1938 abolished the distinction between actionsactions at law and suiactions at law and suits in equity. admiral ty jurisdiction (interna tional law) be in recognizedrecognized by the Constitution (the other two being the now abolished Common Law and r ecogni zed by t he submerged equity. The Supreme thethe states abando ned Common Lath e s ta te s a ba ndone d C ommon La w in fa vor ofthe states abandoned Common Law in fa has been abandoned. th e federal courtc onfluence of t hese t wo eve appliedapplied federal substantive law through state procedure (except in an equity case). though Common Law. Tompkins had been walking besWhen injured. but as if they admiralty suits.

Note that in our civil rules. & United States Constitution. well. Pr ivate l aw is pertains to the peo ple acting in a law making capacity expressing divine will. in our world. § 2. 26 Such a statement satisfies a Freemen view that our state courts are acting as admiralty courts. the momentous shift of 1938 too k place without the consent or knowledge it wa s in t he i nt rica cies of Erie and the Fed eral Rules. 2. the ad miralty lab el extends to the state courts b ecau se sta te proce dure co des mirro r the Fede ral Rules of Civil Proc edu re and bec aus e in Erie . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Th e p ub lic ation of t his law sign ifies th at it is in e ffec t and co nt ro ll ing. or the Citizens thereof. an d o f Erie revolutionary shift away from natural law. many of the other Common Law beliefs discussed herein dovand filled with hate.States. and Christian Identity InIn our world people write of the In our w orld pe ople w rite of the fe deIn our world people write of the federal g ConstitutionConstitu tion dying with th e triumph o f the New Deal s admiCon stitu tion dyin g with t he t riump h of t he Ne w Dea l byby which tby which the Reco by w hic h t he R eco nst ruc tio n Am end men ts b eca me p art of o ur C on stit ut ion . State law was acknowledged to be other than the Common Law.Freemen. the true nature of the federal courts was c courtscou rts courts of admiralty. Private Law FreemenF reemen b eFreemen believe that Anglo-Saxon law h as two separate and distinct bran ches. shares so many of the underpinning although perhaps not dominant. 3. WhileWhile in ourWhile in our world the While in our world the fringe on the flag story is idiotic. theFreemen. Article III. Public law should properly be called civil law (or civil code) which pertainspert ains to governmen t made law. b y put tin g Erie and the Federal Rules together. Pri vaPrivatePrivate law (common law. CR 1 and 2 make clear that there is only one form of action (whether a case at law or in equity) known as civil action. andand filled with hate. June 1999) 50 . and between a State. ItIt will und oub tedly su rprise many It will undoubtedly surprise many that the FreemIt will undoubtedly surprise many tha ourour co mmunity o u r co mmu n ity o four community of legal scholars. One only need to look at the gold-fringed flag26 that is displayed in federal (and stat that is dis cou rts. Public Law vs. More on the im porta nce o f the fla g infra.State s. judges and lawyers. So. Erie and CommonCommon Law view that the federal courts25 are trying to foist admiralty law a re trying to fois t admi r al t y l aw upon t he p Freemen. P rivate law is curren tly kn own as pe rta ins to gove rnme nt made l aw. AA selA self governing people may generate a common law trial by filing in the people s jurisdiction to create a court order which becomes law subject to litigation. S u bSubsequentSub sequ ent cod e ado pte d by vote o r litigat ion m ay rep lace this p ubl ic law ifS ubsequent code adopte law is contrary to the old law. Citizens or Subjects. natural law or law of the united States of America) is genePrivate law (common following manner 1. 25 Presum ably. The branches are Pub lic Public Law and Private Law.So . and foreign States. AndAnd in 1966 when the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were amended to A nd in 1966 when t he Feder al Rules betweebetween bet ween civil act iobetween civil actions and suits in admiralty. An elected body generates a code or written law. we have a story that explains the Common Law insistenceinsistence that the insistence that the federinsistence that the federal courts possess only admiralty jurisdiction. LitigationLitigatio n resu ltin g from th e impl emen tatio n of t his la w resu lts in Litiga tion r esul t ing fr om t he i m changes or even abrogation. 4. many of the other the legal stories in our world. the momentousFreemen. Public law (law of the United S tates or the civil code) is generated in the follo wing manner 1.

html>. arising under this Constitution. C onst. commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State. to all Cases affecting Ambassadors.2. and between a State.com/commonlaw/common.com/commonlaw/common. TheTh e o th er c ou rt w ill assum e ju risd ict ion of t he lit igaThe ot her co urt will a ssume jurisdictio n of the litigati order (private law judgment). or which shall be made. See Unit ed S tate s Con stitu tio Uni ted Sta tes C on stit ut ion Art icle III United States Con stitutio be lie vebelieve t hat t he fede ral co urt s role in a private l aw/p ubl ic law con flict is believe that the federal court s role in a which l aw will ap ply. Subsequen t trials may then amend. The C om m on The Comm on Law Court o f the Uni 13.civil-liberties. Freemen believe that their diversity of citize nship citizenship and citizen s h ip an d a dhe re nc e to prcitizenship and adherence to p rivate law instead of public law creates federalfederal court jurisdiction. betw een C itizens of diff erent S tates . The litigant may use documents generated by the courts of the litigants domicile. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 1999) <ht tp://www. to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party. the Laws of the United States. between a State and Citizens of another State . 2. 3.civil-liberties. A mendment XI ( The Ju dicial po wer of the United States shall not be construe d to extend to any suit in law or equity. June 1999) 51 . 4. TheThe final formal expression The final formal expression of this law in a The final formal expression of this law andand express this knowledge by creating a judgment a nd e xpre s s this know le dge by creat ing a judgment ba pr inc ipl es o f righ t and wro ng. betw een C itizens of the s ame State claim ing Lands unde r Gra nts of d iffere nt States. to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction. FreemenFreemen must prFreemen must properly raise thFreemen must properly raise the diversity issue in state court TheThe C ommon Law Co urt o f the Un ited S tates o f America. a F reeman mustThe Common Law Court of the United States of to obtain a federal cou rt declaration that private law must be applied to the resol ution of the case at bar 1. This ame ndment preclud es su its against the s tates. ThT h eThe court ord er The court order can be modified by further litigation until a point of law is disputed by two o r more p arties. pr ivaFar superior to either private law or public law is Common Law. TheThe litigant who claims the wrong laThe l itigant who claims t he wr ong l aw is be inThe litigant who claims the Court to resolve the issue. Source:Source: American Patriot Network. A jury trial may then settle the dispute. the Freeman must establish that the following two conditions exist ToTo convince a federal court To convince a federal court that To convince a federal court that the law applicable to the 1. or the Citizens thereof. Citizens or Subjects. ' 2 provid es that The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases. 3. Public Law vs. 199 9) <http://www. The exac t sco pe o f this p rovis ion wa s alt ered by the Elev enth A mendm ent to t he Unite d Sta tes C onstit ution. abrogate. TheT h e Co m m oThe Comm on Law Court o f the Uni ted States of Am erica (visite May 13. TheThe litigant who claims the dispute exists can prove that a diversity of citizenThe litiga nt who clai ms t he disput e This diversity must be that an individual is not a United States citizen. 2. FarFar superior to eithFa r su pe rio r to eit he r defined in this manner 1. ). under their Authority. TheThe Federal courts are then properly noticed of the applicable lThe Federal courts are then properly noticed resulting litigation. Source:Source: American Patriot NetworSource: American Patriot Network. and Treaties made. to Controversies between two or more States. 27 Unite d Sta tes Co nstit utio n Art icle III. Private Law Diversity of Jurisdiction FreemenFreemen who have quietedFreemen who have quieted tiFree men w ho h ave qu ieted title with respe ct to the ir citize n anotheranother common law jurisdiction operate under private law. modify or suspend this order. in Law and Equity. 2. and foreign States.html>. other public Ministers and Consuls. It is God's law as imprinted on the hearts and mind of His people. or by Citizens or Subjec ts of any F oreign State.

And a driver s license requirement is seen as an interference with one s basic basic constitutional right to freebasic constitutional right to free travel. Freemen are not oblivious to the State s ability to win most contests of violence. A co urt with liti gatio n ru les e xist in whi ch t he l itigan t ca n o bt ain priva te l aw r elie f. concrete evidence of a new government that took over after the New Deal. ÿÿSocial Security Numbers.security card. b ut are no t exp ected o f al l. Proo f sufficient to satisfy bot h ele ments c an b e foun d in th e follo wing facts 1. Id. So.Id. C om mo n L aw req uir es givi ng u p o ne s so cia l se cu rit y ca rd an d o ne s dr iveInstead of violen license. Passports. It is this new and illegitimate social contract that must be disavowed. 3. StateState governments are as illegitimate as the federal government. and Driver s Licenses. it is uncleaOnce the correct law is determined to toto continue in a Washington Superior. No t su rp risi ngl y. No more perfect symbol for this new social contract could be imagined than a federally-issued social securitys ecu rity card . ÿÿThe Uniform Co mmercial Code. If the task is to extricate oneself from a reign conceived of as based on illegitimate contract law. ByBy not By not demanBy not demanding violent moves. District or Munici closest Common Law Court for trial. Non-Violent Freemen Actions TheThe Common Law distinguishes between moves members should tThe Common Law distinguishes between moves m celebratedcelebrated if taken. the UCC is a natural place to look. ThisThis private law coT h is priva te law c ouThis private law court system recognizes the supplemental subject matter the US District Courts mandated by operation o f the Constitution. A court with litigation rules exist that establishes this change of domicile. celebr ated if ta ken . a new form of social contract. it does strike one that the UCC is an unlikely source for a community of radicals. must also be renounced. the r these actions tie one s identity as a Sovereign to the land. re lyin g on cer tain sect ion s of t license. relying on certain sections of the Uni invoking Common Law court process to declare oneself a Sovereign Citizen. Faccomplish full secession from our United States. basic constitutional right to free travel. Freemen do not hold the F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. so to d lil i c en slicenseslicenses exhibit State power. it helps ensure that the State will not kill all their members w makesmakes room for followers who are not prep ared to die for makes room for followers who are not prepared to die for pr allowed the Freemen movement to dramatically expand. June 1999) 52 . 4. After the Constitution was suspended in 1933 by President Roosevelt. OnceOnce the correct law is determined to be common law or private law. TheThe litigant making this claim has chosen the applThe litigant making this claim has chosen the applicableT citizenship (abrogating US Citizenship) to a private law jurisdiction. 2. ThisThis private law court system recognizes the This priva te law c ourt sys tem re cogniz e s the or iginaThis private the F edera l Co urts. t he moves it req uir es of S Citiz CitizeCitizensCitizens are nonviolent. 5. As social security numbers evidence federal control. Unlike the Bible and the Constitution. Sosecu acco mplish accomplish full secession from our United States. But once one understands that the community has received the State s jurisdiction based on contract law (not the original social contract of the Constitution but some illegitimate contract substituted for the Constitution after 1938). the Freemen s obsession with the UCC begins to make sense. 6. relying on certain sectionlice nse . A court order exist that establishes this change of domicile. InsteadInstead of vio lenc e. Fre a like welfare payments. District or Municipal Court oto continu e in a Washington Superior. Freemen contracts with a StateState mu S tate mu s t als o bState must also be reno unced. the Common Law limped along until 1938 when it was summarily replaced by statutory law/admiralty law/commercial law.license.

statut ory. This section allows a party to refuse payment of a n This s e c tion a llow s a par t y to r efuse paym en necessarynecessary endorsement or otherwise fails to comply with the terms of an agne ce ssa ry e nd or sem en t o r o th erw ise otherother applicable law oother applicable law or ruleother applicable law or rule. Th ese liens are filed in cou nty offices in ou r system. encourage Freemen to flout State law. though. St at e. however wrongly. i nc lu din g UState. Freemen assert that UCC 1-103 compLaw through Common Law courts. since to us it makes no sense to appeal to the UCC as a means of freeing oneself from the reach of federal and state law or courts. Thus. the Common Law must next prviolence (filing charges. UCCUCC 3-501. So vere ignSo vere ign C itiz en s file lien s (n ot ice th e tie t o t he land ) aga ins t go vern men t ageSovereign Citizens file liens (n actionaction aaction against su action against such a Citizen. (under du ress). with reservation of all our rights and the like & FreemenFreeme n are a dvised b y their l aw to invoke th e ph rases liste d by U CC au tho rs Fre e me n a r e advised by t hei r l aw State. So. enc violenceviolence (filing charges. The resul t isis not in compliance with the agreement of the pa thethe words refused for cause without dithe words refused for cause without dishonor the word s refused for c usually with a cite to UCC 3-501. S underunder UCC 1-207.kind. Free CommonCom mon Law as d eter minC ommon La w a s de te rmine d byCommon Law as determined by Common Law courts UCC 1-207. acceptance. jail) in moves to deal with o ur violen t react ion to Freeme n legitimate action s. pa rticular ly kind. So UC C 1 -2 07 takes on en or mo us s ignme mbers to be unw a rrant ed. The out p T h e out provide d The out provided by UCC 1-207 places the Freemen back within the CommonCommon Law because UCCommon La w be c aus e U C C 1-Common Law because UCC 1-103 provides that con commoncommon law comm on l aw wh ere th at la w iscommon law where that law is not specifically displaced by the UCC. particularly traffic tickets. though. leaving only contract law. ÿÿLiens. These These nonviolent moves. and the community considers that assumption of sovereignty ov membersmem be rs t o b e u nw arr an ted. However.UCC sacred. and sit t F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Th e Sta te is claimingclaiming a right to imp ose its extra-c onstitu tional .207 considerconsider this UCC section to provide an con side r th is UC C se ctio n t o p rovid e an ou t frconsider this UCC sectio the C ommen t to t he sect ion says ThisThis section provides a machThis sect ion pro vides a mac hin ery fo This section provides a machinery for c contemplatedcon temp late d by the con trac t de spite a pen din con temp late d by the con trac t de spite a pen ding d iscontemp ofof going ah ead with del ivof going ahead with delivery. Freemen use this section in respo kind. in the Common Law the UCC becomes a central text lalawlaw tlaw that our United States must follow since our law has renounced con stitutional law. acceof going ahead with delivery. and without prejud ice. So. or p protest. Freemen insist on following our law by locating their right to maintain their own law in our State law. criminal complaint. jail) in response. including U. UCCUCC 1-207 explains in the comment that the section is intended for situat explains in the comment that the secti claimingclaiming as of right something which the oth er believes is unwarrclaiming as of right something which the other b thattha t exists bet ween the Stat e and the Com mon Law co mmun ity acc ord ing to t heir l aw. frequentlyfrequently rel y on the se phrases when filing documefrequently rely on these phrases when filing documentsfre in ou r cou rts. So UCC 1. under reserve. Thus. Freemen argue that our law can only be read as the Common Law dictates (contract law/UCC). UCCUCC 1-103. we are bound to follow it. This guarantees conflict with our law. information isis not in co mplia nce with the agreeme nt o f the p arties . June 1999) 53 . just as giving up o ne s social se curity c ard o r driver s license app ears ran dom a nd rid iculo us.D. kind. and Equity.claiming a right to impose its extra-constitutiona Commo Co m mo nC o mmo n Common Law community. all rights reserved. Since Freemen have reserved their rights under UCC 1-207 no boundbound b o u n d b ybound by the State s authority. but they do insist that because our community.State. which iThese nonviolent moves. does worship our UCC. sect ion 1 -10 3 le aves th e LawLaw throu gh Common Law courts. in the Common Law the UCC becomes a central teThus. AA nonviolent Freemen response authorizes Sovereign Citizens to interfere with the properA nonviolent Freemen respo n StateState agents wh o att empt t o unl awfull y enforc e Stat e law a gainst Co mmon L aw memb ers. the presentment process (traffic ticket. section 1-103 leaves the relation with the State to bund er UC C 1. Common Law.207 .

that these liens impose real costs on FreemenFreemen with force. ÿÿBecoming a Sovereign Citizen Their Quiet Title Action. our law To remove such a lien. Even a judge s order to remove the bankruptcy notationre port f or at l east a decade. ÿÿCommo n Law Pleadings. ToTo remove such a lien.00 0 ca n fil e an invo lu nt ary b ank rup tcy to forc e th e de bt or t o l iqu ida te h is or her asse ts t o sa tisfy the deb t. B y ho ldin g a militar y cou violent plan s a secret . NoNo matter the outcome. ÿÿInvoluntary Bankruptcies. can a ssume th at prio r to ma ny pip e-bo mb incid ents. prosecutors. The next move is for a Freeman to declare one s Sovereignty through a quiet title process. perhaps for years to come. Their courts provide cover and justification for Freemen action s. TheThe existence of thThe existence of these The existence of these military courts might explain the Freem exp eri en cin g. This is an especially effective non-violent Freemen response.experiencing. ÿÿCharging Go vernment Officia ls Wi th Crimes The Citizen Co mplaint. Unlike the more straight-forward Common La experiencing. Violent Freemen Actions Secret Common Law Military Courts WhileWhile Common Law courts may convene in public with manyW hile Common Law c ourts may convene i n publ ic w mmini-systemm in i-s ys tem h amini-system has been created by the Freemen movement to deal with our government officia FreemenFreemen assertFree men a ssert h ave bro ken t heir o ath s of office t o fol low the Con stitu tion . however tran in our world. a respons indictmentsindictments for treason (for ignoring Common Law documents issued from a one Sindic tments for t r eason ( for trying judges.t ticking ticking time bombs on the property rights of the target (and on his or her credit) who may no ticking time become aware of their existence until he or she moves to sell the property or is denied credit. the fact thaNo matter the outcome. mi lita ry co urt s can be c on vene d b y on e sma ll c ell (five o r six p eop le) of Fhund red peo radicalsradicals in any basradicals in any basement or b radic als in any b asemen t or b ack ro om. If the judgment comes from a Common Law court. BasedBased on t he mo vement s almost sacred need for a legal (bibl ical) just ification fo r its aB a sed on the m ovem ent s cancan a ssume th at prio r to ma ny pip e-bo mb incid ents. suffice it to say that Freemen are more than willing to retaliate against prosecutors and other government officials by attempting to charge the official with various crimes in our system pursuant to CrRLJ 2. This t ype o f tran sgression consideredconsidered so fco n s id ered so flagra nt thaconsidered so flagrant that only a military response is possible. a creditor holding a judgment worth more than $10 . record is not included in the reports most merchants request when deciding to extend credit. sheriffs. and the like. assacan assu F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. ATF and FBI officers. the fact that a bankruptcNo ma tter the reportreport for at least a decade. Unlike the more straight-forward Com hundred h u n d red hu nd red peo pl e at a tim e. the Common Law court declares the applicant s title clear. Under federal rules. our law requires the target to invoke thatthat these liens impose real costs on oth ers for having violated the C ommon Law. thus proclaiming him Sovereign. The irThis is impo rtan t bec ause co urts ar e po werful sym b pr oc eedin gsproceedings are in law and not theatrical. ThisThis is imp orta nt b ecau se co urts are p owe rful sym bol s. since their goal is to obstruct our system whenever possible in the hope of causing our system to collapse.1(c). AndAnd there can be no doubt that Freemen are charging government An d t her e ca n b e no do ub t th at F ree men Commo n Law c ourt s. While not a wFreemen with force. Wh ile a mo re e xte nsi ve discussion on this topic is given infra. A petition for involu ntary ban kruptcy is decided at trial. though. Inundating our court system with Common Law documents involves real costs on our court system and on the individuals (usually prosecutors) who must respond to what our system perceives as bogus documents. while still u sing the id ea of a co urt t o legitimize t heir fort hco ming criminal action s. After receiving appropriate evidence to establish that the applicant is eligible for status as a Sovereign Citizen. however transitory the impact of that force is. The Common Law court gives public notice of the quiet title proceeding. June 1999) 54 . though. it will hopefully not be recognized and the petition will be dismissed. our lTo remove such a lien.

cardinals. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. as functioning ecclesiastics powerful lando wners and temporal rulers. InIn the Midd le Ages. the simple courts of primitive Christianity under supremesupreme judicial power in the Christian Chu rch. W e ll tak e ou t our t argets and then melt back into the community &And strike again if they don t get the message the first time. 28 judicialjudicial power of the Church was manifestedjudicial power of the Church was manifested especjudicial power of t The da ngerousnes s of these Freeme n cannot be o veremp hasized. a s a per secut ed sect . Accordingly. Freemen coconspirators are left behind and likely to be even moremore agitated mo re ag itated b y an more agitated by an unlawful arrest of a comrade. which were simple tribunals wh amon g the br ethr en. The motivation to strike again con tinue s. or Courts ChEccl esiastical cou rts. And with a willing militia available to enforce a Co m looks looks bllo o k s b leak in d eed flo ok s bl eak in de ed for gove rn men t emp lo yee s wh o da re use ou r infe rio r law to c on fro Citizen s. by phone. But they failed to te ll the media tha t regardles s of their lac k of sup port for the conduct of the Freemen. there was a cell of at least five people involved and that th ere was a Common Law or court trial that took place.terrorism. the militia movement would absolutely not stand for any government attack on citizens. T here s no w ay the feds can m uste r a res pons e if we hit in fifty or sixt y pla ces at onc e. Na tional Gua rd.time. Then. had no neededneeded their own courts. Beginning in thensued shaped much of the legal histo Office. the simple cou rts of p rimitive Ch ristiaits power grew.28 Ecclesiastical Courts EcclesiasticalEcclesiastical courts. federal courts. thereforewere pagan. a nationwide network alert was sent over the internet. And with continu es. archbishops. June 1999) 55 . The C hris tia ns. or Courts Ch priorprior to the adoption of Christianity as thprior to the adoption of Christianity as the statprior to the adoption of Chris centurycentu ry A . as a persecuted sect. wit h bish ops ac ting as th e arbit rato rs. the y c ompris e d a comple x s yste m e xe r cisi ng j urtime. During the Ju stus T ownship sta ndoff in Montana . and local officials throughout the United States. and cannon law and the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical to emb race virtu ally t he en tire ran ge of huma n rela tionsh ips. FBI. the e cc le sia stic al c our t s f ought per si stent l y ensuedensued shaped much of the legal history of the latter Middle Ages.terroterrorism. If an incident similar to Ruby Ridge and Waco occurred at Justus Township. which ultimately resulted in the Inquisition. the eccle siastical c ourt s began t o assum e jurisdic tion in secul ar affairs. had no access to the R. And with a w illing micontinues. which was created to ferret out and punish heresy. we ll hit eve rywhe re. As o ne militia lead er said : There w on t be anothe r Ruby Rid ge or Wa co without a n answer from u s this time. ThiThis This alsThis also means that for every arrest. th e Chu rch re ache d th e zen ith of its In the M iddle Age s. and proscribed b y Christian leaders on religious and moral grounds. t hey c omp rised a comp lex syst em exe rcising ju time . thereterrorism. federal judges. or Cou rts Ch ristEcclesiastical courts. As sau lt pla ns and sche mes to eit her se ize or d estro y the installations had been rehearsed. a WhenWhen courts established by secular authority resisted the incursions of the ecclesiasWhe n co urts estab lishe d by se secularsecular matters. Buildings housing IRS. F ALSE P ROPHETS . The Christians. the ecclesiastiAfter Christianity became the state religion of wewerewere pagan. ATF. at 267-8. the C hurc h re a ched t he zeni t h of i t s p becamebecame tempora b ecame tem p o ral pobecame temporal potentates. T he beau ty is. these militias would execute their plan against governors. bishops. D . Then. The Christians. an thethe Rom an ju dicial system. time. which were simple tribunals whosneeded their own courts. the ecclesiastical courts fought persistes e c ula r matte rs. asupreme judicial power in the Christian Church. The C hristia n Ch urch devel ope d on a po ntifica l an d hie rarch ical b asisthe Rom an j udici al syst em itsits po wer grew . and by fax to units in every state where militias could b e identified . militia leade rs from all over the country made a great public effort to let the media know they were not in sympathy with the fraudulent financial scheme s and othe r criminal activ ities of the M ontana Free men. Plans had previou sly be en drawn by score s of militia u nits to target me tropolitan a reas a nd small c ities in nearly every state. AfterAfter Christianity became the state religion of Rome. and rese rve a rmorie s had all be en sc oute d and filmed . they com institu tions d ecayed . ExtensionExtension of the jurisdiction of the eExtension of the jurisdiction of the ecclExtension of the jurisdiction of princesprinces of thp rin ces o f th e C h uprinces of the Church.continues.

Germany.However. and discipline within various churches. and in the Ne the rla nds . who were called compurgThe procedu re was singular in that the The oathsoaths had to be made without an y mistake kn ow ledge knowledge of theknow ledge o f the fact s at issknowledge of the facts at issue. the the rise of representative government. TheThe practice that originated whenThe practice that originated when the eleThe practice that originated when the eleven theth e oa th tak er e vent ual ly b eca me a fa the oa th take r eve ntua lly bec a me a farc e w hen athe oath taker eventually became a farc his status. A professional oath taker would wear a piece of straw in his shoprovide assistan ce for a f 29 toft nor furr ow nor foot l ength nor strand wod nor water. FreeHowever .government. the Church of England. a new brand of ecclesiastical court has surfaced within the Freemen movement.29 TheThe procedu re was singular in that the witnesses. nor fres h nor ma rsh nor rou gh ground nor roo m nor wo ld nor fo ld F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. So I hold it as he held it. a n EcclesiasticalEcclesiastical Co urts are establ ished within th e Common Law commun ity to hear an d decide mo Ecclesiastical Co ur involvinginvolving biblical interpretation. These courtsinvolving biblical i interpretationinterpretation and punishment (typically death in tinte rpre ta tion a nd punis hme nt (typical l y deat h in t heinterp Compurgation Medieval Acquittal TheThe Freemen movement. court. These cou rtinvolving biblical interpretation. is begThe F reeme n mo vement . Parties would swear oaths at each othwas un perju red. without slip or trip. must be followed as God s law. but it varied according to the rank of the accused and the comp urgato rs was ofte n el inin the Middle Ages. giving rise to the term straw man. and the separation of church and state. and ot heGer Ho wHowever. All these factors combined to reduce graduallgovernmen administration. but to their belief that the defenda swearingswearing the oath needed the help of these supporting witnesses or oath helpers who sswearin g the oa th n eede d th e h waswas unperjured. Swi t zer l and. a fal seThe oaths were taken seriously becau se oathsoaths had to be made without any mistakes.administration. June 1999) 56 . havin g compurgation as a defense to criminal charges filed in our system against Freemen. P arties wo uld swear o aths a t each oth er un til s crime or action. who held it saleable. and oG e rma ny. endorsementendorsement of a specified number of friends oren do rse men t o f a sp ec ified nu mb er o f frie nd s or ne ighb endorsem TheThe o aths w ere tak en serio usly b ecau se to sw ear a false oath was per jury. and other Anglican churches. ProtestantProtestant Protestant churches.ad min ist rat ion . It existed among the Angl England throu gh the 160 0 s until it was gradually su perseded by the jury system. powerpower and jurisdiction power and jurisdiction of ecpowe r and ju risdiction o f ecclesiastical co urts to their pre sent lim Germany. ecclesiastical courts have virtually ceased to exist. In the though. and in the Netherlands. InIn medieval law in front of ecclesiastical courts. having borrowed ecclesiastical courts from history. It existed among the Anglo-Saxons and was in use in the in the Middle Ages. and gave the process a formality and ritual that impressed the parties with its importance. CompurgationCompurgation was used as part of the regular procedure of the ecclesiastical couComp urgatio n was u sed as p compurgatorscompurgators was often eleven. Switzerland. including the Roman Catholic Church.TheThe R eformat ion wa s The Reformation was a basic caThe Reformation was a basic cause of the decline of the ecclesi thethe rise of representative government. compurgation was a method of defense in which a personperson accused of a crime or chaperson accused of a crime or charged as a dperson accused o f a crime or ch compurgation because one party would purge himself of the charges by taking the oath. the septhe rise of representative govern gove government. thProtestant churches. and I will own it nor land nor lea sow and never resign it neither plot nor plough land nor turf nor land provideprovide assistance for a fee.

the Repu blican revolu tion using such termino logy as To so me de gree. While not advocating scholars in our world h ave also questioned the New Deal and similar federal government activism. lawyers. Freemen assert that compurgation is a States. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. perhaps. 1990) (explaining that the modern administrative state born in the New Deal is unconstitutional. Epstein. TRIBE. various elements of the antigovernment movement held severalseveral national meetings near Kansas City dubbed th several national meetings near Kansas City dubbed the Thi werewere an attempt to set up a provisional government wwere an attempt to set up a provisional government whose role withwith the Constitution as interpreted through the movement s framer s original intenwith the Con stitu tion as inte rpre provisionalpro visional governm ent is to re mainprovisional government is to remain in place uprovisional government is to rem onon its own. Freemen assert that compurgation is a par oath (presumably from other Freemen) that the Freemen defendant s version of the crime is believed. The real makeup of the antigovernmentantigovern ment m ovemen t of th e 19 90 s demo nstrat es jant igovernm ent moveme nt o f the 1 990 s demo nstr ates threat has become. insurance agents. th e Rep ubl ican correct revol utio n big government can be attributed to this constitutional interp retation argument. The Proper Scope of the Commerce Power. ÿÿLawrence Lessig.CompurgationCompurgation never eC ompurga tion neve r e xis te d in theCompurgation never existed in the legal procedure o State s. until now. 2nd ed . 47 Stanford Law Review 395 (1995). FreemanFreeman defendant is entitled to acquittal in our system if he or she canFre ema n d efen dan t is en titl ed t o ac qu itta l in o The Third Continental Congress 1996-1997 TheThe arena of constitutional debate has drawn mainstream support. the t ruth is to the co ntrary. ÿÿGary Lawson. W movement as a cartoo nish Bub ba charact er. not imposed on. THE TEMPTING OF A M E R IC A : THE P O L IT I C A L S EDUCTION OF T HE LA W (New York: Free Press. and college professors were all in attendance atDoc tors .Doctors. at 308-315. Doct ors. but refusing to sanction judicial activity to restore the Constitution). 107 Harvard Law Review (1994) (the Con stitution is a choice th at may or may n ot be correct . in suran ce age ThirdThird Continental Congress. and Ne w Deal reforms are accep ted b y. law yers. The Rise a nd Ris e of the Adm inis trative State.States. 198 8.). ÿÿR O B E RT B ORK . And several d elegate s in Kan sas City we re rep resent atives of jura l societ ies. the people). Understa nding Changed R eading s: Fidelity an d Theory. FroThe arena of constitutional debate has drawn ThomasTho mas So well and Geor ge Will to p olit icians o n th e stat e and nat ioThoma s Sow e ll and G e or ge Wi l l t o pol i ti cians o goinggoing out to return to thegoing out to return to the going out to return to the Co nstitution. unconstitution al usurpation b y an activist conservative Supreme Court. FreemenFreemen argue that the Republicans are wrong to attempt to OthersOthers have asserted that the New Deal was an act of constitutional restorationO the rs ha ve asser t ed that t he N u an inheFreemen argue that the Repub corrc o r r u pcorruptedcorrupted evil system. They are revolutionaries. June 1999) 57 . A M E R IC A N C ON STIT UTIO NA L LA W (New York: Foundation Press. In 1996 and early 1997. but they are not ignorant Third Continental Congress. ToTo som e degree . at which time ele ction s can b e hel d. at which time elections can be held. until now. T werewere all there because they believe that the Constitutw e re all the re be c a use the y be lieve tha t the Const i t uti on has bewere onlyonly armed confrontation can restore it to its rightful role in the political system. but accepting that it is the result of political forces of the people). While the eason its o wn. and ÿÿRichard A. and ÿÿLAURENCE H. 73 Virginia Law Review (1987) (arguing that New Deal legislation is unconstitutional.

BLACK S LAW D ICTION ARY 989 (4th e d. one of th Society. Information & Technology! (visited May 26. 1. 31 The society s leaders are Joh The society s leaders are John Quade. once the jural society isis is formed it is formed it beco mes the u ltimate civil aut hority in t he cou ntry.CHRISTIAN JURAL SOCIETIES AN INTERIM GOVERNMENT The Only True Government T T h e The loss of th The loss of the American union of states based upon the Constitution for the United States took place ono n Ap r il 1 5on April 15. Th eir seminar informat ion sta tes OF THE the num ber r eco mmen ded inRegional jura H U N D R ED S . Each jural society has its own enforcement a to invest referredreferred to as the lawful Posse Comitatureferred to as t he la wful Po sse Comit atus. the lex non scripta [Common Law]. TheThe jural societies are completely self-sufficient. 1999) <http://www. there has been no legal government in the United States.com/law/law/htm>. Jural Societies Must Remain Anonymous societies shun publicity. 31 See Jeffry. hold ing well-att ende d seminars o n ho w to esta blish a jur al society. 2. O f or pe rtaining to jurisprudence. one of the least-known yet mos Freemen movement. 196 8). 30 Jural. Since that date. based on God s Law.jeffry. June 1999) 58 . JuralJural societies to a large degree have remained unmonitored . If tht h ethese these societie s cont inue t o grow and all ind ication s are th at th ey will they c oul d be come t he mo st powerful force within the Freemen movement. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. as jural relat ions. or to the d octri nes o r rights a nd ob ligatio ns.com Dedicated to Restoring the Republic Through God. serves as the society s spokes. That is the claim claim of the Christian Jural30 Society. a Christian Common Law Think Tank (visited May 26. juristic. referred to as the lawful Posse Com or by e nforcin g senten ces. OJural societies to a large degree have remained unm A Self-Sufficient Government With All Power at the Local Level TheThe Christian Jural Society is the brainchild of a religious right think taThe Christian Jural Society is the brainchild of thethe King s Men. as well as THE S T I N G and the min iseries R O O T S. &It is a Christian b ody. T HE B OOK based somewh at on an up date d version of the Posse C omitat us mod el. TheThe Christian Jural SoT h e C h ris tia n J ural SocThe Christian Jural Society is a logical end product of Freemen r r e c o n reconstruct rec on stru ct a Ch risti an go vern men t th rou gho ut th e Un ited Sta tes b y cre atin g smal l p ock ets o f selfgoverning Ch ristians wh o are t ied to a nat ional Christ ian govern ment t hrou gh their c hose n rep resent atives. serves as the society s spokesperson the co untry.com> and its link to The King s Men of the Christian Jural Society Press. Jural societies have a hard-and-fast rule Do not speak with the media. 1861. Their court system inclThe jura l soc ie tie s a r e com pl et el y sel f -suff ic toto handle intto handle interpretat to handle interpretation of scripture. juridical. a court of assise to handle civil matters under Commo grandgrand jgrand jury to investigate charges brought before it. Ea ch Since the existing governments are de fde facde facto and without true law. Pe rtaining to natura l or po sitiv e right. RegRegionalRegion al jur al so cietie s are ma de u p of ap pro ximate ly 10 0 familie s ChristianChristian Jural SociChristian Jural So ciety Christian Jural Society s manual. Ran The society s leaders are Jo actoractor who se film acto r who se film cred its inclu de Cl int E astwo od s E V E RY W HICH W A Y B UT LOOSE and E V E RY W HICH W A Y Y O UOU C A N . 1999) <http://jeffry. JuralJural societ ies bel ieve th at th ey are the onl y legitimJur al soc iet ies b el ieve th at th ey a re t he on ly l egit ima te for m o f g AsAs these societies proliferate thrA s th es e soc ie tie s prolife ra te throughout theAs th ese s oci etie s pr ol ifera te t hro ugh ou t th e co u core cor e no nvio len t b elie vers d eep er in to th e mo vemen t th an a ny p revio us ma nife stat ion of th e mo vemen t. one of the least-k Society.

and E ccles iastic So ciety nee d to redre ss the de facto gov ernment in all of its b ranches. the Jural Society maintains an Assise Court fo r those who w ish to avo id being judge d by the u ngodly and u nbelieve rs. The se ad ministrative a gencies a re thus op erating outsid e of true p ositive la w and are simply c ode e nforcement s ervices . and b iblical we lfare in the cou nty.society. The Ju ral Socie ty. religious. ba sed on Bib lical princi pals . Section 12 of the Constitution of California. II. The Jura l Soc iety i s a C hristia n organiza tion. It is Founded in Law. 1999) <http://www. the Jural S ociety is the civil authority a nd handles a ll necess ary. Once a person person must file papers terminating a thousands have. The y maintain socia l. III. and existing for the recognition and protection of Rights. or e vidence before the Court. The Jural Society is the ultimate civil authority of the county and wields the same power as the county board of sup ervis ors. 1849. legislative and judicial branches at the city. The As sise Cou rt proc eed s to a ddu ce the evidence and render a judgment based upon their findings. but by open and public elections. third.jeffry. A fter this is do ne. the Christian Jural Society is designedAs ChristiansChristians are not allowed to join under any circumstances. IV. day -to-day b usiness within the county a s is need ed to pro vide s ervices to the cou nty public a t large. de jure. as per Article 1. The E ccles iastica l Society provide s scrip tural guida nce and influe nce to the J ural Soc iety and M ilitia. V. The Jural Society extends the civil protection to the Militia. first. comm on law and the Constitutions. woman. For thes e and ma ny other reas ons. The Jural S ociety o fficers mu st be e lected by the Ele ctors of the county that a re not memb ers of the J ural Soc iety. and the Militia extends physical protection to the Jural Society. A local or count y jurasociety. as the people dictate in their local Jural Society to acquire the above mentioned services and the needs of the people as they may desire. AsAs the n ame implies. b eco me inv olve d with T he C alifo rnia Ju ral So ciety at thei r cou nty lev el. If the Gra nd Ju ry findi ngs nee d pro ces s of s ervic e. it is es sential for the p eople of Califo rnia to return to a pro per e lecto r stat us. T hat co de. separate of the current de facto government. A local or society. T his can be a ccomp lished by canceling one s vote r registration as per the cu rrent Califo rnia Cod e sec tion 700. The y are utilize d to rende r opinions on b iblical ma tters when it is re ques ted by the Ass ise C ourt. it has the descetion [sic] to maintain any action to protect the county for the people. T hey p rovid e the p rope r chec ks a nd balances between the Jural Society and the Militia to maintain a proper Republican Form of Government under Gods [sic] Law. When this is done. For the time being. We must continue to organize the de jure government and maintain a passive attitude unless and until offered no other avenue.htm> A N INTRODUCTION TO T HE C ALIFORN IA J URAL S OCIETY A Jural society is an organized political community and a synonym of nation. VII. The purpose of The California Jural Society is to reestablish the de jure government of the California Republic through county based hous es o f dele gates duly elec ted b y thos e Ele ctors who de sire a retur n to a la wful go vernm ent. A t the county level. a nd muc h more . The Militia shall be subordinate to the civil authority as per Article 1. state and national level must all first be redressed for grievances. and county. c reate d by exec utive orde rs and a milit arily cons cript ed C ongres s (vo ted in b y the franchi sed peo ple o f the fra nchise d sta te). They are an inde pendent b ody that b y God 's Law mu st sp eak out a nd ste p in whe n the Ju ral So ciety or the M ilitia i s in the wrong. by way of milit ary p roce dure at the d irect ion of t he comm ande r-in-chie f.JuralJural societies elect officers who serve as their representatives at the state and naJur al soc iet ies e le ct offi ce rs w ho ser ve society. a de facto government was created after hostilities ceased. The Grand Jury is a free and independent body that adduces its own evidence and delivers their findings to the Jural Soc iety. organized upon the basis of a fundamental Law. 70 1. The pe titioners req uest the J ural Soc iety to be heard on their matter. T he states of the earlier union became franchisees of that de facto national government known as the United States. The A ssise Court c an hear iss ues b rought to it by v arious m ethods. the Militia can and will be utilized for the process of the Grand Jury and the Assise Court. State and National. in order to cast a ballot as an Electo r. it becomes the only form of government in his or her life. A local or county jural society is considered to be the most p national being the least powerful. This F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. the petitioners are requested to sign a binding arbitration agreement to abide by the decision of the Assise Court. As it is required to only req uest the c ancellatio n of the registratio n by the registe red vote r. the p etitio ners fi le bri efs w ith the A ssis e C ourt. The Jural Society is comprised of three parts. e nforci ng cod e throu gh arbit rary a nd ca prici ous mea ns. Section 10. This process should take less than two (2) weeks. VI. physic al. The Militia is also to be utilized for civil process until such time the proper officers are elected to relieve the Militia of that particular duty. county. res ulting in a sine die situation. of The Constitution of the united states of A meric a. second. a personperson must file papers terminating all other voter registration. it is the county Grand Jury in a de jure venue and jurisdiction. June 1999) 59 . the J ural S ocie ty dir ects the M ilitia t o do the Pro ces s to b ring the man. The executive.com/law/law. and enter it upon the record. D ue to the los s of the Ame rican U nion pri or to t he wa r of nort hern aggre ssio n. the result is a government of lawle ssne ss. To be a voting member of a jural society. th e Christian Jural So ciety iAs the name implies. All three o f these de ju re gov ernme nt elem ents m ust m aintai n a stro ng Chris tian at titud e in red ress ing for grie vanc es. is then de legate d for e nforce ment b y the v ariou s bra nches of gov ernme nt (departm ents prior to the Civil W ar). This must be done to ha ve a Re publica n Form of G overnment a nd to esta blish the Ju ral Socie ty as a legitimate bo dy politic . A ll ballots cast by Electors will not be done in secret as Satan would have it. s piritual. state. Its elec ted office rs are s ent as de legates to the State J ural Soc iety to rep resent their c ounty.32 32 The unofficial King s Men website provides the following description of The California Christian Jural Society (visited May 26. Militia. when the sou thern st ates walk ed o ut of C ongres s. Today. O RGANIZATION AND O PERATION I. in ord er to r eturn t o the Law tha t mad e A meric a a gre at and pros pero us na tion. mental.

earth. As with the rest of the apocalyptearth. it tak es o nly a s igned a ffida vit st atem ent of t he same. a nd for tho se w ho hav e nev er vo ted o r regis tered . prosecu tors. or ca ll: 81 8-34 7-70 80 (v oice ). As with the rest o urgency to accomplish their goal before the year 2000. Jur al so earth. the re is evidenc e tha t the most ra dical fo rces governed. and are o pera ting within this country a gain. Jural societies believe that this must be accomplished bethe he a d of that governm ent . Canoga Park Post Office. Several o f the jur al soc iety memb ers are C hristthe m. June 1999) 60 . make s one an Ele ctor. u nder G od's Law. and only then. general delivery.000 A. 818 -313 -881 4 (fax) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. C ONCLUSION When t hese three e ntities are o ccu pied and ma intaine d by Chris tian me n and w omen. will we hav e a prop er de jure government. Se ve ra l of the jura l s ocie ty me mber s are Chr ist ian I dent i rope and a tree. .D. Canoga Park. Pat rons may write to: R andy Lee. A New Christian Government Now! TheThe ultimate goal of the jural society is to create The ultima te goa l of the jura l s ocie ty is to c reat e a nati onal govThe u thethe head of that government. As with the rest of the apocalyptic Freemearth. these societfor the execut ion of judges. prosecutors.governed.them. governed. there them. then. California. there is evidence that the most rgoverned . and other officials.2. and o Freemen threat to date. AlthAl th ou ghAlthough it is still unclear just how violent the jural societies will become in their effort to be sAlthough it IfIf jural societies are being controll ed by th e Freemen s moIf jural societies are being controlled by the Freemen s mos forfor the execution of judges.

Ct. 2525.counsel. FreemenFreemen posit tFreemen posit that it is obvious such a lawyer has an inherent conflict of interest in arguing before judg who b elon g and sub mit to th e same Stat e entity. 80 6. and every such defendant also has the right to voluntarily and intelligen(1963). accept of anyany present. &No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. 45 L. Bar Association Approval to P ractice Law AA person may not appear as an atA person may not A Title of Nobility ? appear as an attorn ey or cA person may not appear as an attorney prapracticeprac tice l aw in practice law in this state until becoming an active member of the Washington State Bar Associa Admission to Practice Rule 1(b). de facto Washington State. office. derisive) creature of a de facto State established by executive order and military rule. 95 S. emoluany present. 2 525. shall. or title of any kind whatever. A Public Defender s Conflict of Interest ? ButBut what is wrong with our lawyers? Freemen assert But what is wrong with our lawyers? Freemen assert tBu t w CitizenCitizen who has properly attained that status from a Common Law coCitize n wh o ha s pro perl y atta ined tha t stat us legislative legislative (i. 372 U. 422 U. emolument.S 372 U. 792. from any king.Ct. 806. somethco nd on ing a n self-respecting Freeman could ever allow. California. 83 S. Faretta v. Since Freemen often refuse to an Sinc e Fre e me n ofte n re fus e to ans w e r qu Since Freemen often refuse to answer estab lishesta bl ish ( 1) w het her th e Fr eem an d efen dan t is in digen t. without the consent of the Congress. FreemenFreemen argue that to them. p foreign state.2d 5 62 (197 5). emany present. Constitution §§ 9. for exFreemen argue that to them. and every such defendant also counsel.S. see e. Wa in wrGideon v. (1963). and no person§ 9. de facto Washing governmentgovernment act done in cog o ve rnment a c t done in c ontgovernment act done in cont radiction to the Co nstitution is thatthat no bar association lawyer holding such a title of nobility can or should be accepttha t no ba r associ ati on l awyer hold c o n dcondoningcondoning an unconstitutional act. a nd (2) whe th er t he F ree man defe establish (1) whether the Fre hishis or her right to counsel. June 1999) 61 .S. and accepting jurisdiction of the State court over Freemen. FreemenFreemen assert that the privilege to practiFreemen assert that the privilege to practice Freemen assert tha t the createdcreated State supreme court) is actually a title of nobility mandacreated State supreme cou rt) is actually a title of nobili is prohibited by Article I of the U. Our w orld proh ibits rep resent ation by an yone not admitt ed to the b aa Freeman s counselor cannot be permitted to act in our courts on a Freea Fre ema n s c ouns e lor cannot be per m it t ed activityactivity in our system is to condone a crime the unlawful practice of lawactivity in our system is to condone a crime defendant.Ct. 95 S. 335.g. Wainwrigh t. &No title of nobility shall be granted b officeoffice oo ffice o f p ro fit o roffice of profit or trust under them. 422 U. Care 42 establish a proper record of the Freeman defendant s waiver of this right.e. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.S.S.Ed.W HAT IS W RONG W ITH OUR P UBLIC DEFENDERS AND P ROSECUTORS? The Freemen Counselor ItIt has been o ur experience that Freemen will not acc ept any rep resentation by membIt has been our experience WashingtonWashington StatWashin gton S tate B ar Assoc iation . This creates a clear potential appelhis or her right to counsel. (1963). Gi deo n v. This creates a clear potential a aa 6th and 14th Amendment right to the assistanca 6th and 14th Amendment right to the assistance a 6th and 14th Amendme punishedpunished by imprisonment.

con crimes. BanksBank s and Mone y. was SenateSenat e by a vote o f 19 to 5 . office or emol whatever. 1997) (visited June 6. s Rights. Sen ato r Tristr ain Da lto n (M ass. it i s ar gued t hat al l l awye committingcomm ittin g treaso n by doin g so. At the tim RevolRev o lu tio n . These a 33 Da vid M. an d may b e ignor ed b y a So vereigcomm ittin g treaso n by doin g so.nyx. any tit le of n obilit y or ho nou r.html>. The United States stood as a heroic St at es exist ence t hr eat e modelmodel for others who strumo de l fo r o th ers wh o st ru ggle d a gamodel for others who struggled against oppress (1 9 7 8 -1 7(1978-1799)(1978-1799) and the Polish national uprising (1794) were in part encouraged by(1978-1799) American Revolution. including fraud. one must understand its historical context. was apptha t. The t itle given to a lawye r (and judge) is asse from serving in government employ nob ility. The Real Titles of Nobility Amendment FAQ Exposing extremist l ies about the Missing Thirteenth Amendment (June 19. 18 10. Thus . 1991) (visi ted J une 6 . King George III and other monarchs of Europe say democracy as unnatural. inc luding fra ud.that. after tw ic e be ing c onside red by a com m it t ee. the monarchies sought to destroy or subvert the Ameri systemsystem of government.le t. in January 1810. For a stingi ng reb uke of D odge s ar ticle .Revolution. th e House appro ved the ame ndmen t by a vote of 8 7 to 3. In seeking to de stroy t In se e king to des troy the U nite d In seeking to destroy the Unite crimes. The House proposed seventeen and the Senate reduced the list to twelve. To und erstand th e meaning of this mi To un de rst an d t he mea nin g of Amendment. rec eive or r etain anyany title of nobility or hono ur. During thisthis p roce ss. In 1789. T he art icle s discussio n is summar ized as fo llow s TheThe Thirteenth Amen dment. Senator Philip R that. Thus. TwentyTwenty years later. orincapable of hold ing any office of tru them. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. some of which wo uld u ltimately b possible Constitutional Amendments. one must Amendment. HistoricalHistorica l Context.TheThe Missing Government 13th Amendment Lawyers Prohibited From Serving in TheThe Title of Nobility argThe Title of Nobility argument discuThe Title of Nobility argument discussed previously is b thethe missing 13th Amendment to the United States Consthe missing 13th Amendment to the United States Constituti toto automatically strip citizenship from anyto a utomatic ally strip c itiz e ns hip from a nyonto automatically strip citizenship from fromfrom serving in govern ment e mplo yment . and theft. it is argued that all lawyers and judges in this country are illegnobility. pension. KiRevolution. office or accept and retain any present. Know moremore covert meth ods o f pol itical subver sion. cl aim. an d may b e igno supre me Co mmon L aw Co urt. pr personperson shall cease to be a citizen ofperson shall cease to be a citizen of thperson shall cease to incapableincapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them. prince or foreign w ha te ve r. pension.htm>. Senator PhiliTwenty years later.crimes. S ince govern ments r un o n mon ey. EvenEve n t ho ugh th e Tr eaty o f Pa ris e nd ed th e R evo Eve n though the Tre aty of Pa ris ended the Revol utEven StState s States existence threatened other monarchies. nl/~u sa/E /thirtee n/ thirteen1.crime s . king.Rights. Their Their surTheir survival at sTheir survival at stake. the House of Representatives compi In 17 89. 199 9) <http ://od ur.) p rop osed an am end ment seekin g to pr ohib it andand provide a penalty for any American accepting a tia nd provide a pe na lty for a ny A mer ican accept i ng a t i t not passed. muc h of th e m cou nter revolu tiona ry efforts ema nate d from E nglish b anks. including fraud.nobility. 1999) <http://www. see Jol S ilver smith. conversion. this was the first time a title of nobility amendment was proposed. in January 1810. w itho acceptaccept and retain an y present.Amendment.any title of nobility or hono ur.net/~jsilvers/nobility. or sh all. after twice being considered by a committee. June 1999) 62 . Th is prop osed Thirte enth Amend ment r ead a s follo ws IfIf any citiz en o f the U nite d St ates sh all a ccep t. D odge . king. On M ay 1.rug. from any em peror . Knowing thesystem of government. Amend ment. Knowing they cosystem of government. empl oyin g spies an d sec ret age nts skil led in briberybribery and lbribery and legal decbribe ry and legal de cept ion.unnatural. ungodly ideological threat every bit as radical as communism was once regarded by mod ern we stern n ation s. the Hou se of Re prese nta ti possiblepossible Const itution al Amend ments. from any emperor. The Missing 13th Amendment (August 1. To escape p andand formed alliand formed allianceand formed a llian ces with the b est law yers and judges mo ney co uld buy.whatever.

Jerome Bonaparte. E sthe rank Esquire. withou t the C onse nt of the Congr ess . or foreign State. o to ho ld th e p osi tio n o f dis tri ct at to rn ey. The most common title was Esquire (ula wye rs) cam e t o h ol d t i today by some lawyers. o f any k ing whate ver. at to rn ey ge ne ral cho ice was no t restric ted t o a la wyer an d th ere wer e no state o r natio nal b ar assoc iation s. t h e ra n k E s q u ir e . attorney general. Theref o specifiedspecified a penalty (losspe c ifie d a pe na lty (los s of c itiz e nsspecified a penalty (loss of citizenship) was propo meaningmean ing of th e amen dmen t was t o pr ohib me a ning of the a mendme nt w as to prohibimeaning of the amendme toto foreign governments and bankers fromto foreign governments and ban kers from voting. and the cle(and more pro fitabl e) th an t he sw ord . ArtArtiArticleArticle 1. as claimed by extremists. TitTitlesTitles Titles of No bility. Ba nker s and lawye rs with an Esq uire beh thethe monarchy. memb ers of an y organ izati economic. asserts that no debates about the proposed amendment survive. Bankers and lawyers with an Esquire was su spec t. Why? Becau se the loyalty waswas suspect..respectability.. A contemporary example of an honor granted to only a few AmericansAmericans is the privilege Americans is the privilege oAmericans is the privilege of being a judge. One theory is that the amendment was a reaction to the involvement of Napoleon s nephew. spread to the colonies and later into the newly formed Uoriginally forged in Euro State s. the British peerage system referred to knights as Squ ires Squires and to those who bo re the knights shields as Squires a nd to those w ho bor e t he knight s shi el ds physicalphysical violence gave way to the morphy sical vio len ce gave wa y to t he mo re civiliz physical violence gave (and(and more profitable) than the sword... In coIn co lon iaIn colonial America.o roriginallyoriginally forged in Europe. th e missin g Ame nd men t p ro hib its an y ad van tage o r p thatthat would grant some citizens an unequal op portunity to achieve that w ould grant some citize ns an u nequ al 34 . TheThe o nly o rganiza tioThe only organization thThe only organization that certified lawyers was the Internati (IBA). acc ept o f any p rese nt. supra. Section 9 of the Constitution34 sought to prohibit the International Bar Assoc iaA s so ciatio nAssociation (or an Association (or any agency that granted titles of nobility) from operating in Americ thethe Co nstitut ion ne glected to specify athe Constitution neglected to specify a penal the Constitution neglected to spe o fof thof the monarchy con tinued to infiltrate and influence th e government (as in the Jay Treof the monarchy continued andand the US Ba nk ch arte r incid ent s). The archabut the second pro definitiondefinition of honor as used in 1810 meant anyone obtaining or havingdefinition of honor as used in 181 pr ivile geprivilege over another. and the clever wie(and m lawyerlawyer s)lawyers) came to hold titles of nobility. chartered by the King of England. There was no requirement that one be a lawyer toto hold the position of district attorney... a title of n thethe 13th Amendment sth e 1 3th A me ndme nt sou the 13th Amendment sought to prohibit. these alliances generated great wealth and ultDespite their criminal foundat respecta bility. a t i tl e o f n o b il i ty . The missing Amendm The missin g Amen dme nt is refe The missing Amendment is referred to as the title b u tbut the se but the second prohibition against honour (honor) may be more significant.(IBA).Another theory is that the amendment reflected the general animo sity t o fore igners e vide nt befo re the W ar of 1 812 . The Fe deralis ts thus ma y have introd uced the propo sal in an atte mpt to av oid embarrassment about their own associations with the British aristocracy. head(IBA ). cha rte re d by the K ing o f Engl and. or T itle. Prince. in American public life a few years earlier. Nathaniel Macon (a Republican from North Carolina) noted that he considered the vote on this question as deciding whether or not we were to have members of the Legion of Hono r in this country. DespiteDespite their criminal foundation. Th erefo re. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.. fro m any K ing. Offic e. The English bankers and lawyers wanted trespectability..) InternationalInternational B ar Associa tion.35 Honor.No T itle of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them. June 1999) 63 . Historically. 35 Silv ers mith s ar ticle . attorneys trained attorneys but mostmost helmo s t h eld nmost held no title of nobility or honor. non-lawyers cannot. Law attendant privileges and powers. a title of nobility. a title of no bila nd the U S B a nk c har t er i ncident s). shall . members of any organization whose principle purposes wethe mon arch y. hto fo reign gover nm skills to subvert the government. The English bankers and l businessmen businessmen so as their fortunes grew the British monarcbus ines s me n s o a s thei r f or tunes gr ew t he B granting them titles of nobility. ByBy pr oh ibi tin g By pr oh ibi tin g hBy pr oh ibi tin g ho no rs.T here is not a s hred o f evid ence to su ppo rt the e xtremis t theor y that t he amendment was part of an international banking/legal conspiracy. headquar t e associatedassociated with the internata s soc ia te d w ith the inte rna tionaassociated with the international banking system thethe rank Esquire. Emol ument ..

an honor. June 1999) 64 . is an int UnitedUnited States accepted membership in InterpoU nited Sta te s a c c e pte d me mbe rs hip in Inte r pol in 193United State designateddesignated office of responsibilityde s igna te d offic e of re s ponsibility for Interpoldesignated office of responsibility for aacceptacce pt a nd m aint ain me mber ship in Inter pol and to d esignat e any dep artme nts a nd a gencie accept an d maintain memb participate in the United States representation at Interpol. DEA . IRS. The Prosecutor s Svengali Janet Reno? TheThe F reemen doc umen ts rT h e F ree me n docume nts re c e ive d in The Freemen documents received in Kitsap County asse allall lawyers. While titles of nobility may no longer app conceptconcept of honor remains relevant. For example. b efo rbeforebefore or after the addition of more states into the union (if it ever ratified it).] SignificanceSignificance of Removal. Interpol. but the fact that the Attorney General is an attorney. and w office. Some things never change. If public support c AmendmentAmendment might provide a legal basis to challenge many existingAme nd men t mi ght pr ovid e a l eg decisionsdecisions previously made by lawyers who were unconstitutionally elected de c isions previousl y made by la toto th eir p oto their positions of power. AtAt the very least. dis cus s at gre a t length whet her a t hi rt eent h st at e. Virginia.power. If public support couland is the Law of the land. 36 36 Free men a sse rt that the Sec retar y of T reas ury. owe allegiance to or are the agent of the Uniteda ll la wye rs. ow e a lle gia nc e to or a re the agent of t he Unit ed all sourcesource of this belief has not been located.S. T hirt een stat es we re n eed ed fo r ad op tio n. B ot h o f and two took no action. the Intern ation al Po lic given her involvement in Rub y Ridge and WACO. three rejected it. F BI. F immunity immunity from l immunity from la immu nit y fro m la wsu its wh ich wer e n ot affo rd ed to all citiz en s w separateseparate privilege. [RatificationRatificatio n of the Amendment. anyone c onc e pt of honor r em ai ns rel evant . andand two to ok n o ac tio n. By virtue of these titles. It is not surpwith o r membe r of Inter pol . citize ns. it might even mean removal of lawyers from the current US government system. honors (like dist rict att or andand special prand special privilegand special privileges. While titles ofpowe r. In fact. the Internation al Police. the lawyers first had to remove the 1 thatthat might oth erwisethat might otherwise have kept ththat might otherwise have kept them in check. A TF. lawyers have assumed political and economic advantages o majority o f U. InIn Freemen doctrine. the newly develoSinc e the unl awf ul del et ion o assassociationsassociation s began wo rking diligently to create a syste m wherein lawyers to ok oassociations began work ofof privil o f p riv ilege an dof privilege and nobility as Esquires and received the honor of offices and positions (like(like dist (like district attorney or judge) that only lawyers hold. T Twelve stat Twelve states ratified the amendment. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.office. Cus toms . w hic h is pa rt of theInterpol. While titles of no bility power. Sec ret Se rvice . it was afaft afterafter the disappearance of this 13th Amendment that American bar associations began to appear and exercise political pow er. Think of the immunities from laoffice. Dep artme nt of Ju stic e. To create the present oligarchy (rule by lawyers) which the USUS now endures.power. a nd Posta l Service have all b een des ignated to wo rk with and pa rticipate in Interpol. Think of the burea ucrats cu rrentl y enjoy. which is part of the one world conspiracy. this missing 13th Amendmen A t the ve ry le a s t. and would therefore forfeit his right to voteseparate privilege. which is part In terpol. that she took anan oath to support and uphold the Constitution of the United Stan oath to supp ort and upho ld the C onstitutio n of the Un i responsible for the prosecution of federal crimes may support the idea. our allegiance or agency to In Fre e me n doc trine . TheThe significant of this missingThe s ignific a nt of this miss ing 13The significant of this missing 13th Amendment isis this: Since the amendmentis this: Since the amendment wa is this: Since the amendment was never lawful nullified andand is the Law of the land. Thin k of the immunit ies from law suits t office. please see the articles. an honor. De partm ent of State. this miss ing 13th A m endment dem onsAt the lawyers were recognized as enemies of the people and nation. discuss at great length whether a thirteenth state. Thirteen st supra.Interpol. the lawyUS now endures. our alle gia nc e or a ge ncy t o Janet Reno In F withwith or member of Interpol. the lawyers first US now endures. SSinceSince the unlawful deletion of the 13th Amendment. and the impactimpact of more states on the requirement of ratification by thimpact of more states on the requirement of ra For further discussion on ratification. and t heir on e world government c onspira cy theo ry.

volu ntary a ction. The y sha ll abs tain fro m any a ction w hich might be prejudicial to their inter-national task. § 1 481(a) p rovides in pertinent part Loss of nati onalit y by native -born o r natur alize d citi zen. asThe problem. as Freemen see it. Article 3 0 of the Interpol C onstitution sta tes: In the exercise o f their duties . all membe rs of the Exec utive C ommittee s hall conduct themselves as representatives of the organization and not as representatives of their respective countries. 8 U. with membership in Interpol is that the In participantsparticipants to place the interests of Interpoparticipants to place the interests of Interpol over loyaltyparticipan General sGen eral s acce pta nce of th e term s of th e Inte rpo l Co nstit G e ne ral s a c ce pta nc e of the te rms of t he Int er pol Const i t uti o expatriationexpatriation and a relinqu ishment of her e xpa tria tion a nd a relinquis hme nt of he r Uni t ed Sexpatriation a Accord ingly. whichwhich fixed the practice of law so that only International Bar Association followers could practice law and beco me judges. shall lose his nationality by voluntarily performing any of the following acts with the intention of relinquishing United States nationality (1) obtaining naturalization in a foreign state upon his own application or upon an application filed by a duly authorized agent. & F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. only Admiralty Jurisdiction (international law) exists in our courts.S. ThisThis bar association set up a bar asThis ba r a ss oc ia tion se t up a ba r a s soc ia tion in eThis bar association set up a thereafterthereafter instrumental in settingthe re after instrumenta l in s e tting up bthereafter instrumental in setting up bar associat demandingdemanding compliance with their standards. So twh ich cou ld lea d t o a l awfu l ch arg associationsassociations to ensure all lawyers and juda s soc ia tions to e ns ure a ll la wye rs a nd judges would lassoc iation s international bar association. after having attained the age of eighteen years. 38 This se ction. C. These These bankers deemed it necessary to set up an International Bar AssociatiThese ban kers d eemed it nec essary t FreemenFree men a lso c laim th at Int erna tioFre e me n a lso c la im tha t Inte rna tionaFreeme n also claim th at Inte rnat ional Jewi knewknew that what they were doing undknew that what they were doing under the law wasknew that what they were doing whichwhich could lead to a lawful charge of treason subject to a penalty of death. or (2) taking an oath or making an affirmation or other formal declaration of allegiance to a foreign state or a political subdivision thereof. pre sump tions (a) A person who is a national of the United States whether by birth or naturalization. as Freemen seeThe problem.Accord ingly. b urde n of pro of. a recognizesrecognizes n o civil rights. no B ill of Rights. Failure to do so pdemanding compliance with their standards. a st ep in t he Jewish effort to institute a one world monetary system to the goal of a one world satanic government. beenbeen succebee n su cce ssfu been successfully eliminated. any discre tionary d ecisions mad e by A c c ordingly. June 1999) 65 . An d who bette r to en force this la w than our co untry s traitorous lawyers under Janet Reno? SinceSince we are being run by lawyers behold en to an intern Since we are being run by lawyers beholden to an intern 37 Article 2 1 of the Interpol C onstitution sta tes: In the exercise o f their duties . a ny dis c retiona ry de c is io ns m ade by t he At t orne oror memb er of a la w enfor cemen t agency that is adverse to the p rivacy or p rope rty of a F reemen is seen as a declaration of war by a foreign agent. The International Bar Association ththat that all n ation s who borr ow from th e IMF wil l be b eho lden to th is intern ation al bo dy. the Secreta ry Gene ral and the s taff shall neither s olicit nor ac cep t instru ctions from a ny gov ernme nt or au thority outs ide the Orga nizatio n.TheThe problem.

determine whether the Army or Navy display or remove fringes from their flags or standards. Th is pract ice first aro se in ou r military b ranch es. the Co urt cannot fatho m how the dis play of a maritime war flag could limit the state court s jurisdiction. 484-85 (1925). Id.C. Flag Fringe Velcro Anyone? TheThe flag th at is pThe flag that is present iThe flag that is present in most courtrooms and other governmental build lla ngu age language langu age of the Cod e du e to t he ad dition of yello w-fringe. Id.S. and the union of the flag shall be forty-eight stars. th e law o f the fla g is the r epo situnder which an action is be rightsrights guaranteed a citizen in party. In flag manufacture a fringe is not co nsidered to be a part of the fla g. with one star added for each additional state. Freemen believe that the flag determine underund er wh ich an actio n is be ing con duc ted .T RESPASSING ON M Y VENUE F LAG Ship in a Harbor THE CitingCiting to Citin g to Ad mirCiting to Admiralty (maritime or international) Law. at 485. white in astripes.S.A.C. Trights gua ra ntee d a c itiz e n in pa rty. at 485 (quoting an untitled circular of the Adjutant General dated Mar. stripes.Att'y Gen. If fringe attached to the flag is of no heraldic significance.S. which is why Freemen generally call such a flag a flag of war. the same is true a fortiori of an eagle gracing the flagpole. See 34 Op. Even if the Army or Navy do display United States flags surrounded by yellow fringe. A ncient c usto m sa nctions the use of fringe on the regimental colors and standards.C.C. § 1 notes (1985). § 1. Far from it: in the words of the Adjutant General of the Army. 4 U. the ship owner gave notice to all those who enter into contracts with theBy flyin g the fla g. 34 Op. Nor are the fringe or the eagle of any legal s ignificance. 647. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 1 083 4. McCann v..D. Gr eenway. alternate red and whi U. the s mastermas ter th at he int en ds t he law o f th at fla g master that he intends the law of that flag to regulat master that he intends th anan effect similar to the present day choice of law provisions found in many contracta n e ffe ct s imila r to t he pr esent day choi ce however. 483. Supp. and it is witho ut hera ldic s ignifica nce. did not address this issue. The President may. The latest effective executive order. 1924). 6865 (1959). the presence of yellow fringe does not necessarily turn every such flag into a flag of war. signed by President Eisenhower. In the com mon us e of the word it is a fringe a nd not a bord er. is only one of several factors to be considered in determining law applicable in maritime cases. however. noting that the presence of a fringe on the flag can not be said to constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statute. himself a military man. Atty. E ven were [the plaintiff] to prove that yellow fringe o r a flagpole eagle co nverted the s tate co urt s United Sta tes flag to a maritime flag o f war. 952 F. [the plaintiff's] claims against the above-listed Defendants must be dismissed because his factual predicate is incorrect as a matter of law. and it is without heraldic significance. The origin of thirights guaranteed a ci providespro vides th at a vesse l sailin g inprovides that a vessel sailing into port und er a flagprovides that a vessel sailing into po whose flag she flies.M o. In ot her w ord s.U. The United States Attorney General concurred. alternate red and white. but there seems to be no good reason or precedent for its use on other flags. Army Regulation 260-10 required troops in the field to fly flags with a yellow silk fringe. [i]n flag manufacture a fringe is not considered to be a part of the flag.. Reg.S. 24 Fed . The Adjutant General of the Army believed that [t]he War Department . § 2. 39 39 As explained in one of the recent federal cases addressing a Freemen s claim that a state court that convicted him was deprived of juris dicti on ov er him b y the p rese nce o f a fringe d flag In the 1920s. June 1999) 66 . Gen. at 485-86.199 7) (citations and footnote s omitted ).. See Exec utive Ord er N o. The American Flag of Peace TheThe United States Code The Un ited S tates C ode provide s The United States Code provides that [t]he flag of the stripes.. 65 0-51 (W . Therefore. knows of no law which either requires or prohibits the placing of a fringe on the flag of the United States. Id. 28. ByBy flying the flag. No Act of Congress or Executive order has been fou nd bearing on the q uestio n. A flag that strictly complies with this definition is generally identified by Freemen as the American flag of peace. reprinted in 4 U.

g.. Washington. is not. See. nor on any part of it. misprision defe nd ant s na me in cou rt d ocu men ts). intended to proscribe conduct. 110 L. pictu re. Free men b elieve t hat the act o f displ aying a ye llo w-frin Perh aps mo re serio usly. design. prose c utor s.). however. 540 F. Cok v. United States v. III). or drawing of a ny nature. it would be of dubious constitutionality.3 d 6 77 . defense at t orAnyone ofofficers. 676 n. § 241 do es not provide for a private cause of action). Treason The Ultimate Crime and Punishment PerhapsPerh aps mo re serio usly. W allace. aff d. U. figure. has never been adopt ed in the United Stat es. T h is d o ct r in e d e ve l o p ed u n d e r E n § 1 (1954).g.2d 842 (1974) (holding unconstitutional a state statute that made it a criminal act to place any word figure..A la. however . extortion ( prdeprive the defend paid p a i d fpaid for their work or because bail is imposed as a condition of release). this act ion constitutionalconstitutional rights and voids all contracts between the court and ac ons titutional rights and voids al l cont r ac entering the bar of a court displaying the offending flag. 827 F.1 99 4) (Wald. 496 U. This doctrine developed un imagineimagine timagine the Deaimagine the Death o f . 1 (10t 827 F. nor attached to it any mark. 2727. including judges.1987) 827 F. 2 (1st Cir.e.Anyone.2d 1. 412-15. Moreover.2d 675.. 41 F. Per ry. letter. this action displaying the yellow-fringed flag apparently strips all citizeadd ition. 310. § 176 does not proscribe any remedy for its violation. Cok v.Ed. o fficers . Spence v. 405.. it acts outside the confines of the Constitution and l somehowsomehow transformed into the Supreme Ruler ofsomehow transformed into the Supreme Ruler of a fore addition. 110 S. 1 (10th C ir. See id. kidnapping. a Freemen gives up his Common Law rights.Ct. of the United S tates. (quoting(quoting Statute of Treasons. Free men involvesinvolves al l cou rt per sonn el an d an yone who has swo rn an oath to u pho ld th e Con stinvolves al l cour t personnel and StatesStates in constructive treason byStates in constr uctive treaso n by bStates in constructive treason by betraying th however. 2731-33. 49 3.Ed. mark. however. Crimes Committed Against Freemen Anyone. (citations omitted). and therefore is highly dangerous t Treason § 1 (1954).2d 675.. who part icipat es in a c riminal pro secu tion in a co urtr oom in wh ich a y ello w-fringed flag flie guiltyguilty in the Free men id eol ogy of n umer ous s eriou s offense s.g.S. Id. 94 S. prosecutors.D . 676 n.1989) (holding that only the United Stat forfor criminal co nspiracy fo r crimin al cons pira c y to de prive anothefor criminal conspiracy to deprive another of their civil NewcombNewcomb v. This doctrine dev § 1 (1 9 5 4 ) .S. In addition. which provides that [t]he flag should never have placed upon it.2d 675. which states that 40 It has also been suggested that displaying an American flag with a yellow fringe is a violation of 36 U. 876 F. picture.2d 1083 (5th Cir. a private plaintiff cannot premise a civil rights violation on a claimed violation of Title 36. drawing or advertisement of any nature upon any flag. Ingle. § 176(g). 2 enforcedenfo rced against supp osed comp assers and ime nforc e d a ga inst s uppose d c ompa ss e rs a nd i m agineenforced agains agreementagreement corroborated an intent to carry out th e regicide. if the flag code did in fact provide for penal sanctions. See Holmes v. This part of Title 36. Eichman. Most Most of thMost of these offenses are defined by various federal criminal statutes.C. 49 6 (M . const r uct i ve t r eason is a thethe simple genuine lethe simple genuine letter the simple genuine letter of the law.Con cept uall y. 7 13 (D. design. con struct ive treason is an att empt t o esta blish t reaso C onc e ptua lly. word. kidnapping.2d 1. 407 F. at 497. 418 U.e. Con ceptu ally.1989 ) 876 F. mutilation.1976) (Mem. however. Cir . h e.40 Freeme Fre eme n a ssert t he co ur t h as c rea ted a ne w for eign state/power state/p ower within th e sanctu ary state/power within the sanctuary or territostate/power within the sanctu courtcourt acts. 2406-10.addition. The power to enforce theMost of criminalcriminal statutes.2d 287 (1990) (finding the Flag Protection Act of 1989 unconstitutional and noting that the Government s interest in protecting the symbolic value of the flag runs afoul of the First Amendm ent). the King.S. 41 L. e. Therefore.. 676 n. Cos entin o. Appa rently. and reve rsing the convic tion of colle ge stude nt who attache d a pe ace s ymbol to an Ame rican flag). 25 Edw. misp risio n o f a fedefe mutilation. 2 (1st Cir.C. This became the crime of constructive t(quoting Statute of Treasons. June 1999) 67 . J. mail fraud (for capitalizing thpaid for the defendant sdefendant s name in court documents).S. the fringe is co nsidered by so me Free men to be a design that is attached to the flag. it acts outside the confines of the Constitutcourt acts.. This doctrine.g.) . assault with a deadly weap muti defendant s rights to equal p rotection.. Steffan v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. incl udin g civguilty in the Free men id eol ogy of n umer ou de pr ivedeprive the defendant of his civil rights. S upp . C. defense attA nyone . insignia. extortide prive the de fe nda nt of his c ivil rights . w h o pofficers. 313-19. has been delegated solely to the Attorney General of the Unic riminal st at ut es.WhenWh en a co ur t fl ies a yel lo w-frin ged fla g.Ct. inc luding judge s. 2404. assault with a deadl mutilation. is expressly repudiated by the Constitution. even if a fringe on the flag could be viewed as a violation. commonly known as the flag code.

§ 3. giving thadhering to their Enemies. an d in th FreemanFree man w ill al so be perso nal ly ad orn ed wit h th e un offend inFreeman will also be personal ly adorned with th e unof wearingwearing a small flag pin on their collar orwearing a small flag pin on their collar or lap el. Constitution. sortssorts to protect the Freemen against jurisdictional conversion and somehow secures the Freemen s Common LaLawLaw Law rights.U. U.S. Freemen believe that even though the courtroom may be displaying a flag other than thAp flagfla g flag of peace. No oth er form of treason has been recognized. The Protective Shroud of the American Flag of Peace ToTo T o s ecu re th eir ch oTo secure their choice of law.treasontreason against the United States consists only in trea son a gainst t he Un ited Stat es co nsists o nly in adheringadhering to their Enemies. adhering to their Enemies. many Freemen will affix the unoffending American flag of peace to firstfirst page of all the papers submitted to the court. the Constitution limits conviction for the U. Apparently. By what authority do you trespass on my venue? F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Constitution.S.S. June 1999) 68 . wearing a small flag pin on display on coun sel table or pin a large American flag of peace to their chest. ApparentlAppa rently. Art of treason to particular overt acts. the Freemen s shrouding in the unoffending American flag of peace acts as a talisman oflag of peace. By its express language. and in the evfirst pa ge o f al l t he pa pe rs su bm itt ed to th e co ur t. just as a vessel sailing into port under a foreign flag was considered under Admiralty Law to be partpart of th e terr itory of th e nat iopart of the territory of the nation whose fpart of the territory of the nation whose flag asked question. giving them Aid and C convictedconvicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt convicted of Treason unless on Confession in open Court. Article III.

he decided to invoke the war and emergency powers that the Constitution stated were only to be used in times of rebellion or enemy invasion. Through a maze of politicalt powerspowers granted to Franklin D. Franklin D. These emergency powerspre s ide nt ma y a s sume al l power s. atat 1-2. So. The fed eral govern ment w as to b e an agen t of th e state s. we may say that he established a constitutional dictatorship. ho wever.S. ThroT h ro uTh ro ugh Through the insidious. Those rigove rn men t b y a s o werewere only secured by the Constitution.) SchroderSchrod er makes quite a claim Schroder makes quite a claim unbek Schroder makes quite a claim unbek abandoned abandoned b y the government through politicalabando ned by the government thro ugh political trickeryabandoned AmericanAmerican has a dutyAmerican has a duty to doAmerican has a duty to do whatever it takes to restore the land to constituti the Revolutionary War and that is why Freemen must fight this one. an d e sta bl ish ed a n ew ba HistoryHist or y bears o ut Schr od er s ver sio n o f th e st or y.S. Code as permanent everyday powers. Through a mazethe vote or consent of the ruled. When did our sys originaloriginal and righteous destiny anoriginal and righteou s destiny and fall from original and righteous destiny and fall fro Abraham Lincoln. the Con stitut ion p rovides th at du ring times o As a s afegu ard . yet steady encroachment of emergency powers. by a fo reign co unt ry s actio ns on ano the r con tine nt. C O N S T IT UO N S T IT U T IO N : F A C ACT OR F I C T IO N (Cleburne: Buffalo Creek. S . how ever. All rights not specifically granted to the government were reserved for the people. th e definit io stretchedstretched to include economic problems. the Great Depr ession . (Schroder is the movement at 1-2. a union of sovereign nation states. Roo F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. R threatthreat threat tothreat to our survival as any invasion. b y a fo rU. the Great Dep ression.S. Franklin D. (Schroder is the movemen CommonCommon Law supporters from 32 stateCommo n Law su ppo rters from 32 st ates Common Law supporters from Common Law. June 1999) 69 . InIn 1933. Roosevelt ipo wers gr an ted t o F ran kli n D . The fed eral govern ment h as overst dic tators hip. by U .U. and perceived threats to the U. Fran klin D. Roosevelt tookIn 193 3. AsAs a safeguard . thethe country off the gold standard.S.dictat orship . BothBoth our systems starBoth our systems started out aBoth our systems started out at the same place.M ONEY Corruption of the Constitution ortho dox 1933 TheThe Common Law s discussion that is basedThe C ommon La w s disc us sion tha t is ba s e d on our undThe Common Law TheThe United States Constitution was basically the shackles placed on the federal govgovernmentgovernment by a sovereign peopl e. and established a new bth e co un try off t he gol d st an da rd . th e Co nst itu tio n p rovid es th at d urin presidentpresident may assume all powers. E U G E N EUGENE S C H R O D ER A N D M ICK I N ELLIS . the governmengovernmentgovernment has now achieved the ability to rule the people by statute or decree. Roo seve become become part of the U. Roosevelt took offic nation. Roosevelt felt that the econo mic calamity facing the countrynat ion. the definition of emergencies requiring total contro Since then . ThisThis country started as a constitutional republic. The fe de ra l gove r nm ent has over stepped Constitution. social imbalances. SiPre side nt Linc oln as s umed al l power s duri ng rebellion. America has continued underunder the unconstitutional dictatorship of war and emerund er the unco nstitut ional d ictatorsh ip of war and than 60 years later. These em er PresidentPresident Lincoln assumed all powers during the Civil War. it is an unconstitutional dictatorship.powers granted to Franklin D. some Bill Clinton). Whe n au tho ritaria n co ntro l is exeexertedexerted during times other than rebellion or invasion. Ro osevelt to ok o In 1933.nation. without thethe vote or consent of the ruled. The people p ossessed God-given rights. 1995 ). SinceSince then. the most important of these tales looks to the year 1933. (Schrod er is the movement s most importat 1-2. R oo seve History bears out Schroder s version of the story. that is.

the National Industrial Recovery Act was struck down as unconstitutional. Hyperinflation wou ld create so mething simidue to o ur lim ited gold reserves. despite specific instructions of the Constitution. bu t ra th er b eca use he fe lt it was in th e be st in ter est o f tpu pp et o f a grea t Jew i thethe p resident to kethe president to keep them. FreemenTrading with the Enemy Act. E ven his s to be Roosevelt s biggest m wantedwanted tow an ted to im p lem en t h iwanted to implement his programs so badly that he was willing to break all the rules. Roosevel con stitut ional adh erenc e rath er tha n ha ve the co unt ry crumb le int o ch aos. have influenced all law by forbidding the people to have a voigovernmen government since parts of the Constitution were suspended by this Act. S o. ByBy 1935. R oose velt ne ver inten ded to give up h is new p ower. appointeesappointees due to attritiappointees du e to attrition) re appointees due to attrition) reversed its decisions on New Deal federalfederal government by throwing out the original intent constitutionfederal governmen t by th rowin g out th e origina withwith a nwith a new interpre with a new interpretation that the Constitution was an evolutionary document. First. Roosevelt planned to change the resource that backed F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Freemen see this as proof that they are correct. t akes on eno rmou s gold standard. June 1999) 70 . and the New Deal governmental branches concurred. RoosevRoosevelRooseveltRo ose velt b elieve d t ha t t he gol d st an da rd ha d c rea ted a syst em t ha t wou ld ne ver p ro vide en o currencycurrency to fill the needs of our growing population. R oos eve lt de te rminefuture of the nation. many New Dea l policies wer Court. ButBut in the end. redefining the president s role. as i t t u goldgold st and ard. followed by the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The Bank Conservationinstead of emanating from them. the National Ind RetirementRetirement Act. many New Deal policies werBy 1935. The mscheme to increase the number of Supreme C toto be Roosevelt s biggest mistake.withwith many constitutional divisions of power. Freemen assert thatTrading with the E gove government. followed by the Agricultu going down in flames. InIn all likelihoodIn all likelihood. TheThe Bank Conservation ActThe Ba nk Con ser vati on Ac t ofThe Bank Conservation From the Gold Standard FreemenFreemen tell of a government captured by hostile forces. RooseveltRoosevelt saw the Supreme Co urt s actions as obstruRoosevelt saw the Supreme Court s actions as obstructing RooseveltRoosevelt byRoosevelt by a lRoo sevelt by a lan dslide. The legislation byby Roosevelt and passed by Congress was found constitutional by the Supreme Court. but knew that if he simply ordered more money to be the peop le. The 1937 1938 Sup reme Court (with newB ut in the end. as it proc la ma tion te mporarily c los ing t he banks and. RoTo resolve the problem. futurefuture of the nation. but knew th at if he simply ordered more mo ne duedue to our limited gold reserves. it did not matter. He believed that America could only escape the Great DepressionDep ression by sp end ing and investin g itDepression by spending and investing its way out ofDepression by spendin thethe people. The Bank Conserva proclamationproclamation temporarily closing the banks and. EmergencyRetirement Act. andand silver to all the assets controlled by than d si lve r to al l t he ass et s co nt ro ll ed by th e b an kin g and silver to all the asset ToTo resolve thTo resolve the problem. Even hito b e Roo sevelt s biggest mistake. including taking thwith many constitutional di coin money from Congress and giving it to himself. and the New Deal beca butbut the argument concerning original intent of the framer s versus a living. Hype rinfla t iini n Ge rman y in th ein Germa ny in th e po stwar 1 920 s when peo ple l iterall y had to ca rry tru nks full of the ir wort hless c ash just to buy a loaf of bread. takes on enormous sig TradingTrading with the Enemy Act. All three governmentalgovernmental branches concurred. First.government. it di d not mat t er. Ro osevelt determfuture of the na tion. Becau seBecau se th eBecause the Great Depression was threatening not only the nation s economic status but also the vBeca This is no t bec p u p p epuppet pu pp et o f a grea t Jew ish c on spir acy . TheCourt. inc Co nst itu tio n. the president to keep them. Ro osevelt att empted to pa ck the S upreme Cour t with h schemescheme to increase the number of Supreme Court justices to twelve.Court. breathing Conbut the argume nt c onc ernin g o from over. Co ngr ess refu sed to go a lo ng. In all l ikeliho od. takes on enormous significance togold standard. He believed that tgener at ions t o be bou understoodunderstood that the Constitution was a starting point for the federal government aunderstoo d that the C onstitution w wou ld b e allo wed t o evolve o ver the c entu ries to fit th e nat ion s need s. many New Deal policies were attaBy 193 5. by removing state s rights. a govFre eme n t el l o f a go vern men t c ap tu red by ho sti le insteadinstead of emanating from them. Roosevelt did not b elieve that the founding fathers generationsgenerations to be bound by a literal interpretation of the Constitution.

the local bank notifies the Federal Reserve that it needs $30. th e farmer gets pape r money tht h ethe the bank gives him a piece of paper showing a long account number on one side and another number next to it that represents how many dollars are credited to that account.000$30. andwritten on. for those who believe thethe one world conspiracy. h e goes t o th e lo cal b anke r and m or ev In response. In retu rn. Inst changingchanging the status of the Constitutc ha nging the s ta tus of the C ons titution. FreemenFreemen asFreemen assert tFreemen assert that the Bank Conservation Act was passed at the behest of banks. and has a scheme The evil-infil get it. and is the law. Today. and is backed by nothing more than the F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. say $30.conspiracy. the local bank n Re ser veReserve calReserve calls thReserve calls the World Bank composed of twelve international banks that are run by p RockefellersRockefellers and their Euro pean cou nterpartRockefellers and their Euro pean cou nterpart. Freemen are willing to commit murder because they disagree with his decision. to be InIn the end . This attack on the people was passed as part of the Trading with the Enemy Act.Then. Roosevelt s emerCongress passed the National Eme longerlonger be considered as such. The mom o ve m en tmovement temovement t ells Freem en th at the bankin g system is part of the great one wo rld governmen t con spir T h eThe evThe evil-infiltrated government stole all our gold and now wants the rest of our wealth. In o rder to a cco mplish this tasktask with some appearance of legality. th e gove rnm ent s th eft o f all th e gol d secret fo rce of Jew s who were ta king over th e worl d s governmen ts. Ro ose veIn the end. WhenWhen aWhen a farmer needWhe n a farm er ne eds mo ney t o kee p his o pera tion going. landland and equipment. This attack o isis clear with this Act the American people were defined as the enemy by their governmis clear with this Act the Americ now in the han ds of th e ban kers. IfIf not so d eadl y seriou s. In ourou r co nst itu tio na l l ibe rti es o ver 6 0 years a go b ecau se h e tho ugh t it was th e ri ghour constitutional liberties over 60 years country. it r eall y only because of the significance placed upon it by today s Freemen movement. An d religiousrel igio us t en ets of a Je wish ba nking c on spi rac y in tent on cap tu rin g th e go vereligious tenets of a Jewish banking con the people. But. TheThe confiscation of the people s propeThe confiscation of the people s property and removal The confiscation o attemptattempt to reduce them to serfdom. they had been written into permanency in tlonger be considered as such.000. for those who believe that Rdemocracy in action.changing the status of the Constitution. Roo seIn t he en d. 1933 b y a central bank) backed only writtenwritten on. Why Do Green Pieces of Paper Called Dollars Have Value? TheThe elimination of the gold standarThe el iminatio n of th e gold st and ard as p The elimination of the gold standard as p h o whow many people can explain why our current money has value or why we abandoned the gold show many people can ex somesome 60 years ago? Does anyone ever bother to ask. thetask with some appearance of legality. Al th ou ghAlthough the FreeAlthou gh the Freemen moAlth ou gh t he Fre eme n move men t s cl aim th at th e go vern men t h as b ee itsits belief that we have been operating under emergency powers during this time is accurate. L branches of government. Roosevelt s plan allowed for the printing of billions of dollars in new pa toto act against the people. the presidentask with some appearan existing law s someth ing he co uld onl y acco mplish thro ugh his n ew emer gency po wers. the international bankers turn on a printing press and c ons pira c y. The money is created out of thin air. Instead. t he int er $30.If not so deadly serious.000. TheThe government got the gold. theland and eq uipmen t. Why is this green paper worth anything at all.backedbacked by bac ked b y the mort gages and loa ns co ntro lled by th e nat ion s ban king syste m. who would be prevented to act agai nst th e p eo pl e. However. And by highlighting the Bank Consat te mp t t o r ed uc e t he m to ser fdo m. the government s theft of all tth e on e wo rld con spir acy . theThen. w ho wo ul d b e p reve nt ed fro m re mo vito bankersbankers and would have their property (gold-backed money) replaced with illbankers and would have their proper FederalFederal ReserF ed eral Res erve n otFederal Reserve notes (issued after March 9. June 1999) 71 . lan d an d eq u ipme nt. However. If not so deadly serious. these Freemen arguments would be funny. t Rockefellers and consp iracy. Then.000 in paper money. In re turn. ButBut who got the gold? In the overall scheme of thingB ut w ho got the gold? In the ove ra ll s c h eme of thi ngs. argue that Roosevelt s paper money ended the Great Depression. its be lief th at we have b ee Con gressCongress passed the National Emergency Termination Act. At t his poi nt. At this point. w hic h is fine wi th peopl e who beT democracydemocracy in action. which is fine with peoThe gove rnme nt got the gold.

R. LAmerican syste m of curren cy is illegal a langu agelanguage of his pleadings before the Court. WhileWhile it is difficult to understand why God-made gold is more acceptWhile it is difficult to understand why God cows. MoneyMon ey has b een t urne d firstMoney has been turned first into gold. At tacking the l egitimacy ob novelnovel argument. especially when the mere a c h certificat es. Thus.1 is an ap contendsco nt en ds t ha t fe de ral res erve no tes ar e n ot legacontend s that federal reserve notes are not legal tender. thenMoney has been turned first into gold. But if you were wealthy and forces upply house. eacheach purchase. fo od. PerhapsPerhaps sadly. So we created banks. how F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. under H. Once agaiwho ever co ntro ls th e pre certain amount of truth behind the paranoia. we h ave use d co ws. Greenstrlanguage of his pleadings before the Court. B ut if the fa rme r shoulhandling.certificates. 1933 TheThe Freemen argument that federal reserve notes do not constitute l The Freemen argument that federal reserve note PerhapsPerh aps t Perhaps the most bizaPerhaps the most bizarre basis for Greenstreet s position rests on the theory AmericanAmerican system of currency is illegal and unconstitution al. whoeverwhoever controls the presses must therefore control the money. Others have asserted such claims. 192 which abrogated the goldgold clagold clause and deprived the American Citizens of their Constitutional Article 1. Defendant Greenstreet s argument centers aroundaround his view that the Congarou nd h is view that the C ongress around his view that the Congress of th NATIONALNATIONAL BANKRUPTCY on June 5. At tackin g the l egitbeen accept able o r satisfactory.handl ing. After all. sto nes. Green street extra unt ilunt il he is given fun ds in siunt il he is given fund s in sil un til he is give n fu nd s in silver o r go ld . June 1999) 72 . it ico w s . co SectionSection 10. Freemen e ha nd lin g. it is easy to u ncows. then pape iintointo bits and bytes that fly through computer terminals and satellites at the speed of liinto bits and bytes that fly th conspirators can save their $20 with the stroke of a key and steal farms for free. lawful money and that the COINAGE ACT OF 110.contract. thethe tithe timthe time came to buy something. la w ful mone y a nd tha t the COI NAGE ACT CitizensCit izen s of t Citizens of their reCitizen s of their requ ired an d man date d..paperpaper and ink on it. Sectigold clau se an d de p 10. Yet we exercise th is faith millions of times a d ay. cows. it is easy to understand why Freemen have a hard time accepting the concept of tod computercomputer generated money. Presumablcontract. or so it seecomp uter generat ed mo ney. you were vulnerable to theft. we f supply somethingsupply something scarce like gold. so OverOver th e cen turie s. we figured ou t that wh atever we use for money h as to be somet hing with a limiOver time.. Freemen estimate that the real cost to the W orld Bank is about $20 for paper and ink on it. Th e idea beh ind t he mo vement s teac hings is th at gol d an d silver w ere cr eate d by God in limited sup ply an d are th erefore or dained to be the o nly tru e form of mone y.10.e. as money. and the world. TheThe id ea of mo ney h as alwa ys The idea of money has always been contrThe idea of money has always been co spiritualspiritual realm.J. So we started giving the gold. e s pe cia lly w he n the me rcha nt w ould juseach purchase. l awful m oney ) f contract. honovel argument. But if the farmer should find himself unable bad for a $20 investment. A National Bankruptcy 1996 federal district court case. T real mon ey. h e wi ll no t con beenbee n acc ept abl e or sa tisfacto ry. seashel l s OvOverOver time. Few a cts req uire as mu ch faith as a per sospiritu al re or her p ropert y which h as actua l value. It is not easy to carry around these bulky items. lawful mne ver be e n provide d w ith funding (i . Others have asserted such claims. 1933.e. grainO ver the c enturies . June 5. FreemenFreemen draw tFreemen draw the line at th is juncture. o f the United States Constitution . which is far more convenient. places with secure vaults to store our gold. asserting that only paper money backed b y gold or silver real real money. especially merchants our gold certificates. So we started giving the merchants our g of convenience. w e have used cows. This was the birth of paper money. ofof exchange as moof exchange as money. this wild idea of how the monetary system works is not all that far from being correct. because it failed to give h reasonsreasons that filing a UCC-1 is an appropriate remedy for him to pre a sons tha t fili ng a UCC.sil ver coina ge. Greenstre nevernever been provided with funding (i. its value is based on paper. But if the farmeh an d ling. born out s om ethi ng scarce l ike go WeWe gave our banks golWe gav e our ba nks gold. of exchange money. because it failed to give him money in silver or gold. and banks gave us paper certificates that w We quickly figured out that it did not make sense to go to the bank for purcha s e . sea shel ls. Aft er all . a ndWe gave our banks gold. Few acts require as much faith aspiritua l real m.

ButBut to Freemen. This Court will also reject Mr. Ban ks these these codes placed directly on our hands.U. Free(666).). an d a re r ep la cin g codes inten sifies. one trRegardless of whoe ver contro ls the co mpute rs that sen d ou t bits and bytes co ntrol s the mon ey. They believe this evolution in money withe s e c ode s pla ced dir ect ly on our han guiseguise that smart cards can be stolen. The Mark of the Beast The Future of Money AtAt th e cen ter of th e mon ey con troversy is a At the center of the money controversy is a At th e cen ter o f the mo ney goldgold worth more gold wort h mo re th an q uart z or se ashe lls o r lead . U. a matter of cultural perspectiThis is a societal illusion. 22 4.Su pp .(666). 91 2 F . IItIt would seem that the money controversy is only going to escalate over the next fIt would seem that the mon ey co bo mb ings bombings of ATMs in California in early 1997bombings of A TM s in C a lifornia in e arly 1997 bombings of ATMs Antichrist sAntic hrist s elect ronic mone y. Held: financing statements fraudulent and void ab initio) (Citations omitted. TodayToday we operate in a global economy that is pushing us to a global cuToday we operate in a global economy that is changingchanging its shape. a matter of cuThis is a societal illusion.S.S . It always has. HomeHome AdmHome AdministrHome Administration for declaratory and injunctive relief in response to UCC-1 financing state byby borrowerby borrowers by bo rrowe rs against fed eral em plo yees wh o were named as deb tors by Co mmon L aw co urt b b borrowersborrowers were never provided with lawful money under the original loans since they werbor r ower s wer e never p gold or silver. Banks will turn even smart cards w ill be deeme d inco nvenien t. su ed t wo fo 912 F.D. 224 .S. Elec tronic cash in t he form of smachanging its shape. Barter societies have alreAntichri GoldGold and silver are once again becGo ld an d si lve r ar e o nc e aga in b ec om ing o Gold and silver are once again becomin flying under the radar of the Satan-controlled Internal Revenue Service. and are replco de s kn ow no na tio na lit y o r la ngu age . 1 99 6) ( U. but permanent (invisible to the naked eye) marks on ouguise that smart cards can be s be. This Court will also rejectrejected. 229 (N. and it always will. Tex.rejected.Su pp. Elect codescodes know no nationality or language. T ex. Electronic cash ichanging its shape. electronic money is the last But to Freemen. v. w F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Greenstreet. Grrejected. June 1999) 73 . 199 6) (U. 2 29 (N. Regard lessRegardless und eniabl e of whether you see electronic money as progress or prophecy. it isgol d w ThisThis is a societal illusion. a move to place all commerce in the hands of the Antichrist. Bart er socie ties hAntichrist s electronic money. electronic money is the last step in the BiBut to Fr (666).rejected. D. if all o f them a re mad e by G od? In ou r real ity. a move to place all commerce in the hand eveneven smart cards will be deemed inconvenient. This Court will believes that Defendant s position is simply irrational.

June 1999) 74 . InitiallInitiallyInitially. if the Freemen filed $10 million worth of bogus liens against people they haIn other words. in addition to the death penaltypubl ic officials guilty of lawlaw courts decided to impose huge liens agailaw courts decided to impose huge liens against the prop ertlaw courts decided thenthen back the Freemen money orders and checks in their new then back the Freemen money orders and checks in th American people are backed by the Federal Reserve notes. and second to only form of money the Freemen actually were losing their pro perty with a mean s to pay the ir debt and avoid foreclosure in o ur system. SinceSince the systems were the same. if the Freemen inin their one supreme Court. th e F ree men wo ul d l ogi Since the system UniformUniform Commercial Code that are designed to regUniform Commercial Code that are designed to regulate bUnifo when it comes to following the letter of the law and the UCC. wh o pro mise We the People was a patr thatthat for a mere $50 0 they co uld receive millions from tthat for a mere $50 0 they co uld receive millions from th follo wers. being a Sovereign separ legallylegally create a separate banlegally create a separate banking systemlegally create a separate banking system. thsimilar banking system? Expanding on thei by mon ey bu t by th eir po litical a nd re ligious ide olo gies.governme Schwasinger and his cohorts eventually made off with $2. lookin g for answers to t heir eco nomic w mee tin g. wanted to hear. whforming their own bankin themthem from the federthem from the federal gthem from the federal government.for-pro fit group st arted by Ro y Schw asinger. These These Freemen claimed that thTh ese Fre eme n c la ime d t ha t t he ir b an kin g The se Fr eem en c laim ed t hat th eir b ank ing thethe Unit ed S tate s had itthe United States had its ownthe U nited State s had it s own ban king system. The IRS accepted Freemen doc ume nts a s pa yme nt. amount of the tax debt. Th ey c on veThe Free me n dec ide d to mix j usti ce wi t h banki ng. the FreSin ce th e sy ste ms w ere th e sa me. TheThe purpose of the FThe purp ose of the Freeme The purpose of the Freemen system of liens and money orders w Re ser veReserve Notes out of the United States system so that they could then be recon vertedReserve Notes out of the United Sta onlyonly form of money the Freemen actually recognize as legitimate). YouYou might ask that if the Freemen believYo u m ight ask th at if th e F ree men be lie veYou might ask that if the Free similarsimilar banking system? Expanding on their We the People predecessors. TheTh e Free men de cid ed to mix just ice wit h b an kin g. the Fr eem en wer e e orde rs that were n ow b acked by th e pro pert y of the corru pt o fficials.followers. th e Mo ntan a Freem en s na as well.A NEW BANKING SYSTEM W e We th e Peo ple was a pa triot. They decided to emulate the Federal Reserve by foformingforming their own banking system.Initially. not greed. BuB u tBut the Fre But the Freemen s ultimate motive was politics. They declared themselves to be a sovereign township. OrganOrganizersOrganizer s oOrganizers of We the People claimed they had won a class-action lawsuit against the governmentgovernm ent tha t ha d resu lted in a mu ltib gove rnment tha t ha d re s ulte d in a multibillion dolgovernment that had governmentgove rn men t h ad ill egall y ab an do ne d t he gogove rnment ha d ille ga lly aba ndone d the gol d st andar d. documentsdocuments as payment. the Freemen s banking system actually worked. and promptly sent the group a check for the overpayment. looking for answers to their economic woes in thfollowe rs. As part of their sentences. the Freemen were entitled to write $10 milliin the ir one supre me C ou r t . In their minds.5 million that has never been recovered. InIn other words. TheThe We the People antigovernment message was just what Schweitzer and the MontThe We the People antigove Schweitzer sSchweitzer s Montana F reemen believe that the Federal Re serve s wortSchweitzer s Montana Freemen believe nothingnothing more than the debts of the American people. All they nee print. Th ey took th e We the P eople t eachings and exp anded upon them. Credit card companies accepted Freemen The IR S accept ed Fr eem en mon They ran their school as an effort to estab lishestablish similar Common Law courts and banking systems across the country in the hope that theiestab lish similar C om F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. p u b lpub licpublic officials guilty of treason.

on the judge and on the county attorney. the Freemen goal of a white Christian America could finally be realized. June 1999) 75 . One of the reasons the governm groupgroup was preparing to carry out the death sentences its Commongroup w a s pre pa ring to ca rry out t he deat h sentenc officials. the order icommis kill. but they did not stop atat paper. One of the reasons that p ap e r. We got one on the deputy. We go c o mcommissioners &We recommissioners &We re going to have a standing order. Is such an orde r curre ntly o utsta ndin g against you or ot her co unt y/city o fficials? F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.wouldwould eventually cause the collapse of what they believe is an unconstitutional totalitarian would eventually cause the co the collapse occurred. Schweitzer told his fellow Freemen &We got a warrant on t h ethe sheriff. Anyone obstructing justice. O ne of the re as ons the gove rnment movat paper. TheT h e M o nThe Montana Freemen did more to further paper terrorism than any other group. PriorPrior to the standoff at Justus Township. and on the count he sher i ff .

we would be first on the bandwagon to do so. FreemenFreemen are very particular in the Fre e me n a re ve ry pa rtic ular in the s peFreemen are very particular in the spellin anyany other speany other spelling as referrany other spelling as referring to them. The following portions of a document we received from a Freeman defen dan t expla in why sp ellin g matters 41 ap-pel-la-tion. alternative spellings are simpl peoplepeople and not to the Freeman defendant actually in court.000 cash only bond to secure the presence of the defendant in court has so far confor a $50. In their mind. DespiteDespite a Freeman defendant s perceived notion that the government has chosen to spell hiDespite a Freem an d e namnamename in a certain way as a secret sign of the coming one world government. While at first blush it is tepeople and no t to the Freeman thisthis word-game battle to be anothethis word-game battle to be another example of a this word-game batt le to be a noth er e in their world the spelling of their identity has significant religious connotation. Capitalization Counts The Mark of the Beast FreemenFreeme n Ch ristFree men C hristia n Ide ntit Freemen Christian Identity believers act only in a character and capacity as underunder the jurisdiction of the Revised Code of Washington or a city code. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.W HAT IS A CHRISTIAN APPELLATION? Arraignments Let the Games Begin Unle ssUnl ess Fre emen pap erwo rk is pre vioUnless Freemen paperwork is previously reUnless Freemen paperwork is previo firstfirst knowledge that he or she is dealing with a Freefirs t know le dge tha t he or s he is de a ling wit h a Fr eem en def endfi clerkclerk or t he jud ge will typical ly begin by ca lling the c ourt c alend ar and askiclerk or the judge will typically begin by affirmativelyaffirmatively.affirmatively. We have even su appellation appellation onap p ellatio n only to be doomappellation only to be doomed by the computer system (once a automaticallyautomatically turneaut omat icall y tur ned into capit automatically turned into capital letters) and face vehement oppo hehe or she is simply not the person described in the all-caps name and should nohe or she is s imply not t he per son descri bed FreemenFreemen see the court s claimed inability to spell the appellation correctly in itsFreeme n see t he co urt s claimed inabil positive of Sata n at wo rk. w e c a n ta ke a good bre a th of a ir a t oumatters. And plea little consternation on our part. The extra court time wasted on this issue isis sim pl y not wo rth th e figh is simply not worth the fight. we can take a goo littlelittle consternation on our part. These laws. Pe rhap s with an u nde rstan din th at w ill a rise in th e pr ose cut ion of F matte rs. WeWe o ffer no solu tioW e o ffer n o solutionWe offer n o sol ution to th is dilemma. and wish pr osecu tors p atienc e since t his thattha t will arise in the pro secu tion of Fre emen defen dan ts. 1.matters. fromunder the jurisdiction of the Re cancan have no binding effect on a Sovereign Citizen since tcan have no binding effect on a Sovereign Citizen since these recognizedrecognized God-inspired document. June 1999) 76 . or District and Mu nicipal Court Information System (DISCIS). When a name is called and a response is given that the probablypro bab ly ha ve the beginn ings of a l ong ar raigprobab ly have the beginnings of a lon g arraignmeprob ably h ave the b egi forfor a $50. a name. When a name affirmatively. title. we can take a good breath o f air ama tters . Washington s computerized court docketing system as developed by the Oa matter of convenien t h ethe the A dministr ator for the Cou rts un der th e direc tion o f the Jud icial Informa tion S ystem Co mmittee sh ows a defendant sdefen dan t s defendant s name in all-capital letters on any calendar. or other reports printed through the usde thethe Superior Co urt Management Informthe Sup erior Court Management Informa the Superior Court Management In (JUVIS). docket. act of naming.000 cash only bon Freemen defendants to co me forward. And please rememlittle consternation on our room for interpretation. WEBSTER S E NCYCLOPEDIC U NABRIDGED D ICTION ARY OF THE E NGLISH LANGUAGE 72 (1989). 2. IfIf it were possible to fix the court s system to allow upper and lowIf it were possible to fix the court s system to FreemanFreeman defendant. the reality is far lename in a certain way as aa matta matter of convenience. or designation. the arraignment of these defendants is far from over. We havis simply not worth the fight.

and called their name Adam theythey were createthey were created. Accordingly. an exhaustive research of the subject reveals that the altered. anPentecost.000. Since the sa me all c apital s nome martialmartial law. and We ar e in th e seaso n. The Beast s system is RomeRome holds all of the decrees. receive it. It also was given as the name of His posterity. This can only mean the publicly st CaCath olic Catholic church s unifying of all Christian and non-Christian religions and governmCatholic church s unif under Rome and the Vatican by the year 2. He uBook of Life at the begin first letter and using lower case letters thereafter. Tho s TherThereThere are many There are many biblical references to those whose names are written in the Book of LifeLife throughout Revelation. as has THE K KINGSKINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. June 1999) 77 . the martial law. or b lasphe my. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. The Bishop of Rome. Madison s [5 U. t he al l cap itals na mes and word s must h ave prec eded translationtranslation is very dangerous and sets the stage for the Antichrist and his beastly government based upon emergency war time. Adam prop er up per an d lo wer case style. o r no m degu err e.Ed. blasphemous namename is the key to the Roman na me is the ke y to the R oma n C a tholic s a ndname is the key to the Roma governmentgovernment by the yeagove rnment by the ye a r 2. In c ont rastlaw.FreemenFreemen believe the premise thFre e me n be lie ve the pre mis e tha t the W ord ofFreeme n be lieve the premise t law. 2 L. pa pa l bul l s and t r eat i es neRome control of that Beast. Those who give the name claim ownership over thoswar. th e n a me E vcase letters. S THETHE GRETHE GREAT. and is spelled in upper and lower casecase letters. HeBook of Life at the beginning of time. Everywh ere th a wwhitewhite man or of a place. It is truly a name of blasphemy when it is given and claimed by the Beast. th toto install the archbishopto install the archbishop and toto install the archbishop and to proclaim that the year 2. Everyw proper noun or name. One c an o nly co nclu de th translated. THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF T EAR TH). it is BookBook of Life at the beginning of time. InIn fact. TheThe first white man s name given toThe first white ma n s name given to Him by The first white man s name TheThe worThe word adam ap The word adam appears elsewhere in the Bible. Sinc andand Adam s name and lineage is not. femalefemale created hefemale created h e them. papal bulls anR ome holds a ll of the de c re e s .law. A d d it i on a l ly . Additionally. an d th eir ene mies.tran slated .war. th e pre vious ju A ll prophes y is fulfill ed.000 government by the year 2. The stage is set for the end. p erjury. It is be lieved th at th is was do ne b y the t ransla tors for emph asis. Ath e B ibl e fo r gu ida nc e ab ou t o ne s val id n ame . the name and lower case letters to indicate a name or a proper noun. See the four gospels and RevelatiK ING S A N D LORD OF LORDS. (Cranch) 13 7. it is obvious that when God wrote and Adam s name and lineage is not. female created he them. lie. T THE GREAT. the all cmartial law. the name Eve. TheTh e al l cap ita ls n ame is a w ar n ame . One cname as shown above. and their enemies. G e n es i s 5:2 5:2 It is a proper noun. Additionallc a se l e tt e rs .S. OtherOther non-English versions of the Bible do not use all capital Other non-English versions of the Bible do namename as shown above. Malewhite man or of a place. and We ar e i n t he thethe e stabl ishth e estab lis h m e nt of the nathe establishment of the nation of Israel in 1948. It is given to th ose wh o w age war. one must look thethe Bible for guidance about one s valid name. AnAn examination of the original HebrAn examination of the original Hebrew also givesAn examination of the o properproper u pper an d lower ca se style. The Bishop of Romeof Archbishop Brun nel in Seattle. MaMarbury v. Everywhere that thprop er no un o r name. Since the sa me all c apital s nome ncla ture is utran slated . and the year of unity. and the yeaPentecost.000 is th Pentecost.Pentecost. but it is an adjective or a noun. AllAll p rop hesy is fu lfilled . not a properprop er nou n or n ame. and blessed them. Since the Antichrist s church is spelled in all capitalLife throughout Revelation. In contrast. martial law and siege. An y sp el lin g spellin g must therefo re be a frau d. A dam s proper upper and low both written from right to left in the original Hebrew language. This goal was publicly ofof Archbishop Brunn el in Seattle .000. AA p eA perusal through the Bible shows that when People s names occur they arA perusal through the Bible sh writtenwrit ten with th e fiwritten with the first letter written with the first letter capitalized and all other lette ExceptionsExceptions to this do occur in the King James Version of the BiblExcep tions t o th is do o ccur in the K ing hashas been spelled with ahas been spelled with all capital lhas been spelled with all capital letters. One canname a s shown abo ve. 6 0 (1803 )] proclamationproclamation that the United States Constitution is the hiproclamation that the United States Constitutio nono operatno o perat ive effect sino operative effect since the land is an inanimate object.

and may deny Our salvation. their request is Fed. without err Our Baptismal records. 10(a).R. 888 F. orAre We to accept th e all capitals. type faces. 5 th Ed .lie. The name is a lie. Neither RCW 10. 643-44 (N. We cande huma niz e a nd sat anize t he populac name. Dubuque. at 19 1. 10(a) c ons ide re d that Fe d.name. withounames are written exactly. As an aside. the authority ciam ended so t hat t h the irtheir request is Fed. 10(a ) preve nted dconside red th at Fe typestypes types of printers. without err names are written exactly. nor CrRLJ 4. not the way in which names are written.1(d).P. you are encourname which is not Our name. and is blasphemy? Emphalie.Civ. n captions. Look 3:5-7.C iv. The rule by its very ccapt ions.R .Civ. CrR thethe co urt minu tes and added to th e charging doc ument indicate t hat d ifferent fonts. T h eT h e vile n o mThe vile nom deguerre that the courts and the Beast government system uses to dehumanizedehumanize and satanize the populace is blasphemous.C iv.P.R. which means to pursue.060. SeSeeSee B L A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y. 10(a)their request is Fed. print ing or ha ndw riting. June 1999) 78 . without any regand criminal. Examine your license. Jaeger v. AreAre We to accept the all capitals. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. or st yles of ca pital ization for name s of part ies. A federal ju do cu men t cap tio n.40.any imp aa ch argi a charging documen t maa charging document mandate the use of certain fonts. T he ru le by it s vnames of parties. authorized).1(c) which require the defendant s true name to be enteredRCW 10. Iowa 1995) (Foo tnotes omitted). without any regard to their corporate or ind consideredconsidered that Fed . and is blasphemy? Emphaticalllie. bastardized. me th od s of pr int ing o r h an dw rit ing.R.D. TheThe reasoning in Jaeger is applicable to Washington statutes and court rules. Jaeger s motions to strike are denied as to imp ro pe r ca pt ion ing.P. sta tin g InIn both of his motions. Nei ther Cr R 2. typ e faces. GodGod made no m istakes or er rors w hen He wro te Ou r nam es in th e Bo ok o f LifGod made no mistakes or errors namesnames are written exactly. ThTheThe court finds Jaeger s arguments concerning capitalization otherwise specious. 10 (a). Look at t 3:5-7. and is blasphemy? Emphatically No! I pray move you to an understanding of what God s Word has to say concerning Our name. without an and criminal.R. Examine your court papers. Any alteration blasphemes God. It is always altered.Civ. CrR 4. Look at namename that lenders give. types of printers. To do so is tn ame . Jai namename which is not Our name. types o f ink. or styles of capitalization for namesnames of pa rties.P.Civ.P. captions. the recipient becomes fodder for Satan and his helpers. types of ink. 640 . Frequently. Jaeger contends that defendants violated FeIn both of his motions. To do s o is to invite the wra th name. Jaeger contends that d capitalizicap italizin gcapitalizing allcapitalizing all of the letters of his name in the caption of their answers to his comp JaegerJaeger asserts that the alteration was not Jaeger asserts that the alteration was not one Jaeger asserts specificallyspec ifically perm itted in Fed .Su pp. D theythey blaspheme that worthy name by the which ye are called? James 3:5-7.WhenWhen God Wh en G o d s C hos en PWhen God s Chosen People accept the name of the beast through his ma namename (all capname (all capital name (all capital letters). The ru le by inames o f parties. Th e co ur t d oe s no t b elieve thatthat the cited au thority support that the c ited au tho rity sup port s Jathat the cited authority supports Jaeger s proposit citedcited page cite d p age o f cite d p age o f B L A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y have to do with th e fina nci al b asis o f corporation.P. methods of printing or handwriting.R. not the way in which they are printed.0 60.40. Ja eger asse rts th at All c apit specifically permitted in changeschanges the status of an indich an ges t he sta tu s of an ind ivid ua l si gnchanges the status of an individual signific pl ain tiffplaintiff is not) and changes the status of an individualpla intiff is no t) an d ch anges t he st atu s of authorized). 10(a). The courtcourt routinely capitalizes the names of all parties before this court in alcourt routinely capitalizes the names andand criminal. is appl i cabl e t o Washi ng RCWRCW 10. or sty les of cap ita liz ation for na mes of p art ies h ave anyany impact upon an individual s true name. which is the charge filed by the prosecutor. To do so is to in vite the w rath of God . Neithea ny impa c t upon an individua l s true na me . blasphemed. or altere Are We to ac cept the a ll cap it lie. Capitalization Counts A Secular Challenge and Our Response FreemenFreemen often complain about their names being in all capital letters and demand that court captionFr eemen of ten co amendedamended so that their name is written in upper and lower case letters. As an aside. you persecute. typestyp es o f pr int ers .

at 96. or the power of another. constituting common law seal(s). 17. SinceSince court caleS in ce co u rt c ale nda rs doSince court calendars do not correctly spell (capitalization) nor use comm Capitals Indicate a Corporation? WeWe have been told that one o We have been told that one of the style mWe have been told that one of the style m namedname d is a co rpo ratio n.. owns his or her first and middle name. ) 42 Sui Juris. The source of the style manual is unknown.i. John Qui. a wife under the power of her husband. The reason for this practice is that an individu own s owns his or her first and m owns his or her first and middle name. Sui Juris FreemenFreemen ofF reemen o ften s ign Freemen often sign their name followed by the ph rase sui juris. Sin named is a corporation.A Freeman s Name Why First Middle. Alieni Ju ris. Having ca pacity to manage one s own affa irs.e. B lack s Law D ictionary 1602 (4 th ed. F reemen app aa Sovereign Citizen. Johni. 42 While such a d impactimpact in our system. Public or John Quincy: of Public. e. Vol. John Quincy.g. or guardians hip. some Freemen will give their middle namthis belief. Lat. See Trespassing on My Venue The Flag. 19 68). o r su bje ct t o th e a uth ori ty.e. Since Freemen are human beings and be in all capital letters. an infant who is und er the authority of his father or guardian. some Freemen will give their mthis belief. Id. U nde r the co ntro l. some Freemen wi will introduce themselves as John Quincy of the family Public. supra. FreemenFreemen assert that the Book of Life (God s pre-determined list of thoFreemen assert that the Book of Life (God ofof Go d) l ists t hei r ap pel lat ion as Fi rst a nd Mid dl e foof G od) lists their appe lla tion a s Firs t and M iddl e fol l owed of God) lists previouspreviou s discussio n on the imp orta nce a nd t rue mea ning of ou r system s desipre viou s disc ussio n o n t he i mpo rt appellation. not under legal d isability to act for one s self. The las thisthis belief.e. Last? FreemenFreemen will frequently separate their first and middle names from what we coFre e me n w ill f requent l y separat e t he i.e. possessing full social and civil rights. A similar tactic is employed by Freemen use of the flag on their person or on documents presen ted to ou r system.. La t. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. The Common Law Seal Your Thumbprint ManyMany Freemen documents have a thM a ny Free me n docume nts ha ve a thumbpMany Freemen documents have a consideredconsidered a common law seal. Since Fnamed is a corporation. Issue 12 at 11 (Decemb ( Original( Original Affidavits we re du ly witn essed an d law fully signed by Affiants ( Original Affidavits we re du ly thumbprints or same. June 1999) 79 . The term is contrasted with Sui Juris. of a not her pe rso n. Freemen assert that the person charged with a crime is not the Freeman defendant before the court. Freemen apparently use this moniker to give our system notice timpact in ou r system. not under any legal disability. See The American s BThe Am e r ic an s Bulle tin. Of his own right.

US Titles and Codes call DC the United States The Constitution of the United States Empha sizes De mocr acy which is the next t hing to Socialism which is another form of Communism. and to the Republic for which it stands. 1871. Guam. This gove rnment is god. Sovere ign Citizens are create d by G od and a re answera ble to their M aker who is Omnipote nt. and streams. 1999) <http://www. No state of Emergency and is not at war Rep rese nts its own s upp ose d so vere ignty am ong nations. a nd its enclaves for forts and arsenals. These values are ever changing at their whim.S.gemworld. a nd the Constitution in 1787 The Artic les o f Co nfede ratio n are s till in op erati on.A.htm>. The Cons titutio n was add ed to restr ict and limit the federal venue. US continues to be in a permanent state of national emergency . over to a foreign government such as the United Nations by Executive Orders or by decree Expands and conquers by deceit and fraud. Democracy means Rule by Queen of England Gives away our rights. under the Emergency War Po wers A ct and the Re construc tion Acts Ruled from the District of Columbia under Masonic Rule. The Tr uth as I s ee it (visited June 6. parks. a nd values of those in its jurisdiction. the u SA go vernm ent purc hase d 20 . See Jac k Sle vko ff. written from a Freemen perspective of their and our government.000 Bible s for d istrib ution.43 We hope that the following reference Freemen terminolo u. US possessions.com/USAvsUS. and the Incorporation of the District of Columbia by Act of February 21. The Constitution for The united States of America I pledge allegiance to The united States of America. land." Republic means Government of the people The rights o f the pe ople are it s ma in conc ern and maintains all states as Republics Government restricted by the Constitution to the 10 miles square called Washington DC. Start ed w ith the G ettys burg A ddre ss in 1 864 . June 1999) 80 . will assist you. 43 U. Rep rese nts the Ame rican S ove reign C itizens and the Republics among nations.S.A. This Mar tial La w gove rnment is a fict ion ma naging civil affairs. DESCRIPTION In The united States of America A Republic U. the A rticle s of C onfed erati on in 17 78. In 182 0. One nation under God. Uses words of art to deceive the people. Having a de jure form of go vernment (lawfu l) Cre ated by S ove reign C itizens Started w ith the Dec laration of Indep endence in 177 6.. DESCRIPTION In the United States A Corporation of England in 1871 [To incorporate means to become a part of something bigger] A de facto gov ernment (unlawfu l) Cre ated by me rchants and b anke rs thro ugh President Lincoln and his cohorts [by acts of treas on] They a lso force d the Sou th and other Sta tes to secede. It sets the mo rals.S.F REEMEN-SPEAK A REFERENCE CHART FreemenFreemen terminology is often difficult to understand.S. (Senate report 93 -549 (19 73)) u. The Bible is the Basis of all Law and moral stand ards . su ch as Pu erto Rico .. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.

Judicial GOVERNING BODY The President (a Caesar) rules by Executive Order (unconstitutio nal) Congress and the Courts are under the President as branc hes o f the Exe cutiv e D epa rtment Congress sits by resolution not by positive law The Judges are actually referees CITIZENS Natura l-born Citizens of a sta te of the union a re Sovereign. changed the meaning of T he Trad ing with the Enemy Act of December 6. Born a s So vere igns CITIZENS US citizens (C hattel Prop erty) are b elligerents in the fie ld and are sub ject t o its j urisd ictio n (Was hington D C) They are 14th Amendment citizens implemented by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 for the newly freed slaves Prisoner of war name Ficti tious nom de guerre name for a no n-living entity JOHN DOE (note all caps) John C.) Vote is a recomme ndation only U. and voluntarily. Unless that right is given up knowingly.S. the pe ople do no t resi st su bmis sion a nd terminate by restoring lawful civil courts. which is no name at all a fict ion) First Name: JOHN M i d dl e In it ia l : C .D.S. Christianson (note upper and lower case . processes and procedures under authority of the inherent politica l powers of the peo ple GOVERNING BODY Three s epara te De partments 1. citizens were declared enemies of the U. by F. by Executive Order No. Executive 2. etc. credit cards. L a st N a me : D O E A fictional persona being surety for the debt as a fiction in commerce (look at the name on driver s license s. State of w ar or emergency exists 2. intentionally. Legislature can enact positive law 3. or 3. 1933 F. Freemen.R. Doe (note middle initial.D. 1917 by changing the word withou t to cit izens within the United States Jud icial Na me (A ppe llatio n) Flesh and blood name of a living soul John James. deeds. socia l secu rity cards . proper by Rules o f English Gramma r) Christian Name: John James Family Name: Christianson Vote co unts like o ne on the Boa rd of Dire ctors F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and Freeborn. R. bank accounts. 2040 and ratified by Congress on March 9. June 1999) 81 . the President does not terminate martial or emergency powers by Executive Order or decree.Adjournment of Congress sine die occurred in 1861 Still existing as long as: 1.

Sovereign Citizens created the states (Republics) and are Sovereign over the states The Republics and the people created the uSA government and are sovereign over the uSA gove rnment JUSTICE SYSTEM Jud icial De partm ent Separa te from all o ther Dep artments Judicial venue Common Law Court(s) JUSTICE SYSTEM Jud icial Branc h unde r the Pre side nt It is not sepa rate Federal (feudal) venue Equity Courts. Merchant Law. m atching f unds . T he Birth Certificate is an unrevealed Trust Instrument originally designed for the children of the newly fre ed bla ck sla ves a fter the 14th Ame ndment . T his proc ess conv erts a man s life . free mail delivery. T he certifica te is recorded at a County Recorder. labo r. Codes 3. Rules 4. Marshal Law . and property to an asset of the US government when this pe rson re ceiv es a bene fit from the government such as a driver s license. Do no t Offe nd Any one 2. Honor all co ntracts Cons titutio n is the Sup reme Law of the land Lawful or Unlawful Counc il (Lawyer) In-Laws (like Son-in-law) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.A. food stamps. Polit icians of ea ch sta te for med a new go vernm ent and incorporated it into the federal US government corporation and are therefore under its ju risdi ction. Guam. funding. Summary C ourt Martial proceedings. Titles and Codes State refers to U. possessions such as Puerto Rico. reve nue s haring. Military Law . One way is b y a Birth Ce rtificate when the baby s footprint is placed thereon before it to uches the land. etc.S. State of Wa shington corp orate Was hington Washington State The corporate states are controlled by the US government by its purse strings such as grants. June 1999) 82 .S. Municipal Courts. The US has the ab ility to tax and regulate commerce. Statutes No s tare dec isis. then sent to a Secretary of State which sends it to the Bureau of Cens us of the C ommerce Dep artment. but is not Covers a vast number of volumes of text that even attorneys cannot absorb or comprehend such as 1. This person bec omes a fict ional p erso na in co mmerc e. disaster relief. etc.u. U. and administrative ad hock tribunals (similar to Admiralty/Maritime) now governed by The Manual of Courts Martial (under Acts of War) and the War Powers Act of 1933 All legal actions are pursued under the color of law Color of law means appears to be law. etc.S. People became surety for the debt by a number of different way s. N o prece dent binds any cou rt beca use they have no la w standa rd of abs olute right and wrong by which to measure a ruling what is law today may not be law tomorrow Legal or Illegal Attorney Attorney -at-law (lice nsed age nts of the co urt) The 7th A mendment gua rantees a trial by jury according to the rules of the common law when the value in controversy exceeds $20 Commo n Law has two re quireme nts 1. STATES state when used by itself refers to the Republics of The united States of America All of the states are Republics The Republic of Washington Washington republic Washington state or just Was hington STATES In U.S. Regu latio ns 2.

S. the total debt was $2. The U . the national debt was just under $6 trillion ($5. b ut whe n a uS A fla g was flown it was one of the f ollow ing: 1. 1999.827. Ball on tope of pole (last cannon ball fired) 5.337.toptips.792. No da maged p roperty is necess ary u. rule. and liberties Bill of Rights. Spear o n top of po le Prior to the 19 50 s. Eagle on top of pole 5. white sta rs on blu e ba ckgro und 2. 1984. regulation. and fundamental rights are all protected Due Process is required Writ of habeas corpus Innocent until prove n guilty Jurors ju dge the law a s well as the facts U. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Co nstitutional Rights. DEBT None! DEBT Trillions o f Dollars First bankruptcy was in 1863 In 1865. Gold fringe along its borders (called a badge ) 3.S. freedoms. personally. Restricts freedoms and liberties US ci tizens are a t the me rcy o f gove rnment a nd courts Due Process is optional Sometimes Gestapo-like tactics without reservation Gui lty unt il pro ven inno cent The juror j udge s only the fac ts. (Rona ld Re agan.593. una lienable rights. Others say it is not a flag at all but fiction Appears to be an American flag but has one or more of the f ollow ing: 2. Gold b raided c ord (tass el) hanging from pole 4.com/debtclock. June 1999) 83 . N ationa l Deb t Clock (visited June 6.026. Military fla g Horizontal strip es.00). Maintains rights. blue stars on white bac kground last flown be fore the C ivil War 44 As of 9:50 PM on June 6.682. code. and have a stash of gold and silver besides? TAXATION Limits on taxation Direct taxes such as Income taxes are unlawful Indirect taxes such as excise tax and import duties are lawful TAXATION No limit on taxation Income taxes are le gal and eve r incre asing Other taxation such as inheritance taxes are legal IRS s 1040 forms originated from the 1040 Bonds used for funding Lincoln s War 1863 was the first year an income tax was ever used in US history The IRS is a collection arm of the Federal Reserve. etc.S. G race C ommiss ion Repo rt Would it not be nice to be co mpletely out of de bt. T he jud ge give s the statute. No rights except Civil Rights. Peace flag Vertical stripes.html>. 1999) <http://www.5344 A portion was funded by 1040 Bonds to run not less than 10 nor more than 40 years at an interest rate of 6% Memb ers of C ongress a re the officia l Trus tees in the bankruptcy of the US and the re-organization All ind ividu al Incom e T ax rev enue s are gone before o ne nickel is spent on s ervices taxpaye rs expe ct fro m gove rnment. state re public fla gs were mo stly flown.331.Must ha ve da maged p arty Comp els pe rformance. It is not listed as a government agency like other government agencies FLAG American Flag FLAG Not an American flag Some say it is a flag of Admiralty/Maritime type jurisdiction and is not supposed to be used on land.A.

Medic are 3. Pursuit of Happiness 4. U. Medic aid 4. Eve ryone bec omes take rs and there a re no givers. therefore y ou are holder in due course for the TV Birth Certifica te is require d. The C orporate State bec omes the third party to yo ur unio n. Liberty 3. RECORDS Ex-officio clerks County Clerk is also C lerk of the s uperior c ourt (a court of c ommon law) a nd courts of record Record s are a lso ke pt by C itizens suc h as in a family Bible RECORDS County Clerk Recorders Office created by statute to keep track of this government s holdings which are applied as collate ral to the increa sing debt. and whatever you conceive is theirs and becomes their property in commerce. schoo l) 5. It puts o ne into comm erce as a fictio nal pe rsona Must file a Marriage License. 1933. C. se wer. That is why democracy never survives. Each living so ul gives a ccordingly to help others in need and receive s the cred it or gives the c redit to his Mak er and Pro vider. Gra nt De ed a nd T rust D eed (GRA NT OR a nd GRANTEE in all caps are fictional persona) 3. Fee title Feuda l Title 2. Experimenta tion on citizens witho ut their cons ent Corpo rate gove rnment takes your mo ney and gets credit for he lping others. June 1999) 84 . Sub ject t o co ntrol b y gov ernme nt 6. and possibly as far back as the Civil War BENEFITS Unalienable rights (God given rights) Enjoy: 1. Cannot be taxed (only voluntary) 3.u. and the da te they pa ss on in the Fa mily Bible Com mon Law Mar riage Married by a ministe r or living together for mo re than 7 y ears cons titute s a m arria ge Pas tor ma y iss ue a Ce rtifica te of M atrimo ny PROPERTY Full and c omplete ownership 1. Life 2. a nd theref ore is illega l on land exce pt for ( 1) the President since he is in charge of Naval Forces on high seas. Licens es a nd Re gistra tions ( perm issi on) 8. The government then collapses from within. Vehicle re gistration (the incorp orated S tate owns vehicles on behalf of US) 7. Full prop erty owners hip No US benefits Every liv ing soul is re sponsib le for the mse lves and ha s the o ption o f helpi ng others.S.S. Eventually there is no more to collect and give. no rights 9. The flag is not de scrib ed in T itle 4 U. Other taxes (such as water. You a re king of you r castle 4. Soc ial Se curit y (yo u pa id all you r work ing life and there a re no guarante es that there will be money for you) 2. No government intrusion. Allodial Title Land Patents Allodial Freeholder 2. Disaster relief 6. the uSA Military flag is described in Title 4 U. Grants 5.A.C. No t ax bu rdens or gov ernme nt deb t obli gations BENEFITS Government given rights (which can be taken away at any time) So-called benefits include: 1. Prop erty r eco rded at the r eco rder s offi ce m ake s the corporate de facto government holders in due course Your T V is not rec orded the re.S. Although the codes do not apply here. Pres ident E isenho wer s ettle d the d eba te on the width of the fringe. married. Food Stamps 7. Privileges only. involvement or controls PROPERTY Privilege to use 1. and (2) naval offices and yards. Record the date family members are born. Po liticians in return create more such programs to get more votes. The US government is still under an official state of emergency since March 9. Property tax (must pay) 4.S. Prop erty a nd ve hicles are c ollat eral f or the government debt F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.

1968 U. M EDIUM OF EXCHANGE Legal tender (d ollar bills) w hich are ac tually units of debt Has no s ubsta nce built on cre dit Controlle d by US Trea sury Phony Money All computer programs are designed with the $ having only one line thro ugh it 1. Ca shles s so ciety elec tronic bank ing The government must borrow before Federal Reserve notes are printed. Gold coins* 3. Spanish milled dollar *issu ed by the Trea sury D epartme nt of The u SA (a republic) Coinage started in 1783. Federal Reserve notes were issued in 1914. taxi drivers. The Federal Reserve Bank pa ys 2½ cents pe r Federa l Reserv e note printed whether $ 1 or $1. Coinage of Silver coins for circulation ended with the 1964 coins. possessions and territories of the US Zip Codes are required when using jurisdictional regions or zones such as WA. Silver coins* (silver dollar standard unit of value) 2.u. O R Purposely use d ad nauseum which means no name at all F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Nev er use WA for an add ress to a Sove reign or in your return address M AIL Dome stic Mai l that mo ves betw een W ashingt on DC . its possessions and territories Zip Code not required and should not be used 3 ce nts So vere ign to So vere ign 33 cents otherwise Write out the state completely such as Washington or abbreviated Wash. a nd trucke rs ROADWAYS Driver s licenses are required because driving is a privi lege May lose privi lege o r have it sus pend ed a t the whim of gove rnment Mus t com ply w ith the M otor V ehicle Cod e and Dep artment of Lice nsing regulations. Redemption of Silver Certificates ended on June 24.S. America s wealth would be like a Pot of Gold ROADWAYS Sovereigns have a right to use the public ways Liberty of the common way A driver s license can only be required for those individuals or businesses operating a business within the rights-o f-way s su ch as chau ffeurs . The US in turn pays the Federal Reserve Bank interest indefinitely for each outstanding notes or repre senta tion of a note . Paper currency* redeemable in gold or silver 4. Federal Reserve Notes (issued by the Federal Reserve Bank. OR Cost is 33 cents for first class Must use jurisdictional regions or zones such as W A. The first paper currency was issued in 1862. ID. Silver Certificates last printed in 1957. W hat a d ea l!! The G reenbac k Ac t was rev oked a nd replac ed with the National Banking Act in 1863. I D. a private corporation owned by foreign bankers) 2. An Act passed on April 12. Wit h elec tronic bank ing Fed eral R ese rve no tes a re cre ated out o f nothing and not hing be ing p rint ed .A. M EDIUM OF EXCHANGE Lawful money gold or silv er coinage (minted befo re 1964) Has substance Controlled by Treasury of The united States of America Real Money Most of us were taught to write an S with two lines through it 1.S. 1866 authorizing the sale of bonds to retire currency called greenbacks. which a re forev er cha nging Must comply with the Washington State Patrol M AIL Non-do mestic Mail that mo ves o utside of Was hington DC. June 1999) 85 . Bonds 3.00 0. Other Notes evidences of debt 4.

WA 98366 John C.S. John James.u. Washington state [Postal zone 98366] NO N. pastors. The se c hurche s als o dis play the gold fringed flag. from having any p olitical influe nce on its members or the pub lic in general. June 1999) 86 . Was hington state [Zip E xempt] NO N. Doe 1234 Main Street Port Orchard. GUNS This government wants to disarm the Citizens so as to have compete control and power. 2nd Ame ndment prote cts the Right of the p eople to keep and bear arms RELIGION Chur ches exist alone No permission of government is required 1st A mendm ent pro tects agains t gove rnment maki ng a law that wo uld re spe ct an e stab lishme nt of religion or prohibit the free exercise of religion RELIGION This government wants to control the churches by having them come under their jurisdiction as corporations under Section 501(c)(3) This is to prevent the clergy.A. DOE 1234 Main Street Port Orchard. History c ontinues to re peat its elf because the new generations who come along do not kno w or te nd to fo rget ab out the pas t and will say it will not happen here.DO ME ST IC Anything in brackets or boxes is considered to be exclu ded from the rest o f the do cume nt Patrons re ceive mail by general de livery at main pos t offic e or p ost o ffice s in exi stenc e prio r to the crea tion of corp orate gove rnment U. Customers receive free deliv ery to any loca tion hav ing a ma iling add ress or PO Box (a corp orate gove rnment benefit) GUNS Sov ereign C itizens have a right to own a nd us e guns Right to b ear a rms agains t enem ies. Every tyrannical government in the past has taken away the guns to prevent any serious opposition or rebellio n. WA 98366 All caps and/or middle initial makes the name a fiction (a non-living entity) Since July 1. Ev er cha nging and ever restrictive Requires registration of guns (and their owners) Any of you who saw the motion picture Red Dawn realize that the e nemy finds thes e lists and the n goes doo r to do or co llect ing all o f the guns. Christianson c/o 1234 Main Street Port Orchard. WA 98366 JOHN DOE 1234 Main Street Port Orchard.S. They signed away their Birthright for a so-called bene fit: Ta x-exem pt co rpora tion F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. fo reign and domestic The founding fathers knew the importance of citizens pro tecting themse lves from governments who get out of hand. Christianson general de livery Port Orchard [Main] Post Office Port Orc hard. They exist by permission of this government not by God alone. T his government regulates what is to be said and not to be said. 1863. JOHN C. Disregards the 2nd Amendment or justifies what wea pons shou ld not b e lega l. ministers. Their faith is in the government and not in God. Washington Republic [98366] Non-D omestic John James. etc.DO ME ST IC John James. Christianson c/o 1234 Main Street Port Orchard.

it is forced to dance to the tune of the international bankers (who according to the rhetoric are composed of the world s richest Jewish families) or face foreclosure or bankruptcy. Most of the Freemen movement s conspiracy theories are used to explain specific parts of its larger one world government AKA the new world order theory. Conspiracists see the United Nations as usurping the historic independence of the United States and other countries. the Trilateral Commission. the IRS. the Satan-infiltrated government is now attempting to take away Freemen s guns. political lead ers were reall y just fulfill ing biblic al pro phe cies by giving the fo rces of th e Ant ichrist the reins of government and instituting a means to take away the property and freedom of the p eop le. For o ther s. the multinational corporations. When all three are mixed together. The manmade details that drape the biblical framework are designed to explain American culture s most unacceptable events loss of property. and the belief in a one world conspiracy. the Antichrist will step in and assume power. wealth. They believe that it is solidifying its position of power by using the World Bank and the IMF to make huge loans of worthless paper money which are too big to ever be repaid to countries throu ghout the world . the United Nations. which acts through various secret organizations such as the Illuminati and Freema sons. and the world s Jewish population. Freemen proponents believe that the United States is now one of these controlled countries. the media.SO W HO IS THE ENEMY? Today s Freemen teachings are the result of three factors fundamentalist interpretations of the Bible. such as the more t raditio nal fu nda menta lists. whereas conspiracy theories conveniently flesh out all the details omitted by the scriptures. the Internation al Mon etary Fund . the con spiracy st ory is easy t o tel l and goes like th is A one world government is being formed under the auspices of the United Nations. For Christian Ident ity bel ievers. act ions th at will ultima tely re sult in the c ont rol o f all Ch ristians. or better phrased their interpretation of the Constitution. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. But for the most part. The Bible describes the horrific events of the end of the world in somewhat vague and symbolic terms. The idea is that once all the governments of the world are under the control of the United Nations. communism. it is a Jewish con spiracy. or both. Within the movement. They believe that when the United States went off the gold standard as the basis of its monetary system and adopted the current Federal Reserve system. the Trilateral Commission or some other mysterious quasi-governmental agency that is really controlled by the Illuminati or Freemasons. the federal government . And to make sure that this grand plan goes unopposed. the very firepower that could be used to thwart this enemy within. there are many subtle variations on the one world con spiracy. it is a conspiracy composed of the evil forces of the Antichrist. The major players are as follows the banks. June 1999) 87 . fundamentalist interpretations of the Constitution. and individual freedoms the very losses that most rural people believe they are experiencing as a result of th e glob al res tru ctur ing. not necessarily Jews. they paint a terrifying picture of what s going on in the world. Once a country falls under the power of this unrepayable debt. Those in the movement are quick to point out that this sinister scenario could not have transpired had America adhered to the original intent of the Constitution. the Wo rld Ban k. the Federal R eserve.

the Freemen movement will continue to expand. The seeds for the Freemen antigovernment movement are sown with these offenders. in clud ing loss o f license. to the nightmare of farm foreclosure. fueled by religion and a deep identification with the land. The shame that such an action engenders should not be ignored. The obvious answer for the offender is to not drive until all the financial penalties are paid and a current driver s license obtained. rural counties like Kitsap offer no such option. so the person now appears in a criminal court. And the re quire ment o f a loss of one s ability to possess firearms (upon a future penalty of a felony conviction) with domestic violence crimes fuel s Seco nd A mend ment F reemen argumen ts. which adds an additional penalty. he or she continues to drive. As the pressure of potential jail for each violation builds. the person s privilege to drive will be suspended in the interests of safety (with a possible gross misdemeanor second degree driving while license suspended charge for future violations within the base suspension period). and adds a fee for reinstatement of the driving privilege. if the person keeps driving. While such a solution might work in a metropolitan area with available mass transit. with significant jail being imposed upon con viction (a mand ator y minimum 1 0 da ys in jail for a first con viction o f first degree dr iving while lice nse revoked. Mo st Fre emen cases a re seen in co urts of limite d jur isdict ion. This economic spiral only continues. stress creates exactly the same opportunity as the farm crisis created for Freemen recruitment. This economic crisis. if the person pleads guilty or forfeits bail. a fine is ordered to be paid. And now. which can be especially severe if the driver lacks insurance. Hopefully our system will show more compassion to the average person caught up in an unintended economic nightmare than was shown to our farmers in the 19 80 s. resu lted in an incredibly co mplex and sometimes violent Freemen system. with no end in sight for the offender. Similar ec ono mic pen alties. with possible criminal sanctions. and cannot und erstand why the government is being so oppressive. DOL then suspends the person s privilege to drive. While the social policy of getting unlicensed and uninsured d rivers off the road cannot b e criticized. the effect of this neveren din g eco no mic spi ral on th e o ffen de r wi ll be de vast ating.P OSTSCRIPT ON THEIR THEORIES The Freemen movement began as a response by ardent government supporters. occu r with D UI. And the cycle perp etua tes. The d efend ant s are o ften in econ omic distress. often with no possible metho d available for the offender to start with a clean slate. the choice is to continue to violate the law or declare (in this case) a chapter 13 bankruptcy thereby establishing a plan to repay the debt. Recent laws in our world continue to extract severe economic penalties against offenders. Ultimately. A system that asserts that the State lacks authority over Sovereign Citizens. the amount often is referred to a collection agency. Driving while license suspended laws are enforced. and 180 days in jail for third or subsequ ent conviction). Failing to pay a traffic infraction results in economic penalty. The Department of Licensing is also notified of the non-payment. Of course. 90 days in jail for second conviction. With enough suspended driving convictions. June 1999) 88 . and thus cann ot req uire d river s license s. he or she will be declared to be an habitual traffic offender. As our law becomes more complex and punitive economically. Since the offender must work (an admirable societal goal) to provide food and shelter to the family. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. If the fine is not paid. And as with farmers. farmers. our legislature has passed a law allowing impound (and increased monetary penalties and possible ultimate loss) of the family vehicle by those driving while suspended licenses.

The challenge. we will not discuss the following Freemen topics. though. see the Federal Reserve. Since our effort here is already much too long.Our failure to learn this lesson may well risk paper terrorism escalating to Common Law courts handing out death sentences and warrants of arrest against government officials. Our materials have unintentionally grown beyond all intended length.) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and ordering the pipe bomb ing of governmen t bu ildings. etc. and other ideas that are just plain bizarre. June 1999) 89 . IRS. is our correct identification of those seeking martyrdom through nonviolent paper terrorism versus those terrorists willing to use violence as a means to the end of establishing Christian Israel. But they are at least worth mentioning should you have a burning desire to know more ÿÿHow to dupe an Auditor into accepting a filing (lien) ÿÿHow to open a ban k account without a social security number ÿÿHow to ob tain foreign vehicle identification plates and international motorist qualification (driver s licen se) from the Gran d Tu rks & C aicos Island s (east of Cu ba an d no rth o f Haiti) ÿÿJury nullification (a subject being debated in our community as well) ÿÿHow to order Common Law paperwork on disk (for a fee) ÿÿThe Right to Bear Arms (constitutionally protected) versus firearms (properly regulated for 14th Amend ment c itizens) ÿÿThe Right to Travel ÿÿUnderstanding the adhesion contract called Zip Code and properly addressing your mail (do not submit to Congress trick into federal citizenship. It is apparent as we continue to research their law that the Common Law is expanding in scope some precepts of which we understand.

June 1999) 90 .Part III Our Responses F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.

most states have modified their stop and identify statutes to incorporate misconductmisconduct on the part of a citizen wherein he or she willfmiscond uct o n th e part of a citizen where in he o r she officer s duties. Willi amso n. 92 4 P. 99 S.misc on du ct. At the time. In rever sing B row n s co nvict ion un der th e sto p an d id ent ify statute.76. No doubt WeWe have had cases where a Freeman has given a U. 97 Wn.2d 92. The o fficer asked Brown to iden tify himsoffic e r a pproa c h ed and det ained Br own toto do. our legislature has amend for a pe rson s acts an d th e oth er for a p erson s word s ÿÿRCW 9A. material means a written or oral statement reasonably likely to be relied upon by public servant in discharge of official powers or duties).S.S. delay or obstruct officer in discharge of official powers or duties). State v.175) ÿÿRCW 9A.Ct. 443 U. Obs tructing a Law Enforcement Officer (willfully hinder.76. 640 P 1061 (1982) in response to Brown v. Either way. Texas. 26 37.Ap p.17 5. Texas. most . 2637. case should have been charged under RCW 9A. Bro wn s righ t t o p ers on al sec ur ity an d p riva cy t ilt s in favo misconduct. 2 1996) (defendant lied about his identity. TheThe Supreme Court held that Brown was seized under the 4th Amendment when theThe Suprem e Cour t hel d t hat Br o BrownBro wn (be cau se B row n wa s no t fre e to lea ve). 47. June 1999) 91 . employed by Freemen when having first contact with our system through our law enforcement. SinceSince Bro wn. 37. Gross misdemeanor.020.2d 357 ( 443 U. most states have mo .E d. 99 S.Ct. SinceSince then. T exas h ad a stop and iden tify st upon an officer s request. delay or o bstruct.Ed. a statement. Supreme Court case as his identW e ha ve had cases wher e a F Obstructing an Officer The Stop and Identify Statute Bro wnBrown v.S. the Supreme Court held that absent any basis for suspecting that a defendant s ta tute . Brown. law enforcement should be advised as to how to proceed. Whi te. and created tSince then. or the officer receivesreceives somereceives some type of Freemen document purporting to compel the officer to respond or face an econorece penalty. 99 S. Washington sWashingto n s stop an d iden tify Washington s stop and identify statute. Brown s right to pe interference. At the time.statute. 47 . our legislature has amended the obstructing statute. Gross misdemeanor.2d 96 0 (Div. conviction reversed since obstructing charge only concerns acts.76. t he Supr em e Cour t h misconduct. an act that results in hindering law enforcement. 61 L. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and has signedsigned the infracts ign ed th e in frac tion re fussigned the infraction refused for fraud or under duress.Ct.W HAT SHOULD LAW ENFORCEMENT DO? First Contact TheThe first notice thaThe first n otice t hat o ur system is dThe first notice that our system is dealing with a Freeman is u eithe i t h eeithereither is subjected to a plethora of questions on the street concerning the officer s authority. Texas had a stop and identify statute makingto d o.2d 35 7 walkingwalki ng a way fro m an ot he r p ers on in a high dr ug walking away from another p erson in a high drug crime arewalkin officerofficer approache d and d etained Bro wn. at 2641. 84 Wn. The Traffic Stop attemptedattempted to engage in a lengthy constitutional discussion. Making a F alse or Mis leading Statement to a Public Serv ant (knowin gly make false or misleading material statement to public servant. has refused to sign an infraction. Statute is limited to acts of a defendant tha t hinder.Washington s stop and identify statut 2)2) was d 2) was declare 2) was declared unconstitutional by Washington s Supreme Court in State v. 61 L.

F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.1 00(3) specifically allows arrest on probable andand driving while license suspended (any degree). court reversed aa correa correct statement aa correct statement above the person s signature wherein the person promise[d] to respond as direc thisthis notice but said nothing about a this notic e but s a id nothing a bout a refusa l to athis notice but said nothing abo crimecrime under RCW 46. State State v.consequence. p arkin g. except as provided by statute.31.App. IRLJ 2. give the Freeman his or her copy of the citation. 3 1998) (arrest proper even though jail had pol icy to cite and release reckless driving offenders).31.64. 83 3 P. review denied. IRLJ 2. unlike a criminal citation. tho ugh.infraction.card. 125 Wn. 844. 709. A law enforcement officer may issue a notice of infra need not have been committed in the officer s presence. Cole. checkto identify the person. Infraction to believe that a person has co mmitted an infr JurisdictionJurisdiction (IRLJurisdiction (IRLJJurisdiction (IRLJ) 2. legality of a custodial arrest will stem directly from this statute. AnAn An officer may d An officer may detain a person stopped for a traffic infraction for a reasonable period o f time necessar toto identify the person. So long as a traffic infraction defendant is willing to sign his or her name onsimply are not.100(3) specifically allows arrest on probableRCW 10.Ap p. 833 P.Ap p. infraction. I ll Sign But Only Under Duress AsAs discuA s d is cu ss ed As discussed in other parts of these materials. the Freemen act o coconsequence. the Freemen act o f putting under du relocation on the citation. So long as a t locationlocation on the citation. Cole.61 . t o iden tifa traf acknowledgement of receipt of the notice of infraction.2d 4 98 (Div. check for outstanding warrants. a person has no legal duty to promise to appear in court for an infraction). 871 P. 889 P.02 1(3) .2 d 24 1 (19 aa traffic infraction against the passenger. supra. some Freemen actions are worth contesting. AA person may be arrearrested and ta ken to ja arrested and taken to jail if he or she refuses to sign the promise to respo traffictraffic citation. 73 Wn.021 (3). 1 77 Wn.review deni ed. Ti lton. cheto identify the person. Custodial Arrest on Probable Cause Permitted for Certain Traffic Crimes overover three pages. AA notice of infraA notice of infractA notice of infraction shall include the name. So ignore it. Red ing.61. vehicle registration.020. seat b elt. check the sta card.2 (Div. ped est AnyAny p erson who aids o r abe ts an oth er pe rson s comm ission o f a traffic cr ime or t raffic infrac tion is similarly guilty of the offense.App. It is incumbent on all law enforcement to carefully review RCW 10over three pages. AnyAny act relatingA n y act relat ing to oAny a ct rel atin g to offen ses invol ving traffic. Port Orch ard v. 950 P.2(b)(1).App. AnAn office r s arr est p ow ers a re c od ifiA n offic e r s a rre s t powe rs are c odifie d in An officer s arrest powers are codified i It is incumbent RCWRCW 10. 178.2d 1019 (1992) (reckle ss(reckless driving). vehicle registration. cou rt reverse notice of infraction under RCW 46. and date of birth of the person infraction. 89 Wn. 70 9. RCW 46. 3 1994). to idena traffic in fractio n again st th e pas senger.6 1.048. OK. 835 P. 1 80. RCW 46. address. though. A person need not drive a vehicle to commit a traffic infraction. 77 4.So You Want to Issue an Infraction? AA notice of infraction may be issued upon certification by the issuer thA notice of infrac tion ma y be issued upon cer t if ic toto believe that a person has committed an infraction contrary to law. 180. 889 chargedcharged under municipal codcharged under municipal code eqcharged under municipal code equivalent of RCW 46 noticenot ice of infrac tion u nde r RCW 46.Ap p.2 77 Wn. and complete and issue a notice of supra. Tho mas. VehicleVeh icle p assen gers are n ot re quir V e hicle pa ss e nge rs are not re quire d to cVehicle passengers are not required to car 6666 Wn.021(3). and ot h simplysimply are not. June 1999) 92 . 706. A passenger has a duty in response to a66 W n. RCW 46.2(b). 119 W119 Wn.63.2d 656 . 77 Wn.Ap p. State v. 70 6. 178. and file the original with the court.2d 241 (1992).1(b). and complete and issue a noticecard.021(3).2d 685. 178. 8 48.61. StateState v.

June 1999) 93 .035 (nonresident requirement to post security for infraction or criminal traffic citation)46 . 46. Freemen are frequentlyfreq uen tly hea vily ar med .100(3). O ffic e rs s hould act in a prconspiracy or differently from any other citizen. citations are not issued by the police). T Prosecuto rs are your atto rneys. Involuntary Bank Received OfficersOfficers sh oul d imOfficers should immediatelOfficers shou ld immed iately n otify a sup ervisor an d co ntac t th situat ions. These documents can an d should be resituations.03546. There can b e no dou bt th at Fre emen c ertain ly kno w who you a re and the l ocat ion o f governmen t facilities. or whe n the pe rs on is a nonr esi dent and iRCW 10. a person may be arrested.1 00(3). Officer sOfficer s are trained to take control of a scene. Involuntary Bankruptcy FilA Lien is Recorded. let him or her. an d re ject ou r la w s au th orit y ove r th em.64. Officers shoc ons pira c y or the Tribulation.64. so use the m. criminal citations. supra. These documents can and should b e ressituations. or when the person is a nR C W 10. RCW 46. But given the religio RadicalRadical Freemen know hoRadical Freemen know how to make Radical Freemen know how to make pipe bombs (lea tot o b l o w u p co u rto blow up courthouses (or as a diversion to allow liberation of their money from banks) and believe thato bl thethe satanic one world conspiracy to eliminate the white race (the Tribulation) for the the s ata nic one wor l d conspi racy t o el i m SuchSuch beliefs S u ch b eliefs h aSuch beliefs have a dramatic effect on whether a Freemen will be compelled to use violence evil government officials implementing Satan s will. TheThe statute makesT h e s tatu te make s c le a r thaThe statute makes clear that a person is to be detained for no period longe toto issueto issue and serve tto issue and serve the citation. citat ion screening.035 ( nonresident r e exceptions to the cite and release presumption. and Officer s are trained to take control of a scene. e spe cial ly c on cer nin g firear ms.31. and a Free wantswant s wants to writewants to write over an infraction or criminal citation. But given the religious beliefintention of becoming violent. But some exceptions are given. When You are Served with a Freemen Document FreemenFreemen are especially adept at serving their Common Law documents on anyonFre e me n ar e especi al ly adept ha vehave come in contact.64. Prosecutors need to review the documents for possible criminal charges. The verbiage will not have any e on the co urt processing the matter (assuming it is legible.31. situations. an officer s safety is of primary importance. It makesmakes no sense to engage a Freeman on the street in a discussion about tmakes no sense to engage a Freeman on the s conspiracyconspiracy or the Tribulation.64. AA Lien is Recorded.015 sets out the process for an officer to issue a criminal she chooses to do so. O ffic e rs s hould a cc ept ser vi ce ofhave com supervisorsupervisor and contact the prosecuting attorney. including officer s handwriting). Develop Intelligence and Know Your Freemen TheThe vast majority of Freemen are paper terrorists seeking martyThe vast majorit y of Fre emen are p ape r terr orists intentionintention of becoming violent. officers and prosecutors must take great care to know what is going on in their community. or w written promise to appear in court as required RCWRCW 10. Thomas. community. Officers should acceptha ve c ome in c onta c t. Officer Safety is Number 1 AsAs with an y As with any other law enforcement action . s creen in g. GovernmentGovern ment o fficials Government officials must be ever Govern ment o fficials must b e ever vigilant in w atch ing F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.Criminal Citation and Notice to Appear in Court Al th ou ghAlthough not required (some prosecutor s offices require A lthough not re quire d (some pro secut or s off ices requi r scree nin screening. law enforcement officers hav criminalcriminal cicriminal citations. specifically if the person refuses to writtenwritten promise to appear in cou rt as required by the citation.

73 5( ThisThis information must be furnished to the WashingtonThis information must be furnished to the Washington Sate P Th two hou rs from the time of arrest.B.43. except interrogationf ingerpr i nt e 45 Brown v. the primary concern is to determine determinedetermine whether there are andetermine whether th ere are any warradetermine whether there are any warrants outs individualindividual who refuses to properly identify themselves during booking shoindividu al wh o refuse s to p rope rly iden tify F. consistent with constitutional and legal requirements. use such reasonablofficers. Texas. RCW 4 3. Texa s.74 0.fingerprinted.43. This d iscussSome of the s e is sue s a re disc us se d bel ow.43. RCW 43. 99 S. RCW 43 .43.75 0 pro vides PhysicalPh ysica l for ce ma y be use d t o o bt ain ph ot ogra ph s an d fiPhysical force may be used to obtain photographs and fin InIn exercising theiIn exercising their dutiesIn exercising their duties and authority under RCW 43.43 .745 (1).I. and other chief la officers.B. SomeSome o f these issu es are d iscussed belo w.S.4 3.7 35 and 4 3. 2d 357. 443 U. and the chief of police of every city or town. and the chief ofof po lice o f every city or to wn.740(1 ).43. It is the duty of the sheriff or director of public safety of every countycoun ty. Fr eem somesome Freemen will resort to hunger strikes in order to protest their continued csome Freemen will resort to hunger strik jurisdiction. proceduresprocedures by each institution. RCW 43. Problems continue with respect non-lawyernon-lawyer Sixth Amendment counsel. ItIt is the right. 47. chiefs of police.state. consisten forceforce as is necessary to compel an u nwilling person to submit to being pho tograforce as is necessary to compel fingerpfingerprinted. and of every chief officer of other law enforcounty. to p h othis state.W HAT SHOULD JAIL P ERSONNEL DO? FreemenFreemen can pose numerous problems in a correctional facility.sheriffs.735(1 ). directshe riffs. Fingerprints Fingerprints and Photographs.F. some Freemen wh In our e xpe rie nc e. RCW 43. d irec to rs o f psheriffs. Once inbooking into jail. and to the Washington determined. a nd e very ch ief officer o f oth er law enfo rceme nt a gencies ope ratin g within thisthis t his s tate. to record the fin crimecrime a s pro vided fo r in RC W 43 . and to the Washington State Patrol Identification Section so that the individual s trueF. to cause the juvenilesjuveniles lawfully arrjuveniles lawfully arrested for juvenile s lawful ly arrest ed for t he co mmission o f any crimin misdemeanor.B . some Fr eem en who h iininfractionsinfractio ns will ident ify themsel ves to th e investigatin g officer as Brown v.735 and sheriffs. to record the fingerprints of all persons held in or r state. The procedures that follow are merely startingpr oc ed ur es b y ea ch ins tit ut ion . Once in jail. to photo graph and record th e fingerprints of all adults lawfully arrested. 61 L. was the United States Supreme Court case that struck down stop-and-identify statutes. Oboo king int o jail. June 1999) 94 . directors of public safety. In our experience. may. Freemen will frequentlynon-la w ye r Sixth A me n dment counsel .4 3. to record the fingerprints of all perstate. Thi s di scussion i Identification RefusalRefusal to Prov ide Name.I. and th agenciesagencies duly operating wiagencies d uly o perat ing within this s agencies duly operating within this state. 45 Continued belligerencybelligerency when pressed for their correctbelligerency when pressed for their correct name will generbelligerency bookingbooking into jail. of the sheriff or director of public safety of every county. Ed. provide such id entificat ion at boo king or ch arging. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Ct. Prob identification information. and of every c hief office r of ot her l aw en force ment agenc ies du ly op erat ing wi state.officers. or to submit to any other identification procedure. 2637 (1979).4 3. ItIt is also the duty of the sheriff or director of public safety of every countyIt is also the duty of the sheriff or director of everyevery city oev ery city o revery cit y or t own .I.73 5 for w hich the pen alty of impr isonm ent might b e imcrime as p rovided for in RC disseminatedisseminate and file such fingerprints in the same manner as those rdisseminate and file such fingerprints in the sa 43. may. Th e of such proc edu res.county. Issues can arise at the original bookingbo ok ing w he n so me F ree men refu se t o p ro vibooking when some Freemen refuse to provide their name booking identificationidentification informatiid en tific a tion informa tion. but not the duty.

Cir. In de assessmentassessment from the jail of how violent the defendant presently is. 108 S. Lav adSee. The Sixth Amenr i ght &t o however. State v. and (11) State Courts.46 such as correspondence be attorn ey.4 3. (2) Attorneys.attorney.S. does not permit a criminal defendant to be represented by an advocate who is not ahowever . does not perm i t a bar.however. §§ 540. VI. Congress. 1 973 ) (op enin g incom ing mail Cir. how many correctional officeassessment from the needed for prop er transport.74 criminal. 117 Wn. (3) Members of the U.bar. (5) the U. T likelike the statement that the Freeman is agreeilike the sta te me nt tha t the Fre ema n is a greeing under durlike th e interpretationinterpretation of their Common Law that the Freeman has entered into any contractual relationi nt erpr et ati on of t hei r state or that the Freeman has voluntarily submitted to the jurisdiction of state court.2d 369. see also StateState v.F. (8) Prose cuting Attorne ys.g. Rob P. (10) U ..2d 3 90 (196 7). ). June 1999) 95 . (9) Go vernors. and o ther security related issues. Sometimes FreThe use of force is to be considered as a last resort thatthat that t hey may that they may sign a statement that the photographs and fingerprints were obtained under duress.2dP. letters or packages from an inmate s attorney are generally opecorrespondence. Probation Officers). cert.g. e.S. 46 Fed eral r egula tions d ealing w ith mail in fede ral pr isons have identi fied c orres pond ence rece ived from the follo wing as des erving special treatment: (1) President and Vice President of the United States. non-attorney an inmate than is a member of the pub lic. Legal Mail AsAs a general ru le. deni U. SomeSo me it ems o f iS o me item s o f inc oming a nd ouSome items of incoming and outgoing mail. 607 Cir.correspondence.Ct. Cont. for anything lawfully done in the exercise of the provisions of this act. 100 L. iatto rney. N non-attorneynon-attorney as their counsel. (7) State Attorney s Ge neral. is s attorney.. Refusal to Leave Cell SomeSome Freemen defendant s have refused to leave their cell to come to couSome Freemen defendant s have refused optionsoptions available to it wo p tio n s a vaila ble to it w he n this ha ppeoptions available to it when this happens. and no o ne ac ting in his a id or u nde r his this act. 37 6.740. TheThe use of force is to be considered as a last resort.43.25 (1992). inmates have a lessened expecta the irtheir incoming and outgoing letters and packages. e . Instead of re correspondence. (4) Embassies and Consulates.whwhichwhich will resu which will result in obtaining physical evidence serving to identify such person. No one havinghaving the custody of any person shaving the custo dy of an y perso n su having th e cus tod y of an y per son s ubje c thisthis act . and no one acting in his aid or under his directithis act.2d 1348 (1976) ( We have upheld the right of jail officials to examine the letters and packages.S.U. of all inmates.2d 601. 1 993 ) (pris Cir. 1697 (1988). 486 U. AA recalcitrant Freeman may also submit to fingerprinting and photo graphing without the use of force afteraft er b ein g oafter b ein g o rd ered to after being ordered to do so by a judge during the Freeman s first appearance in co urt.S. As discussed below. Hawkins. 1993) (prison officials may open and read prisoner s incoming general mail pursuant to a uniform and evenlyevenly applied policy with an eye toevenl y app lied pol icy with an ey e to main evenly applied policy with an eye to main Cir. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. under their understanding of the their law. ). 1692. letters or packa and any inspection o f the package or letter is limited to the d etection of contraba nd. 1973) (opening incomingCir." U.2-540. Attorneys).State v. (6) other Fed eral law e nforcement o fficers.S. amend. See.g. incoming andand outgoing.R. 1973) (opening incoming mail violates no inmate right). publicationpublication as is provided for in RCW 43. 912 (1968) ( We said there that t ( W e s a id the re tha t the re c a n b ( We said there that there can be no c circumstances. 159.Cir.S. e. Se e . inmate s have a lessene d expec tation of privacy aAs a general rule. 816 P. s tateme nt a llow s them. 70 Wn. Wheat. Uni ted States v. Keohane. As discussed belonon-atto rney as their counsel.Ed. publication as is provided for in RCW 43. unstatement allows them. Non-Lawyer Sixth Amendment Counsel TheThe S ixth Ame ndme nt guar ante es The Sixth Amendment guarantees thThe Sixth Amendment guarantees that "[i] right &torigh t &to right &to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.S. 992 F. is subjected to a less stringent examination by prison or jail officials. 153. Lavado v. 28 C. C ourts (including U. t submitted to the jurisdiction of state court.. State v.S. Ha wkins.2 d 697. 4 25 P.S. De Weese. Department of Justice (excluding the Bureau of Prisons but including U. Such statementstatement allows them.2d 140 .2d 1 (1991) (a criminal defendant does not have the absolute rightright to be represented by the ind ividual of his or her right to be represented by the individual of his or her choice).

Id. Inc. This means that like all p rpr ivile geprivilege does not ap ply to non -lawyer counsel.100.7 attorneyatto rn ey c ou nse l is no t ent itl ed to th e b en efit s of th ese ru les. Cf.condition. without the consent of his or her client. C a ref ul moni t or ing of f ood undertakenundertaken once an inmate announ ceundertaken o nce an inmate anno unces his or h und ertake n on ce an inmate ann ou DivisionDivision of Prisons.2dP. Directive DOP 620. Visitation ManyMan y jails Man y jails an d pr isMan y jails and prison s provide for con tact visits be tween atto rneys an d inmat e visitationsvisitations visitations are frequentlyvisitations are frequently held in special visitation rooms that.60. a copy of which is provided in the Appendix. be examined as to any communication made by the client to him or her. 6396 P. June 1999) 96 . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.2d 443. b ut sho ul d in ste ad be giattorney counsel is not entitled to t any other civilian visitor. 47 The atto rney/client priv ilege is co dified at R CW 5 . at 31-Division of Prisons. The safest way condition. Thus correspondence or packages sent by an inmate to a non-lawyer counsel or to an inmate by a non-lawyer counsel may be subjected to the same level of scrutiny as ordinary mail.2d 730 (19 81). is strictly construed. 96 Wn. or his or her advice given thereon in the course of professional employment. Kassler Escrow.0 60(2)(a). This pro vision sta tes that [a]n a ttorney or c ounselo r shall not.47 like all other privileges in Washington.ThisThis lesse r level o f inspect ion is This le s se r le ve l of ins pec tion is deThis lesser level of inspection is design attoattorney/clientattorney/client privilege. D ee x c el l e n texcellent startiexcellent starting point for any facility that does not already have a procedure in place for dealing w hun ger strikes. if in a department of notnot subject to interceptionno t su bje ct to int erc ep tio n a nd rec or din g not subject to intercep tion and record ing under RCW 9. Hunger Strikes AA Freemen inmate may resort to a hunger A Fre emen inmat e may re sort to a hun ger strik A Freemen inmate may re incarcerationincarc eratio n by a foreign govern ment. The safest incarceration by a foreign government. Hag an v. Careful monitoring of food intake and the inmate s physical c ondition.2d96 Wn..

AGO 1996 N o 6 (dec laration of allodial fre ehold ownership d oes not c reate a n exceptio n from paym ent of prop erty taxes. Presumab ly.Presumably. crops. Defendant claimed that this latter document is the original federal patent for the land in question. usually issued in thefrom such a patent. BL A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 100 (4th ed. tform of military revenuesrevenues and services with which thre ve nue s and s e rvic e s w ith whic h the mona rch frevenues and services with w military. and stam ped as a n offic ial re cord on file with the Oregon state office of the Bureau of Land Management. own ed wit Free. a homestead exemption does not bar a foreclosure for unpaid real property taxes). The obligatto mere a cademic int erest. 471 P. or other services.App. 49 Two months prior t o de fault on his m ortgage . Inc. Div ision III held that the reco rding of t he D ecla ratio n of Land Pate nt had no effec t on title since it was issu ed b y the d efend ant and not by the United States . usually issued in the n ineteenth cent ury. June 1999) 97 . and not of any l not subjec t to feu dal d uties o r bur den s. ThisThis distinction between property held subject to tenure and in allodThis dis tinc tion be tw e en pr oper ty hel d subj ect t o toto mere academic interest. the de fenda nt exec uted and re cord ed a De clara tion of Land P atent. As it operthe English system of land tenure. 766.wa. T grantgrantedgranted portigranted portions of their estates to others. Fe de r alFederal Land B ank of Spo kane v. crops. 12 (auditor may not refuse to record land patent or non-statutory abatement documents if the documents purpos e is to c onvey o r affect title to real es tate).gov/ago/opinions/opinion_1996_12. 769. 75 (Div. long since held free of feudal obligation. 51 Wn.html> and <http://www. no t ho lde n of an y lor d or supe rior. v. Redwine.html>. AA land patentA land patent is a A land patent is a creature of statute whereby the United States government conveys title to toto a private individual.W HAT SHOULD AUDITORS/ASSESSORS DO? Allodial Freeholds and Land Patents T h eThe legal The legal con cept of ho lding land b y allodial freeh old or in allod ium 48 traces t o th e feuda l roo ts o t r aces t o thethe English system of land tenure. w ere gra particular number of knights. a title search to most private property in Washington Pre suma bly. 49 from such a patent. Free .2d 148 (Utah 1 970). The obligation s owed b y to mere academic interest. and that the Declaration of Land Patent prohibited the bank from foreclosing. cash. The entire text of the Attorney General opinions is available at the Attorney General s website (visited February 25. or othform of military service. Atta ched to the d ocu ment wa s a ha rd to re ad d ocu ment d ated Janu ary 6 . and AGO 1996 No. Land held absolutely in one s own right. 1968 ). not holden o f any lord or superior. Those lower on the pyramid owed certain obligations. 189 6. Allodium. were gradually superseded a tenuretenure were initialtenure were initially importetenure were initially imported to the American colonies (as evidenced by concepts have been abolished with all land.wa. See Barb izon of Utah . Allo dial an d all odiu m are de fined as fo llow s Allodial. the opposite of feudal. 3 1988). and affirmed the trial court s summ ary judgme nt in favor of the mo rtgage holder. in formform of military service. 1999) <http://www. cash. owned withou or fealty. a title sear ch to m ost pr i vat e 48 Most of the information in this section is taken from two 1996 Washington State Attorney General opinions. where in the prop erty w as a utom atica lly co nverte d to a n allod ial fre ehold unles s cha llenged by s omeo ne in co urt wit hin 60 d ays of rec ording. As it operated at ththe English system descendingdescending pyramid of lords and vassals. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.gov/ago/opinions/opinion_1996_6. AnAn est ate h eld b y ab sol ut e o wn ers hip wit ho ut rec ogn izin g aAn estat e held by abso lute o wnersh ip witho ut rec du ty is d ue o n ac cou nt th ere of. and no Land held ab solutely in one s own right. The ob aa particular number of knia p art icu la r n um be r o f kn ight s.to a private individual. The monarch granted tenure to descending pyramid of lords and vassals.

at least at the time the p roperty is originally conveyed. Ohio) reached the opposite conc examineexamin e a do cume nt su bmitt ed fo r reco rdin g in ord er to det ermin e xa mine a doc ume nt submitted for r ecor di ng i n or de statute.08. and accompanied by the proper fee. Philadelph ia II v. transferredwhich a includesincludes thincludes those by whinc lu des th ose by w hic h t itle to any pro per ty ma y be affec ted [.0 8.Att y Gen. Th is attemp t at a n on-st atut ory ab atemen t pro cedu re app a practice of plea in abatement. It is clear that auditors m oror the state of Washington. South Dakota. tra nsfwhich an interest in property is created. A lthough a bit diffic ult to public official. RCWRC W 6 5. RCWRCW 65. The term conveyance aanyany estate or interest in real property is created. transferred. The statutory defdoe s the latt er. Given the Fre req ue st. Three other states (Nebraska.] RCW 65.2d 389 (19 96).08. It does not apperequired in o thatthat t he aud itor is statut orily tha t the auditor is sta tutorily a uthoriz e d that the auditor is statutorily authorize opinion.150. 128 Wn . even if it da n instrument fac ia lly purports to af fect t it l e.0 90. Fo r this rea sow he the r the doc uments trul y have t hat ef fect . W e do n ot he reby exp ress any executing the instrument. the public official. Op.090. Al tho ugh a b it difficpublic offic ia l.0 70 . T h eThe generThe general rule is that an auditor must record any instrument authorized or permitted to beThe genera recorded. G ive n the Fre e me n pra c tic e ofRCW 65.04. Th e term con veyance is bRCW 65. WeWe co ncl ude tha t th e forme r ana lysisWe conclude that the former analysis bettWe conclude that th e former analy doesdoes the latter. WeWe therefore c onclu de that if documeWe th erefore con clud e tha t if docu ments f We therefore conclude that i estateestate aestate are sestate are submitted for recording. For patent paten t docu ments if they faciall y purp ort to affect title.08. th e At to rn ey G en era l re fers to th e mo re ge ne ral au th or iza tio n fo r re co rd ing. recorded. Ohio) reached the opposite c(Nebraska. Non-Statutory Abatement FreemenFreemen often present documentsFreemen often present documents enFreemen often p resent d ocume nts ent itled pub licpub lic officia l. The statutory definition of whichwhich an int erest in prop erty is create d. 08 . 911 P. AA conveyance of real property.090.07 0. Given the Freemen practR C W 65.(Nebraska. Gregoi re.150. It is clear that auditors must recorrecorded. [Footnote 7] [Footnote[Footnote 7] This analysis pr[Footnote 7] This analysis presumes that[Footnote 7] This analysis presumes t executingexecutin g the instru ment. Th e stat uto ry de findoes the latter.2d 707 -714-15 . RCW 65. they have generated named recordingrecording of such documents does not prohibit foreclosure or shieldre c ording of suc h doc umen t s does not pr ohibi t for auditor does not have discretion to refuse to record the document. mortgaged or assigned or by which thany estate or interest in r anyany real property mayany real property may be aany real property may be affected[. This attthe p ubl ic official. Under this m must reco rd a do cumen t if it is properly a cknow ledged an d if it affects an interest in real p ropert y.03 0(2). the Auditor lacks the statutory authority to determine whetherwhet her th e do cumen ts tru ly have t hat e ffect. June 1999) 98 . when acknowledged b (the(the acknowledgement(the ackn owl edgeme nt b ein (the acknowledgement being certified as required by law). RCW 6 5. an d if they are p roperl y patent documents if they facia acknowledged.g. See. OurOur At torn ey Gen eral agree d with Kansas O ur A ttorne y Ge ne ra l a gre e d w ith K a nsa s a ndOur Attorney General agree and related documents since an auditor may not interpret a document that might affect title.060(3). TheThe Attorney General examined the formal opinions of the attorneys general of five other statThe At torn ey Gen eral ex statesstates (Kansas and Norstates (Kansas and North Dak states (Kansas and North Dakota) concluded that patent documents officerofficer may not interpret the document in order to decide whether title is affected.08. RCW 65.08. e. We do not hereb possibilitypossibility of such documents being filed with repossibility of such documents being filed with regard to t with intent to harass the tru e owner. AGO 1996 No.0 70. South Dakota. may b of the recording officer of the county where the property is situated.08. when acknowledged by thA conveyance of real property.] RC W 6 5.08. Th e term co nve RCW 65. a legalinte rest t o a sec ond part y or en cumb ering requiredreq u ired in required in order to determine whether or not it really does affect title. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.0 8 anan instrument facially purports to affect title. 1984). Although a bit difficult to thethe pub lic official. 12 at 7.FreemenFreemen have recently presented land pat Freemen have recently presented lan d patents for Freemen have recent theythey have generated named Declaration of Patent or Update of Assignment of Patent. even if i intere stinterest to a second party or encumbering the property. 84-48 (Kan .

the public official is not prohibited from asserting the same position in a Common Law coPresumably since the Common Law court has jurisdiction over a Sovereign Citizen. June 1999) 99 . 1968) (Citation s omitted. TheThe Attorney GeThe Attorney General noteThe Attorney General noted that the Non -Statutory Abatement documen GeneraGeneralGeneral appeared toGeneral appeared to be a response to an administrative order issued by a county department. In p rac tice . AbatementAbatement and Reviva l. It differs from an abatement It differs from an abatement a thatthat in the latter the action is entirely dead and cannot be revived. or at another time.Statu tory Sinc e th e Non -Sta tut ory A bat emen t do cume nt p rovide d to the Atto rne regardingregarding title to land or to any own ership or debt interest in real pro regarding title to land or to any own ership or d Id. PPresumab ly.Tre as ure r as t o mat t ers r elat i ng therefore. mode. declinatory pleas to the jurisdiction andIn Engla nd. 15-16. and may be revived.27. Chancery Practice. you TreasurerTreasurer as to matters relating to their official business. te rmed abatement. In practice. at 7-8. or at an oth er time . T isis directed against a named county official. that auditors take greatWe suggest. b ut do es not d ebar th e plain tiff from recommend ing it in a bette r way. A plea which. though. Actions at Law. AGO 1996 No.Presumably. and d oes not assume to answer a pla ce of fo rm. AGO 1996 No. without disputing jusPle a in aba tem ent . by a nal ogy to commo n la w. that auditors take great care when re We suggest. As used in reference to As used in reference to ac As used in aabateabate ab ate me an s th at act ion is u tt erl y dead a nd can no t b e re vived exc ep t b y co mme nc ing a new action. de clina tory plea s to the j uri sdict i on and dIn En toto the judicato the judicature actto t he ju dicat ure a ct) so metime s. and states that the administrative order is beis direc ted against a nam ed co u that official because the sender refuses to accept it. w objectobjectsobjects to place. BL A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 1310 (4 th ed. re ason able and within the c on thatthat tho se officers co nsul t with you a s to th e legal re quire ments o f their o fficers. AbatementAbatement and Reviva l. We suggest. InIn England. you arAs the County Prosecutor. BL A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 16 (4th ed . it allows plaintiff to renew suit in anothe placeplace of form. and doe s n den y existen ce of pa rticul ar cau se of actio n on which plain tiff relies. SinceSince the Non-StatutoSince th e Non. or time of asserting it. Documents Presented by Individual in Name of Non-Legal Entity TheThe Attorney General s opinion is clear that an auditor may not refThe Attorney General s opinion is clear that an uponupon a belief that the entity submitting it is not legallupon a b elief that the entity submitting it is not legally constitu lackslacks both the statutory authority and duty to determine the substantive validity of an ilacks both the statutory authority and recording. 196 8). However. m objects to place. TheThe overthrow of an acT he ove rthrow of a n ac tion ca usThe overthrow of an action caused by the defendant tendingtend ing to imp each the c orrec tness tending to impeach the correctness of the writ otending to impeach the corr the p resent.Id. AsAs the County Prosecutor. but in the former the right to proceed is merely suspended. at 8. though docu ment might h ave buried in it some cla im on title to real prop erty. 12.therefore. Referring Questions to Prosecutor s Office AA reco rdin A re co rd ing c A recording cannot be delayed to allow sufficient time for review of the documents by the Atto GeneralGeneral or Department of Revenue because the statute commanding the auditor to record withoutGeneral or Departme impliesimplies th at th e pro cess imp lies th a t the proc e ss musimplies that the process must be completed with deliberate speedy.PleaPlea in abatement. ThroughoutThroughout this Opinion we have repeatedly noted the genThroughout this Opinion we have repeatedly n F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. though. RCW 36. 12. A p lea whi ch.) FreemenFreemen apparently believe that tFreeme n ap paren tly be lieve tha t the ir seFreemen apparently believe that t terminatesterminates the action taken by the public official since our courts lack jurisdiction over a Sovereign Citizen. you are the leAs the County Prosecutor. reasonable and within the contemplation o f the statute asther efore. a caveat to the above concerns po ssible consultations with the pro secutor.

Kramer. (5) Members Members of thMembe rs of the p roper c oun ty legislative auth ority:Members of the proper c depends on county population] (6) Prosecuting attorney: [$5. 468 P.2d 4 (1970).050. seals.050. Every person elected to county office shall before he ente Every person electe u p ouponupon the duties of his office take and subscribe an oath or affirmation that hupo n th e du ties o f his off faithfullyfaithfully and impartially discharge the dutfaithfully and impartially discharge the dutifaithfu lly an d imp artia oath. farther than to make the record s and files speak the WeWe do no t believe that this limited capacity for later correWe d o no t be lieve th at th is limited capa city for decisionsdecisions that lie beyond the au decisions that lie beyond th e authori decisions that lie beyond the authority of first group of questions. or his or her executorsexecutors or executors o r admiexecutors or administrators. But as the Attorney General opinions make clear. papers. RCW 36. we do not believe that such wouldwould justify a lengthy delay. or affirmation.16. asSheriff: [not l by cou nty legislative aut hority] F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. [allodial freehold estate and homestead exemption] AGO 1996 No. (4) Coroner: [not less than $5. (2) Auditor: [not less than $10.36.16. 36. 904.000 no r more than $50. or affirma administer oaths. shall be administered and ce oath. concerningconcerning the obliconcerning the obligations of elconcerning the obligations of elected county officials to take an oat are also required to be filed in the same office as required of the elected official. If this results in an erroneou officerofficer may correct his [or her] errorofficer may correct his [or her] errors and mistakesofficer may correct his [o fartherfarther than to make the record s and files speak the truth. or affirmation.16. 36.000] (7) Sh eriff:Sheriff: [notSher iff: [not lessSheriff: [not less than $5. B ut a s the At t or ney Gener al opin are pr ope rly ackn owle dged an d sub mitted with th e pro per fees.andand the poss ibiland the poss ibilit and the possibility that future specific transactions on the subjects we have ad cou ld vary as t o legal ly significant fac ts.36. (3) Clerk:Clerk : Amoun t to b e fixed in a p enal sum no t less t C le rk: Amount to be fix ed i n a penal sum not amountamount of money liable to come into his or hea mount of mone y lia ble to c ome i nt o his or her haamou approvedapproved by the jud ge or approved by the judge or a majapproved by the judge or a majority of courtcourt of which he or she is clerk: PROVIDED.boo ks. If this results in an err(197 0). As a general mattewould justify dutiesduties to file or process documents must do so. As a generwould justify a lengthy delay.040 . at 16. Official bonds.16.040. (1970). shall be administeroath. rec ord s. and furnit ure b elo nginbooks. If this re sults in an err one ous r (1970). as they [are] reduties to file or process documents must do receivedreceived for filingreceived for filing. prosecutor. That fixedfixed for the cl erk fixed for the clerk shall nfixed for the clerk shall not exceed in amount that req treasu rer in a c oun ty of th at cla ss. That court o f which he or she is clerk: PROVIDED.oath. a Bon ds of ele ctive cou nty o fficers shall be as fol lows: (1) AAsAssessor:Assessor: Amount to be fixed and sureties to be approved by prop er cou nty legislative aut hority. without charge therefor. sea ls. Every county official before he or Every county official before he or she enter ofof his or her office shalof his or her office shall fof his or her office shall furnish a bond co nditioned th at he or she w thethe du ties of his or her office and accou nt for and turn over all mo ney which may co me intointo h is ointo his or her hands by virtue of his or her office. IfIf you are in doubt about the proper action to take when dealingIf yo u a re i n d ou bt ab ou t t he pr op er a ct ion to ta ke w he n Oaths of Office and Bonds FreemenFreemen frequently challenge the authority of a public official due to the official s failure toFr eemen f requent l y ch filefile an oath and bond file an oath and bond as requiredfile an oath and bond as required by statute.0 00]. and that he or she. equipment. Oath of office.000. records. 77 Wn.16. prosecutor. eq uipm ent . 12.0 00].2d 899. Pacific Pacific National Bank v. June 1999) 100 . the prpros e cutor. pap ers. ForFor the reasons stated aF or the re a s ons s ta te d a boFor the reasons stated above. will deliver to his or her successor safe and und boo ks.

36. at l east at t he fil ming st age if s to catch. Every c Eve ry c ou Every county officer.16. General Suggestions AuditorsAud itors an d asseA u d ito rs and a ss e ss ors s houAuditors and assessors should always remember to treat Freemen as re whomwhom contact is made. 953 P. the maximum a b o n d . 1 6 . If the liens or other documents are (usua lly jud ges. not t o exceed popul ation].. Wh thatthat an elected o fficial s failure to strictly compl y with these statu tes is not ground s for removal from oth at a n el ect ed o fficia ifif theif the iif the irregularities are subsequently cured. one shoulwhom c onta ct is made. Tfaction within the Fr documentdocument (and of course charge the appropriate fee) and document (and of course charge the appropriate fee) and w a suspected Freemen s property without law enforcement escort. 1 6 . The board shal l f ix t heir co shallshall give bond and the amount of the bond requishall give bond an d the amo unt o f the bon d required from esha bonds must be approved by the board and the premium therefor is a county expense. However. OathsOaths and bonds of deputies shall be filed in Oaths and bonds of deputies shall be filed in the officesOaths of their principals are required to be filed. we ask auditorsauditors andauditors and assessors tryauditors and assessors try to have their staff catch liens and other documents file (usually(usually judges. ple ase mak e sure tha t th e oat hs an d b comecome into frequco m e in to freq u ecome in to freq uen t con tact w ith Fre emen. Lastly. Cop ies of th ese d ocu she riff.060. please make sure that the oaths and bonds are executed and filed in theSo. after first being recorded by the co the coun ty treasurer. The doc F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 0 7 03 6 .So. one shoul d always whom contact is made f a ct i o nfaction within the Freemen movement. on e must take gre at ca re to read Free men d ocu ment s.commissioners. 0 7 0 D36. one must take great cLastl y.2dP. you ma y want to kee p a sep arate file han dy since you will surely be asked to provide a copy of the oath of office and bond. So..bond. In all cases where the duties of any county office ar greatergreater than can be performed by th e person elected to fill it.060. c om mas in t he sign doc umen ts almo st alwa ys inclu de r followedfollowed by sui juris. prose soso b e it .16. or sheriffs for millions of dollars). see.16. at least at the filming sta documentsdo cu men ts a lmo st a lw ays inc lu de rel igio us r eferen ces. scounty clerk. AA dep uty m ay pe rform a ny ac t wh ich h is prin cipal is auth oriz A deputy may perform any act which his principal is appointingappointing a deput y or other employee shal l be reapp oint ing a de put y or o the r emp loye e sha ll b e resp onsi upon his official bond and may revoke each appointment at pleasure. 36.073 6 . Place of filing oaths and bonds.Lastly. greater than can be performed by the person deputiesdepu ties and o ther n ecessary empl oyedeputies and other necessary employees withdeputies and other commission ers. however . one must Lastly. before entering upon theth e du ties of h is offic e. after first being recorded by th e county aud itor.070 Deputies and employees.2d 82 (1998) (delayed fP . generally In re Recall of Sandhaus. When in d oubt it is wise to not engage a Freemen.36. But a d oc um en t in vol ving m ill ion s of do ll ars th at ha s Fr eemen veso be it . AuditorsAud itors (o aths) a nd C oun ty Cle rks (bo nds) sh oul d take great care to make sure th at th is stAudi t ors ( oaths) an mandatemandate is complied withmandate is complied with by allmandate is complied with by all elected county officials.2d 82 (1998) (delayed filing of bond not grounds for r out the failure of elected public official to follow the law.(8) Treasurer:Treasurer: Sureties to be approved by theTreasurer: Sureties to be approved by th legislativelegislative authority and the amounts to be fixed by the legislative authority and th e amounts to b llegislativelegislative authority at double the amount liable to come into legislative authority at doubl treasurer streasurer s handstre asu rer s ha nd s du rin g treasurer s hands during his or her term. The board shall fix their compensation ac ommis s ione rs . s ha ll file h i s oat h i n the of fi ce o officialofficial bond in the official bond in the office of the county clerk: PROVIDED. effect a public disclosure request to which a timely response is required. 2 d 8 2 (1998) (de la ye d filing of bond P. WhileWhile While we recoWhile we recognize that it is impossible at the time of filing to examine every document. not to exceed [an amount based upon counbond. however. June 1999) 101 . That the official bond of the countycounty clerk. Ho wever.16. sh all file h is oa th in t he o ffthe dutie s of his offic e . Copies of these documents should be immedifollo wed by sui jur is. 134 Wn. at least at the filming stage ito cat ch. But a doc umen t involving mill ions o f dol toto catch. prosecutors.2d 662.

67 W n. harassment. 11 and or Fed motion to limit future in forma pauperis filings. Lockhart v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. SomeSome individuals whSome individuals who ar Some individuals who are initially charged with minor offenses.A pp. these individuals will alter their behavior follow justicejustice justice system. 834 P. will up the ante by retaliating against every judge who presides prosecup ro s ecu to rp ro s ecu to r w h o is invprosecutor who is involved in the case. Manys eld o m u s ed . will ag reem en ts .A pp. felony elu de. 73 5. and (3) the party signing the pleading has failed to conduct a reasonable inquiry into the factual or legal basis of the action. Pailthorp. 743-44 .actions.P. Prejustice system.Ci v. 50 A pro s e plaintiff may be su bject to C R 11 sa nctions if three c onditions are met: (1) the ac tion is not well grou nded in fact.agreements. for as no ted b y Judge East erbroo k T h eThe bringing of charges against a Freeman should never be based upon a disagreemenThe bringing of charges ag SomeSome p eop le be lieve with great fervor p repo sterou s tSome people believe with great fervor preposterous thin wiwithwith their self interest & The government may not prohibit the holding of these beliefwith th eir se lf in ter est & but it may pen alize peop le who ac t on th em. 66 Wn. assault. aga in the case. Comm issi oner of In ternal R evenue. etc. June 1999) 102 .law. review denied. ChargesCharges should not be withheld. R esor instructii ns tru ctio n sinstru ction s in the WPICs instructions in the WPICs will not be available and case law discussing the offense charges that have been utilized in Kitsap Count y with success are discussed below. 1986). even agreemen ts.2 d 64 (19 92). Hopefully. will be found outside Chapter 9A RCW. 901 . 121 Wn. Harrington v. such as malicious prosecution. merely because prosecuC ha rge s should not be wit hhel d.CHARGING OPTIONS H OW TO F IT A SQUARE P EG INTO A ROUND HOLE Charging Considerations and Proper Penalties individual s beliefs. 791 F. ot herw ise impe ril th e safety of ot hers. w ill up agreements.R. Many appropriate crimes. Colema n v. w ill be found out side Ch apte r 9A R CW. H o pefully. 841 P. Preference should generally be given to an initial non-felony charge in or co nd uc t with ou t u nr eason ab ly p un ish ing.2d 68 (7th C ir. the se indiactions.2 d 12 58 (1 992 ). Hopefullyactio n s . b law. (2) it is not warranted by existing law. Additional charges that arise from such retalia joinedjoined to the original charge or filed under a separate cause number after the first prosecution is obtaijoine d to the origin TheThe benefit of waiting is that the prosecutor has the opportunity to sThe be ne fit of w a iting is tha t t he prosecutor has t he will alter as a result of prosecution and incarceration. though.2d 1018 (19 93 ). 910 . M a ny a ppseldom used. consumingconsuming or beconsuming or because consuming or because the charged person may retaliate by filing liens. Resort to less colaw. See CR 11 . or co nstit ute a violat iodelivery of governm for which prosecution is normally brou ght. m er el y SomeSome F reemen you e nco unt er do not fully u nde rstand the a rgument s oSome Freemen you encounter do no t fu action s. or Fe d. IndividualsIn d iv id u als wh o Individuals who file nuisance suits in a Washington State Co urt or a prop er United States C withoutwithout the accompanying liens are more properly dealt with under CR 1150 or Fed. Greive. rcommon driving while seldomseldom used. Available Charges ChargesCharges that may be brought in response to typical Freemen activity range from the common drivingcommon driving while license suspended. though. TheThe filing of criminal charges is only appropriate when the The fil ing of crimin al ch arges is on ly ap pro priat e w del ivdeliverydel ivery of govern ment al ser vices.

This pseudo-judiciCounty.1(c).12.12 . Sec ond.A pp.A pp. the curre nt barr atry s tatut e. First.010 . is she may. TheThe barratry statutThe barratry statute5 1 contai contains two alternative means of committing the offense: (1) com barratr y. 3 1995). only a judge can order the State to provide a bill of particulars. 51 review denied. at 617-18. A criminal defendant who seeks a bill of particulars must serve a motion for such upon the prosecuting attorney. this D ivision. not the arresting officers.8(b). 577. Devine. in addition thereto be disbarred from practicing law within this state. The granting o f a mo tion fo r a bil l of pa rticu lars r ests in the s ound disc retio n of the c ourt a nd is d epe ndent u pon whe ther the available discovery discloses the factual basis for the charges. 90 1. 010 wa s amend ed in 199 5. State v. Champer ty and Mai ntenance §§ 27-28. a nd (2) pse ud o-ju dic ial p roc ess.12 . State v. 904 P. 84 1 P. see generally 14 C. and C hapter 2. Se e RCW 9. 5 27 P. 14(1991). is guilty of a misdemeanor. 597 P. The Divisio n III case of Danz ig v.S. CrRLJ 2. t hat is not in fact judi KitsapKitsap C oun ty un der th is pron g for serving writs of ha beas c Kitsap County under this prong for serving writs of habeas c suchsuch as thsuch as the Supre such as the Supreme Court.2 d 79 7. 910. Wash ingt an y decisio ns t ha t d iscu ss t he eleme nt s of th e co mmo n l aw ba rra try pr on g. 2d 60 (19 86 ). 79 Wn. Mer rill. See gene rally CrR 4 . Pailthorp.2d 1011 (1996).J. is guilty of a misdemeanor. See State v. See CrR 2. Co mmo n l aw b arra try c on sists o f the filin g of o barratry. in a po st-Danz ig case. 84 Wn. The curre nt barr atry s tatut e co ntains two a lterna tive m eans of co mmitting the crime : (1) c ommo n law b arrat ry or a haras sme nt prong which c onsis ts of t he filing o f engaging i n vexa tious litigati on su ch as that whic h woul d enge nder s anctio ns und er C R 11. 79 Wn. and in process.55 (1 96 4) . RC W 9.A pp. 52 Under Washington law. review denied. b eing an a ttorne y or c ouns elor a t law clau se re lied u pon b y Di visio n III. 2d 72 (19 74 ). any false suit at laanother to bring. The Danz ig decision is inapplicable to Freeman prosecutions on a number of grounds. State v. Every person who anotheranother to bring.2 d 1036 (1979). Ac cord ingly. Knowles. CrRLJ 4. 957 P. Gra nt. This stat ute p rovides as fo llow s EveryEvery person who brings on his or her o Ever y pe rso n wh o b rings on his o r he r ow n b eha lf. at 16 (1991).2d. Common Law Venue and the K INGD LO O R D O R D E C CC LESIAS TIC AL C O M M O N LAW C OURT . Harrington v. 89 Wn.County. A violation of the barratry statute is a misdemeanor. RCW 9.4(e). 92 Wn.2d 1029 (Div. o r who serves or sen ds athereby to distress or harass a de documentdo cu men t p ur po rti ng t document p urporting to be or document purpo rting to be or resembling a judicial pro proc ess. Statutes that are generally limited to attorneys are contained in Chapter 2. 7 26 P. State v. 2d 67 8. any false suianother to bring. 2d 312 (Div. a nd (2) serving or s ending pseu do-judic ial proce ss. 48 RC W (State Bar Ac t). only me ntions a ttorne ys to single them o ut for gr eate r punis hment tha n the non-a ttorne ys w ho are convicted of violating the same statute.2d 1258 (1 992).44 RCW (attorneys at law).bar rat ry. 367 . tbe o r resem blin g judicia l pro cess. 129 Wn.App. 12. See D anzig . review denied. This pseudCounty.2 d 10 18 (1 993 ). O ur courts have long rec ognized that non-attorne ys are subje ct to the sanctions contained in CR 11. 23 Wn. See. CrRLJ 4. e. This title is devoted to general crimes. TheThe pseudo-j The pseudo-judicial The pseudo-judicial process prong of the barratry statute is the alternative means u Cou nty.7(d) (same). and (2) pseud ovexatiousvexatious litigation such as that whivexatious litigation such as that which would engenvexa tio us l itiga tio n su ch as judicijudiciallyjudicially judicially or legislatively adopted a rule that a prosecution und er the common law prong of barratry requ thethe commithe c ommissithe commission of several acts.010..2d 446 . 2d 21 0 (1 97 8). Ap p.7(d ) (defe ndant c an only obta in informa tion fro m per sons other t han the p rose cuting a ttorne y throu gh a su bpo ena issued by the court). The cu rrent barratry stat ute d oes not co ntain the eve ry pe rson. 5 75 P.process. 010 . The c urrent barra try statute appe ars in Title 9 RCW. has affirmed a barratry conviction obtained against a non-lawyer. 010. the stat ute q uote d by Div ision III in Danzig differs significa ntly from the sta tute than exists today. In fact. Champer ty and Mai ntenance §§ 19-20. 91 W n. D anzig . indicates in dicta that the barratry statute does not apply to non-attorneys. Individuals have also been charged under the pseudojudicialjudicial process prong forjudicial process prong for sjudicial proc ess pro ng for serving law enforc ement officers with RCW 9. 121 Wn. and in case the pers process. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. the Danz ig dec ision w as d ealing w ith the common law champerty alternative means portion of Washington s former barratry statute instead of the pseudo-judicial process prong that is at issue in the instant case. In fact. Brown. Washington State Republic. June 1999) 103 . 1 4 Am. the re is no reas on to ju dicia lly exe mpt no n-atto rneys from the haras sme nt prong o f the cu rrent barratry s tatute.20 . 57 1. 2 1998).Barratry The cr ime of bar ratry is co dified at RCW 9. at 85 4-55 (19 64). §§ 1 9.App. 2d 46 7. 67 Wn. The cu rrent barratry s tatute c learly ap plies to no n-attorneys to the same extent as to attorneys . at 85 4. review denied. 61 2. This pseudo-judicial process prong is violated when an indiv bebe or resembling judicial probe or resembling judicial process. 45 Wn.Jur.g. any false suit at law or in ttherebyther eby to distress o r hara ss a defen dan t in th e suit. 136 Wn.12.

C R 4(b)(1)person who signed the summons. The word purport is defined in a standard dictionary as follows: 1: to have the oftenoften specious appearance o f being. YOU ARE COMPELLE D TOwarning: THIS IS LEGAL PROCESS. or coften s pe c ious a ppe ara nc e of be ing. In W a shington. Norby. judici al pr ocess is l ega ManyMany of the documents prepared by Freemen that are servedM a ny of the doc uments prep ar ed by Fr eemen t hat summons. and (3) a notice that if the person receiving the the time stated in the summons. CR CRLJ 4(i). CRparty.) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. The question of whether a particular documentdocument sent by a Freeman to a polidocument sent by a Freeman to a police officer. The signature of a judicial officer or C R LJ (4)(a )(1). CR party. Proof of service must be endorsed o r attached to th e summons. CR 4(c). Ne ither of these d iscov ery tools are available in a criminal case absent extra-ordinary circumstances. party. othdocument sent by a Freem process is a fact question for the jury. The s igna ture of a judic ia l of fi cer or cl erk i s not r ththethe title o f the cause. 1983). TheThe B L A C K S L A W AW D I C T IO N A R Y definition of judicial process is narrower than that used by other jurisdictionsjurisdictions in connection with jurisdictions in connection with their pjurisdictions in connection with their pse thethe w ord proc ess th e w o rd p ro cess is not limite d to the word process is not limited to those items listed in BL A C K S LA S.2d 210 (19 93). CR 4(b)(1). (2 ) a dir ectio n to the perso n rec eiving the summo ns th at h e or sh e must resp thethe time stated in the summons. In Wash ington . NeitherNeith er the term judicial proc ess nNeither the term otherother Washington statut e. the court held that Although the documents the Freemen serve upon the arresting officers will generally be entitled a verification of demand for particula rs. The word resemble is defined in a standard dictionary as follows: 1: to957 (198 likelike or similar to 2 archaic: to : to represent as like. or by a ny perso n over 18 years of age who is compe tent to be a witness in the action. Id. at 1085. defines judicial pr630. su but more spec ifically it mean s the w usedused to used to inform the used to inform the defendant of the institution of proceedings against him and to compe his app earan ce. June 1999) 104 . 122 Wn. summon s. AA synonym for the phrase judicial process is legal process whiA s ynonym for the phra s e mandate. or oth er process issuing from a court. a summo ns may b e si s ummons ..W. 53 CR 4(c) clearly indicates that the term process is not limited to summons: Service of summons and process. 5 3 CRLJ 4(c) CRLJ 4(c).officersofficers to TAKE NOTICE that th e Demaofficers to TAKE NOTICE that the Demandant officers to TAKE N isis applicablis app licab le th at th e offic is applicable that the officers of the court furnish the undersigned a Bill of Particulars sst a t em e n tsta te men t re gastatement regarding the process issued by you in the Above Case & and which contains the follow warn ing:warning: THIS IS LEGAL PROCESS.Ct.App. 1085 (5th ed. a summ ons m ay be si gned by CRLJCRLJ (4)(a)(1). Subpoenas may be served as provided in rule 45. sha ll be by the sheriff of the co unty wherein the se rvice is made. in e ither c ivil or crimina l cases. Y critical to a barratry charge. 2 65-67. jud gment wil l be re nde red again st him or her b y defau lt. specifying the name o f the court in w hich the a ction is brou ght and th e namethe title of the cause. the docu ment will more c losely resemb le interrogatorie s or de mands for a dmissio ns. or clai mi ngoften spe bookbook that ~s to be an objective analyboo k that ~s to be an objec tive anal ysibook that ~ s to be an ob jective analysis> 2: D I C T IO N A R YI C T IO N A R Y 9 5 7 (957 (1985). sp partiesparties to parties to the actpart ies to the actio n. 85 8 P.2d 776 (Mo. (Bold added. 1987). intendi ng. other than a party. at 1002. intending. 1085 ( 5t h ed. Id. an d (4) an ad dress fwithin the ti personperso n wh o signed the su p ers o n who s igne d the summons. except whe n service is by pu blication. TheThe terms purporting to be or resembling are not defined in the barratrThe te rms purp ortin g to be or resemb lin the irtheir usual meaning. butbut more sp ecifically it means t but more sp ecifically it means t he writ . 19 allall thall the aall the acts of a court from the beginning to the end of its proceedings in a given cause.2 d 258. See State v. B L A C K as in clud ing: S judicial process nor t Neither the term judicial process n LAW D I C T IO N A R Y 630. and (3) a no with inwithin thwithin the t ime state d. or b y his dep uty.

reviewre view d ereview deni ed. Williams..D. 9 8 (19 19). RCWelude legal process summoning him or her to testif agreementagreement which.26 (discovery).. C R LJ 45 (s ubpoe na ).2d at 77 9.W. e.. e. Batten v. 12. review denied. 182. 28 Wn.App.W. pr oh ibi ts t he voagreement which. Cr RLJ 4 26 (disc overy). 159 Cal.2dWn. opinion.2d at 779.2d 984.W. he delivers or causes to be delivered: *** (2) A ny pu rporte d su mmons .g. 95 Wn. e.D.Ap p. levy. 44 N.2d 96 4. 7 24 P.2d 1188 (1980) (common(com mon law l ie(co m mo n law lie ns(common law liens). 176 N. See.App. 76. State e x r e l. W . review denied.prohibits the voluntary or invo creationcreation or enforcement of a security interest. These authoritiesauthorities indicate that.2d 1015 (1986 ) (administrative inspection warrant). Moore. 456-57. 176 N broader definition.140 (a p ublic attorney may issue legal process and subp oena to co mpel witne ss s]witness s] attendance and production of documents ).72.1 80.prohibits theagre eme nt wh ich . 21. The Joos court went on to find a document styled Arrest of Judgment Stay Execution Execution that was phrased as a command of the UniExecution that was phrased as a command of the United S who sewhose attention it was brought to refrain from enforcing a judgment in any manner was wewhose attention it was bro meaning and import of the words legal process as used in §575. Joos. by way of a threat against eludeelude legal process summoning him or her to testify ). Lee. 26 Wn.Ap p. Mar k v. 737.2 7. Shutt v. decision. used in its moreauthorities indicate that..2 d 1033 (1981) (discussing a wide variety of documents that will sup port an to rt actionaction for abuse of judicial process). ). OnS ee.Rp tr. 735 S. 735 7 3 5 S . u aa court compea co u rt co m p els co ma court compels compliance with its demands..g. State ex rel. or other official action asto influe nc e a publ i c ser vant s vot e. CR 33 (a) (interrogatories). In a proc ess process is the means of compelling a defendant to appear in court after the process is the means of compelling a d inin civil cases and any means of acqu iring jurisdiction is properly den omiin c ivil c a se s a nd any m eans of acqui ri ng j MaxbassMaxbass Secu r.W. S uperi or Cou rt. by use of a threat. 2 d at 7 7 9 . 98 44 N . 11 Wn. as we cons "proce ss""proce ss" is used as a gen eral t erm and den otes t he mea ns wh ereby a cou rt com pels a compliance with its demands. warrants. used in its more restrictiauthorities indicate that. C rR LJ 4. S up e ri oL CourtCourt of Court of Sacramento Court of Sa cramento C ounty.110 (w itnes s s ] a tte nda nc e and pr oduct ion of doc witne sswitness if.. R RC W 1 0 .See. heA person is guilty of i toto influence a public servant s vote. 735 S. 12 . servant.App. CasesCases from other jurisdictions and legal treatises are consistent with the Joos cou rt s anal ysis. BatBatten v.. or attachment. CR 2626 (d iscovery). by way of a threat agaiwitness if.. State ex rel. (writs of garnishment). 2 26 W n.3rd 64 . 1 91-92.D. 52 1 P. Lister L i s te r v.TheThe te rm proc ess is nThe t erm pro cess is not limThe term process is not limited to summons . 30 Wn. 176 N. CR 4(a) (summo ns).2 depositiondeposition in civil case). CR 45(a) (sub poena s). Fite v. T his statu te pro vides (1) AA peA perso n is A person is guilty of intimidating a public servant if.130. or other c re a tion or enforce ment of a secur i t y i nt eres a party under th e lease contract or of the lessor's residual interest in the goods. O nis hi See.g.. sub poe na or o ther le gal pro ces s kno wing that t he pro ces s wa s not is sue d or a uthori zed b y any court. RCW 10.2d 4 28. The most encompassing definition of this u p r o c proc ess process refers to all writs.g.. Wi Mark v. VariousVarious Washington statutes also include a wide variety of documents withiV a rious W a sh i ngt on st at ut es al so in proc ess . with purpose to mislead the recipient and cause him to take action in reliance thereon. 54 The N ew Mis souri C riminal Cod e § 575 . June 1999) 105 . CRLJ 4(a) (su mmo CR 33(a) (interrogatories). VariousVariou s Washin gton ca ses sweep a wide variet y of do cumen ts with in the scope of judicial proc essVariou s Washin See. 45 45 Wn. Wash 44 N. 1 Wn. Intimidating a Public Servant The o ffense of int imidatin g a pub lic servant is defined at RC W 9A. 626 P.. ManyMany of the documents in the proceeMany of the documents in the proceed Many of the documents in the proceed similarsimilar documents may be signed by an attorney for thesimilar documents may be signed by an attorney for the party e. 98 Cal.130 d efines the c rime of simu lating legal proc ess a s follows : A person commits the crime of simulating legal process if. 71-72. summons and orders of courts or judicial officers. Oni shi v. RCW 9A.. 12.27. 613 P. Bank. by way of a threat against a current owitness if. 280 (1979). CRLJ 45 (subp not preclu de a rationale trier of fact from finding that a document resembles judicial process. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. C RLJ 45 (subp oen a). e.. 450.process . Abrams.g .

11 6.(2) (3) For p urpo ses of this sec tion pub lic servant shall not inclu de jur ors. Const. 136 Wn. state.080.180(3 protectedprotected speech . may make prosecution of offe 9A. 2 1998) (a even if his even if his or her oath has not been filed with the secretary of state).elected. Wash. Eve ry supe rior court. subdivision. (4) Intimidating a pu blic servant is a cl ass B felony. jurors are excluded from the intimidating a public servant statute. 56 AA p ub lic ser van t is pr ot ected b y th is st atut e eve n if t he re i s so me irre gul ari ty w ith th e fil ing A pu bl ic ser vant is pr ot e pub licpublic servant s oath of office or bond. city. 56 RCW 9A. judicial officer.110(13 ). RCW 9A. appo inted.110(22). Federal.2d 8282 (1998) (delayed filing of bond no t grounds for reca82 (1998) (delayed filing of bond not grounds for recall82 (1998) 794. RCW 9A. district.Ap p. June 1999) 106 .2d 38 . 84 Wn. (9) Governmental function includes any activity which a public servant is legally authorized or permitted to undertake on behalf of a government & With the rise in the number of Freemen defendants.110(25 ). 81 0 P. 856 P. consultant. or agency of the government of this state and any county.010(14 )(t).08.82 . county. 525 P.2d 761761 (1974) (authority of a de facto prosecutor761 (1974 ) (authority of a de facto prosecutor.76.04. or othe r local gov ernmental unit. it is only prudent for all public servants to strictly comply with constitutional 57 and statu tory prov isions req uiring the taking and filing of oa ths of office s.085.110(2 5) include a large amount o f protected freRCW 9A. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. RCW 2. inc lu din g anyany person other than a witness who presently occupies the positionany p erson oth er tha n a witn ess who pre elected.0 4.57 See generally In reSee generally In re Recall of Sandhaus. Kepiro. IV. 810 P. and municipal workers fall within the scope of officer and pub lic public officer. or (b) threats as defined in RCW 9A. or (b) To cause physical damage to the property of a person other than the actor. 95 0 P. Th e in tim ida tin g a p ub lic ser van t st atut e p ro tects a l arge nu mb er o f ind ivid ua ls. art. TheThe threats described by RCWThe thre a ts de s c ribe d by R C W 9AThe threats described by RCW 9A. or otherwise in performing a governmental function. dire c tly or indirec tly.2d 1018 (Div. if commit ted in co nne ctio n wit Intimidating a public servant is an or prosecution. directly or indirectly the intent: (a) ToTo cause bodily injury in the fTo c a use bodily injury in the future to To cause bodily injury in the fu person.04.2d 19 (1991 ). d irectly against any person who is present at the time. theto co mmunic ate.2d 111 6 (1993 ). will fall within the d efinition of criminal profiteering.04 . State v. RCW 2. State v.04.794.App. The 61 W n. ThisThis offense is ranked and hasT h is offe ns e is ra nke d a nd ha s be e n This offense is ranked and has been assigned a serio crimecrime is that the defen dant mu crime is that the defendant must know tcrime is that the defendant must kn IntimidatingIntimid atin g a pub lic serva nt is an offense which . ap pellate court. The sam e theo ry that is dis cus sed in the intim idati ng a jud ge po rtion o f these mate rials will ap ply to pros ecu tions u nder the intimidating a witness and intimidating a juror statutes. RCWRCW 9A.080.2d 134 Wn. appointelected. 2 1 998 ) (a ju dge is stil 136 Wn. RCW 36. 11 6. one in actual 761 (1974 exercising its duties and powers und er color of title. or designated to become any officer or employ in clu d in ginc lu din g including a legislator. RCW 9A. 12 5. 55 and any p erson partic ipatin g as and any p er advisor.App. judge. RCW 9A.110(8) and (9) provide as follows (8) Government includes any branch. 80 7-09. Id.0 4.06.11 0(25 ) pro vides as foll ows (25) Threat means to communicate.110(2 5) include a large amount o f protect Wn. ma y mak e pr ose cut ion of o however. or d elected. Cook. directly or indto c ommunic a te . is not subject to collat eral attack).04 .11 0(8) and (9). Every county officer must immediately file his or her oath with the county auditor. RCW 2. Threa t as used in this sec tion m eans (a) toto communicate.04.060.16.0 4.1 public officer. 134 Wn. juror. The oaths of deputies are filed wherever the oath of the principle was filed. appointed. or 55 Although juror appears in the definition of public servant.2d 342. The definitions however. 1 45. See RCW 9A.04 . and s upreme court judge must file his or her oath with the Secretary of State. may make prosecution ho weve r. RCWRCW 9A. §28. review deni ed. 125. 2d 1 018 (Div. 61 Wn.however. public officer.

only one or two of the types of threat contaGen eral ly FreemenFree men c ases. S. the crime.challenge. D ivision I of the C ourt of A ppea ls 59 held that [s]econd degree extortion pursuant to RCW 9A.110(25) probably do noWhile the various subsections co meansmean s of co mmittin g the c rime of intimid means of committing the crime of intimidating a pmeans o f committin g the thethe Kitsap County Prosecuting Attorney s Office limits all jury instructithe K its a p C ounty Prose c uting Att or ney s Off ice l im pro pr ove prove and we utilize special interrogatories in order to ensure juror unanimity.To expose a secret or publicize an asserted fact. June 1999) 107 . WhileWhile the various subsections contained in RCW 9A.130 is extortion committed by means of a threat which is defined by RCW 9A. safety. contempt. boyco obt ainobtain property which is not demanded or received for the benefit of the group which the actor purports to represent. or (e) ToTo expose a secret or publicize an asserted fact. wheth to subject any person to hatred. or (j) ToTo do anyTo d o an y oth er act which isTo do any other act which is intended to harm substant threatenedthreatened o r another with respect to his health. CHAPTER 13 SECTIONS 241 & 242 Mak e it a F ELON Y to use or co nspire to us e C OLO R OF LAW to enfo rce a Cod e or R egula tion whic h resu lts in the violation o f a perso n's Rights. the judge. or (f) To reveal any information sought to be concealed by the person threatened.(c) ToTo subject the person threatened or any other person to physical confineTo subject th e person t hreatene d o restraint. C R IM IN A L C O D E In State v.04. or (h) ToTo taTo take wrongful action as an official against anyone or To ta ke w ro ngfu l a ct ion wrongfully withhold official action. or (d) ToTo accuse an y person o f a crimeTo ac cuse any p erson of a crim e or c ause crim To accuse any pers against any person. S. 6 21 P .04.2 d 1017 (1981). or cause such action or withholding. Kitsap County has pr involvinginvolving a Common Law conteminvo lving a Co mmo n La w co nt emp t o rde r fo involving a Common Law contempt o commoncommon law lien. challenge.56. Subs e ction (d) ha s be e n us ed i n acommon law lien. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. business. but merely defining an element of. C R IM IN A L C O D E TITLE 18. 5 8 S Subsection (d) is also appropriate when you receive one of the check-box citizen informations for charging public servants with various federal felonies. This practice is foll we utilize specia beca usebecause of the free speech and overbreadth arguments that will be broube c a use of the fre e speech and over br ea involvesinvolves acts that do not fit within the definition of a truinvolves a c ts tha t do not fit w ithin t he def ini t ion of a tr ue infra in the intimida ting a jud ge section of the se mater ials. Garvin.Gen era lly . or as a (i) ToTo bring about or continue a sTo b ring ab out or co ntin ue a st rikTo bring about or continue a strike.2d 215 (198 0). Garvin. Subsection (d) hac ommon la w lie n. 95 Wn. 82. author. A frequent handout is a card with the fo llowing information on it The citize n Pres enting T his C ourte sy W arning to Pub lic O fficia ls is NO T VO LUNT EERIN G fo r anythi ng! WARNING U . Viola ters [s ic] will be prose cuted . review denied. fthreatened or another with respect to hi perso nal re latio nship s & Genera lly. author. at 85. ProsecutionProsecution for acts that do not fit the definition of a trProsecution for acts that do not fit the definiti chalchallenge. K itsap Cou nty h as pro ceed ed u nde r sub sectio n (j) in a lieFreemen cases. 28 W n. or ridicule. on ly o ne o r tw o o f the typ es o f Generally. or (g) ToTo testify or p rovide informat ion or w ithho ld testimo ny oTo testify or provide information or withho respect to another's legal claim or defense.A pp. Such challenges may be brought by an individual even though his or her conduct falls squa 58 The individuals who we have dealt with go to great efforts to educate state court judges and prosecutors.110(25)(d) through (j) &By defining [t]hreat the legislature was not creating alternative elements to. U . and others that they were engaged in a conspiracy against him and their failure to immediatelyimmediately release him wouldimme dia te ly re le a se him w ould re sult in immediately release him would result in his ofof various fed eral l aws. (Exact law reprodu ced insid e this card ).

827 P2d 1374 (1992).Ap p.A pp.76The plain language of RCW 9A. 980 F.App.9A.. NorNor does it prohibit threats to doN or doe s it prohibit thre ats to do minorNor does it prohibit threats to do minor prot ected intere sts.S.Ap p. 941 (1993). 29 2 8 W n.2d 1189.180 pub licpubl ic servants from public servants from threatspublic servants from threats of substantial harm based upon the dut ies. 71 6. decision. 62 28 Wn .] T h eThe p urpo ses The purpo ses promoted by the statu te are compelling in a democracy.2d 826. 5. 136 Wn . 299. RCW 9A. 122 Wn.Cir. eve n if th e sta tu te r (1)(1) the court can place a sufficient limiting construction on the statu te.2d 270 (19 93). Th is statut e pro vides F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.11 0(25)(j). 2561. 1 192-93 (871 P. And third. it help s mainta in pu blic co nfiden ce in d emocr atic inst itutio ns. Hansen.Wn. review deni ed. 2 d 1 1 8 9 .Ct.2d 3 97 (199 6).7 2. C ISPES CISPES v. 122-23 . 474 -75 (5th Cir. Edwards. 1 8 7 1 P . even if the statute reaches a substantiFin all y. 89 Wn. 488. at 1 50.04. 857 P. 2 1998).16 0.2d 712. Inc. By targeting only harm harm that are designed to influence a public servant s vote. 12 2 W n. at 150. or other officialofficia l action as a pu bl ic se rvaofficial action as a public servanofficial action as a public servant. 794. State v.2 d 9 10 (1 98 1) (p ub lic officia ls m ust andand free as possible oand free as possible of enand free as possible of entangling influences). 45 L.04. 9 24 P.2d 129 (1982)(1982) (participation in decision-making process by person potentially interested or biasedbiased is the evil th e app earan ce of fairne ss dbiased is the evil the appearance of fairness doctribiased is the Stockwell.2d 109 . 29 9.72.2d 1189.App. the c tailoredtailo red to add ress the overall prob lem it see ks ttailored to address the overall problem it seeks to c 9A. It prohibits only those threats related to future decision making and to substantialsubstantial in terests. or personal relationship. 97 Wn.S. 256 8 (1975). opinion. n. Step henson . 1985) (federal statute that criminalizes the ac471. 1192-93 (Colo. Finally.2. 474 -75 (5th Cir.2d 3 8. 295. 118 Wn. App .g. Halstien. by deterring the intimidation and threats that lepublic interest and toto co rrup t dec ision makin g. cert.S. 8 03-04. Public E mploym ent Relat ions Comm n. is to protect judgesjudges from retaliatory acts because of past official actions). 422 U. 9 50 P. The Court held that TheThe plain language of RCW 9AThe pla in la ngua ge of R C W 9A. 1985) (federal threateningthre aten ing a foreign o fficial in the perfor mance of his official d uties ithreat ening a foreign official in th e performan anan appropriate and necessaryan app rop riat e an d n ece ssar y mea ns o f an appropriate and necessary means of address protecting foreign officials ). e.with inwithin the statute s legitimate scope. denied.judges from retaliatory acts because of past public spublic s interest in apublic s interest in a fair apublic s interest in a fair and independent decision-making p pub lic public public interest and the law. It does no t encomp subst antial intere sts.2d 7 122 W n. 62 2 P . Finally. It do es not enco mpass subst antial intere sts. accord Iva accord Wn. Luvene. City of Tacom a v. 1992). See State v.Ap p.71 8.160(1). DivisionDivision II s analysis is consistentD ivis ion II s a na lys is is c ons is te nt w ith cDivision II s analysis is con constitutionalconstitutional overbreadth of statutes withcon stitu tion al o verbre adt h of st atu tes wit h sim con stitut ional overbre ad 871871 P.110(25)(j). June 1999) 108 . [Footno tes omitted. 17. 508 U. or ((1) th e cou rt can plac e a sufficient limiting c protectedprotected speech is permissible under th e First Amendment.471. Hicks. State v. DivisionDivision II of the Court of Appeals recently ruled upon the constitutionality of bringing a prosecution forfor intimidating a public servant utifor intimid ating a p ubl ic servant u tilizing sub sefor intimidating a public servant utilizi condition. Federa 471. Intimidating a Judge The cr ime of intimid ating a jud ge is codified a t RCW 9A. (9th Cir.duties.. Application of the overbrea courts sparingly. 29 5. n.2d 101 8 (Div. State v. 84 Wn. United United States v. 839-40.Ed. 922.2 d 1 17 (1 99 3) (le in ten tintent beh intent behind similar intimidating a judge statute. 28 Wn. 646 P. 86 2 P . 122 Wn . 95 S. City of HoquH o q u i Hoquiam Hoqu iam v.2. Sale Dora n v. App lication of the oWn.2d 648. 971. Salem Inn. 2d 71 2. 508 U. and may challenge the statute on the basis of overwithin the statute s legitimate sc drawndrawn as to sweep within its amb drawn as to swe ep with in its amb it pro tecte d sp drawn as to sweep within its ambit pro Do ra n Doran v.App.76. even if the statute reaches a substaFinally. 1994) (statute prohibiting attempts to influence p dec eitdeceit o r by tdeceit or by threat deceit or by threat of violence or economic reprisal not facially overbroad because it was toto enable the state to proscribe the type of conduct that rises to a level of criminal culpability and placed a minimalminimal burden on a p erson's speech intereminimal burden on a person's speech interests).2d 481. at 150. App licat ioWn. See.2d 963.App.

310 F.S. 8 10 P. 35 7 (D. TheThe intimidating a judge offense is unique with respect to the number of arThe intimidating a judge offense is uniqu alreadyalready determined do notalready determined do not already determined do not constitute defenses. to define the wo r threat threat in the statute by referenc threat in the statute by reference to th threat in the statute by refe person. 122 Wn .Su pp. a person attemptsthre at dire cted to a ju dge. Act 1818 U. RCW 9A. but the strong anprote c t not onl y t he weak and t asas wel l & Acco rdin gly. 357 (D. 810 P. the defen makemake a threat of use.2d 1 9 (1991 ) (R 61 W contaicon tain contain an implied element of intent to harm or reasonably cause alarm). gives the statute a proper construction evilevil being attacked the defendant's conduct. Natale.Supp. Int im non-statuto rynon-statutory element that the defendant must know the person threaten non -statu tory e lemen t tha t the defend ant used in RCW 9A. but it is the threin fear. See State v.160 are defined in RCW 9A.indirectly. (3) Intimidating a jud ge is a class B felony. IntimidatingInt imid ating a Intimidat ing a judge is Intimidat ing a judge is a ra nked offense wit h a serio usne ss level of VI. either directly or i n d iindirectl y.2d 712 . gives the statu te a p rope r con struct ion sin ce it focu seperson. we r eject the claim t hat actu al fear is a nec essary e lemen t of th is offense. § 891(7) if they instill fear in th reasonablyreasonably calculated to do so in light of the surroundingreasonably calculated to do so in light of the surr v. As recognized by the Secont ain an i m Circuit with regard to a federal extortion statute TheThe judge charged the jury that the Government must pThe judge charged the jury that the Government must p ordinaryordinary person wou ld have been pu t in fear of immediate bodily harmordinary pe rs on woul d have been put harmharm from anythha rm fr om an yth ing harm from an ythin g that the defen dan t said or d id to Weiss o r Amat o & It is tr charge did notcharge did not require the jury to find that the persons threatenedcharge did not require the jury to find that t inin fear. directly or indirectly. 310 F. 425 U. The State need not p r e a c h ereachedreached the victim judge in order to convict. 1 20-21. 61 Wn. TheThe State also does not need to prove that the victim judge actually felt intimidatThe State also does not need to pro o rorderorder to obtain a conviction. Hansen Hansen. perso n. 351 . Curci o. or property of (anotreputation.04. C calculated calculated use of threatening gestures or words to collect credit extensions which Con gressCongress hasCongress has made criminal. 950 andand footnotes omand footnotes omitted). Acts or statemente vil be ing a tta cke d the defendant 's conduct. United United States v.C.110. 1975). o r property of (anoth er) reputation. 1168 ( 526 F. 120-21.2 122 W 716-718. reputation. but it is the threat oin fear. 122 Wn . State v. RCW 9A.(1) AA person is guilty of intimidating a judge if a perA person is guilty of intimidating a judge if a person d beca usebecause of a ruling or decibecause of a ruling or decision of thbec aus e of a rul ing o r de cisio n o f the jud ge in threatthreat directed to a judge.110(25 ). or property of (another) pers sustainedsustained under this statute even where the ps us ta ine d under this s ta tute eve n whe r e t he per son sustained waswas put was put in fear by thwas put in fear by the threat &The approach chosen by the trial judge. Hansen. not the victim s individual state ooth er wo rds.reputation. d irectly or in directly. cert. 351. so long as the defendanCongress inteintendedintend ed to take actio ns which reasona bly wo uld in duce fear in an or dinary p intended to take actions wh other other other words. 116.C.72.2d 117 (19 93). but it is the threat of harm which is prohibited by 18 U. a p erson attemp ts th rea t d ire cted to a ju d in a ny officia l p ro ceed ing.2 526 F. 3 57 (D . Actual fear need not be generated. of violence or other criminal means. June 1999) 109 . it is the c on toto whito which the thrust to which the thrust of the statute is directed. it is the conduct of the defendant. 19 70) ( Timbers. Con n.C isis not an element of the is not an element of the offenis not an element of the offense &To be convicted.Su pp. becaus t h et h e t h rthe threat wou ld in fact be communicated to the judge is not an element of the crime. or (b) Threats as defined in RCW 9A.2d 1160.S . 61 Wn.App.v. 116. because of an official ruling or decision by that particular judge.160 does not include an element that the person threatened forder to obtain a actualactual fear.2d 1160. 310 F.Ap p.72. (2) Threa t as used in this sec tion m eans: (a) ToTo communicate. 1 168 (2d Cir.04 . to cause harm to the person. denied. Conn. RCWand footnotes omitted). Kepiro. 862 P.S. We have no doubt that Congress meant to protectprotect not only the weak and timid from extortionate threats. the int en against any person who is present at the time. 526 F. A 122 Wn. 3 51.S.72. tthatthat is necessary to convict is that the defendant must have made a threat to the judge. like the federal statute at F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.160. § 89 1(7) if they instill fear in t he per son to whom t hey 18 U. the intent To commu nicate. An intention or knowlindirectly.

Weekly13 Fla.16 0.statute. Janouse People v.160. Finally. the St at e does not need t o Wa shi ngt W as h in g to nWashington appellatWashington appellate case has interpreted the crimes of intimidating a public servant. 810 P. moreover. does not support the The plain language of these similar st harm harm element. at 125-1 26 ( 61 W n. need not actually have occuetc. with the intent thereby to alter or affect the public servant s decision. casecase law appears to be to the contrary. n.of intimid ating a jud ge.60 These jurisdictions have the irtheir intimidating a public servant statutes.7 2. R. The inclusion of promises of future harm only sense sense as an elements en se as an element ofsense as an e lement of the crime if the physical d amage. 1990) (discussing a variety of statutes governing the intimidation of various public servantn. United StatesUnited States v.6. TheThe plain language of these similar statutes. Finally. ). virtual ly e materialsmat eri als ap pl ies t o a ch arge of in tim ida tin g a ju dge materials applies to a charge of intimidating a judge. (19 86). 3 (9th Cir. 61 Wn. regardless of whether the one making the threat intend s to carry it out. provid es that Any person who attempts to influence any public servant by means of deceit or by threat of violence or economic reprisal against any person or property. RCW 9A.A pp. PeopPeople v. virtually everything coA s a la s t note . Orozco-Santillan. as of intimidating a judge. Janousek. Janousek. 8B C. 60 Colora do s statu te. 199 andand stating that in all of thesand stating that in all of these casesand stating that in all of these cases [t]he only intent knowinglyknow ingly com munic ates h is threa t. Tmat eri al statute. L. need not actually have occetc.. 1 23.. like Wash ington s statu te. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. RCW 9A. Th e pu rpo se of th servicesservices and judicial activity that fservices and judicial activity that flows from the ma services and judicial activity that f whetherwhe the r or n ot t he t hrea t is act ual ly car ried o ut o r oth er tan gible h arm is ac tua lly in whether or no t the threat is actua Kepiro. RCW 9A.. 1994 ). The t er m t hr eat. 52 (1988). virtually e ve rything c onta ine d in tAs a last not e. See Kepiro. 903 F.2d 19 (1 991). Kepiro.72. as is harmharm h arm to th e p erso n harm to the person threatened or to ano ther person. Sectio n 18-8-30 6.2d at 1192. physical confineme nt etc. L. in addition to an influence alternative.2d 50. commits a class 4 felony. Weekly 2300. an d th is reaso nab le p erson wou ld c onst rue a s a th reat . at 125-126 ( As is m ade abu 6 byby fede ral case law an d by o ur pr evious by federal case law and by our previous analyby fed eral case l aw an d irrelevant & Allirrelevant & All that is required is that the defendant intentionally communicate the woi r rel evant & l t ha Al reasonablereason able perso n wo uld con strue a s a thre at. 871 P. or action concerning any matter which is to be considered or performed by him or the agency or body of which he is a member. June 1999) 110 .d e f en ddefendant sdefendant s conduct in making the threat and not the victim s individual state of mind.72.Ap p. 871 P. Thus. reprisal.2d 1189. the State does not need to prove that the defendant s threats caused actuFina lly. nee d no t act ual ly ha ve occ urre d. 116. opinion. no t tha t he in tend ed o r was knowingly communicates his threat.Ap p. 532 So. 1 194 (Co lo. has a retaliation altstatute. The term threat. supra.S. as is used in both statutes includes a co ha rm e le ment.etc. is to p revent pub servantsservants from undue influence orservants from undue influence or intimidatservant s from u ndu e influ enc e or in timid reprisal. ManyMany other jurisdiMan y oth er jurisd iction s hMan y oth er jurisd iction s have int imidatin g publ ic servant st atut es and WhileWh ile th e sp ecific w or din g oWhile the specific wording of these statuWhile the sp ecific word ing of the se statu tes va juj u r isd i ctio njurisdictionsjurisd iction s all r eco gnize t hat the ir intimid atio n sta tut es. AsAs a last note.n. . a defe nd ant s co prosecution do es not require the Stat e to convince the victim judge to testify that he or she felt afraid. R ofof intimidating a judge. 61 Wn. and this re q the communication o f the threat. in addition to an influence alternative. 3 (9th Cir.2d 1 n n. vote. not that he inte v. as with any other statute involving or their intimidating a public servant sta notnot require proof of actual intent to do harm nornot require pro of of actual intent to do harm nor the ab ility to carry out the threa 1313 Fla.

WPIC 4. (ii) A p erso n who wa s end orse d as a witne ss in a n offic ial pr oce eding.72.spec ific. To convict the defendant of the crime of Intimidating a Judge. each of the following ele ments of the c rime must b e prove d beyo nd a reas onable d oubt: (1) That on or about the period beginning on the 19th day of January.meansmeans is also present in the intimidating a juror61 and intimida ting a witn ess 62 statutes. by use of a threat against a current or prospective witness. Knowles.110(25). by use of a thr eat. attempts to: (a) Influ enc e th e te sti mo ny o f tha t pe rso n. non-W PIC jury insspecific. The statute provides (1) A person is guilty of intimidating a witness if a person.04. or (iv) A person whom the actor knew or believed may have provided information related to a criminal investigation or an investigation into the abuse or neglect of a minor child. 62 F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. or other officia l action as a juror. or not to give truthful or c omplete information relevant to a criminal investigation or the abuse or neglect of a minor child. 1996. or (iii) A pers on whom the ac tor has reas on to b eliev e ma y hav e infor matio n relev ant to a crimina l inves tigatio n or the abuse or neglect of a minor child. or (b) threats as defined in RCW 9A. (c) Induce that person to absent himself or herself from such proceedings. Unt ilUntil all challenges to the various threat U ntil a ll c halle nge s to the various thre a t deUntil all challenges to the v statutesstatu tes ar e reso lved. The crime of intimidating a witness is codified at RCW 9A. a p erson atte mpts to influe nce a ruling o r dec ision o f the ju dge in a ny offic ial pr oce eding. as charged in count one of the information.24 RCW 9A. op inion. dec ision. directly or indirectly.130. it is strongly urged that specific. or if. (c) Former witne ss means: (i) A pe rso n who tes tif ied in a n of fic ial pro ce ed ing. the intent immediately to use force against any person who is present at the time. A person commits the crime of Intimidating a Judge when. An o st atut es. (2) That M. (3) Intimidating a juror is a class B felony. June 1999) 111 . This statute provides (1) A person is guilty of intimidating a juror if a person directs a threat to a former juror because of the juror's vote.110(25)(d) or (j) was rejected by Division II in State v. he directs a threat to a judge because of a ruling or decis ion of the judge in any official p rocee ding. Karlynn Haberly is a judge: 61 The crime of intimidating a juror is codified at RCW 9A. decis ion. directly or indirectly. (3) As u sed in this s ection: (a) Threat means: (i) To communicate. no n-W PIC jur y ins p ecific . (2) Threat as used in this section means (a) to communicate. the defendant or an accomplice did direct a threat to M.04.72. 136 Wn . not to hav e the crime o r the abus e or neglec t of a minor child p rosec uted. Karlynn Haberly. non-WPIC jury instructions that the Kitsap County Knowles case are set forth below NO. or (d) Induce that p erson not to re port the informatio n relevant to a criminal inves tigation or the ab use o r neglect of a minor child. or if by use of a threat d irected to a judge. or (ii) Threat as defined in RCW 9A. the intent immediately to use force against any person who is present at the time.04. 91 Wn. (ii) A person whom the actor believes may be called as a witness in any official proceeding.2d 102 9 (1998 ). 367. opinio n.72. An ov statutes ch allenge challenge to the retaliation alternative of intimidating a judcha llen ge to t he re talia tion alte rnat ive of intim idat 9A. (iii) A person whom the actor knew or believed may have been called as a witness if a hearing or trial had been held. 1996. (4) Intimidating a witness is a class B felony. (b) Induce that person to elude legal process summoning him or her to testify. it is stro ngly u rged th at sp ecial inter rogat orie statutes are resolved.160(1) NO.110(25). 91 Wn. (2) A pe rson a lso is guilty of intimi dating a witnes s if the pers on dire cts a threat to a fo rmer w itnes s be cau se o f the witnes s's ro le in an o fficia l proc eed ing. o r other offic ial ac tion as a juro r.App. (b) Current o r prospe ctive witne ss means: (i) A p erso n endo rsed as a witnes s in an o fficia l proc eed ing. 957 91 W review denied . he attem pts to influe nce a juror' s vo te.110(25)(d)9A.110. and ending on the 1st day of March.04.

Threat m eans to c ommunica te.010(4) NO. financial condition or personal relationships. an intent to (a) ac cus e M.72. you must una nimously a gree that the sa me criminal a ct has be en prove d beyo nd a reas onable doubt in order for you to return a verdict of guilty as to a charge relating to that particular victim. (5) That the defendant or an accomplice made such threat (a) in response to a ruling or decision made by M. On the other hand. administrative.2d 19 (1991) Smith v. Ele ments (5)(a) and (5 )(b) ar e alte rnativ es a nd only one need be proved. State v. or (b) in a n attem pt to i nfluenc e a ru ling or d ecis ion of M . or other government age ncy or offic ial authorized to hear ev idence u nder oath. L. to hold or pre side o ver a c ourt. You need not unanimously agree that all the acts have been proved beyond a reasonable doubt in order to return a verdict of guilty as to a charge relating to that particular victim.04.2d 1262. directly or indirectly the intent: To accuse any person of a crime or cause criminal charges to be instituted against any person. Kepiro. State v. includ ing any referee . 1265. or (2) that the judge to whom the threa t was dire cted nev er rece ived the threa t. If there is evid ence which ind icate s se vera l dist inct cr iminal a cts o f Intimida ting a J udge relat ing to any particula r victim. (2). 532 So. It is not a defens e to the cha rge of intimidating a jud ge that: (1) the defendant did not cause actual harm. Kar lynn Haberly .160(2)(b) NO. 116. Karly nn Hab erly o f a cri me or cau se c riminal charge s to b e inst itute d aga inst M . business.04.2d 50. and (6) T hat the a cts o ccu rred i n the Sta te of W ashingt on.72. RCW 9A. after weighing all of the evidence. 903 F. WPIC 2. WPIC 4. (4) That s uch threat c ommunica ted direc tly or indirec tly.160 NO. 13 Fla. 61 Wn. Official proceeding means a proceeding heard before any legislative. hearing examiner. If you find from the evidence that Elements (1). (6) and either (4)(a) or (4)(b) and either (5)(a) or (5)(b) have be en prove d beyo nd a reas onable d oubt. or other person taking testimony or depositions. Karlynn Haberly was a judge.24 RCW 9A. then it will be your duty to return a verdict of not guilty. safety.110(25) RCW 9A. (3). business. June 1999) 112 . Weekly 2300. judicial. Orozco-Santillan.110(11) NO. Judge m eans ev ery judic ial officer a uthorized alo ne or with others. commissioner. Kar lynn Ha berly in any o fficia l proc eed ing. 810 P. Karlynn Haberly or another person with respect to that person s health.21 RCW 9A.25 (modified) NO. or (2) the defe ndant did not intend to carry o ut the threat. RCW 9A. It is not a defens e to the cha rge of intimidating a jud ge that: (1) the judge to whom the threat wa s direc ted did no t feel afraid . or (3) the defe ndant cou ld not have c arried ou t the threat. 3 (9th Cir. then it will be your du ty to return a verdict o f guilty. if. or To do any act which is intended to harm substantially the person threatened or another with respect to that person's health. Elem ents (4)(a) and (4 )(b) ar e alte rnativ es a nd only one ne ed b e pro ved . or (b) do any act which is intended to harm substantially M.(3) That the defendant knew M. n. Petrich. financial condition or personal relationships. 101 Wn. 125-26. notary. You need not agree as to which of the alternatives is proved. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 52 (1988) United States v. safety. you have a reasonable doubt as to any one of these elements.2d 566 WPIC 4. 1990) NO. State. Karlynn Haberly in any official proceeding.72.App.

1 975 ).09 (by analogy) Malicious Prosecution The cr ime of malicio us pro secut ion is de fined at RCW 9. make the following answ ers to the q uestio ns subm itted by the court: With respect to alternative elements (4)(a) and (4)(b) of Instruction No.62 . 526 F. 19___. 862 P. State v. 425 U. _____________________________ P R ES ID I NG J U RO R WPIC 90 . DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. 116. Karlynn Haberly? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] N o Una nimou s A greem ent 2. maliciously and without probable cause therefor.2d 117 (1993).App. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. business. 810 P. 120-21. Karly nn Haberly o f a crime or cause criminal charges to be instituted against M. Hansen. financial condition or personal relationships? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] N o Una nimou s A greem ent With respect to alternative elements (5)(a) and (5)(b) of Instruction No. Karlynn Haberly or another person with respect to that person s health.2d 19 (1991) United States v. C APTION FOR S PECIAL V ERDICT We.010 . Karly nn Hab erly i n any official proceeding? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] N o Una nimou s A greem ent 2. 61 Wn. 19___.03 (mod ified) WPIC 31.D id the d efend ant ma ke the threat in resp onse to a ru ling or d ecis ion ma de b y M. 950 (1976) C APTION FOR V ERDICT F ORM We. This stat ute p rovides Every person who shall. Kepiro.State v.Wa s the threat the d efendant c ommunica ted direc tly or indirec tly an intent to ac cuse M.S. 1 168 (2d C ir.2 d 11 60. _____: 1.___ 1. shall be punished by imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not more than five years. cert.2d 712. Kar lynn Ha berly in any offic ial pr oce eding? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] N o Una nimou s A greem ent DATED this _______ day of _____________________. ha ving fou nd the d efend ant guil ty of Intim idati ng a Ju dge a s cha rged in c ount o ne of the information. the jury. the jury.Wa s the threat the d efendant c ommunica ted direc tly or indirec tly an intent to do any act w hich is intended to harm substantially M. find the defendant. _____________________ (not guilty or guilty) of the crime of Intimidating a Judge as charged in count one of the information. _____________________________ P R ES ID I NG J U RO R If th is ve rdict is guilty pleas e com plete spe cial ve rdict for m A. Natale. and (2) If such crime be a gross misd eme ano r or misd eme ano r. cause or attempt to cause another to be arrested or proceeded against for any crime of which he or she is innocent: (1) If such crime be a felony. sh all be gu ilty of a misdemeanor. 122 Wn. denied. June 1999) 113 .D id the d efend ant ma ke the threat in an att empt to influ ence a ruli ng or de cisi on of M . VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES. safety.

Jahns to be proceeded against for the crime of Unl aw ful Pra cti ce of L aw .62.62. Slate v. or p urp ort s to be t ran sferr ed. after weighing all of the evidence. (3) That Jeffrey J. Stevens County has prosecuted lien filers under this statute in the past. Jahns is innocent of the crime of Unlawful Practice of Law. 83 Wn.38 . but the following jury instructions should be a correct statement of the law. each of the follo wing elements of the crime m ust be proved beyond a reas onable d oubt: (1)T hat on o r abo ut the p eriod beginning o n the 6th d ay o f Ma rch. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.The felony is unranked.2d 424. 11 Wn. 523 P. and (5) T hat the a cts o ccu rred i n the Sta te of W ashingt on.010 False Representation Concerning Title The cr ime of false re presen tatio n co ncern ing title is d efined a t RCW 9.21 RCW 9. the defendant caused or attempted to cause Jeffrey J. or inju re ano ther pe rson. or put forward any claim. If you find from the e vidence that each o f these ele ments has b een prov ed be yond a re asonab le doub t. you have a reasonable doubt as to any one of these elements. WPIC 2. A person commits the crime of Malicious Prosecution when she maliciously and without probable cause therefor.020 . and of whic h the perso n has reas onably tru stworthy informa tion. sh all be gu ilty of a gross misdemeanor. are suffic ient in themselves to warrant a person of reasonable caution to believe that an offense has been or is being committed.2d 703 (1974) State v. anno y. if. (4) That the defendant acted with malice. then it will be your duty to return a verdict of guilty. Kitsap County has not prosecuted anyone under this statute because the liens that we have received do not specifically identify any piece of pr opert y. Sinclair . a nd end ing on the 1 9th da y of M arch. Jahns with the crime of Unlawful Practice of Law. This stat ute p rovides Every person who shall maliciously or fraudulently execute or file for record any instrument.2d 1209 (1974) NO. Gluck.13 NO. To conv ict the defe ndant o f the cr ime o f Ma licio us P rose cutio n as c harged in cou nt III. Mal ice a nd mal iciou sly m ean a n evil i ntent. A pe rson ha s pro bab le ca use to pro cee d aga inst a nother f or a c rime w here the facts and c ircum stanc es w ithin the perso n s knowle dge. RCW 9.010 NO. 19 98. June 1999) 114 . 523. 426-27. causes or attempts to cause another to be arrested or proceeded against for any crime of which he or she is innoce nt. There is virtually no case law regarding this crime. 531. enc umb ere d o r cl ou ded . or de sign to v ex. On the other hand. 518 P.App. (2) That during this period probable cause did not exist for charging Jeffrey J. 1998. by which the right or title of another to any real pro per ty is. wis h. WPIC 4. The Kitsap County Prosecuting Attorney s Office has used this statute when dealing with an individual who sought a citizen complaint charging the elected prosecuting attorney and a chief deputy prosecuting attorney with the crime of unlawful practice of law after charges of unlawful practice of law had been filed against her. then it will be your duty to return a verdict of not guilty. NO.

This is called the pro se rule.2d 873 (198 9) (fat her ma y not fi le pro se s upp leme ntal br ief on behalf of ju venile offe nder) City of Seattle v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 6 38. 2d 1 009 (19 94) . or the right to share in the profits of a business. is a class C felony. and includes a loan to the business when the interest on the loan is based upon the income of the business or the loan carries more than a commercially reasonable rate of interest.Unlawful Practice of Law The crime of unlawful practice of law ( UPL ) is defined by RCW 2.180. & A felony conviction of UPL is a ranked offense with a seriousness level of II. The current version of RCW 2. A person may practice law on his or her own behalf. may practice law on behalf of others. 795. 5 97 P . 880 P. 125 Wn.2 d 96 . (c) A no nlaw yer kno wingly ho lds an investmen t or o wnersh ip inte rest in a busin ess primarily engaged in the practice of law. review denied. 6 48. June 1999) 115 . 635 P. however.2d 730 (1981) State v. 125 Wn. See RCW The most extensive discussion of UPL is contained in State v. (b) Nonlawyer means a person to whom the Washington supreme court has granted a limited authorization to practice law but who practices law outside that authorization. (3) Unla wful p ractice of law is a c rime. Hunt. review denied.Ap p. whether alleged in the same or in sub-sequent prosecutions. or (e) A nonlawyer shares legal fees with a legal provider. (2) Th e fo ll ow ing co ns tit ut es un la wfu l p ract ice of l aw : (a) A nonlawyer practices law. knowing that a nonlawyer holds an investment or ownership interest in the business. 23 W n. and any other person authorized by the Washington state supreme court to engage in full or limited practice of law. This c ase co nta ins ap pro ved jur y instr uct ions ( discu ssed in footnotes 13 and 14).01 0(14)(ee). Only licensed lawyers. Hunt. Stange. 53 W n. which applies to offenses committed after September 1995. includ ing a spou se or p arent. will fall within the definition of criminal profiteering. 75 Wn.2d 935 (197 9) (la yman hu sba nd co uld no t repr ese nt wife i n a prosecution for failure to yield right-of-way) NO. 804 .2d 443. or holds himself or herself out as entitled to practice law. Add itional jury instructions are set forth below. 96 Wn. 9A. State v. 880 P. A single violatio n of th is section is a gross misdemeanor. provides in pertinent part (1) As us ed in th is sec tio n: (a) Legal provider means an active member in good standing of the state bar.48.180.48. 6 01. knowing that a nonlawyer holds an investment or ow nersh ip inte rest in t he b usiness.App. A person cannot transfer his or her pro se right to practice law to any other p erson. 7 69 P . Kassler. Felony offenses of UPL. Each subsequent violation.2d 1009 (1994) Hagan v.A pp. (d) A legal provider works for a business that is primarily engaged in the practice of law.2d 96. (b) A legal p rovider h old s an invest ment o r own ership intere st in a b usiness primarily engaged in the practice of law. (c) Ownership interest means the right to control the affairs of a business. NO. including persons who are disbarred or suspended from membership.Ap p. 75 W n. Shaver. if committed for financial gain.82. an d a person who is not an active member in good standing of the state bar. 795 .

880 P. 108 S. 969 P. 125 Wn. Idaho State Bar v. review denied. 100 L.2d 93.2d 93 (1999) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 97-98.A pp. A power of attorney does not authorize the practice of law. 1697 (1988) NO. 335 P. A criminal defendant s right to the assistance of counsel does not include the right to be represented by an advoc ate who is not a memb er of the Sta te Bar. 1692. United States v. Ignorance of the law does not excuse the unauthorized practice of law. 153.2d 62 (Idaho 1959) NO. 75 W n. Meservy.Ed.Ct. CTX Mortgage Company. 486 U.2d 140. 795 . 137 Wn. 159. Perkins v. It is not a defe nse to a cha rge of U nlawfu l Prac tice o f Law tha t the de fenda nt rece ived no pa yment or fee for the preparation of documents or other activities. Hunt. 805 .2 d 96 . A po wer o f atto rney is an inst rume nt in writing b y whic h one p erso n app oints a nother a s his o r her age nt and confe rs up on that p erso n the au thority to ac t in his o r her pl ace for the purp ose or pu rpos es s et for th in the instrument. State v.An individual who is charged with a criminal offense has a constitutional right to the assistance of counsel.2d 1009 (1994) NO. Wh eat.S. June 1999) 116 .

194 2).0 4.04 . 1979) defines person. Sir __ ___ or wit h som e ot her sim ilar t itle. R CW 9 A.40 5. Hogan v. at 34-36. as fol lo ws: In ge ne ral usa ge. B L A C K S LAW D I C T IO N A RY 1028 (5th ed . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. in pertinent part. how ever. June 1999) 117 .2d 850. 122 P. See also Infracti ons. Justice of the Peace and City Judge of Sidney. complaint. Case law also establishes that a natural person is a human being. If the case proceeds to a jury trial. RCW 10. natural person). he or she will frequently ask to be addressed as Sover eign __ ___ _ . e. and prosecutors. citation. Call Me Sovereign. the first challenge will be that the person before the court is not the person named in the information.g. art. Montana Freemen cases is in the Appendix. or complaint. a hu man be ing ( i. 85 3 (Wyo. Do n ot o bject if the ju dge al low s this request outside of the presence of the jury. I am not the Person on the Docket Correct Name Assuming the defendant responds to the summons and appears in court. An excellent outline prepared by the Honorable Gregory P. Montana.e. These statu tory d efinition s. Common arguments are identified below with a short legal response. See. infra . I am not a Person but a Human Being The defendant will challenge the court s jurisdiction on the grounds that the criminal code applies to persons and the various statutory definitions of person do not incl ude the p hrase human being. for a more thorough discussion of why Freemen believe traffic laws do not apply to them. § 16 as the use of the title tends to be a comment on the defendan t s sovereign immunity or diplomatic immunity cla im.110 (17) . court staff. Greenfield. 4. though by statute term may include a firm & . all inclu de th e ph rase natural person . explaining the judicial approach that worked best in the Jordan.40.g.. RCW 46. Merely add the defendant s preferred spelling to the information. Sir or Sire Preferred Honorific When the defendant provides his or her correct name. e.050 allows th e prosecut ion to go forward in both the name listed on the charging document and th e name alleged by the defendant to be his or her correct name. Mohr.P ROCEDURAL ASPECTS OF P ROSECUTING F REEMEN Once typical or atypical charges have been filed. Dealin g with th ese ind ividuals ca lls for p rior pl ann ing on t he p art of ju dges.. Please feel free to share this outline with your loca l cou rts. our judicial system and the Freeman defendan t are destin ed for a cult ural clash . an objection/motion in limine should be brought pursuant to Const. or citation as an AKA . The issues that arise during a Freeman prosecution are obscure and responsive law can be hard to lo cate. See.

3d 1340. 501 (7th Cir. § 22.I am not a Citizen of Your Jurisdiction Citizen Jurisdiction Over a Non- A superior court has jurisdiction over any individual regardless of the person s citizenship or residency status if the person commits a crime or traffic infraction. 1342 (7th Cir. Jeffries.37. 1294 (1994). in the cou nty of the state where the superior court is located . 118 8 (9th Cir. Hilgeford. RCW 3. 5 F. art. Best v.030.01 0. RCW 1 0. RCW 10 . 238. Blodgett. and ÿÿUnited States v. 7 F. 688 (191 9) ( it requires something more than ingenious and pleasing argument to convince us that the state is powerless to maintain her dignity and enforce her laws as against any individual within her boundaries. 19 96) (cou rt reje cted defen dan t s claim that he was not subject to the jurisdiction of the court because he is of Freeman Character and of the White Preamble Citizenship and not one of the 14th Amendment legislated enfranchised De Facto colored races and because he is a White Preamble natural sovereign Common Law De Jure Citizen of the Repub lic/State of Texas ). See generally. 22 8 (N. 238. 107 Wash. June 1999) 118 .010. Cases from other jurisdictions which have expressly rejected claims that a state court lacks jurisdiction because the defendant is freeborn. no matter what his status may be as to citizenship or lack of it ). RCW 9A. CrRLJ 2. 717 P. Sloan. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.070. Const. Best v.020.01 5.S. 479 U. cert. RCW 9A.20. 423-24 . 199 3). § 25.2d 722. a citiz en o f the S tate of Ind iana. in whole or in part. Const. RCW 1 0.66. in the cou nty of the state where the co urt of limited jurisdiction is located. 107 Wash . Const. RCW 35. See generally RCW 9A. CrR 2. RCW 10. RCW 7. 181 P. 1. Superior Court. RCW 46. a citizen of the republic. 23 8. art. denied.2d 398 . 1993) (criminal tax case in which defendant claimed that he was a citizen of the Indiana State Republic and.030. Superior Court.37. 4.50. State ex rel. Super ior Co urt.1(a).1(a).37. § 10. 224 . 105 Wn .37. RCW 9A. an alien beyond jurisdictional reach of federal courts). 939 F. 1 81 P .80.04.08. art. Th e di stric t co urt s sub ject mat ter juri sdic tio n is in voke d b y th e filin g of a complaint or citation. therefore. denied. RCW 7. Con st. Greenstreet. art.1 .04.015. e.190.010(1). ÿÿUni ted States v. State ex rel. cert. RCW 3. 4.2d 499. See.070. Const.37.3d 11 80. B est v. A grand jury indictment is not necessary. 1. The superior court s subject matter jurisdiction is invoked by the filing of an information or indictment. A district court has jurisdiction over any individual regardless of the person s citizenship or residency status if the person commits a gross misdemeanor or misdemeanor crime or violates a traffic ordinance. Tex .. § 22. 1.030. art. The municipal court s subject matter jurisdiction is invoked by the filing of a complaint or citation. 688 (1919) ( it requires something more than ingenious and pleasing argument to convince us that the state is powerless to maintain her dignity and enforce her laws as against any individual within her boundaries. Const. RCW 10. 912 F. State v.010 . § 6. 1991) (criminal tax case in which defendant claimed that he was not subject to jurisdictional laws of the United States because he is a freeborn. A municipal court has jurisdiction over any individual regardless of the person s citizenship or residency status if the person commits a traffic infraction within the city limits or violates a city ordinance within the city limits. 68 8 (1 919 ) ( it requires something more than ingenious and pleasing argument to convince us that the state is powerless to maintain her dignity and enforce her laws as against any individual within her boundaries. 114 S. cf. no matter what his status may be as to citiz ens hip or l ack of it ).g. nat ural individ ual .060. 922 (1986). art. or similar claim include ÿÿUnited States v. D.010(2). 107 Wash.Ct. § 25.04. 1.04.80. State ex rel. in whole or in part. and a maste r not a servant of his government ). CrRLJ 2. 1 81 P. no matter what his status may be as to citizenship or lack of it ).Su pp. Jeffries v.

A .Ct. The list may be accessed on the State Department s web page at <http://www.slavery and which encompasses five southern states Alabama. IV.S. Lumumba. Georgia. was not entitled to diplomatic immunity in criminal prosecution because there was nothing in record to indicate the organization of which defendant was a member had been recognized as foreign state by executive branch of federal government. §§ 25 4a-2 54e . who claimed he was citizen and ambassador of Kingdom of God.Ct. 745 S. ÿÿState v..Ed. 23 U. Louisiana. He shall not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. Hard copies of the Diplomatic List. 119 L. These persons. are available from the Superintendent of Documents.2d 249.html>. or that Department of State had granted immunity status to defend ant). Davis. e.2d 6 54 (196 6) (power of court to try person is not impaired by fact that he has been brought within court s jurisdiction by reason of forcible abduction ). Tel: (202) 512-1800. State v. 1984).2d 4 81 (196 9). 112 S. Courts have routinely rejected claims of diplomatic and/or sovereign immunity where the defendant has not established t hat the United Sta tes Departmen t of State has reco gnized the cou ntry that the defend ant claims to head o r to represent as an ambassador.. Lumumba.gov/www/about_state/ contacts/diplist/index. 74 1 F . Lumumba. 846 P.2 d 926. 75 Wn. See. Mississippi and South Caro lina.state.2 d a t 1 5. with the exception of those identified by asterisks. FAX: (202) 512-2250. See also U nited States v.C. April 18.S. 655. 741 F. 4 54 P. June 1999) 119 . 1983 ). 2188 (1992) (respondent s forcible abduction in Mexico does not prohibit his trial in a United States court for violations of this country s criminal laws). 2 2 U. Draft No. Article 31 establishes that: immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the receiving state. which is pre pared q uarterly by the Offic e of P rotoc ol. Art. U. which is the Nation of Afrikans born in North America as a consequence of. 68 Wn. 4. 1961. co ntains the nam es o f memb ers o f the di plom atic s taffs of all miss ions a nd their spo use s.T. 1988) (defendant. 64 The United States Dep artment of Sta te produ ces the D iplomatic List. enjoy full immunity under provisions of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.W. Crisman. I have Immunity Diplomatic or Sovereign Immunity Diplomatic immunity and sovereign immunity are premised upon recognition by the receiving state. supra (defe nda nt s claim o f immunit y from p rosec utio n du e to his proclaimed status as Vice President and Minister of Justice of the Provisional Government of the Republic of New Afrika. Washington. of missio ns in the U. 3227. A lvarez-Mac hain .63 Diplo matic st atu s onl y exists w hen the re is recognition of another state s sovereignty by the Department of State.2d 441. 4 13 P.S.App. ÿÿUnited States v. United States v. 123 Idaho 277. T his list. DC 20402. 504 U. Blanchey.64 In other words. recognition by the executive branch not to b e second-guessed by the judiciary is essential to establishing diplomatic status.2d 928.S.2 d 496.I am Here Under Duress Involuntary Presence in the Court The presence of the accused before the court gives the court jurisdiction over the accused s person regardless of the validity of the accused s arrest. M embe rs of t he diplomatic staff are the members of the staff of the mission having diplomatic rank. cit ing Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 461 Commentary at 30 (Ten t.S . 931 (1993) (defendant s unilateral proclamation that he was an ambassador of the Kingdom of YHWH (Yaweh) did not entitle him to diplomatic immunity from prosecution because there is no evidence that the United States Department of State had recognized that Kingdom as sovereign or had granted the defendant immunity).g. ÿÿState v. was rejected because there was no showing that the Department of State had recognized this country). Government Printing Office. Dipl omat ic Rel atio ns Ac t. R hay. The Vienn a Co nvent ion o n Dip loma tic Relations. Davis v. Article 2 9 provid es: The pe rson of a d iplomatic agent shall A diplomatic agent shall enjoy be inviolable. 63 The pro tective provisio ns of the T reaty ap pear in A rticles 29 and 31. §§ 2 -6. Department of State Publication 10424. no one is able to unilaterally assert diplomatic immunity. 253 (Mo.2d 12 (2nd Cir.

B. 3227 NO. 483 P. 23 U. Courville.2d 832 (1971) (treaty exemption defense to violation of fishing laws mus t be prov ed b y the def enda nt by a pr epo nder ance of the evi denc e). no one is able to unilaterally assert diplomatic immunity. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. cert. Jurisdiction is the power of a court to hear and determine a case. If yo u find t hat the C ourt ha s juri sdic tion. each of you must agree for you to return a verdict. a nd Specia l Verdict F orms A .App. It is his or her duty to see that discussion is carried on in a sensible and orderly fashion. April 18. 2d 12 (2 nd Cir. T he Vienna C onvention on D iplomatic Relations. 36 Wn. do no t use the Sp ecia l Verd ict Fo rm for tha t cou nt. 22 U.Wa shi ngt on cas e law do es n ot clearly est ab lish w he th er t he jud ge o r th e ju ry d ecide s th e iss ue of sove rei gn or diplomatic immunity or who bears the burden of establishing sovereign or diplomatic immunity. The State of Washington may exercise jurisdiction over an individual who has been charged with a crime regardless of whether the individual is a citizen or resident of the state so long as the offense occurred within the state. Diplom atic Rela tions Ac t. and E. If you find that the defendant has esta blishe d that he is ent itled to dip loma tic or sov ereign i mmunit y. denied. State v. that the issues submitted for your d ecisio n are fully a nd fairly dis cuss ed. When you have arrived at the answers. Moses. C. 15 (1895) (defendant bears the burden of establishing that he is an Indian by a p rep ond era nce of t he e vid enc e). RCW 9A. you must unanimous ly be s atisfied b eyond a reaso nable do ubt that yes is the corre ct answe r. You will be furnished with all of the exhibits admitted in evidence. fill in the Special Verdict Form to express your decision on that count. these instructions. but the jury instructions were structured to ensure that a finding of immunity would not be an acq uittal for purposes of double jeopardy. 622. IV. 688 (1919) NO. When com pleting Verdic t Forms A .2d 464. State v. you must answer no. C. Art. Diplomatic immunity or sovereign immunity cannot be unilaterally asserted by an individual. that it is more probably true than not true. and E . §§ 2-6. 43 P. Lane. C. you mus t fill in blank prov ided in ea ch verdic t form with the words not guilty or the word guilty. You will al so b e furni shed Spe cial V erdic t Form s A . 107 Wash. If you unanimously agree on a verd ict. 181 P. 1 984). it will be y our d uty to retur n a ve rdict of no juris dicti on. C. co nside ring all the evidence in the case. If you fi nd the d efend ant not gu ilty o f any parti cula r cou nt of Intimid ating a J udge . United States v.2d 1011 (1983) (assertion of treaty rights as an affirmative de fen se mu st b e p rov ed by the de fen da nt b y a pre po nde ran ce of t he e vid enc e). § § 254a -254e. acc ording t o the d ecis ion yo u rea ch. you will need to complete the remaining verdict forms. D. V erdic t Form s A . 40 6 U . In order to answer a question on a Special Verdict Form yes. a nd D. 238. who will conduct you into court to declare your verdicts. The burden is on the defendant to prove the existence of diplomatic immunity or sovereign immunity by a prep onde rance of the e vide nce. Lumumba . The instructions used are set forth below NO. and five verdict forms and five special verdict forms. B. 112 Wn.S . Prep onde rance of the e vide nce m eans that yo u mus t be p ersu ade d. 9 10 (19 72 ).04. 79 Wn. If you do not unanimously agree then answer no unanimous agreement. Diplom atic immunity and sov ereign immunity a re premis ed upo n recognition by the receiving s tate. Superior Cour t.030 State v. The pres iding ju ror will sign the Spe cial V erdic t Rega rding Ju risdi ction. When completing the verdict forms.S. and that e very juro r has an op portunity to b e heard a nd to participate in the deliberations upon each question before the jury. you must answer the questions on the Special Verdict Form relating to that count. If you find the defendant guilty of any count of Intimidating a Judge. Best v. June 1999) 120 . In one Kitsap County case the issue was submitted to th e jury.T. B. 13 Wash. and D .2d 104. 1961. D . B. according to the decision you reach. Diplomatic immunity or sovereign immunity can only be conferred on an individual by the United States Department of State. Williams. 615. 771 P. you will first consider the issue of jurisdiction. If you have a reas onable doubt as to the question. 741 F.A. 335. 110.S. A grant of diplomatic immunity or sovereign immunity will deprive a state court of jurisdiction to try an individual for any crime.C . if a verdic t has bee n rendered o n these forms and will notify the b ailiff. you mu st fill in the blank p rovided on the Spec ial Verdic t Regarding Ju risdiction with the w ord doe s or the w ords doe s not. Since this is a criminal case. State v. 676 P. yo ur f irs t du ty i s to se lec t a p res idi ng ju ror . Up on r eti ring to t he j ury roo m fo r yo ur d eli be rat ion of t his ca se .2d 1150 (1989) State ex rel.

(3) A fringed flag adoring the courtroom does not limit a court s jurisdiction since decor is not a determinant for jurisdiction. § 176(g) which provides that [t]he flag should never have placed upon it.Supp.Supp . informations. or to station the American flag at a particular p lace in the co urtroo m. design. 1996). complaints and other pleadings that are given to Freemen will be returned with the phrase Refusal for Cause written upon it. or drawing of any nature. A request should be made that the court enter a not guilty plea on the defendant s behalf pursuant to RCW 10. 219 F. June 1999) 121 . Title 36 of the United States Co de. 164 . the jury. (2) Yellow fringe on a flag does not convert a court into an admiralty jurisdiction court. Pa.Su pp. Sams. provide that (1) Yellow fringe on a United States flag in a courtroom does not convert a state court into a foreign state power denying due process to a defendant in state criminal proceedings.D. D. v. These cases. letter. cert. figure. aff'd in pa rt. and in the absence of relevance to some other situation of separate significance involving a defendant s rights. Is this an Admiralty Court? Fringe on the Flag Washington statutes require that the American flag and the Washington flag be on display in the courtroom. doe s not prosc ribe co ndu ct an d do es not con tain an y pen al san ction s. 1160 (E.[] In itself.00 (modified) WPIC 160. moreo ver. Wisconsin 1997). insignia.190. DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. nor attached to it any mark. nor on any part of it.C. Utah 1997). 974 F.S.2d 1014 (3 rd Cir. 1411 (D. Refusal to Enter Plea Freemen will generally refuse to enter a plea because th ey do not reco gnize the court s jurisdiction. or court criers to use a particular formula. Schlaefer. (4) Yellow fringe on a flag does not appear to violate 36 U.WPIC 151. picture.S. Payn e. denied.015.20. 1 963).D. deputy marshals to wear a particular sort of uniform while on duty. word. for the c rimes charge d in the i nforma tion. citations. 380 U. _____________________________ P R ES ID I NG J U RO R If this verdict is does have jurisdiction please complete the remaining verdict forms. Two recent cases contain extend ed discussions regarding flags with fringes. RCW 1. Schneid er v. non-compliance with section 753(b) gives no better basis for a new trial than would a similar provision directing judges to wear robes. 224. 912 F. 19___. commonly referred to as the flag code.08 (by analogy) C APTION FOR S PECIAL V ERDICT R EGARDING J URISDICTION We.S. U. VERY L EDW ARD KNO WLES . As explained by the Federal District Court for Idaho F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. and Sadlier v.00 (modified) WPIC 31.Supp. vacated in p art on other grounds. 97 4 (1965 ). United States v. 340 F. 229 (N. 975 F.40. Tex. Greenstreet. Case law establishes that the mere lack of compliance per se with such an ad ministrative provision would not inu re to the benefit of a defendant. 166 (W.). find that the Court _______________________ (Write in Does or Does Not ) have jurisdiction to try the de fenda nt. Refusal for Cause Return of Pleadings Frequently.

Chapter 3 of the U. The defendants do not have the choice of whether or not to be defendants. 127 Wn. wi ll gen era ll y ap pe ar a t t he ne xt h earin g.65 Our p rior case s indicat e tha t an in dictme nt is sufficien t if it. make sure that t he trial is set w ithin 10 4/74 days (superior court) or 10 5/75 d ays (court of limited jurisdiction) of the first appearance in court. first.C.1 (b)( 3)(iv) s requ iremen t of filin g citatio n wit hin 20 d ays of issuan ce pl us 90 day sp eedy t rial rul e un der C rRLJ 3.R. and secon d. Bonifacio. the a ccu sed shall enjoy the right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation. con tains th e eleme nts of the offense charged and fairly informs a defendant of the charge against which he must defend. re gardl ess of wh eth er it is subsequently filed.C. 3-501. or the words Refused for cause without dishonor and without recourse to me will be received by the court and/or prosecutor within a matter of da ys. starts the speedy trial clock running.C. 2d 4 82.the d efend ants refusal fo r cause is meanin gless. or other applicable law or rule. Article 1. The defendants reliance on Chapter 3 of the U. Held: prosecution of defendant barred as pro ceed ings did not comme nce with in 11 0 da ys [CrR LJ 2. which contains language almost identical to the federal constitution.C. When con fronted with a judge who app ears willing to impose the $50. is misplaced. §22 of the Washington State Constitution. Refused for Fraud F. the defendant will sign the promise to appear. UCC § ____.C.P.C. Refusal to Sign Promise to Reappear Release on personal recognizance can be difficult in these cases because the defendant will frequently refuse to sign the promise to app ear for the next hearing. 3] of issua nce o f citation even th ough l ess than 11 0 days had elapsed since the filing of a complaint by a city attorney). Refusal for cause without dishonor U. an agreement of the parties. If the arraignment has been continued for more than 14 or 15 days as has happened in some of our cases when the judge runs out of time and/or patience for dealin g with the F reemen at hearing after h earing. If properly served. 923 F. 3-501. Request for a Bill of Particulars A defendant has a constitutional right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him or her to enable the defendant to prepare a defense and to avoid a subsequent prosecution for the same crime. Idaho 1 996). F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. a copy of the signed promise to appear with the words Refused for fraud.3 and CrRLJ 3. the [defendants] became parties to this lawsuit whether they wanted to be or not. 157 .3) of the defendan t s first appearance in co urt. Apparently. United States v. The complaint filed by the plaintiff is not a negotiable instrument and the Un iform Commercial Code is inapplicable. Andra.3 will begin to run whe n the cou rt enters the n ot guilty p lea on behal f of the defen dant if this action o ccurs with in 14 d ays (CrR 3 . Also take care in cases filed by criminal citation in courts of limited jurisdiction to comply with Seattle v. by its own definitions is only applicable to negotiable instruments. enables him to pl ead an acqu ittal or conviction in bar of future 65 The Sixth A mendm ent to t he Unite d Sta tes C onstit ution p rovid es tha t [i]n a ll crim inal pr ose cutio ns.2d 110 5 (1 995 ) (issua nce of a cit atio n. as this court has determined the defendants were. Speedy Trial The 90/60 day time for trial contained in CrR 3. 9(b). provides: [i]n all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him. If this happens.C.C. 900 P.000 cash only bail requested by the prosecutor to ensure the defendant s appearance at the next hearing.Su pp. June 1999) 122 .C.3) or 1 5 days (CrRLJ 3. The d efend ants c laim th ey can refuse presentment of the plaintiff s complaint pursuant to U. Th e d efend an t. 159 (D. the defendants are arguing that § 3-501(2)(c)(ii) is a defense which provides for the defendants refusal of payment or acceptance for failure of the presentment to comply with the terms of the instrument. no ne th eless.

State v. 2907 -08 (197 4) (citations omitted.2d 15. A conviction entered under such circumstances will only be sustained on appeal if the verdict forms clearly indicate that the jury was unanimous as to the factually supported alternative means. Ortega-Martinez. 881 P. cert.2 d 590. Nor was it error to deny the motions for a bill of particulars and to make the information more definite and certain.2d 1046 (1939). 1086 (1983).Ct.2 .S. State v. State v. prior even to the filing of the information. The furnishing of a bill of particulars is discretionary with the trial court. 102 Wn . 42. the court held that it was not prejudicial error to deny a motion for a bill of particulars when the state s attorney had disclosed to the defendant s attorney practically all of the facts concerning which evidence the government intended to use at trial. a d efend an t ma y obt ain ad dit ion al clari fica tio n o f th e ch argi ng d oc um en t b y brin ging a motion for a bill of particulars. 37. 410 U. 966 (1973). State v.g. 582. 577. 94 0 P .2d 210 (1978). 707-08. 84 Wn. 92 Wn.2d 231 (1994). The constitution does not require that the prosecuting authority must allege its supporting evidence. State v.2d 446 . CrRLJ 2. United States v. Williamson. the State could have furnished to give additional notice of the charges ). the state s attorneys disclosed to appellants or their counsel practically all of the fac ts con cernin g which e vidence was add uced at th e trial.Ed. 597 P. denied. State v..S. Grant.2 d 1 37 4 (1 99 7). 689 F. 41 L. 1972). a court should con sider whether the defendant has been advised adequately of the charges through the charging document and all other disclosures made by the government.prosecutions for the same offense. and expressly. co ming un der t he gen eral desc riptio n. 197 Wash.S. without any uncertainty or ambiguity. 84 4. Hamling v. cert.2d 1189 (198 5). theory of the case or whether or not it can prove its case in the charging document. Devine. Chester.2d 277 . 286.2 d 467. 418 U. Buckley. Grant.2d 7 2 (1974 ). See State v. 460 U. 5 27 P. set forth all the elements necessary to constitute the offense intended to be punished. whose ruling will not be disturbed on appeal absent a showing of an abuse of discretion. deni ed. 116 Wn. directly. 87 . Dictado. it is improper to instruct a jury regarding alternate means that are not 66 supported by the evide nce.) This constitutional right of a criminal defendant to be appraised with reasonable certainty as to the charges against him is ordinarily satisfied by a charging document which includes all of the statutory and nonstatut ory elements of the offense. 89 Wn. the charging document may even list inapplicable alternative means of committing the offense. 320. In determining whether to order a bill of particulars in a specific case. Kjorsvik. Bates. 85 P. 133 Wn. 704 P. Kaplan. Undoubtedly the language of the statute may be used in the general description of an offence.2d 93.Ap p.2d 678. 84 Wn. 1983).1(c). e.). cert. at 5 88. United States v.2d 8 6 (1991). A bill of particulars is not necessary when the means of obtaining the facts are readily accessible to the defendant or th e facts are already known to him or her. Holt. 57 5 P. 706 F. 444 U. See Uni ted States v. 288 7.2d 960 (1996). 597 F. beyond that already provided. 23 Wn. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 324 P. 97.2d 1036 (197 9). 5 80. Gies e. wit h wh ich h e is charged. No ltie. Certa inly ap pell ants suffered n o pre judice by th e den ial of th e motio ns. 117 Wn.2d 702.2d 17 2 (1984 ) (court denied motion for bill of particulars stating nothing in the record indicates what information. State v. See. Long. United States. 52 Wn.S. State v.2d 810 (1958). Merrill. 924 P. State v. See CrR2. 68 7 P. 104 Wn. 197 Wash. It is generally sufficient that an indictment set forth the o ffense in the wo rds of the statute itself. 812 P. June 1999) 123 . 9 4 S. n. denied.2d 1044 (9th Cir. 89 Wn. 124 Wn. review denied. 470 F. 686.2d 190 (1991). Paschall. but it must be accompanied with such a statement of the facts and circumstances as will inform the accu sed o f the sp ecific offen ce. In fact. 809 P. 979 (1979). Uni ted States v. In State v. it would appear from the record that.2d 315.4(e). Paschall. See also State v. 66 In o ur syst em. 19 . as long as those w ords o f themselves fully.2d 893 (19 82).2d 1170 (9 th Cir.App. It was not made to appear that the state had know ledge o f any ul timate fac ts of wh ich ap pell ants t hemsel ves were no t cogniz ant.2d at 686-687 (court denied motion for bill of particulars stating the officer s report is about as much as the While not implicated at this stage of the proceeding.2d 100 (7th Cir.2d 831. As a matter of fact.2d 207.

388. Jessup.2d 562. cert.Ct. 1093 (1982). 1 294 (19 94). 479 U. Faretta v. 459 U. or statutory person? & 41.2 d 1185 (1982). 153 P. Jeffries v. 95 S.App. review denied. 30 9.67 If such a defendant asks the court to order you to provide a bill of particulars you must be very clear to the court that you will provide a bill of particulars as contemplated by CrR 2. Do ugherty . art.2d 297 (1944). 6 55 P. State v.2d 398. The appointment of stand-by counsel will not obviate the need for an adequate Faretta waiver. 304. an att orney should be appointe d by the cou rt. cert.. denied. or by indictm ent.3d 11 80. 422 U. Ho ff. Jeffries. 105 Wn. 89 Wn. 118 8 (9th Cir. A criminal defendant s right to self-representation is guaranteed by the Sixth amendment to the United States Constitution an d article 1. Nordstrom. Absent an adeq uate Faretta. juristic. 778.g. What is the true and correct Christian Appellation of the Defendant in the Abov e mentioned Cas e? true and c orrect require that you state the complete praenomen. Merrill. Clark. section 22.4(e). The form of any order granting a defendant s request for a bill of particulars should include the limiting language as contemplated by CrR 2. 31 Wn.2d 722. the vast majority of Washington prosecutions are instituted on information filed by the prosecutor. 45 L. The p urp ose o f their r equ est for a bill of par ticu lars is to d eter mine t he fac ts ne cessar y in their legal system for the exercise of its jurisdiction over you. The Court has no Jurisdiction Absent a Grand Jury Indictment The State of Washington abandoned its mandatory grand jury practice some 80 years ago. as shall be prescribed by law. 199 3).2d 1 187 (19 82). 1. 68 69 F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Does the Plaintiff claim that the Demandant is an artificial.69 Numerous cases. State v. 67 Examples of questions that have appeared in many of the 16+ page bill of particulars that have been received by us include 16. 393. State v. infra. 35 Wn. 87. denied.2 d 1031 . 114 S.App.2d 763 .4(e). 717 P. 97 Wn. Const. waiver of trial counsel and /or waiver of appellate counsel. & Washington Laws 1909. c. See generally State v. cert. e. 667 P.Ed. denied. 811.Ap p. 21 Wn. The use of an information is specifically authorized by the Washington Constitution.S. a bill of particulars is a lengthy questionnaire similar in nature to inte rrogat ories. Barker. establish that a state prosecution do es not require a grand jury indictment.2d 774.Ct.1(c) or CrRLJ 2. State v.S. Blodgett.App. 5 F.court could compel the prosecutor to furnish (the defendant) ). 33 Wn. both state and federal.1(c) or CrRLJ 2. 466. 8 78 (1 945 ) (cou rt den ied mot ion for bill o f particu lars stat ing case was based on defendant s confession and a bill of particulars could not provide the defendant with any more information that was not already locked up in defendant s own breast ). and cognomen. 2525 (197 5). 423-24. State v. 31 Wn.S. The Right to an Attorney The only thing worse than prosecuting a Freeman defendant is having to retry a case because the defendant s right to an attorney was not protected.68 While grand juries are still convened on rare occasions in Washington. 325 U. Is the A meric an Ba r As soc iatio n and the Was hington Ba r As soc iatio n organize d und er the p owe r and a uthori ty of t he Crown of England? Do attorney s owe allegiance to the crown of England s titles of Nobility? Do attorney s have titles of nobility i. California. nomen. 641 P. 644 P. In the Freemen culture. State v.e. 809.2d 108 (1983). June 1999) 124 . Esquire? 48.2d 946 (1997). amend ment 10 of the Wash ington State Constitution . § 25 provide s that Offense s heretofo re require d to be p rosec uted by indictment may be pros ecute d by informa tion. 806. 950 P.S. 737. 23 Wn. cert. See. State all facts relied upon which would put the Demandant in any jurisdiction other than that of the common law of the Organic Washington Republic. denied. 922 (1986). Reliance u pon t he defend ant s failure to establish ind igency is unlikely to shield th e conviction from a subsequent ch allenge. & 20. at 580 (court denied motion for bill of particulars where the defendant was made aware through discovery of all the information available to the prosecu tor for proving the offense).App.App.

31 Wn. If your question is rephrased as whether they wish to proceed with an attorney who is a member of the Washington State Bar. Breedlove.2d 1276.2d 1 (1991). 46 Wn.2d 1010 (1979). 119 3 (19 98). 58 5 P . 75 Wn. Gomez v. Garcia. 655. 600 P. review denied. 118 S. See State v. 1095 (10th Cir. at 106. at 340. Wh ile it is preferable to have the Freeman actually fill out the forms. Bellevue v. If a Freeman defendant refuses to participate in an oral or written waiver of attorney. 359. 132 Wn . 8 32 P. Sinclair.App. A compromise that will still protect the record is to have the judge review the form orally with the defendant. 141 Cal. At this point. t he co ur t sh ou ld co nd uc t a th or ou gh and compreh ensive formal inquiry of the defendant o n the record to demonstrate that th e defendant is aware of the natu re of ch arges. denied. Freemen often become so frustrated with court-appointed counsel s refusal to argue the Freemen view of the law that a colloquy to establish a valid waiver of attorney will become possible.2d 1091. 117 Wn. ho wever.2d at 669-70. United States v. r elat es to the ir desire to be assisted by someone who is not a member of the Washington State Bar Association. 79 Wn. pre-trial request to proceed pro se requires reversal of any conviction without any show ing of prejudice. 236. Collins.. The request or demand to defend pro se must be (1) knowing and intelligent and (2) unequivocal.Ap p. 1993). Barker. 940 P. 79 Wn. 68 Wn. 309. Salazar. State v. 103 Wn. e. Most of the Freemen we have dealt with when asked whether they wish to waive counsel will indicate tha t th ey will not be wa iving their right to assistan ce of c oun sel.App. A defendant s refusal to participate in a colloquy requ ires the court to reject his request to pro ceed pro se. C APTION FOR W AIVER OF T RIAL A TTORNEY F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 376 . See State v. 3 17. at 811. Id. Breedlove. See.2d 369. State v. Barker. a defendan t must make a timely request.App.R ptr. Hendricks.2d 664. 993 F. 992 F. Honton.App. DeWeese. the answer will be an emphatic no.But unlike the right to assistance of counsel. 932 P. 92 Wn. and the other risks of proceeding pro se. 881 P. 98 (5th Cir.Ct . DeWeese. the right to dispense with such assistance and to rep resent one self is guaran teed not beca use it is essen tial to a fair trial b ut b ecau se the defendant has the personal right to be a fool. 85 Wn.2d 203.2d 957 (1984). 433. Estab rook. R.App. 816 P. The wrongful denial of a timely.App. cert.2d 74 2 (1986 ). 74 Cal. Vermillion.2d 1239 (1 997). 415. 211 . State v. 117 Wn. 1993). State v. This re spon se. A requ est is generally considered timely if made prior to jury selection. The exercise of the right to proceed pro se must be requested by the defendant. 354. 437. As trial nears. Acrey. Granting a request to proceed pro se that is made on or near the date scheduled for trial does not require the court to grant the defendant a con tinuance. State v. State v. ran ge of allo wabl e pu nishmen ts and possib le de fenses.2 d 1 73 . 691 P.Ap p. 1993). 900 P.L. 101.2d 102 4 (1993 ). 737-40 . 133 Wn . the ensuing battle is generally not worth the fight. 842 P.2d 647. 933 F. 75 Wn.2d 1 051 (1994).3d 875. 9 8 A . the prosecution s concern is obtaining an adequate waiver of attorney. at 239. Fritz. 3d 1 ( 19 78 ). To secure the con stitutional right of self-representation. and the court is not required to advise the defendant o f the existence of the right.2d 96.2d at 378. q uo tin g People v. th at tec hnica l rul es exist which will bind the d efendant in the present ation of his case.App.2d 101 1 (1997 ) (aggravated first degree murder case).Ap p. an attorney should be appointed to represent the Freeman regardless of his or her economic circumstances. 993 F. 669 (9th Cir. Hoff. 21 Wn.2d 58 6 (1995). 888. To en sur e tha t a wai ver o f co un sel mee ts t he se t wo req uir eme nt s. June 1999) 125 .App.2d 100 1.2d 9 5 (1992 ). 73 0 P.g. 238. Zenon. 121 Wn . 753 (1 977). Merchant. Copies of the waiver for ms used in Kitsa p Co unt y for tr ial co unse l an d ap pel late cou nsel are re pro duc ed b elo w.2d 668 . State v. Stenson. 66 Wn. Hendricks v. review denied.

how questions must be phrased. 9. and what documents or other items can be admitted at trial. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.000. Smith. and could advise you of possible defenses to the pending claims? ________. _____________________________ D EFENDANT I find that the defenda nt has knowingly a nd voluntarily waived his or her right to a law yer who is admitted to the practic e of law.2d 497. and to place certain po strelease restrictions on your conduct? ___________. June 1999) 126 . DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. Have you ever studied law? ________________________. N ow. 7. in light of the penalty tha t you might su ffer if you a re repres enting yourse lf. __________ 5. but there are potential dangers and disadvantages of representing yourself. 11. Are you familiar with the Rules of Evidence (ER)? ________. you must abide by these rules. 14.An acc used has a co nstitutional right to rep resent himse lf or herself if he o r she choo ses to do so . Do you realize that if you proceed pro se that if you do not properly present a defense. T hese rules will ap ply to you the same as they apply to an attorney. and not standby counsel must prepare for trial? ______________. 104 Wn. that is one after the other? _____.00? _____________. 707 P. that you do not have an absolute right to receive this assistance and that you.48. yo u mus t pres ent yo ur tes timony by a sking questions of yourself? __________. 508. to pa y court c osts. Do you realize that if convicted. 19___. Your eligibility for court appointed counsel is determined by a review of your financial resources. If yes. Have you ever represented yourself or any other defendant in a criminal action? ____________. Do you realize that a lawyer would be familiar with the rules governing the presentation of evidence. The Court cannot tell you how you should try your case or even advise you as to how to present your case. Do you rea lize that the maximum penalty fo r Unlawful Prac tice of Law is confinement in the co unty jail for a term of up to 365 days and/or by a fine of up to $5. 12. is it still your d esire to represent yourself and to give up your right to be represented by a lawyer? ____________________. I have no ques tions for the co urt abou t the risks o f procee ding pro se o r about m y right to have a lawyer a ppointed to assis t me.000. You must proceed question by question through your testimony. Are you familiar with the Criminal Rules for Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (CrRLJ)? _______. Do you realize that if convicted.010? _____________? 6. 3. the court c ould als o require you to p ay res titution to you r victim. 16. In representing yourself. Do y ou re alize that if y ou d ecid e to ta ke the witnes s sta nd. or otherwise represe nt yourse lf in a compe tent manner that yo u will not be a ble to ob tain a reve rsal of a conviction on the grounds that you received inept representation? ____________. subpoena witnesses. Is your decision entirely voluntary on your part? __________. and to place certain post-release restrictions on your conduct? ___________. 1. Do you realize that once you waive your right to an attorney that it is discretionary with the court whether you may withdraw the waiver? ____________________. The following questions must be filled in so that the Court can determine that your decision to represent yourself is knowingly made. These rules control what questions can be asked of witnesses. do you realize that an attorney can be appointed at public expense if you are indigent. Do you realize that if you represent yourself. Have any threats or promises been made to induce you to waive your right to an attorney? __________. Do you rea lize that the sente nces imp osed on each c ount can b e ordere d to be s erved c onsecu tively. the court could also require you to pay restitution to your victim. What languages do you read and speak fluently? ____________________________. please indicate what the charges were and whether the matter proceeded to trial and/or appeal. D o yo u rea lize tha t the ma ximum p enalty for ea ch co unt of M alici ous Pros ecu tion is confine ment in the county jail for a term of up to 90 days and/or by a fine of up to $1. 20.00? _____________. You cannot just take the stand and tell your story. or if you are partially able to contribute to the cost of counsel. W hy do yo u not want an a ttorney? _ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _ If it is because you do not believe that you can afford an attorney. State v. I reque st that the co urt allow me to repres ent myse lf. 17. DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. 10. 8. I will therefore ap prove the defenda nt's electio n to repres ent herself. 15.62. Do you wish to be screened for court appointed counsel? . you are on your own? ____. 19. These rules gove rn the wa y in whic h a crim inal ma tter is pres ented in the mu nicipa l cou rt. 4. Do you realize that you are currently charged with one count of Unlawful Practice of Law in violation of RCW 2. 2. What was the last grade of school you completed? _________. 13.I have read and completed this form. 18. skilled in following these rules.2d 1306 (1985).180 and two counts of Malicious Prosecution violation of RCW 9. to pay court costs. D o you re alize that while the c ourt may provide you with an a ttorney as a legal ad visor or s tandby c ounsel. 19___.

N ow.2d 1306 (1985). The following questions must be filled in so that the Court can determine that your decision to represent yourself is knowingly made. Do you realize that a lawyer would be familiar with the rules governing appeals and the presentation of claim s. D o yo u rea lize tha t you have bee n conv icted of __ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ and tha t you have bee n sentenced to ____ days in custody. ___________________________________________________________________________________. will have to be served? ___________. and cou ld ad vise you of po ssib le pro ced ural b ars a nd de fense s to the pending claims? __________. These rules will apply to you the same as they apply to an attorney. If it is because of a conflict of interest between you and your prior counsel or because there is a complete breakdown of communication. do you wish the court to consider appointing new counsel? . The Court cannot tell you how you should write your briefs or even advise you as to how to present your arguments. _____________________________ J UDGE F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 13. 104 Wn. 12._____________________________ J UDGE C APTION FOR W AIVER OF A PPELLATE A TTORNEY An acc used has a co nstitutional right to rep resent himse lf or herself if he o r she choo ses to do so . OR Do yo u realize tha t you hav e bee n charged with __ _____ _____ _____ _____ __ and tha t if convicte d of this offens e yo u ca n be s entenc ed to up to ___ _ da ys in c usto dy. If yes. 7. 707 P. you are on your own? __________. please indicate what the charges were and whether the matter proceeded to trial and/or appeal. Are you familiar with the Rules for Appeal of Decisions of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (RALJ)? _______. in light of the penalty tha t you might su ffer if you a re repres enting yourse lf. _____________________________ D EFENDANT I find that the defenda nt has knowingly a nd voluntarily waived his or her right to an atto rney. and restitution? ____________________ __. I will therefore approv e the defe ndant's ele ction to rep resent himse lf. DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. 9. personal restraint petition or habeas corpus action? _____________________________. Do you realize that if you lose your appeal. 3. Do you rea lize that if you p rocee d pro se that if you d o not prop erly pres ent a claim in the appe llate co urts that you could be barred from presenting that claim in a subsequent appeal. 8. 6.2d 497. Have any threats or promises been made to induce you to waive your right to attorney? _____________. this sentence. What was the last grade of school you completed? _________. Have you ever studied law? ________________________. 11. plus cos ts. Smith. Do yo u realize tha t if the State p revails on its app eal. 5. 19___. a _______ fine. that the cha rge of ___ _____ will be reinstated? __________________________. 1. but there are potential dangers and disadvantages of representing yourself. Have you ever represented yourself or any other defendant in a criminal action? ____________. DATE D this _______ day of ______________ _______. Do you rea lize that if you p rocee d pro se that you d o not have an abso lute right to pres ent oral argum ent in the appellate courts or even to be present at the proceedings in the appellate courts? __________________. Is your decision entirely voluntary on your part? __________. do y ou u nders tand tha t you r opti on is to repre sent yourself or to remain with your current attorney? ______________. State v. 2. and restitution? _____ ____. 10. June 1999) 127 . a $__ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ fine . If the court dete rmines that a s ubs titute attor ney s hould not be app ointed . 19___. is it still your d esire to represent yourself and to give up your right to be represented by a lawyer? ____________________. Why do you not want an attorney? ___________________________________________. 4. These rules govern the way in which an appeal is presented in the superior court. 508. if stayed. Do you realize that if you represent yourself. plus costs. sk illed in follo wing thes e rule s.

1039 (1984). Carroll v.2d 1129 (1 977). at 52 6.2d 12. As noted by the Tenth Circuit A criminal defendan t has a con stitutional right to defend himself.2d 1185 (1982). 26. the moving party has found none.Ap p. 469 U. Adams. review denied. Id.2d at 380 -81.S . The trial court s ruling will be upheld on appeal absent an abuse of discretion. 574 P. A disruptive pro se defendant may be removed from the courtro om. 41 . A major factor to be considered is the timing of the request. courts ordinarily will not give consideration to such error unless it is apparent without further research th at the assignment of error presented is well taken.S. 79 Wn. 79 Wn.2d 929 (1984). Merchant. State v. A d isruptive pro se defendant may have his or her right to self-representation terminated.2d 500 (1995). 89 Wn.). State v. 992 F. Judicial discretion is only abused when the court exercises its discretion on untenab le grounds. 79 Wn.g. I Want the Assistance of Counsel Counsel Freemen Request for Non-Attorney Most of the Freemen we have dealt with when asked whether they wish to waive counsel will indicate that they wish to proceed with their constitutional right to counsel. cert. 733 F. Breedlo ve. 1993).2d 102 5 (19 96). June 1999) 128 .S. Canedo-Astorga. the accused sha ll e njo y th e righ t &to have th e Ass ista nce of C ou nse l for his d efen ce. State v. or for untenab le reasons.2d 1033 (1981).Ap p. State v. the newly appointed attorney may obtain a continuan ce of the trial over the defendant s objection. A pro se litigant.2d 586 (1995). in their mind. just like an attorney. 104 Wn. 10 94 (198 5).2d 130 6 (1985). 903 P.2d at 379 ( A defendant may not manipulate the right to counsel for the purpose of delaying and disrupting trial.Disruptive Behavior of Pro Se Defendant The right to self-representation does not permit a defendant to disrupt a hearing or trial.App. See generally State v. The Sixth Amendment guarantees that [i]n all criminal prosecutions. I ll Take Your Attorney Withdrawal of Pro Se Status Once a defendant exercises the constitutional right of self-representation and proceeds pro se. 89 Wn. 1095 (10th Cir. at 525. 79 Wn. review denied. 117 Wn . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.2 d 38. Campbell. he or she do es n ot ha ve the ab sol ut e ri ght to th ere aft er w ith dr aw th e re qu est for sel f rep res en tatio n a nd rec eive substitute coun sel. cit ing United States v.2d 1091. Co nt . 103 Wn. includes a non-attorney. denied. United States v. Canedo-Astorga. 79 Wn. 79 Wn. If at t he l ast min ute he get s col d feet and want s a law yer to defen d him he runs the risk that the judge will hold him to his original decision in order to avoid the disru ptio n of t he co urt s sche dul e th at a c ont inua nce grante d on the very da y tha t tria l is scheduled to begin is bound to cause. 5 25. 101. See. 1 211-12 (7th Cir. Smith. 1 06. State v. and with rights come respo nsibil ities. VI. United States v. If a late motion to withdraw a waiver of counsel is granted. 518. the trial co urt h as the discret ion to grant o r den y a motio n to withd raw a p ro se waiver.App. denied.2d 775 (1971).2d at 376-77.App. 312. 304. OK. State v. 691 P. Solina. 508. 95 Wn. Acco rd DeWeese. DeWeese.2d 1. 900 P. supra. 117 Wn. 641 P. 471 U.2 d 613. Failure to cite legal authority requires the court to assume that. 569 P. ame nd . Junker. ). nor is it a license for a pro se defendant to no t comply with the rule s of procedural and substantive law. State ex rel. 7 39. This right to counsel. 6 25.2d 1208. 128 Wn. State v. 117 Wn . Canedo-Astorga. A pro se litigant is required to comply with co urt rules to the same degree that an atto rney must comply with the rule s. Instead . e. 737. the court may consider all the circumstances that exist when the request for reappointment is made. Canedo-Astorga. at 526. 482 P. In such a case. In exercising its discretion. 99 2 F .. DeWeese.2d 497. cert.Ap p. Jessup. 31 Wn.2d 117 1 (1978 ). 28 Wn. Young. 707 P. an abuse of discretion occurs where no reasonable person would take the view adopted by the trial court. Merchant.App. In other words. Blight. after diligent search. Batten v. Solin a. U. must present legal authority in support of his or her objections and motions.2 d a t 1 09 5.

2d 505. State v. 486 U. State v.2d 562. 254 0-41 (1975).2d 140. Hegge. 860 (1987) ( The inherent right of a person to appear pro se in legal proceedings cannot be assigned to another by executing the power of attorney. 766 P. 820 F.2d 82 (5th C ir. 19 F. 3 April 29. cert.2d at 415.2d 369. denied. Wheat.48 .Ap p. ___.2d 95 (1992).2d 1127 (1 989). In Washington. 970 F. 686-87 (D. 1968). 45 L.2d 1 (1991) (a criminal defendant does not have the absolute right to be represented by the individual of his or her choice).2d 5 64 (Div. do es no t pe rmit a c riminal defen dan t to be re prese nte d by an ad vocat e who is not a member of the bar. whether it safely reaches the destination charted or founders on a reef. 75 Wn.. See RCW 2. The determination of whether to allow hybrid representation remains within the sou nd discretion of the cou rt.Y. See RCW 2. 1994) (unsupervised paralegal s preparation of documents in divorce action constitutes the practice of law and state statute prohibiting the unauthorized practice of law did not violate paralegal s First Amendment freedom of expression or Fourteenth Amendment rights to due p rocess an d equ al pro tection ). State v. 113 S. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.). 523 A. United States v. at 340. 508 F. Melinda. 795.Ct. hybrid representation will frequently be allowed for the convenience of the court.3d 9 (2d Cir. 927 (1969).App.App.48.Supp. 376. Hunt.Ed. 497 A.S. Swinney. cert.J. 816 P. 100 L. 1 390 (10 th Cir. State v. 315. denied . In Freemen cases. Christiansen v. 847 (1975).Ct. State v.2d 1384.19 0. June 1999) 129 . 857 P. See. Shea. Conn.2d 466 (5th Cir.2d 96. State v. United States v. Shaver. United States v. 159. United States v. 49 8 (8th Cir. Accord Vermillion. Hunt.g.2d 935 (19 79) (layma n hu sban d may n ot re prese nt w ife in a prosecution for failure to yield right of way). 136 M isc. and it is he alone who must assume responsibility for its passage. 941 F.Ap p. See RCW 2. t hou gh. 806.2d 100 9 (1994 ) (statutory power of attorn ey does not allo w an unlicensed p erson to practice law). cert. United States v. 975 P. In re Baker. ). The pro se exception permits an individual to act on his or her own behalf with respect to his or her legal rights and obligations without benefit of counsel.2d 1485. The right to proceed pro se and the right to assistance of counsel are mutually exclusive. 332.App. Monroe v. principal can only engage agent to practice law on his behalf if agent is licensed attorney).48.S. 395 U. 2525.2d 1000. 6 01.S. Howitch. 519 N. 8 05. This exception is very limited. 406 F. Hegge. denied. 117 Wn. 95 S. Hybrid Representation A criminal defendant does no t have a right to both self-representation and th e assistance of counsel. 682. 53 Wn. 66 Wn. City of Seattle v. 66 Wn.Ed. see also State v. 632 (1992). 1988)..g. 19 93). e. Gethers.. denied. 1991) ( [defendant s] clear expression that he could only work with an atto rney who shared h is views.2d 494. Romero.S. 1999). review denied. 125 Wn . 349. Thus.2d at 2 64: Ther e can be b ut o ne ca pta in of th e ship . California. at 349. See. 1504 (10th Cir. 1951) (the consequences of a UPL statute cannot be avoided merely by preparing for and having the client execute a documen t designating the unlicensed practitioner an attorney-in-fact ). aff d. 345. 841 F. Vermil lion. 1009 (9th Cir. 23 W n. Gilman v. ___ Wn.. 832 P. DeWeese.This gua rant ee. As noted in Parren.S. 1697 (1988). 640 F.). Lee v. Accord ingly any req uest by t he defen dant that h e be rep resented by a non-attorney counselor must be rejected by the court. Faretta v. 340. Halbert.S. it is a crime for a non-attorney to practice law in Washington. 422 U. Willie. and a person may not transfer his or her pro se rights to another. 153.2d 314 . 880 P. Kipp. 53 Wn. Unautho rized practice of law ( UPL ) statutes have repeatedly been foun d to be con stitutional.Ct. 423 U. supra (UPL statute not unconstitutionally vague). e. 85 A. Alaba ma. cert.180.App. 514 (N. 1981). 108 S. 1692. [inter alia] constitute[d] a valid implied waiver of his right to cou nsel ). United States v. 11 06 (199 2). Nichols.Ap p.190. 597 P. [a criminal defendant] is entitled to choose between two alternatives: proceeding pro se or relinquishing his defense to counsel. A pro se exception to th is prohibition exists. 502 U.2d 345 (Alaska 1993) (statutory power of attorney does not remove agent from prohibition of unlicensed practice of law.

Standby Counsel A cou rt may a ppo int st and by co unse l.2d 1 001.2d 5 66 (199 0).Ap p. Allen. 944 (1984 ). 48 Wn. 1697 (1988 ). State v. 393. The se Fre emen will c omp lain bitterly to the court if the attorney does not do their bidding. 376 . 72 6 P. 1986 ). While these attorneys deserve your sympathy. Barker. 3 17-18. DeWeese. 520 . 4-5. 465 U. 486 U. State v.2d 885. 740 P.2 at 4-65 (2d ed. 117 Wn. Agreeing that the motion to withdraw can be granted without first obtaining a proper Faretta waiver of attorney will result in repeated delays. State v. DeWeese. State v. Ha hn. 81 6 P. 100 L. State v.1. Wiggins. The appointment of a legal advisor or standby counsel does not obviate the need for a knowing and intelligent waiver of the right to counsel.g. 541 P. 495. other than the defendant. 881 P. 466. State v. 10 8 S. whether to waive jury trial.2d 51.2d 369 . however. and whether to testify.Ap p.App. State v.2d 1 187 (19 82). Some attorneys request permission to withdraw. Hess. King. Std. 68 Wn.2d 982 (1979 )( defendant has an absolute right to testify on his own behalf which right cannot be abrogated by defense counsel ). 892. Case law provides that a defendant may only d ischarge appointed coun sel with court-appro val and upon a showing of good cause. Estabr ook.2d 140.2d 586 (1995). 121 Wn.. the same issues will arise with any attorney who is appointed. 168. 106. 35 Wn. 52. United States v. review denied.Ct.2d 872 (1987).2d 719.2d 108 (1983). 153.2d 979 (1994) (right to jury trial may only be waived by defendant).2d 25 (198 6) ( basic respect for a defendant s individual freedom requires us to permit the defendant himself to determine his plea ). and a possible appellate reversal. Court-Appointed Attorney s Request to Withdraw Understandably. State v. State v.2d 504. State v. e. counsel who is appointed to represent a Freeman defendant over the Freeman s objection is put in a difficult position. 7 87 P. 601 P. Many attorneys appointed to represent Freemen will identify for the record the motions the defendant wishes to have heard and that the attorney believes he or she is barred from raising such frivolous motions by RPC 3. 57 Wn. 86 Wn. 1692. There are. to a ssist th e acc used if and whe n h e or she req ues ts h elp and to rep rese nt th e ac cus ed i n t he e vent th at t he d efen dan t s sel frepresentation is terminated.2d 1 (1 991). 159. the Freemen will eventually enter a Faretta waiver and the attorney can then be reassigned to the role of standby counsel. 6 55 P. 33 Wn. 104 S. 124 Wn.App.App.2d 1024 (199 3). Breedlove. a position that is only more uncomfortable when the victims of the charges are local judges or prosecutors. Garrett. Those d ecisions include what plea to enter. Wheat.2d 369. 2d 122. and to ensure that the jury s perception that the defendant is representing himself or herself is not destroyed. State v. 4 99. State v. Standby counsel must carefully limit his or her role to ensure that the pro se defendant preserves actual control over the case the Freeman chooses to present to the jury.Ed. 106 Wn. 124 Wn. 816 P. Doug herty. Legitimate trial tactics such as making or foregoing a motion or objection and deciding which witnesses to call. 667 P.Ct. 728. 309. June 1999) 130 .2d 1222 (1975).App.2d 185 (1994).S. I am in Control Attorney as Mouthpiece Some Freemen believe that the phrase assistance of counsel means they control the proceedings and the atto rney who has b een app oint ed t o rep resen t th em is th eir assist ant . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 900 P. 24 Wn. the judge may allow hybrid representation or may merely deny the motions because they lack merit. 134. are p rimarily the responsibility of defense counsel. 8 42 P. A court-appointed attorney s request to withdraw because he or she has been fired by a Freeman must be denied because a criminal defendant does not have the absolute right to be represented by the individual of his or her choice. In such circumstances. 370. even over th e ob jectio n of t he d efend ant . If the court holds firm regarding the proper role of the attorney. State v.S. McKaskle v. 101. 79 L. 117 Wn . only a few trial decisions which must be made by the accused in criminal proceedings and cannot be made for the accused by counsel.Ap p. Just ini ano. 388. 572. 881 P. See. Stegall. 79 Wn. Ed. see also 1 American Bar Ass n.2d 1 (1991). Standards for Criminal Justice.

Under Washington law..App. RCW 36. 4-1. See. 495. 124 Wn. King. 892. 86 Wn. at 4-19 (2d ed. art. i.App. 24 Wn. State v. The great tradition of the bar is reflected in the history of eminent lawyers such as John Adams.0 40. 1986 ).2d 56 6 (1990). State v. Those decisions include what ple a to enter. Steg all. 134.060. The constitutional provisions creating the office specifically require the election of the prosecuting attorney on a county-wide basis. e. The prosecuting attorney is a constitutionally created office and is part of the executive branch of government. 52. State v. 740 P. State v. for a filed oath. other than the defendant testifying.2d 662. the ABA Code of Professional Responsibility admonishes lawyers not to decline proffered employment lightly.2d 1222 (1975). 881 P. 134 Wn. RCW 36. 124 Wn. 48 Wn.2d 25 (1986) ( basic respect for a defendant s individual freedom requires us to permit the defendant himself to determine his plea ).2d 11 5 (1972). the prosecuting attorney must take an oath of office prior to assuming office. 601 P.5(b). Carroll. Standar ds for Cri mina l Justice.2d 185 (1994) (ineffective assistance claim may not be based on the defense attorney's legitimate trial tactics). 81 Wn. Std. Garrett. who defended the British redcoats after the Boston Massacre who have risked public disfavor to defend a hated defendant. 520. one in actual possession of the office of prosecutor and exercising its duties and powers under color of title. see also 1 American Bar Ass n. Justiniano. §§ 4 and 5. State v.5(b ). Allen. Hahn. authority of a de facto prosecutor. 4-5.2d 504.2d 979 (1994) (right to jury trial may only be waived by defendant).2 d 82 (1998 ) (delayed filing of bond no t grounds for recalling prosecutor). June 1999) 131 . 500 P. 19 86). 541 P. the cause of the defenseless or oppressed.. are primarily the responsibility of defense counsel. See generally In re Recall of Sandhaus. 1 American Bar Ass n. and whether to testify. This oath must be filed with the county auditor and a bond obtained and filed with the county clerk. State v. See the Appendix. The highest tradition of the American bar is found in the obligation. However. State v. The sure way to guarantee adherence to this tradition of denying no defendant competent legal preparation is for all trial lawyers to prepare themselves to act in criminal cases. 1 American Bar Ass n. Challenges to the Legality of the Prosecutor Oath. 11. A failure to strictly comply with these requirements is not grounds for removal from office if the irregularities are subsequentl y cured. A co urt -ap po int ed a tto rne y s fear of co mmu nit y or jud icial bac kla sh d ue t o t he r epr esen tat ion of a Freeman is not adequate grounds for withdrawal. as distinguished from a community attitude. 728.2 at 4-65 (2d ed.2d 982 (1979 ) ( defendant has an absolute right to testify on his own behalf which right cannot be abrogated by defense counsel ). De Facto Pro secutor. 726 P.16.2d 872 (1987). may impair &effective representation of a prospective client. 881 P.2d 95. 787 P. Gibson. 79 Wn. Std. 499. 572.A cou rt-ap poin ted a ttor ney s requ est to withd raw be cause the d efend ant in sists upo n pu rsuing a co urse counsel finds to be imprudent should be rejected because there are only a few trial decisions which must be made b y the a ccuse d in cr iminal p rocee dings an d can not be mad e for th e accu sed by cou nsel.e. at 37.2d 856. wheth er to waive jury trial. is not subject to collateral att ack. Hess.g. 57 Wn. Once elected. never to reject from any consideration personal to myself. 106 Wn. (Footno tes omitted). 1986 ). 953 P. Const. Legitimate trial tactics such as making or foregoing a motion or objection and deciding which witnesses to call.2d 719. State v.2d 885. declining to accept a case is justified when the intensity of &personal feeling.16. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. at 4-20 to 4-21 (2d ed. Std. in the lawyer s oath. State v. Standards for Criminal Justice. 4-1.2d 51.App. Consistent with these standards. Standar ds for Cri mina l Justice. All qualified trial lawyers should stand ready to undertake the defense of an accused regardless of public hostility toward the accused or personal distaste for the offense charged or the person of the defendan t. A lawyer has the duty to provide legal assistance even to the most unpopular defendants.

or to pl ea bargain. He repr esen ts th e stat e.2 d 660. 3 1995). then the prosecutor is disqualified from litigating the matter. 953 P. 70 RPC 3. why r efer the case to an othe r prosec uting aut hority? Applications for Writs of Quo Warranto A quo warranto proceeding seeks to test the right of an individual to h old title to a pu blic office. If the Freeman s past behavior will support a finding that whoever is appointed as a special prosecutor will be subject to the same criminal activity as the already victimized office.W. e. denied. 91. supra.2 d 12 6. By statute. 70 A primary con sidera tion in wh eth er to retain such a case or to seek th e app oint ment of a spe cial p rosec utin g atto rney is whether the anticipated Freemen defendant is likely to sue or victimize any prosecutor who is assigned to the case. 520-23 . [A] Pu blic pro secu tor is a qua si-jud icial o fficer. If a prosecutor s interest in a criminal defendant or in the subject matter of the defendant s case materially limits his or her ability to prosecute a matter impartially.2d 874 (1971). Cook.2d 769 (1984).27. denied. Conflict o f Interest. 111 Wn . 27 Wn. 6 63. and the pro secutor s staff may be disqualified as well. 684 P. Stat e v. State ex rel.7 discusses the propriety of having a member from the same prosecuting attorney s office that is trying the defendant appear as a witness. 132.C. 760 P. 84 Wn.S. State v. A prosecuting attorney s impartiality to act is not considered to be impaired by a defendant s threat to file bar complaints or lawsuits. State v. whenever he shall deem it his duty to do so. Perez. State v. The substantive right and procedure for a writ of quo warranto is controlled by statute in Washington. t his rul e nec essarily man date s the p ropo sition t hat a n acc used doe s not have th e right to cho ose the prosecuto r. upon his own relation. 458 (D. e. ___ Wn .2d 341 (1947 ).2d 192 (1968). RCW 7. 38 Wn. See. 525 P. See generally State v. 975 P.g. 67 Wn . Britton.2d 130. Finch.2 d 342. 18 Wn. 685 F. 754 . 440 P. 840 P. whenever he claims an interest in the office. Superior Court.030 authorizes the court to appoint some qualified person to discharge the duties of prosecuting attorney in the event that the elected prosecuting attorney is disabled or is otherwise unable to perform.2d 357 (19 88). Kember .2d 918. 138 P. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.2d 843 (1943). 891 P. 19 99 WL 27 4135. Tyler. 3 50. Ladenburg.2d 516 . Stenger. Carter v. After all. App. State v.2d ___ . 1096 (1969).App. 136 W n. In re Recall of Sandhaus. 77 Wn. a quo warranto action may be filed by the prosecuting attorney in the superior court of the proper county. cert. 178 P.56. State v. to seek the death p enalty.010.2d 42 (Div. June 1999) 132 .2d 2 28 (1 992 ) ( appe arance o f fairness doct rine may appl y to charging decisions). See. 197 9). 459 U.2d 761 (1974). Stenger. 199 9).2d 967. 749 .g. review denied. 677 .). While RCW 36. which is the subject of the information.490 P.. This does not mean that careful thought does not need to be taken before filing a charge against a Freema n invol ving a prose cuto r victim or o ne in w hich a prose cuto r is a nece ssary witn ess. Un ited St ates v. See generally RCW 7. 393 U. then the ancient rule of necessity that applies to judges would appear to allow the retention of the case for charging and prosecution. has held that the doctrine does not apply to a prosecuto r s determination to file criminal charges. State v.020. 90 W n. 587 S. an d in the interest of justice must act impartially.App. The Washington Supreme Court.56. Huson. 372.A pp. cert. Martin. if all prosecu tors will b e subject ed to the same t actics. A pr ose cut ing at to rne y s imp art ialit y to act can be i mpa cte d b y his or h er p rior rep rese nt atio n o f a defendant.2d 451 . State v. Cir. or shall be directed by the court or other competent auth ority. See generally Filan v. As the supreme court has recogn ized. State v.App. supra. Some Court of Appeals cases have intimated that the appearance of fairness doctrine may apply to a prosecutor s charging decision. however. *6 (May 6. 929 (Mo..2d 3 36.2d 10 28 (Div . 832 (1982). Bland. 1 199 8). or by any other person on his own relation.S. 73 Wn. most Freemen-asserted irregularities in the prosecutor s oath or bond will not con stitute a disability. franchise or corporation.

App.g. 117. exercising its functions and discharging its duties under colo r of title.2d 888 . State v. The proper and exclusive method of determining the right to public office is through a quo warranto p roceeding. Mills.2d 1018 (Div. State v. Accord Stat e ex rel. Jones v. 35 9 P.12. Manlove v.2d at 896-97. 566. Br itton . 27 Wn . § 4. 864 (1932) (actual bias must be shown to disqualify a judge from presiding over a motion for new trial). State v. Claims that the trial judge is prejudiced against the defendant based upon the trial judge having rendered prior rulings that were adverse to the defendant.2d 627 . 2 Wash. 655. 114 Wn. 715-17. Durkee. review denied. is insufficient to force recusal.2d 64 (199 8). 837 P. Halvorson-Berg. See also In re Bochert. 2 1998) (a judge is still a public servant even if his or her oath h as not been filed with the secretary of state). 89 Wn. 501 P. review deni ed.05 0 will be sufficient to o vercome the presumption t hat the judge is free from prejudice. Howland v.2 d 1012 (1971).2d 711. Da y. See.2d at 893. The Washington Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over a quo warranto action directed toward a state official. 594. See Verhar en. Casual and n onspecific allegations of judicial bias do not pro vide a basis for recusal.2d 789 (19 61) (bias or prejudice on the part of an elected jud icial officer is never presumed). review denied. Palmer. 5 Wn. A quo warranto action may be filed in the superior court pursuant to Chapter 7. 5 F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. But once a defendant disqualifies a judge as a matter of right pursuant to RCW 4.2d 59 9 ( 19 92 ) (a ctua l b ias m ust be sho wn to dis qu alify a jud ge fro m pres idi ng o ver a ret ria l fo ll ow ing a reversal on appeal). at 657. 9 P. June 1999) 133 . 119 Wn. 69 Wn. 88 P.2d 5 25 (196 0).2d 688 (1987). Camer on. at 411-12 . 487 P. 119 Wn.2d 711. 480. State ex rel Dore v. e. This same rule applies to motions to disqualify a judge brought after the judge makes a discretionary ruling in an action or has presided over the trial. 490-91. he must be submitted to as such until displaced by a regular direct proceeding for that purpose. 167 Wash. Dore. 79 Wn. 1 78 P. Stephenson.2 d 154. despite a defect in title. 27 Pac. review denied.App . 136 Wn. State v. As an officer de facto. Smith. subsequent motions to disqualify the trial judge involve an exercise of sound discretion in passing on the sufficiency of the showing made in support of the motion . C ompliance with RCW 4 . 136 Wn . a voter or a taxpayer or any person other than the prosecuting attorney may not initiate a quo warranto proceeding unless the person has an interest in the office separate from the common interest of the general public. Johnson. 3 51 P. distinguishes him from a de jure office holder. 878.2d 7 19.2d 945 .2d 219 (19 89). 198 Wash. he must be in actual possession of the office. State v. 969 P. 837 P. 715. The separate interest that will support a private quo warranto action filed by an individual. To constitute a person an officer de facto.2 d 622 (1 972).. Clemons.2d 3 8. at 573. 280. 7 Wn.2d 1087 (1932). 782 P. 893-96 .App. 847 P. 1 27.59. 59 6. A judge is presumed to perform his or her functions regularly and properly without bias or prejudice. 2 Wash. Verharen. 9 50 P. 57 Wn. art.App.12. 4.2d 599 (1992).A mere citizen. 216 P. Bias. 794. Belgar de. 57. 405. A judge who has failed to file his or her oath is still acting as an officer de facto. 56 Wn.2 d 3 41 (1 94 7) . Palmer. as opposed to a pub lic quo warranto action filed by a prosecutor. 122 Wn.2d 1019 (1993). 737 P.Ap p. Belgard e. The trial court s decision on a nonman datory disqualification motion must be uphel d absent an ab use of discretion. whether in the same case or a different case. a ctive possession. State ex rel. v. Stat e v. 722. 56 Wn. Col or of t itl e d istingu ish es h im from a u sur pe r. 411-12. A judge is not subject to disqualification for failing to properly file his or her oath of office. Quick-Rub en v. 560 (189 1). Challenges to the Legality of the Judge Oath.2 d 10 05 (1 990 ) (actua l bias must b e shown to disqu alify a judge from presiding over a retrial following a mistrial). Palmer. is the right of that individual to assume the office that will be vacated upon the issuance of the writ. Green Moun tain Sch ool Di st.Ap p. Franks. State v.56 RCW. 884. State v.App . Const. Superior Court. 8 07-09. Verharen. 136 Wn. State ex rel.2d 397 (1939).2. 658. Mills v. 572-7 3. 136 Wn. RAP 16. See genera lly.050. 167 Wash. 125 Wash. 5 Wn.2 d 3 36 . 47 Wn. 285-287.

Ronwin . Filan v. See. See generally. 80 L. 127 Wn .Wn. 101 S. State v.. It 71 The anc ient rule of nec essity is a co mmon law princ iple which pro vides that although a judge had better not.2d at 701. 104 S. A visiting judge s authority to hear a case is not con tingent upon th e parties consent. Const. Will. 558. 7 93 P. Gri smore.Ct. the Ronwin court stated th at such an easy method for ob taining disqualification should not be enc ouraged or allowed . 1989 (1984) (mere filing of lawsuit against judge will not disqualify him or her). e. This rule exists because the bias and prejudice necessary to disqualify a judge must generally come from an extra-judicial source. Court repo rters are required to obtain a certificate. See generally RCW 18. All official court reporters are considered to be officers of the court.2d 887 (18 95). 1981 ).App. Challenges to the Legality of Courtroom Personnel Court Reporters. 2d 3 92 (198 0). 1981). See.D. 192 9). 564 F.R.18 0.32. Hastings. 93 3 (10th C ir. 66 L. 513 F.2d 929.R.S.2d 362 (1903). United States v. 466 U. United States v. 40 P. Ronwin v.180.2d 769 (1984) (rule of necessity allows a judge to remain on a case after being sued for actions performed in his or her judicial role when a defend ant has established a prop ensity for suing all judges).N. if it can be avoided.L. B ilal. State v. RC W 2 . 77 Wn. A de fend ant has nei th er a con stit ut ion al n or s tat ut ory right to with ho ld con sen t to th e au th orit y of a judge pro tempore in a court o f limited jurisdiction. Barker. 1977). 12 Wash.32 .S. 149 (D. United States v. State Bar.2d 5 90.3d 1369 (1968). Art. The constitution places no restrictions on the Legislature in regard to pro tempore judges in inferior courts. a First Book of Jurisp rudence 270 (6th e d. e. and the supreme court has declined to do so. even a criminal defendant s threat or use of force against a judge in a courtroom does not mand ate th e recu sal of th e judge o n th e groun ds of act ual o r pot ential bias. Martin. RCW 2. at 411. 449 U. Disqualificati on of Judge for Having Decided Different Case Agai nst Lit igan t. 686 F. 200. S. United States v. an d file a bon d in t he su m of two tho usan d do llar s for th e faith ful d ischa rge of his du ties . United States v.2d 42. When in a count y other th an the o ne in which h e or she was elect ed. review denied. that he had filed a brief with the court accusing the judge of bribery. denied. Alberico. the visiting judge has the same powers as a regularly elected judge of the county. F. IV.g. 724 P. 1976 ) (failure to recuse upheld wh ere plaintiff stated. 200 . T he l oca tio n(s ) for filin g the oat h an d t he b on d ar e no t sp ecifie d in th e sta tu te. Pollack. Bray. 893 P. 453 F. claims that the trial judge is biased as a result of a party filing a lawsuit against a judge for a judicial act as to which the judge is immune from suit will not con stitute grounds for disqualification. Finally. 213. 21 A. 187 (D. Demaris v. 1977 ) (no disqualification where plaintiff s affidavit indicated that judge would be sued). 546 F. June 1999) 134 .Ed.145 . Del.010. 1988). 701 (9th Cir. 150 Ariz. Jul 29. 115 Wn .App.2d 692 .2d 1223. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. See genera lly State v. Annot.71 In fact.2d 851. Col o. Thompson. 95. 505 (D. 684 P. Similarly. 74 P. Holm es. 435 U.C. The constitution grants sole authority in the Legislature to govern the jurisdiction and powers of inferior courts. 554. 48 0-82. take part in the decision of a case in which he has any personal interest. E d.2d 9 56 (199 0). Pro Tempore Judge in Courts of Limited Jurisdiction. 85 7-59 (10 th Cir.. Ct. 16 9.0 8. 203-4. 91. 33 Wash.J.Su pp. inter alia. cert.. 471.Su pp. 140. 1226 (1986).App. rev d on oth er grou nds su b nom Hoover v. Official court reporters are individuals who have been appointed to serve a superior court judge or a superior court judicial district pursuant to RCW 2. 123 F. yet he not only may but must do so if the case cannot be heard otherwise. 7 20.150..2d 674 . 686 F. Visiting Superior Court Judges. conspiracy and obstruction of justice).2d 101 3 (1995 ). Boffa. 178 . Such reporters before entering upon the discharge of his duties shall take an oath to perform faithfully the dut ies of his o ffice. A duly elected superior court judge has the authority to preside over a case in a county othe r than the o ne in which he or she was elected . State v. Matter of Extradition of Singh. 954 (1978). 38 Wn.g. § 7.

The most common conflict of interest that will arise in Freemen prosecutions is that a court reporter sho uld no t report proceedings in a case in which the reporter is also a witness. The trial court. 3 69. Challenges to the Legality of the Revised Code of W ashington Absence of Enacting Clauses and Titles. conta in a require ment that suc h officer tak e an oath that the officer will faithfully discharge his or her duties. RCW 10. RCW 36. N either the st atute regard ing the appo intment of an office r to take c ustody of the jury. including appeals.4 4. an d shall rece ive the same compensation.23.16. See.013.32.010.7(b) a nd CrRLJ 6 .g. RCW 36. e. C rR 6.070. RC W 4.2d 1024 (1980). nor the court rule s regarding the a ppointment o f an officer to take c ustody of the jury. 613 P.16. A court may take judicial notice of session laws.060.08. Care shou ld b e take n to avoid c onfl icts o f intere st an d no bailiff sh oul d be allo wed to c are for a jury in a case in which the bailiff will be or has been a witness. The cost of the court reporter s bond appears to be a county expense. therefore. Royal. There is no statutory oath o r bond req uirement for bailiffs. RCW 36.24. RCW 10.300 .160. Cf. (b) an d (d) .2d 145.017.0 4. 417-18 . 122 Wn.32.16. Court Bailiffs. 26 Wn. 222 P.Ap p. E R 20 1(a). State v. If such an oath is administered to bailiffs.070. Tribble. RCW 2. 37 Wn. The clerk s bond is filed with the treasurer after having first been recorded by the cou nty auditor. ). RCW 1.150.320. The amount of the clerk s bond is set by a majority of the judges presiding over the court the clerk serves. The R evised C ode of Wash ington is prepared by the code reviser. Court Clerks. June 1999) 135 .32 . Care should b e made to ensure tha t any court reporter who has been endorsed as a prosecution witness in a case does not report any hearings held in that case. RCW 5. RCW 2. Id. and shal l file a like bond. does not lack subject matter 72 The Lane cas e talk s ab out a n oath ha ving be en ad ministe red to the ba iliff who had c are o f the ju ry.060.2d 173 . review denied. RCW 1. Bailiffs are appointed by each court. The Revised Code of Washington is a compilation of the session laws a nd is e videnc e of th e law s of th is state . ER 201(f). See State v.0 60. Lane. The omissions of these sections from the Revised Code of Washington does no t invalidate the session laws. RCW 1. Id. The State is not required to admit a copy of the statute into evidence and the information/complaint is not required to contain the full text of all statutes.020.7(b). 72 An err or in t he ad min istrat ion of a n o ath t o a ba iliff wil l n ot co nst itu te gro un ds for reve rsin g a conviction absent a timely objection and a showing of prejudice.050(3).2d 413. 94 Wn.2d 394 (1950). 37 Wn. the presiding judge my appoint a competent reporter to act pro tempore. Evidence Rule 201 authorizes a party to request a court to take judicial notice of adjudicative facts that are capable of accurate and ready determination by resort to sources whose accuracy cann ot rea sona bly b e qu estion ed. or appearance of conflicts to all involved parties. RCW 36. If an official reporter is absent or unable to act. potential conflicts.37. The State need not attach a certified or exemplified copy of a session law to the charging document because a charging document need not contain matters of which judicial notice may be taken.16. Need for Exemplified or Certified Copies of the Session Laws.015. RCW 36 .16. Care should be taken to avoid conflicts of interest and no clerk should be allowed to serve in the cou rtroo m or to care for e xhibits in a case in which the c lerk will be or has be en a wit ness. RCW 36.. RCW 2.330.2d 25 9 (1993). 858 P. but these sections are still part of a session law.270. See RCW 2. The clerk is required to take an oath and to file the oath with the auditor.270.2d at 150. The reporter pro tempore shall possess the qualifications and take the oath p rescribed for the o fficial report er. 150.37. 367. This ru le ap plies at all sta ges of proc eedin gs. Id. Lane. State v. The Revised Code of Washington omits the titles to acts and enacting clauses. The oath s of deputy clerks are also filed with the auditor. it is recommended that the oath be filed with the county auditor. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. A court reporter may not act in a case in which a personal conflict of interest exists without the consent of the judge and all parties. RCW 1. WAC 3 08-1 4-13 0(6) ( Certified short han d rep orte rs shall &Disclose conflicts.16.0 20.is recommended that the b ond be filed in the clerk s office and the o ath in the cou nty auditor s office.08.32.08. See generally RCW 36.

review denied. May 24.2d 101 0 (1986 ).73 It has been long established. 288. 35 P. A frequent Freemen objection to prosecutor pleadings is that the prosecution ha s not established that th ey have permission to cite or qu ote copyrighted laws. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Amend. § 22. and the state may require the licensing of drivers.g. 114 Wn. Port. Copyright Infringement. Mironski v.. Miller v. Schnackenberg.App. 98 Wn. e. Art.jurisdiction solely because the State did not make copies of the legislative titles and enacting provisions of the crimes charged a part of the record. § 501(b) (only the legal and beneficial owners of copyright have standing to sue infringers). 653 P. See. 57 Wn. Const. Clifford. 43 Wn. a nd So vere ign Free men a re not b ound by a ny sta te legi slat ion.S. Wash.g. 1. the United States Supreme Court determined that crimes carrying penalties up to 6 months do no t require a jury trial if they otherwise qualify as petty offenses. Challenges to the Legality of the Jury Number of Jurors. I. including misdemeanor offenses. e. by t heir residency. but even if correct. Co nst.Ed . Suc h pe rson s. 106 Wn . Rathbun v. it is difficult to se e ho w a jur y can be co nstit ute d of p erson s who are n ot re siden ts of W ashin gton . State v. that states may rightfully prescribe uniform regulations necessary for public safety and order in the operation upon its highways of motor vehicles. sometimes called the right of vicinage. Mace. Krug. 238. 41 P. Hessler.2d 8 7. Prosecution Violates Freemen s Constitutional Right to Travel in a Private Vehicle A common Freemen motion to dismiss in cases involving a motor vehicle is that the instant prosecution infringes upon the Freeman s constitutional right to travel. In view of the positive vicinage requirements of both the Federal and State Constitutions. cases. 37 3. 586. 273. Const. Vicinage. 127. 16 L. Freemen do not have standing to raise the copyright holder s rights. 610. 12 Wash.2d 945. by an impartial jury of the State and district whe rein t he cr ime sha ll h ave be en co mmitte d and Wash .2d 631 (1982). 15 23 (196 6). The right to have jurors selected from the place at which the trial is to be held. Thurston County. 126 (1895) (fact that juror is taxpayer is not ground for challenge on trial of public officer charged with embezzlement of public funds)..C.Ct. E.Ed.. Spokane v. State v. review denied. does not prohibit Washington state from providing a greater right to jury.App. 35 S.2d 73. § 21. proscribing the minimum constitutional requirement however. See. 197 P. 716 P.2d 1025 (1990). p rovides for a right to jury trial in all criminal cases. 140 (1915).g. Marylan d. Sectio n 8) only perm its C ongres s to re gulate inters tate c omme rce. was considered to be of great importance both at the common law and by the Founding Fathers. 73 Free men a sse rt that s tate t raffic laws do no t app ly to t hem s ince the y we re not i nvolv ed in int ersta te co mmerc e. June 1999) 136 . argu ing that the Com merc e C laus e (A rticle I. 653 P. and court rules. The right to jury trial in misdemeanor cases under Washington law. is a right to a six person jury. ___ F. however.S. U. however.2d 629 . The burden that traffic laws and licensing requirements impose upon a single mode of transportation does not implicate the right to interstate travel.2d 6 18 (1982). See 17 U. 98 Wn. VI guarantees an accused a speedy and public trial. 83. Reed . 385. 781 (1921) (pecuniary interest of taxpayers in action against county for damages is not such as to disqualify them from serving as jurors and necessitate transfer of cause to another county for trial). 8 Wash. 59 L. 86 S.2d 571.Ct. Hendri ck v. guaran tees a spee dy p ubl ic trial by an impartial jury of the county in which the o ffense is charged to have been committed. Pasco v. are not deemed to be implicitly biased in favor of the State. 235 U. Both the Federal and State Constitutions preserve a right to vicinage.S.3d ___ (9th Cir. The Freemen concept of copyright law is obviously skewed. 787 P. 115 Wash. Snohomish County. Seattle v. This ruling. In Chaff v. 275-76. art. 384 U.S. 1102 (1894) (interest of jurors as taxpayers of county in action against county will not disqualify them from serving as jurors to try cause).

absent a contract or agreement in equity with the government rejected). C ole . 554 (9th Cir. 679 F. v. [the air carrier plaintiffs ] argument reduces to the feeble claim that passengers have a constitutional right to the most convenient form of travel. and ÿÿState v..I.2d at 794 (citations and footnotes omitted). in the absence of his acceptance of a motor vehicle operator s license. 1218 (Idaho App. esse ntially abro gates the hold ing of Aberde en v. 374 A.022. but his right to operate a motor vehicle on the public highways. 466 F. State. 1989) (driver s claim that as an ambassador for the Kingdom of God he was not subject to driver licensing requirements was rejected). 119 8 (5th Cir. 2 77-78. 879 F. but it is not unconstitutional. 022 . 1982) ( At most.20. or in a motor vehicle driven by someone with a license to drive it. including driver licensing requirements. RCW 46. Inc. as any experienced traveler can attest.2d 1010 (1986). rev d in part on other grounds.2d 121 6. Petit. 374 A.W. absent a contract or agreement in equity with the government rejected). 537 P. 672 F.A pp. ÿÿJones v. See also th e fo ll ow ing ÿÿTanner v. RCW 46. Spokane v. RCW 46. 135 6 (D. 74 As noted by the Idah o Court o f Appeals when it rejected a driver s argument that. City of Newport.2d 1184. Associated Cultural Clu bs.2d 552. FAA. The driver s licensing statute appl ies to non-commercial operato rs of motor vehicles. 43 Wn. 1977 ). 340 (1989) (driver s claim that he was exempt from a driver licensing requirement because he was an individual freeman at common law was rejected). The Supreme Court of Rhode Island in Berberian v. finds no support whatsoever in [the Supreme Court s right of interstate travel jurisprudence] or in the airlines own schedules.2d 9 45. including driver licensing requirements. Monarch Tra vel Servs. 2d 107 3 (1975 ). French.2d 300 (Idaho App. 106 Wn. review denied. The poor man's lack of choice in his mode of travel may be unfortunate. 1987) (driver s claim that as a free person she was not bound by man-made laws. 780 S. by common carrier. he has not consented to be regulated by the state [Driver] entered into our society when be began to live in it. aff d in part. See also Parson s v. 20. Idaho 198 7). Gibson.2d 64 6 (Idaho App. 697 P. which wa s ad opte d afte r Div ision II s op inion in Aberde en v. State v. Inc. 273. 113 Idaho 421. 7 16 P. What is at issue here is not his right to travel interstate. 29 Ark.2d 7 91 (R . App. 1985) (driver s claim that as a free man he was not subject to state d river licensing and motor vehicle laws rejected). put it this way: The p laint iff s argumen t tha t the right to ope rate a m oto r vehicle is fun damen tal b ecau se of it s rel atio n t o t he fu nd ame nt al r ight o f int erst ate tra vel is u tte rly fr ivolo us. 745 P. Berberian. 745 P.20 ..Su pp. The ability to enforce traffic laws is not dependent upon whether the defendant is a resident of the state. That notion. State. ). City of Houston v. 113 Idaho 421 . June 1999) 137 .2 d 338. 1987) (driver s claim that as a free person she was not bound by manmade laws. and we have no hesitation in holding that this is not a fundamental right. 13 Wn. rejecting his obligations to that body. ). 109 Idaho 736 . 61 7. 710 P.Ap p. Von Schmidt. The ability to enforce traffic laws is not dependent upon whether the defendant has a Washington driver s license. He has no right to unilaterally withdraw from that society. 108 Idaho 2 02. 77 74 RCW 46. C ole . 1972) ( A rich man can choose to drive a limousine.070. 42.022 p rovides that Any p erso n who op erate s a m otor v ehicle on the p ublic highway s of thi s sta te witho ut a d river 's lic ense or nonre side nt privilege to drive shall be subject to all of the provisions of Title 46 RCW to the same extent as a person who is licensed. a poor man may have to walk. Hei se. Port. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.2d 30 0 (Idaho App.0 8. ÿÿParsons v. The pl ain tiff is not being prevented from traveling interstate by public transportation.2d 572 (9th Cir. 19 85).1999). while at the sam e time ret ain ing t he ad van tages o f th at soc iet y ad van tages fo r wh ich ot he rs h ave sacrificed part of their libe rty. accord State v.

2d 1020 (1981).Ap p. but is a statutory penalty imposed upon any person who knowingly and intentionally violates a lawful mandate of the legislature). I. 654. State v.. 738 P. 28 Wn. 582 F. are not admissible in court. I. Robertson. or an offer to plead guilty or nolo contendere to the crime F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. State v. however. bail.2d 1355 (19 92) (statements made by police officers when effecting an arrest in their official capacity do not constitute "private conversations" within the meaning of RCW 9. Henry. 883 P.73 .2d 646 (1934) (a license or excise tax on an occupation does not constitute a debt within Const.2d 281 (1987). Bly v. United States v. and re leva nt to. 19 99) ( petit ioner s ' 1983 action claiming that California is violating his religious beliefs by requiring him to disclose his social security number in order to obtain a valid driver s license dismissed as the facially neutral statute is rationally related to California s legitimate interests in locating the whereabou ts of errant parents for purposes of carrying out child suppo rt program s.2d 211. Nonetheless.030. 176 Wash. 97. Austin v. art. Verdoorn. However. and vehicle parking penalties. ' 17 s prohibition upo n imprisonment for debt). Seattle. ' 17. Taylor.App. the judge has the authority to preclude the use of unofficial recording devises in the courtroom.2d 1025 (1990).2d 5 71. Pr oce edin gs in open court are not private communications that require the consent of all the participants in order to record. ___ F.2d 269 (1965) (the imposition of a fine or imprisonment for failing to comply with a statute requiring construction contractors to register and post a bond is not imprisonment for debt as proscribed by Con st. e. evidence of a statement made in connection with. My Religious Beliefs Prevent Me From Getting a Driver s License The State s compelling interest in law enforcement and highway safety justifies licensing of drivers even if it has a coercive effect on an individual s practice of a sincerely held religious conviction. is contrary to decisions rendered by th e Washington Supreme Co urt. June 1999) 138 . see also Miller v. Case law would ap pear to allow th is to occur with or without the prosecuto r s permission. Statements made by a prosecu tor as part of plea negotiations.2d 1356.App. later withdrawn. Prosecution for Driving While Suspended When Suspension Due to Failure to Pay Tickets is Unconstitutional Imprisonment for a Debt Const. or of s tatements made in conne ction w ith. 845 P. Frequently Freemen defendants wish to record every conversation they have with a prosecutor. Treffry v. 129 Wn. 95 Wn.Hawai i 222. except in cases of absconding debtors. review denied. art. thou gh.2d 644 (1994) (rejecting argument that traffic statutes apply only to businesses and State vehicles. and relevant to. 114 Wn. R eed. 67 Wn.28. See genera lly State v. 1366 (5th Cir. ' 17. a plea of nolo contendere. Dock et No . May 2 4. 916 P.1978). Slemmer. 57 Wn. coll ecting ta x obl igations.2d 384 (1996). is not a dmis sible in any c ivil o r crimina l proc eed ing against the person who made the plea or offer. 469. 127.)..010. 48 Wn. 7 87 P. art.2d 487. not to a sovereign individual who utilizes his vehicle only for personal needs). 807. 30 P. or of an offer to plead guilty or nolo c ontendere to the crime cha rged or any o ther crime. RCW 2. Cf. RCW 2. I.g. 68 Wn.3d ___ . any of the f orego ing plea s or o ffers .g. See. perhaps surreptitiously. or a plea of nolo contendere. 660-62.060. Freemen interpret this section as rendering criminal prosecutions for driving while license suspended in the third degree unconstitutional because such license suspensions are generally the result of failing to pay the fines assessed for traffic infractions. 48. later withdrawn. which makes criminal the recording of private conversations without all parties consent). assessments. 408 P. I Do Not Trust Your Record Recording I Want My Own Tape or Video Freq uen tly F reeme n de fend ant s will b ring th eir ow n ta pe o r video reco rder into cou rt. a plea of guilty. Flora. e. Cliffo rd. This interpretation.28. Cla rk. provides that [t]here shall be no imprisonment for debt. 80 2.App. pen alties. review denied. United States v. 22 6. See.2d 75 ER 410 provides as follows Except as otherwise provided in this rule. a nd c olle cting amo unt s overdu e and unp aid for fine s. 624 P. 528 F.2d 717 (1980).170 06 (9 th C ir. State v. See ER 410 75 . 494. evidence of a plea of guilty.

is admissible in a criminal proceeding for perjury or false statement if the statement was made by the de fendant unde r oath and in the pre sence o f counse l. art.2d 48. See U. As originall y enac ted.R. cl. ' 1075 was constitutional. these commentators recognize that such statements would be protected by ER 408. I. 51. Bull. This clause.66.S.g. Availability Pre-Trial.. ' 10 75 was un co nst itu tio na l b ecau se it did no t all ow th e co ur t.2d 1342 (1993 ). ' 9.Ap p. Tolliver v. 58 3 (UtahCt. See Calder v. Tegland. 3 90 (179 8).. 2 Wash. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. charged or any other crime. 441 . 5 K. except to bring them into federal court to testify. art. 2 Wash.E. 1. in h ab eas co rp us p ro ceed ings . 198. The petitioner in Lybarger claimed that R. 746 P. See Judiciary Act of 1789. is limited to persons in actual custody in the county in which the superior court is located.2d 285 . ' 13.S.H. 131. Upon a warrant issued by the superior court upon an indictment or information. '445 (cod ified as Remin gton s Revised St atut es ' 107 5). Conway v. 81. This provision of the Washington Constitution preserves the writ of habeas corpu s as it existed when the co nstitution was adopt ed.2d 581. Art. a t 499 (3d ed. A superior court s jurisdiction over the writ. 21 3.R. While so me comm entators ha ve que stioned w hether the phras e against the pe rson who ma de the ple a or offer cove rs state ments made by the prosecution. Lybarger .. State v. 1991 ). 624 a.2d 809 (19 87). was well understoo d to refer to habeas for federal prisoners. 107 (8th Cir.. ' 14.S. Const.36.36. June 1999) 139 . State v. 818 P. 287-88 (1980). 610. the writ was guaranteed against suspension in the original Constitution. 386. 3. The superior court. and it meant what it said. the st atut e was a str ict limitat ion o n th e writ o f habea s corp us No court or judge shall inquire into the legality of any judgment or process whereby the part y is in cu stod y. § 6 ( Said courts and their judges shall have power to issue &writs of habeas corpus. 1075 (1891).2d 303. 3 U. In this country. 2. Evidence Law and Practice § 138. The writ was not a substitute for appeal and the celebrated Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 exp licitly excluded from its operation persons convicted of a felony.95. Wa sh.S. however.200 to . 304 U. flatly prohibited the issuance of habeas for state prisoners by federal courts. This provision was found to be constitutional.2d 452 (1950). however. Olsen. Washington Const. Cranor. State v. 109 Wn. Shortly after Washington became a state. denied. The First Congress. 25 P. in eit he r o f th e ca ses fol lo win g: 1. 31 Car.2d 607.2d 424 (19 93). to go behind the final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction for any purpose whatsoever.. 2 . at 134 .1976). p. The function of the writ of habeas corpus was to set free people who had b een imprisoned illegally. In re Personal Restraint of Runyan. and the supreme court have concurrent jurisdiction in habeas corpus proceedings. 137 N. 2. 37 Wn.2d 4 32. S. e. See. on petition by or on behalf of any person in actual custody in their respective counties ). RCW 7.067 or RCW 9. In re Lybarger .240. See Wash.040. 853 P. or d ischa rge him w hen the term o f con finemen t ha s not expire d. 121 Wn. Laws of 1854. and tha t it is this common-law writ that is secured to us by the constitution of the Un ited States and of this state. consisting largely of the same people who wrote and ratified the Constitution. ch. Let Me Out of Jail Now!!! Writs of Habeas Corpus Jurisdiction. Const. 1 Stat. The petitioner claime d th at th e writ o f hab eas co rpu s is a high p rero gative writ kno wn t o th e com mon law. 70 O hio App. 233 P. Pearson. this statute was unanimously upheld by the Washington Supreme Cou rt. The decisions of the Supreme Court made two points unmistakably clear: R. 91 5 (1951 ). Upon any p rocess issued on any final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction. Woodsum. 19 89).103. 434 N. Davis. P rac . IV. the court of appeals. T his sta tut e rema ined in effect without amendment for over 90 years. The Washington Constitution also contains a guarantee against the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus. cert.13 0 is derived from a statute passed by the first legislature of Washington Territory. RCW 7. This ru le doe s not gove rn the admiss ibility of ev idence o f a deferred sentence imposed under RCW 3.

Over the ensuing years. June 1999) 140 . Surely these judges understood the constitution that they themselves had adopted two years earlier. 1962). at 134-36. 104 2 (1909 ).2d at 904. 25 Wn. at 136.R. is . Grieve . The Court would not consider a claim that the defendant had been tricked into pleading guilty by the prosecutor s false promises. 2d 9 02. 405. 170 P. 39 5. unless that fact app eared on the face of the judgment. 19 Wn. 2 Wash. In re Gerard. the president of the 1889 constitutional convention that had d rafted Const. 68 7. and prescribes an orderly system for the administration of public justice. 482 (19 24) (claim not con sidered because facts did not appe ar on face of judgment). 2 Wash. 56 Wash. 56 Wash.2d 151 (1943) (claim considered b ecause facts appeared on face of judgment) with In re Voight.. The opinion was concurred in by two other former delegates to the co nstitutional con vention. 404. ' 13. 226 P. and determined that it had been more restrictive than R.2d 51.S. If the return claimed that the prisoner was held by virtue of process issued by a court of competent jurisdict ion. 109 P. but that its authorized use is limited by law to those cases where it appears that the judgment and sentence. art. ' 10 75 . Id. 1 11 (191 0). Lybarger . the supreme court could not go behind a judgment of a court of general jurisdiction to inquire as to the fact of jurisdiction in a particular case. The Co urt would not even consider a claim that the petitioner had been con victed of violating a statute that did not exist at the time To say that an unconstitutional law or a repealed law is no law is both logical and sound. Hoyt.2d 3 32 (1946). The rule here announced fully satisfies the constitutional guaranties respecting the writ of habeas corpus. the Washington Supreme Court con sistently refused to consider the challenges that were not apparent on th e face of the judgment or to determine the validity of a detention upon an untried information.. 22 Wn. because some question of law properly before it was decided erroneously. Ex parte Putnam. is void on its face. but to say that a judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction is no judgment. at 468. 1. 58 Wash. 141 P. Un der th e co mmo n l aw. The Court would not consider a claim that a petitioner was detained pending trial on an illegal information that charged an unconstitution al statute. by virtue of which the petitioner is held in con finement. Dunbar an d Theodo re L.[and that based upon ] an examination of all the cases that we have been able to find we think our statute is constitutional. Rosenow. In re Newcomb. 1 40.2d 73 ( 194 5). Lybarger .2d 1046 (1909). Rosenow ed. fu rthe r inqu iry was pre clud ed: the c ourt wou ld n ot even decid e whe ther the a lleged proc ess existed. 1 05 P. and that under it we are precluded from questioning a judgment of a court of general jurisdiction fair upon its face.2d 23 7. The Washington Supreme Court reemphasized the scope of the constitutional privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in In re Grieve . See Ex parte Hamilton. Stiles. a re tu rn t o t he w rit o f hab eas c orp us c ou ld no t b e ch all enge d. B.The court s opinion was authored by John P. 22 Wn. a non sequitur. 130 Wash. 158 P. The Court would n ot consider a claim that a petitioner who was detained pending trial was charged with statutes that had been repealed . T HE JOURNAL OF THE W A S H IN G T O N S T A T E C ON STIT UTIO NA L C O N V E N T IO N (1889. The Court went on to state that F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Compar e In re Horner . Justice Hoyt ruled: in the absence of a statute authorizing it. 105 P. For example. the Court would not consider claims that the judge lacked authority to impose sentence. The Court examined the common law practice.. T he d ecision was writ ten to ma ke it clear to certain unnamed and un known advocates that were clogging the motion calendar with improper habeas corpus writs that the writ of habeas corpus cannot be used as a medium to review trial errors.. See B. R. O.

2d 1009 (1986). Id.In th is opin ion. 106 Wn. Stand ing.. 115 Wn.130 provide s as follo ws No court or judge shall inquire into the legality of any judgment or process whereby the party is in custody. 1 09 L. the capitalization of their names. 87 Wn. 744 P. etc. a next friend must pro vide an ade quat e explan ation such as ina ccessibility.73. 276. as for a contempt upon proceedings to enforce the remed y of a par ty. 724 P. Pierce County.. Co. The threshold inquiry in a next friend action does not depend in any way upon the merits of the claims. C urren t RCW 7. Thus. or was convicted because the trial judge refused to suppress evidence secured without a search warrant. 710. 14 9. e nde avored to ma ke it clear that allegations that the petitioner was convicted by a confession secured by thirddegree methods. at 163. with others of a similar nature. have been hopefully set up as a basis for many of the numerous petitions. The doctrine of standing requires that a person must have a stake in the outcome of a case in order to bring the action.100. or discharge the party when the term of commitment has not expired. In 1947. Casebere v.App.S. 584 P. v.2 d 697.36 . or pleaded guilty upon the promise that he would receive a light sent enc e. or other disability why the real party in interest cannot appear on F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed.2d at 911-12. 432. the absence of a grand jury indictment.C t. Neither a federal court nor a state court has jurisdiction over an action unless the litigant demonstrates standing. Grant. The legislature. The doctrine of standing prohibits a litigant from raising another s legal rights. see also Vovos v. These restrictions on the scope of habeas co rpus were never altered by the Su preme Court. 21 Wn.2d 235 (1990). (2) For any contempt of any court. but instead upon the standing of the friend to file the action on behalf of the real party in interest. or und er a th reat of th e pro secu ting at torn ey th at h e wou ld b e sho t un less h e did so. It is well settled that a person whose only interest in a legal controversy is one shared with citizens in general has no standing to invoke the power of courts to resolve the dispute. O ne l imited excep tion to t his req uirem ent is the d oct rine o f next friend stan ding. however. Haberman v. officer or body having authority in the premises to commit. 76. Ed. Civil Service Comm'n. the legislature expanded the scope of review in habeas corpus petitions filed after conviction. Freemen claims that the court lacks jurisdiction over them because of the nature of the flag. See R.090 and 10. hereinabove referred to. 138. Omega Nat'l Ins. 79 9 P. WPPSS. th ey were changed by the legislature. 5 55 P. we ha ve.2d 107. are not cognizable in a pre-trial habeas corpus action. v.73. 495 U. 22 Wn. Whitmore v. 47 Wn.App. a habeas corpus petition) on behalf of the real party in interest. is no t incl ude d in an y of the foregoing spe cification s.2 d 10 32 ( 198 7).2d 949 (1987). all of which allegations. Arkansas. Grieve .2d 1 343 (19 76). Improvement Ass'n. in which a non-party is allowed to pursue an action (most commonly. 110 S. furnish no basis for the issue of a writ of habeas corpus by the courts of this state to release a petitioner detained by virtue of a judgment and sentence fair on its face. mental incompetence. (3) Upon a warrant issued from the superior court upon an indictment or information. in e ith er o f th e ca ses fol lo win g: (1) Upon any process issued on any final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction except where it is alleged in the petition that rights guaranteed the petitioner by the Constitution of the state of Washington or of the United States have been violated and the petition is filed within the time allowed by RCW 10. Gustafson v Gustafson.S. Arkansas. (1 990). ' 1075. 734 P.2d 416.R. Th ere are at least two fir mly -ro ot ed pr ere qu isit es fo r n ext frie nd sta nd ing First. 495 U. Marquardt. 73.2d 416 (1978). Whitmore v. 1717. but an order of commitment. has never removed the restriction applicable to individuals who are detained upon a warrant issued from the superior court upon an indict ment o r informat ion. in ad ditio n to decid ing the insta nt c ase.2d 797.S. [O]ne seeking relief must show a clear legal or equitable right and a well-ground ed fear of immediate invasion of that right. 2 d 135. 109 Wn. June 1999) 141 . 272.

the re is no bas is for next frie nd sta nding) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed..Ct. at 164.2d 443. 486 U. Hagan v.Second. or other d isability why the real p arty in interest c annot app ear on his o wn behalf to p rosec ute the ac tion.36.020.76 See RCW 2. Arkansas. at 16 4 ( qu ot ing United States ex rel. a next friend may bring a petition on behalf of an incarcerated individual only when the terms of RCW 7. 96 Wn. Ed. 100 L.2 d 96 . 495 U. 880 P. 75 W n. . Next friend or guardian status does not authorize the practice of law. (1990) ( next friend doctrine in the context of habeas corpus litigation requires that the next friend establish an adequate explanation such as inaccessibility. Washington prohibits the practice of law by individuals who have not been admitted to the practice of law by the Washington Supreme Court. 915. Whitmore. Arave. 77 See Charging Options How to Fit a Square Peg Into a Round Hole. 2223. 658 (9th Cir. Houston.S . at 736. 274 F. Baal. Whitmore. 731. Wh eat. 495 U. 2d 762 (1990)..48. Wells by Kehne v. Additional instructions for this situation include NO.S. 108 S. 795 . 109 L. The purported next friend bears the heavy burden clearly to establish the propriety of her status.36. th ou gh. 731 . nor is there any reason to ho ld an evidentiary hearing on the subject. An individual who has not been admitted to the practice of law by the Washington Supreme Court who noneth eless practices law is guilty of a crime. at 163-64 (citations omitted). 4 95 U. Demosthenes v. 741 P. 736 . 2d 73 0 (1 98 1). 805 . review denied. 2d 140. Baal.Ct. t hat no on e may serve as n ext frien d wh o h as b een con victe d o f a fel on y or of a misdemeanor involving moral turpitude.S. Baal. 109 L.2d 5 79.2 d 1009 (Div. 110 S.77 76 Only the Su preme C ourt can a uthorize an individ ual to pra ctice la w in Washington. Baal. by intruders or uninvited meddlers. This statute provides that Writs of habeas corpus shall be granted in favor of parents. See RCW 2. as a matter of course. styling themselves next friends .. Kassler Escrow.020 Whitmore v. and to enforce the rights. 6 35 P. 2 1994). United States v. A next friend or guardian is an individual who directs an action for another person. 159. 22 23.020 are met. Bryant v. Non-Lawyer Preparation of Pleadings. 45 1-5 2. 153. mental incompete nce. 916 (2d Cir.) Dem osthe nes v . A criminal defenda nt s right to the ass istance o f counse l does not include the right to be repre sented b y an adv ocate who is not a member o f the State Ba r. supra. spouses. 495 U.180.3d 656. 1921)).A pp. there is no b asis for next friend standing.S.C t. 108 Wn. and next of kin.Ct. Ed.2d 983 (1987 ) (court appointed defendant s mother as guardian to litigate a personal restraint petition on behalf of her son who was incomp etent to assist counsel). Ed. Hunt. 495 U. 495 U. In the context of a state habeas corpus action. See generally In re Hews . 88. 109 L. S tatues that purpo rt to authorize s omeone to practice law are unconstitutional as a violation of the separation of power doctrine.and it has been further suggested that a next friend must have some significant relationship with the real party in interest.S. 1994).. 110 S.S. An individual who is charged with a criminal offense has a constitutional right to the assistance of counsel. limited guardians where appropriate.17 0. the next friend must be truly dedicated to the best interests of the person on whose behalf he seeks to litigate. 2d 7 62 (1 990 ) (in the a bse nce o f any mea ningful e vide nce o f incom pete ncy. 110 S.his own behalf to prosecute the action. Case law establishes that this statute is only met in the context of criminal cases when the defendant has been established to be mentally incompeten t by a court of competen t jurisdiction. State v.S. 18 F. A next friend or guardian may prosecute a habeas corpus petition seeking the release of an incarcerated person only if the incarcerated person has been found to be incompetent or disabled. RCW 7. 149. June 1999) 142 .S. 1717. 1697 (1988) NO. guardians. for basic jury instructions for unlawful practice of law prosecutions. supra. 1692. No te. 2 225 . See RCW 11. Ed. and for the protection of infants and incompetent or disabled persons within the meaning of RCW 11.8 8. 010 . These limitations on the next friend doctrine are driven by the recognition that [i]t was not intended that the writ of habeas corpus should be availed of. 125 Wn..48. 2d 135. an d th e pro ceed ings shal l in al l case s con form to the pro visions o f this chapter. In the absence of any meaningful evidence of incompetency. 495 U. 2225. Inc.. Whitmore. 736.

949 P.2d 48.App.Rptr. to the extent that Washington s statutes allowing use of powers of attorney would allow the unlicensed practice of law. 57.2d 935 (1979) (layman husband could not represent wife in a prosecution for failure to yield right-of-way). See. Christiansen v.Rptr.. unless the Freeman is admitted to practice law in Washington.If the Legislature purported to allow laypersons to practice law.2d 527. 125 Wn.2 d 96 . 8 05. Hunt. 857 P. 1951) (the consequences of a UPL statute cannot be avoided merely by preparing for and having the client execute a documen t designating the unlicensed practitioner an attorney-in-fact. 124 N. 880 P. 125 Wn . and the principal would be able to proceed to court pro se. 2 1994) ( a statutory power o f attorney does not au thorize the agent to act p ro se in the place of the principal. there fore t he agent with a po wer of atto rney can litigate pro se for the principa l) J.2d 707 . Rueckhaus. it impermissibly usurped the p ower of the courts and violated the separation of powers doctrinee ).g. Furthermore. e.W.1993) (neither common law nor guardians hip statute s sanc tion an excep tion to the State Bar Ac t prohibition aga inst the unautho rized prac tice of law in favor of guardians acting for their wards) NO.48. 519 N.2d 100 9 (Div. Stange.2d 345. Chisholm v. Hunt. State v.. 709-10 .. 268. 2 55.2d 707 .2d 96.App.. 75 W n. review denied .M.Furthermore. e . J. In re Baker. a nd the p rincip al wo uld b e ab le to p roce ed to cou rt pro s e. 880 P. See Chisholm v. 648. M. Rueckhaus.Although an individual may prepare a habeas corpus petition and related pleadings for himself or herself under the pro se exception to th e unauth orized practice of law. 2 55. 347-349 (Alaska 1993) (rejecting the argument that because a durable power of attorney allows the agent to act as the principal. 795.App.Y. The pro se exception does not allow a next friend or guardian to practice law on behalf of an incompetent p erson. to the extent that Washington s statu tes allo wing use of p owers o f attorney wo uld allow the unlicense d practic e of law. they are unconstitutional. Melinda. 638.M. 514 (N.. Kipp.. 2 68.App. 805 .88.. 529-33 (Ct. The pro se exception also does not allow a p erson to prepare h abeas corpus plead ings on behalf of a spouse or child. 17 Cal. denied .2d 87 3 (1989) (father may not file pro se supplemental brief on behalf of juvenile offender).Ap p. they are unconstitutional. ). Sav.If the Legislature purported to allow laypersons to practice law. v. June 1999) 143 . Uni on Fed. 91 Wn. 315 . 85 A. 857 P. 769 P. 22 Cal.App. 9 48 P . supra (paralegal was not allowed to exercise his client s pro se rights). 53 Wn. see RCW 2. City of Seattle v. State v. 136 Misc. 948 P. denied.. 124 N. cert. ) Christiansen v. Gilman v. 124 N. Hunt.19 0. 22 Cal. he or she will have to hire an attorney to prepare the legal pleadings and to present argument to the court on behalf of the incompetent detainee.2d 282 (1997) (rule allowing representative to sue or defend on behalf of child or one otherwise legally incompetent does not create exception to general prohibition on unauthorized practice of law). 529-33 (Ct..g. v. it impermissibly usurped the power of the courts and violated the separation of powers doctrine. review denied. See. & Lo an As s'n.4th 958. even if a Freeman can establish next friend status. therefore the agent with a power of attorney can litigate pro se for the principal). ).. State v.App. No person is qualified to serve as a next friend or guardian who has been convicted of a felony or of a misdemeanor involving moral turpitude RCW 11. 124 N . 709 -10.2d 87 0 (1978) ( The pro se exceptions are quite limited an d app ly onl y if the layper son is actin g solely on his own behalf [emphasis in the original]). 586 P.2d 2 82 (199 7) (rule allowing representative to sue or defend on behalf of child or one otherwise legally incompetent does not create exception to general prohibition on unauthorized practice of law) State v. 601.A pp.4th 958. 860 (1987 ) ( The inherent right of a person to appear pro se in legal proceedings cannot be assigned to anther by executing the power of attorney..2d 314. Melinda.. 949 P.2d 1009 (Div. Wa shi ngt on S tate Bar Ass n v. Thus. 795 .020(3) F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Shaver.S. 347-349 (Alaska 1993) (rejecting the argument that because a durable power of attor ney a llows the age nt to ac t as t he princ ipal.1993) (neither common law nor guardianship statutes sanction an exception to the State Bar Act prohibition against the unauthorized practice of law in favor of guardians acting for their wards).J. 17 Cal.. 2 1994) ( a statutory power of attorney does not authorize the agent to act pro se in the place of the principal. cert. 75 Wn..M. 23 Wn. 597 P. an individual may not transfer his or her pro se rights to another.2d 527. Superior Court. Sup erior Cour t. G reat W.2d 34 5.2d 505.W.

Such are suits upon a judgment.g. See. M. 435 U.. at common law or in equity. 37. 36 Stat. a s in Washington co urts. Wis.00 ). Sadlier v. RCW 46. 512 U.2d 141. ' 41(1).Ct. Heck v.C. 129 L. June 1999) 144 . 27 L. Reed. properly rejected. White Co. 26 8.Supp . Removal of state criminal prosecutions to federal court on the grounds of diversity of citizenship are. Utah 1997) (same)..2d 3 83 (1 994 ). 28 U.63. there is a mecha nism for litigating federal co nstitution al claims until after the criminal defendant fully exhausts all of his state court remedies.C.S. 1983 It is well-established that a litigant who claims an underlying state court conviction was obtained th ro ugh un co nst itu tio na l con du ct must first ha ve h is o r h er c on vict ion ove rtu rn ed on th ose gro un ds t hr ou gh a federal or state habeas petition before the l itigant may seek damages under Section 198 3.S. 28 U. Compare 28 U. of a court having jurisdiction of the cause and of the parties.2 d 331 (1 978). You Owe Me Money Damages Under 42 U.S. 2 20 (193 5).Ct. 1997) (dismissing civil rights action predicated upon a claim that all prior court proceedings were unconstitutionally conducted under authority of form of flag representing foreign power).S. See City of Bremerton v. 231 . 80 L. 2 29. 489 U. 1038. ' 1332(a) with ' 24(1). 1164-65 (E. 974 F. 2d 308 (198 9). foreign or domestic. In general. formerly codified as 28 U. the Supreme Court stated that: In this gran t of jurisd iction of cause s arising und er state as well as federa l law t he p hrase suits of a civil nature is used in contradistinction to crimes and offenses. Judiciary Act of 1911. 2d 6 69 (197 1).C. Hump hrey. and which are of a character traditionally cognizable by courts of common law or of equity. the amount sought is well und er $500. 401 U.S. Sch laefer. 56 S. A Freeman s claims against a prosecutor will be subject to dismissal on grounds of absolute prosecutorial immunity.S. 1091.00. Harris. Younger v. or of indebitatus assumpsit. ' 41(2).D. In addition.Ed .A. This grant of jurisdiction has essentially remained unaltered since the ad option of the Jud iciary Act of 1911.C. 255. Ed.Ct. The amount in controversy on a civil infraction is the amount of the fine plead on the infraction. See generally Harri s v. 349. e. 4 77. ' 1332(a). 151.S. to offenses against the United States.S.Ct.C. 949 P. which were maintainable at common law upon writ of debt. A Freeman s claims against a judge for damages under Section 1983 are subject to dismissal on grounds of absolute judicial immunity. Spears. 134 Wn. 746. 109 S. 1411. as to which the jurisdiction of the District Courts is restricted by section 24(2 ).S. Removal of a state infraction to federal court on a diversity theory is impossible because of the amount in controversy. suits of a civil nature within the meaning of the section are those which do not involve criminal prosecution or punishment.] Milwaukee County v.E. 103 L. See generally IRLJ 6. Schneider v. Payn e. 975 F. therefore. Ed.S.2d 347 (1998). except for an upward adjustment of the amoun t in controversy. 1160. a federal court may not become involved in a state criminal prosecut ion where. 55 L. 141 2 (D. 296 U. for a civil liability.Supp. See Stump v. insofar as the conduct the prosecutor is alleged to have taken falls within the scope F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 91 S. Thus. Ed. 2 364 .110(a) (amount of infractions not to exceed $250. 98 S.000 . 1 14 S . A failur e by th e litigant to est ablish that he or she was acqu itted or that any co nviction was subsequently overturned is fatal to such a claim.Ed.Ct. Sparkman. where there is the requisite diversity of citizenship and the amount in controversy exceeds $50. In discussing the scope of the district court s diversity jurisdiction under the Judiciary Act of 1911.Removal of Action to Federal Court Diversity Claims Federal district courts have been granted original jurisdiction of all suits of a civil nature.2. insofar as the conduct the judges are alleged to have taken fell within their jurisdiction and the scope of their judicial duties. 1099 . [Footnot e omitted.

97.0 4. Rather. Fletcher. Challenges to Payment of Court Obligation with Paper Money Money as defined in Washington includes gold.App. See generally State v. 502. ha ving no p rior c riminal reco rd.C t. 766. or be releas ed without a convictio n being obtaine d.S.060 does not exten d to ordering the destruct ion or expungement of the p olice records).Ed. Provided such person requests said destruction after the finding of not guilty or after the release. Division II held that an individual has no constitutional right to privacy in photograph taken of him in connection with an earlier criminal charge that resulted in acquittal. Gilkinson. June 1999) 145 ..App .050 (22) ( No identifying information held by the Washington state patrol in accordance with chapter 78 Former RC W 43. 16 Wn. Federal Land Bank v. This statute only applied to State Patrol records and not to records held by city or county police agencies. 96 S. Our appellate courts. In State v. 57 Wn. no statute currently allows a court to order the purging of fingerprints maintained by a city or county pol ice agency. Labor & Industries. See also RCW 13. review denied . Following the Supreme Court s decision in Eddy. 43. See. 464 . 13 9 L. 558 P. 314.S. I Want My Property Returned Fingerprints.73 0 provid ed that When a ny pe rson.2d 1011 (1977). 769. 88 Wn. his fingerprints and/o r other identifying da ta and all copies thereof on file at the section shall be destroyed by the section. supra. 334. 16 W n. 11 8. Forme r RCW 43. however. 88 Wn. at 464.Ed.App. at 864 n. shall b e found not gu ilty of the offens e for which the fingerprints and/or other id entifying data we re sent to the s ection.2d 21 1. e. Ed. See generally Trohimovich v.App. 2 d 405 (1 976). the United States Supreme Court issued an opinion in which the Court rejected an individual s post-dismissal of c ha rges claim th at th e ch ief o f po lic e s di str ibu tio n o f his na me a nd ph ot ogr ap h in an active shoplifter s flyer violated his constitutional right to privacy. any alteration of criminal records may only be condu cted pursuan t to statute. RCW 84. 118 S. review denied. 869 P.06 0.2d 95 (1994).2d 1 247 (1990 ). Pachtman. 558 P. Buckley v.2d 1012 (Div.App. 509 U. and other obligations. whos e finger prints and/o r other identi fying da ta we re su bmitte d to a nd filed at the s ection. 48 7 P. 409.g. Davis. Moore. 522 U. 51 Wn. 459. 424 U. and (2) the out-of-court professional evaluation of the evidence assembled by the police and appropriate preparation for its presentation at trial or before a grand jury after a decision to file charges has been made. 86 1. Gilkinson.App. Adler . 790 P. The question of the retu rn or expunct ion of arrest records spurred a flurry of litigation in the 197 0 s. 96 S.Ed. In State v.2d 128 (1976). Redwine. Adler. silver.Ct. 16 Wn.2d 1011 (1977).50. Subsequent to the release of the Eddy opinion. 47 L. fines. 730 (1). 984.2 (court s authority to delete or modify non-conviction records under RCW 10. review denied .2d 209 (1993 ). qu oted in State v. 57 Wn. 79 Wn. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 319. 47 L.2d 471 (19 97). See Imbler v.A pp. 1155. 125 L.S. 2 197 6). 73 Wn.Ct. Kalina v. the Court of Appeals determined that courts lack the inherent authority to delete and expunge criminal records. Paul v.Ct. Since the Adler decision. 43. Legal ten der is valid un der W ashingto n law for the paymen t of taxe s. 693. 259. 2 1976). deb ts. 2606. 1 1971).2 d 81 7 (D iv.2d 817 (Div. no other W ashington case has addressed the return of fingerprints issue. 755 P. Etc.2d 822 (1988) (land patent filed by Freeman litigant in order to avoid foreclosure of family farm). Actions that are entitled to absolute immunity include: (1) those performed as an advocate for the State such as the initiation of prosecution and the presentation of testimony. In Eddy v. have addressed the limits of the court s authority over records held by police agencies. While a prior statute78 permitted the destruction of identifying information held by the Washington State Patrol following an acquittal or the dismissal of charges.App. 424 U. Fitzsimmons.of their prosecutorial duties and funct ions. Division I of the Washington Court of Appeals held that police retention of an exonerated defendant s fingerprints and photograph violated her constitutional right of privacy. Division II of the Washington Court of Appeals had an opportunity to revisit the question of whether an exonerated defendant s right to privacy is violated by police retention of fingerprints and booking photographs. Adler. 113 S. and legal tender of the United States of America. 459 . Fletcher. 5 Wn.S.

identifying information includes photographs. name. arrest. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. For the purposes of this subsection. June 1999) 146 . conviction or other information about a person's treatment by the criminal justice system or about the person's behavior. birthdate or address. ). fingerprints. soleprints. but does not include information regarding criminal activity. toeprints and any other data that identifies a person by physical characteristics.43 RCW is subject to destruction or sealing under this section. charging. diversion.43. palmprints.

A defendant s failure to arrange for civilian clothing or to object at the time of trial to the jail garb is sufficient to negate the presence of compulsion necessary to establish a constitutional violation.Ct. 96 S. See.S. The best course to follow when dealing with a pro se Freeman who has been detained prior to trial is to have the jail offer to assist him or her in obtaining civilian clothing for trial. 117 Wn.examina tion.Ed. 38 L.2d 7 87.2d 637 (1993). See genera lly State v. 94 S. 380-81. Some witnesses have expressed discomfort with how close a pro se Freem an d efend ant st ood next t o th em whil e con duc ting cross. essential court personnel. Rice. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. such as an arraignment. Estelle v.Ct. If the defendant rejects the offer. 96 S. If video conferencing equipment is not available. A defendant s wearing of jail clothing during a jury trial does not violate the defendant s constitutional rights unless the defendant h as been compelled to wear such cloth ing. denied. mo st Fre emen who have b een det ained prio r to t rial wil l insist upo n wea ring jail clothing during trial. may choose to hold the hearing in the hallway immediately adjoining the defendant s cell. Defendant s Refusal to Leave the Jail Some Freemen defendants have refused to leave their cell to come to court. the defendant should be bro ught before the court to be advised by the judge that the jury might draw adverse inferences from the Freeman s appearance in jail attire. 816 P. The final option. Witness Etiquette In most state cou rtro oms. 854 P. the prosecutor. at 1697.g.2d 174. the court. t he at torn eys are allo wed to fre ely ro am th e cou rtro om an d no restric tion is placed upon where the attorney stands during questioning. The defendant s refusal to answer questions during the colloquy will not bar a court from finding an implicit waiver of the defendant s right to attend the trial so long as there is a record that the detained defen dan t was p erson ally advised tha t th e trial wou ld b e star ting at a cert ain tim e and his pr esen ce is required at that time in the cou rtroom.S.2d 369.757 P. 110 Wn. e.TRIAL ISSUES Defendant s Clothes In ou r exp erien ce. 194 (1973) (defendant s mid-trial flight from courtroom waived his right to attend the remainder of the trial). If the defendant refuses to come to court for trial. If the hearing is a nonevidentiary one. a colloquy should be conducted by the court with the defendant regarding the fact that the defendant s refusal to attend the proceedings will be deemed to be a knowing and intelligent waiver of the defendant s presence at trial. if any. cert. is to bring the defendant und er force to court in a wheelchair.2d 126 (197 6). 1691. and that the court is willing to assist the Freeman in obtaining civilian clothing for the trial. 17. Williams. 910 (1989) (capital defendant implicitly waived his right to be present when th e special sentencing proceeding verdict was returned by attempting to commit suicide).2d 1 (1991) (pro se defendant waived his right to be present during trial by engaging in disruptive behavior). when a jury is not present .2d 577.S. The b est practice when dealing with a pro se defendant is to ask the court. H amm ond. and the defense attorney. DeWeese. 48 L. Estelle v.. 121 Wn. Taylo r v. 501. Williams.Ct. State v. the colloquy with the court will ensure a knowing and intelligent waiver of any prejudice that might inure to the weari ng o f jail clot hin g. State v. pursuant to ER 611(a).2d 889 (1988). 414 U. 425 U. If the defendant still rejects civilian clothing. to restrict how close any questioner can stand vis-a-vis the witness. 491 U.619-20. Uni ted States . June 1999) 147 . the video conference procedu re contained in GR 1 9 may be used.Ed .

05 0( 1) . A c oe rci ve contempt o rder for failure to comply with a lawful discovery order will toll the speedy trial period. Coerciv e Contempt. June 1999) 148 . The manner of maintaining order in the courtroom is within the trial judge s discretion. The contemnor must also be provided with an op portunity to spea k in mitigation of the circumstances. A coercive contempt order can provide the Freeman.App. R CW 7.050(1). it is always preferable for the officer to obtain the fingerprints in open court under the direct order of the judge so that judicial immunity will offer another layer of protection from suit. Stuart and Pamela B. 3 44-45. thereby keeping him present.750. See RCW 7. 90 S. Hobb le. stubbornly defiant defendants must be given sufficient discretion to meet the circumstances of each case. the prosecutor.750. 337. Deputy Prosecuting Attorneys in and for Kitsap County.02 0.S. RCW 7. (2) cite him for contempt. municipal court judges. Loginsky. the defe ndant a ppe aring pr o se after having p revio usly waiv ed c ouns el.21. We believe trial judges confronted with disruptive. 1057 (1970). but the sanction that may be imposed is limited to a fine of not more than five hundred dollars or imprisonment in the county jail for not more than thirty days.Ed.2 d 85 (1995 ). 960 .2d 1 (1991). While the offic er who obta ins the fingerprints through forc e has s tatutory imm unity from civil and criminal liability. Towne. Often con tinu ing the matt er for a week o r two pur suan t to a coe rcive co nte mpt o rder will re sult in the loss of the Freeman s audience. 892 P. The flagrant disregard in the courtroom of elementary standards of proper conduct should not and cannot be tolerated.2d 1 197 (19 94). 8 73 P. No one formul a for main tainin g the ap prop riate co urtro om atm osph ere will be be st in all situations. Such an order is appropriate when the defendant refuses to affix his or her fingerprints to the judgment and sentence. 380 . and decorum be th e hallmarks of all court proceed ings in our cou ntry.2d at 295. 2d 353. and the judge with breathing roo m. 74 Wn. 126 Wn. A co erc ive c on temp t o rd er m ay b e su mma ril y imp ose d.2d 369. 117 Wn. Hobble. Any summary contempt order should recite that the contempt was seen or heard by the judge and should recite the facts of the cont empt.21. A defendant s refusal to comply with a lawful order of the court can yield a coercive contempt order. C APTION FOR O RDER R E: C ONTEMPT THIS M AT TER having c ome o n for se ntencing f ollow ing the ju ry's v erdic t of "gu ilty" o n all co unts. contumacious.21. to provide a handwriting exemplar. 816 P. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. A jury is not required.43 . or to perform other similar affir mat ive a cts.2 1.2 1. the Freeman defendant may be willing to voluntarily affix his or her fingerprints to the judgment and sentence.2d 283.Disruptive Defendant A judge does not have to accept disruptive behavior on the part of a criminal defendant. 126 Wn. 334. State v. As noted by the United States Supreme Court It is essential to the proper administration of criminal justice that dignity. 25 L. State v.050(1). DeWeese. 126 Wn.Ap p. Once fellow supporters are absent. 343-44.05 0(2). See g ener ally RCW 43. Illinois v. We think there are at least three co nstitutionally permissible ways for a trial judge to handle an obstreperous defendant &(1) bind and gag him. superior court judges and commissioners. 397 U.43. Miller.2d 559 (19 75).050. court of appeals judges and commissioners. 79 A de fenda nt s co ntinued refus al to a ffix his o r her finge rprints to the o riginal ju dgment and s entenc e ca n be re spo nded to with t he use of force. RCW 43. Allen. A coercive contempt order that has been used in a Freeman prosecution follo ws. 79 or may agree to comply with other discovery orders. order.2d at 296. RC W 7 .Ct. State v. for each separate incident of contempt.21 . Summary Co ntempt. and district court judges and commissioners may all punish an individual for direct contempt un der RCW 7. Supreme Court justices and commissioners. Hobble. 538 P. or both. (3) take him out of the courtroom until he promises to cond uct h imself prope rly. but the least severe remedy to accomplish the result is preferable. RCW 7. 9 54. 13 Wn. Burgess v. the S tate o f Was hington ap pea ring by a nd through Patricia M.

m. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. While affirming the defendant s convictions. Bas ed u pon the forego ing findings of fac t.App. e. Th ere ap pe ars to be on ly o ne Wa shi ngt on ap pe ll ate ca se in wh ich a d isru pt ive defendant was gagged. VERY L EDWA RD KN OWLES . If the defendant is removed from the courtroom. 146. VERY L EDWA RD KN OWLES . review denied. The defendant. The de fendant s refus al to obe y the lawful o rder of this c ourt cons titutes c ontempt. DeWeese. the co urt ent ers the follo wing: C O N C L US IO N S O F LA W I. at _____ p.and the court having directly observed VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES refusal to place his fingerprints upon the jud gment a nd se ntence as re quire d by RCW 10. II. The de fendant. June 1999) 149 . 121 Wn . V ERY L EDW ARD KNO WLES . VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES. refused to obey this direct order of the court in the presence of the undersigned judge. 110 . is willing to affix his fingerprints to the judgment and sentence. The defendant should periodically be provided with an opportunity to return to the courtro om. is found in co ntempt of co urt.. E stabro ok. 21 Wn.2 1. review denied.030 (2)(a) is impo sed u ntil the defenda nt. Bas ed u pon the forego ing findings of fac t and c onclu sions of law . IV. The defendant. Cra wford.Ap p. and on ev ery ___ _____ _____ .m. The rem edial s anction of inca rceration a s authorize d by RC W 7.. may requ est a hea ring at any time in ord er to adv ise the co urt of his willingness to purge the insta nt contempt. See. II. IV. Tha t the ab ove -entitle d Co urt has juris dicti on ov er the s ubje ct ma tter a nd pa rties of this actio n. 816 P. has been ordered by the court to place his fingerprints upon the judgment and sentence that has been entered by this court on the 20th day of May. he should be provided the opportunity to write out cross-examination questions for the State s witnesses to either be asked by stand-by counsel or the court with a proper instruction to the jury that the questions are tho se of the defendant and not tho se of counsel or the cou rt. While the defendant is incarcerated pursuant to this contempt order.2d 44 2 (1978 ). Every original judgment and sentence is required to have the fingerprints of the defendant affixed to it. 8 42 P. 150. Stat e v. State v.110. 58 4 P. 91 Wn. The de fendant.2d 1 013 (1979 ) does not establish a specific test to be used in determining whether to gag a defendant. II. VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES. 1996. VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES. III. 64. efforts should be made to allow the defendant to still observe the proceedings over a video monitor.2d 1 (1991 ). thereafter.2d 1 001. RCW 10. Gaggin g and bi nding. 309./a. If the removed defendant is pro se. See State v.2d 102 4 (1993 ). shall be brought before the court on ___________.64. III. VERYL EDWARD KNOWLES. the co urt ent ers the follo wing: ORDER I.2d 369. 3 13-14. so tha t inquiry ca n be mad e upon w hether the defe ndant is now willing to purge the instant contem pt. has the powe r to pe rform the requ ired a ct and to pu rge the contempt. 117 Wn. enters the fol lowing: F INDINGS OF F ACT I. The defendant. 380. 68 Wn. V. Remov al of Defend ant. now the refore . The defe ndant. he shall receive no credit for time served against the jud gment and se ntence entere d in this cau se numb er or agains t the judgment and sentence entered in Kitsap County cause number 95-1-01138-0.g.

Mar yott. State v. ___Wn. and the control imposed should insure an orderly trial with the least interference with a defendan t s rights.] This has been held to mean that if a defendant appears in chains or irons. State v.Ed .2 d 87 2 (D iv. 1999 ). 635 P. to condu ct a full ev identiary hea ring with sworn testimo ny and forma l findings of fact.2d at 614. Williams. State v.2d 967. Samuel. Id.2d 23 9 (1971).2d 694 (1981). and it offends the dignity of the judicial process. Shackling or handcuffing a defendant has also been discouraged because it restricts the defendant s ability to assist his counsel during trial. United States v. 6 Wn. If a defendant is to be presumed innocent. Loux v. 19 99). In Washington. 867 (1968). 397 U. Willi ams. State v. 344. 431 F. review denied.2d 967. See Allen. 91 W n. 19 99 WL 27 4135 (M ay 6. 431 F. it interferes with the right to testify in one s own behalf. section 22 (amendment 10). Finch . 96 Wn. Allen. 18 Wash. 3 199 8). which provides: [i]n criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to appear and defend in person[. trial court inc orrectly no ted that it was not the one to d etermine nec essa ry sec urity prec autions. Hartzog. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 18 Wash. (4)The defendant s past record. 975 P. 290 N . To this end.Physical Restraints The rule that a criminal defendant is entitled to appear at trial free of manacles or bonds is described as ancient and was recognized as early as 1722. (3)The defendant s age and physical attributes. 47. (5)The defendant s past escapes or attempted escapes.). 25 L. 400. 975 P. restraints may be used only when necessary to prevent injury to those in the courtroom. 955 P. Tolley. 9 0 S.Ct. 580 (1897). 33 7.2d 353. deni ed. Samu el. 96. particularly where the need for physica l restraint is c ontroverte d. even under th e surveillance of officers.S. State v. ___ Wn .E.S. 49. As a general rule. 919 (9th Cir. 50 P.. Flieger. State v.2d ___. the jury must necessarily conceive a prejudice against the accused. June 1999) 150 . pre ferring to defer to sheriff s office).App. 389 F. cert. the trial court must conduct a hearing80 at wh ich th e fo ll ow ing n on -ex clusi ve factors should be considered (1) The seriousness of the present charge against the defendant. This right is balanced against the State s interest in an orderly trial. 1999 W L 27413 5 (May 6.2d 353 (1970).2d 1003 (1999) (conviction reve rsed due to fai lure o f trial c ourt t o co nduc t a hea ring on the nece ssit y of u sing a shoc k bo x to phy sica lly re strai n defe ndant during trial. Finch . see Illinois v. at 51.A pp. the State may take measures to ensure an orderly trial but the measures should not be imposed upon the defendant until a need has been shown. 103. That discretion must be founded upon a factual basis set forth in the record. although the trial judge may decide. and on e not to b e trusted.2d 610 (4th Cir. 1970). he or she must be allowed the indicia of innocence. This right is based upon the legal principle that a person accused of a crime is presumed innocent until guilt has been established b eyond a reasonab le doub t. 3 49. United States.2d 383. Id. See also State v. the constitutional basis for the rule against using physical restraints on an accused is article I. the mo st pre vale nt conc lusio n is tha t the hea ring may be info rmal a nd that t he ordinary rules of evidence need not be observed. at 344. as being in the opinion of the judge a dangerous man. 226 S.2d 911 . Id. 393 U. The extent to wh ich security measures are necessary is within a trial judge s discretion.C. 137 Wn. Consequ ently. The North Carolina Supreme Court has noted While the cases have established no definitive rule as to the exact form of evidentiary hearing to determine whether shac kling of the de fenda nt is ne ces sary . 492 P. (2) The defendant's temperament and character. to prevent disorderly conduct at trial. 105 7.2d ___ . 80 The exact nature of the hearing is not firmly established in Washington. 236 . or to prevent escape. Courtroom practices that unnecessarily mark the defendant as dangerous or guilty undermine the presumption of innocen ce.S. 36 8 (1976 ). and evidence of a present plan to escape. 397 U.

(10)The size and mood of the audience.(6)Whether the defendant has made any threats to harm others or cause a disturbance. 14. ER 605. (9)The possibility of rescue by other offenders still at large. 1999 WL 27413 5. State v. ___ Wn. Conflicts of Interest Due to Courtroom Personnel as Witnesses Prosecution of Freemen often involves testimony from judges. requiring counsel to remain at the tables during questioning of witnesses. If restraints are found necessary. 18 L. Placing skirting on the counsel tables. was improperly restrained durin g the tria l). bailiffs. this right is not absolut e. 102 Wn.2d ___. Un less th e defen dan t has a past h istory o f escape. The burden is upon the defend ant to establish a colo rable need for the p erson to be summon ed. 96 Wn. 23. Smith . or cou rt cl erk sh oul d no t pe rform a ny o fficial du ties in t he ca use in which he o r she t estifies. has act ed o ut d uring co urt p rocee dings. To do otherwise is an abuse of the trial court's discretion. Godin ez. Hartzog. The prohibition upon court reporters serving as a witness in the same action being reported stems from WAC 308-14-130(6) which requires all court reporters to disclose any actual or potential conflicts of inte rest a nd fro m the app earan ce of fairn ess do ctrin e. (7)Whether the defendant has demonstrated any self-destructive tendencies. quoting Washington v.2d 100 (1984). 67 F.2d 36. Courts must only consider those factors which indicate that compelling circumstances that some measure [is] needed to maintain security of the courtroom. 41. who was charged with the aggravated first degree murder of a blind man and of a police officer. Duckett [v. 677 P. (11)The nature and physical security of the courtroom. supra. State v. Freemen Request for Subpoenas for Judges and Other Elected Officials While a defend ant has a co nstitution al right to comp ulsory pro cess. *33 (May 6. cou rt rep orte r. 101 Wn. that the defendant intends to injure someone in the courtroom. 1999) (reversing death sentence and remanding case for new penalty phase on the grounds that the defendant. 2d 1019. and (12) The ad equ acy an d availab ility of alt ernat ive remedies.Ct. June 1999) 151 . or that the defendant cannot behave in an orderly manner while in the courtroom. 388 U.2d at 400. and the appearan ce of fairness doctrine. and whose testimony would have been relevant and material to the defense. 1995)] (citations omitted). court reporters. the use of restraints will probably be error.S.2d 9 67. Smith . T he p roh ibitio n up on se rving as a wit ness a nd ju dge in t he sa me act ion a rises in the Code o f Judicial Conduct. This burden is not met by a desire to have the witness testify to irrelevant or inadmissible F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. The trial court must base its decision to physically restrain a defendant on evidence which indicates that the defendant poses an imminent risk of escape. Texas. 87 S. and having the defendant take the witness chair out of the presenc e of the jury are all appropriate steps to take. Error from the denial of a request for compulsory process will only be found if the defendant is denied access to a witness who was physically and mentally capable of testifying to events that he had personally observed. (8)The risk of mob violence or of attempted revenge by others.2d at 41-42. A witn ess jud ge. or has been violent du ring his pre-trial detention. Finch . Finch . Ed. 975 P. bail iff. It is clear that the existence of one or more factors does not necessarily mean that a defendant should be restrained. 1920 (1967). the court should take steps to conceal the restraints from the jury. and co urt clerks.3d 734] at 748 [(9th Cir. The Sup reme Court limits the right to compel witnesses to those witnesses who are material to the defense. Th e pro hibit ion u pon oth er co urt o fficers servin g in their official role in a case in which they will or have testified lies in the appearance of fairness doctrine.

2 d 580.2 d 5 7 ( 19 95 ) (c itin g State v. In re Ros s. Strict liability crimes are not unco nstitutional. 91 Wn. th e defen dan t is subjec t to a ll ru les rela ting to t he cro ssexamination of witnesses.2 d at 584 . a witness must: (1) agree to tell the truth or understand that the witness must tell the tru th.evidence. exactly what was said an d d on e at th e tria l o r h earin g.S. 425 P.2d 880 (1967). 277 P. Ward. 925 P. California. cert. legislative intent may be determined by resort to another body of law generally guiding such an inquiry. Pursuant to this authority. 8 96 P. 604. 925.R. courts have considered several factors in deciding whether a criminal statute provides for a strict liability crime where it does not specify a mental element. Smith v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. we think. 5 83-84. Jun ker.2d 373. 20 5 Pac. June 1999) 152 . without making intent an element of the crime. 70 Wn. 456 U. and (2 ) understand t hat a failure to tell the tru th will subject the witness to prosecu tion under th e jurisdiction s perjury laws. 1 26 Wn . I Did Not Intend to Violate Your Laws Rea Ignorance of the Law and Mens A statute may punish conduct alone. 96 Wn.2d 229. ER 603 .L. Only in the rarest of circumstances should a judge be called upon to give evidence as to matters u pon which h e has acte d in a jud icial capac ity. 482 P.g. State v. Stroh. presid ent.2d 808 (19 96). Although there is no fixed test. 130 Wn. State v. 240. 8 8 P. 450. and t hese oc casions. A record of trial or a judicial hearing speaks for itself as of the time it was made. 79 Wn. 91 3 P. It should reflect. and oth er pu blic ser vants. 4 52 .2d 994.2d 9 18.2d 978 (1996). Rivas.2d 435 (1981). 45 Wn.2d 335 (1954). United States v. See. 91 Wn. State v. State v. 20 . Winger. 361 U. Bash. 378. 4 L. but some form of swearing in a witness is required.Ct. the a cou rt may gene rally re ject req uests for subp oen as for th e governo r. 128 Wn. State ex rel. 248 P. State v. State v. 1006 (1982)). 288 (1952)). 215.2d 654. Maupin.2d 555 (1952). Stroh.2d 1015 (9 th Cir. 989 F.S. A request for a subpoen a for a judge is subject to an even higher level of scrutiny. 147. 8 A. deciding whether a statute sets forth a strict liability crime is a statutory construction question aimed at ascertaining legislative intent. should be limited to instances in which there is no other reasonably available way to prove the facts sought to be established. as near as may be. 96 L. Ed. Carroll v. 1992 ). State v. Robideau. Whether a mental element is an essential element of a crime is a matter to be determined by the Legislature.S. 453. 850 (1922). Where a statute does not specify a mental element. 41 Wn. 119 Wash. U nited Sta tes. e. Morissette v. As a general rule. denied .Ct. You Cannot Ask Me Any Questions Cross-Examination of Defendants Once a criminal defend ant t akes th e stan d.2d 11 82. A criminal defendant s constitutional right to remain silent may not be employed to defeat cross-examination of him as to a subject he has opened on direct examination after voluntarily taking the stand.4th 760 (1979). 635 P.2 d 12. If intent is not made an element. The form of the oath may be varied to accommodate a witness religious beliefs. 72 S.. Whether intent is an element of a crime depends upon the intent of the legislature. Cro wder. Thus. Cleppe.2 d 4 43 . 246. I Cannot Swear Challenges to the Witness Oath Every person who wishes to testify in court must declare that the witness will testify truthfully. the doing of the prohibited act constitutes the crime. 342 U.2d 775 (19 71).2d 594. 2d 205 (1959). Ed. 80 S. by oath or affirmation administ ered in a form cal cula ted t o awa ken th e witne ss con science and impress th e witne ss mind with the duty to do so.

2d 1009 (1986) (trial court properly refused to instruct jury on defense of necessity.2d 621 (199 4) (frie nd s nee d for a ssis tance insuff icient to su ppo rt a ju ry inst ructi on on the necess ity defens e in an attemp ting to elude a police v ehicle pro secu tion).L. ___. 222. see also Bryan v. State v.2d 91.Ed.2d 276. ___ . 188. 78 S. 247. 225. State v. highway safety and numero us other areas. No Washington case exists that allows an individual to raise a claim of self-defense outside the context of an assault or murder prosecution. I Was Acting in Self Defense in Response to Your Violence Defense of Necessity The Freemen will frequently contend th at they filed a lien.App. sanitation. State v. 474 P.App.App. United S tates. Reed . 111 S. a good faith belief that a certain activity does not violate the law is also not a defense in a criminal prosecution. however. 384.2d 956 (19 95) (nece ssity d efense no t availa ble to a d efendant who reckles sly pla ce s hi ms elf in a sit ua tio n whe re h e w ou ld b e fo rce d to eng age in c rim ina l co ndu ct) . 84 Wn. ___ Wn . Pittman. 240. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. State v. plumbing and electrical codes. 81 More recent cases hold that the pressure that led to the illegal actions must come from a force of nature and not from people. at 25 5-56.Ct. 1 1997) (medical necessity).2d 46 9 (1997) ( ignorance of the law is no excuse. that ignorance of the law is no defense to a criminal prosecution . but are in the nature of neglect where th e law requires care.2d 759 (19 82) (necessity defense to escape charge).App.2d 956 (1995) (necessity defense in unlawful possession of a firearm prosecution). 908. State v.. air and water pollution.. These p ubl ic welfare offenses are no t in th e nat ure o f positive aggression s or invasion s. Lambert v. the defense is limited to that of necessity.2d 1312 (1979) (medical necessity defense to marijuana charges).S. To the extent nonassault or murder cases allow a justification defense. Niemcz yk. 498 U. The t raditio nal ru le in Am erican jurispru den ce is. 22 2. 1939. Generally. 199.Ct. with w hich t he co mmon l aw so often dealt. 78 Wn. The defense is available when the physical forces of nature or the pressure of circumstances81 cause the accused to take unlawful action to avoid a harm which social policy deems greater than the harm resulting from a violation of the law. State v. People of the State of California.g. 379. 9 43 P. weights and measures. Diana. See. Cheek v.Ed. ___ U. review denied. Turner .2d at 607. 2 L. 88 Wn.S. 105 Wash. 6 44. 42 Wn.R. State v. e.2d 26 (Div. represented a friend. 225-26. 711 P. 88 9 P. building. 118 S.2d 228 (1957) (rule that ignorance of the law will not excuse is deeply rooted in American law). 31 Wn. 644 P.2d 197 (1998) (traditional rule is that ignorance of the law is no excuse ). Morissette. even though defenda nt had bee n threatened w ith harm to herself a nd her husba nd if she refus ed to c arry drugs to husba nd in penitentiary).Ap p.Ct. 2 1998) (medical necessity).. Williams. 24 Wn.A pp. 228.. 968 P. But. 41 A. 355 U. ). United States. Bash. June 1999) 153 . Diana. 8 71 P .Numerous statutory crimes which are mala prohibita and which are upheld without proof of an evil intent or any mental element at all are crimes that are generally called public welfare or regulatory offenses. 73 W n. 1947. or other similar crime. subject to extortion (bail or plea bargaining).Furthermore. labeling. 77 Wn. 112 L. 130 Wn.S. Turner. State v. Jeffrey. e.S. Many violations of such regulations result in no direct or immediate injury to person or property but merely create the danger or probability of it which the law seeks to minimize.. State v. A necessity defense will rarely be available to a defendant. served a bill of particulars.Ap p.2 d 35 3 (19 85).3 d 493 (1 970). 803. at 913.g. 604. State v. 342 U. Examples of public welfare laws that are enacted in the exercise of a legislature s police power and which may be enforced as laws mala prohibita include statutes relating to pure food and drugs. fire protection. Jeffrey.App. 192. 225.Ed. in defense of themselves or others who had been kidnapped by the government (arrest). 889 P.2d 6 17 (1991) (citations omitted). 24 Wn.App. See. 928 P. 242. 280. 141 L. 77 Wn.App. Gallegos. or inaction where it imposes a duty. 604 P.2d 7 13 (Div. a Freeman s claim that the prosecution must prove intent is really an argument that no conviction is possible since the Freeman was unaware of the particular law he or she is accused of violating when the a cts un derl ying the c harge we re comm itted . etc.

635.2d 1206. 90 Wn. the appropriate way is through jury instructions.S. 73 Wn. courts have no obligation to tell them they may do so. 24 Wn. Rethinking Jury Nullification.2d 1013 (6 th Cir. art. O Connell. 491 U. 964 P. Wh ile jur ies have t he p owe r to ign ore t he l aw th rou gh th eir verdicts. Bonisisio. § 19 o f the India na C onstit ution.Ap p. 651. 83 where the jury decides both the facts and the law. 86 1(1977 ) (error to allow securities expert to testify as to the legal obligations of the parties to a contract. denied.Rev. 2d 10 24 (1 99 9) (ci tin g Meggyesy with approval).2d 247. th e d efense wil l fa il. 434 U. 1996). such as Indiana. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. In Washington.S. 225. denied . 78 94. 1 1998). 757 P.App. 832 (1988). 77 Wn. 7 Wigmore.). Uni ted States v. 136 Wn . v. No instruction 82 And rew D . 410. art. Most Freemen claims of necessity will fail the third and fourth prongs of the test. however. 910 (19 89) . (3) no legal alternative existed.S. 601-02 . 2 53 (199 6) ( Nullifica tion occu rs when the de fendant s guilt is clear beyond a reasonable doubt. State v. United States v. 39 4.2d 956 (1995). 432 P. Testimony Regarding the Law By constitution. nor comm ent the reon . decides to acquit. Inc. at 314 -17 (196 4). United States v. ' 16. review denied . legal alternative to violating the law. Wash. 816. See. A party s arguments to the jury regarding the law is limited to the law as defined by the cou rt. 253-54. 693.2d 102 8 (Div.Ed. 222. 72 Wn. Const.J. and (4) the defendant did not recklessly place himself or herself in a situation where the defendant wou ld be forced to en gage in criminal conduct.. See.3d 17. IV. 32 2. § 16 ( [j]udges shall not charge juries with respect to matters of fact. State v. Marx & Co. v. ) 83 Artic le 1. United States v.g. 6 2 L. should be tendered to the jury. the validity of any statute. Meggyesy. 523 P. Rice.2d 797. 958 P.2d 319 . 955 F. State v. It is not for witnesses to instruct the jury as to applicable principles of law.App. Leip old . State v. A Freeman defendant s proposed instructions. nor wheth er any actions taken in the pro secution were illegal. 82 Va. 1991). 19 (2d Cir. Meggyesy. 913-14. 444 U. It is a usurpation of this obligation for any witness to attempt to establish what the law is in a particular action. but for the judge. O Grady. L. a chance both to refuse to do th e cr imin al act an d a lso to avo id t he th rea tene d h arm .2d 872 (1974).2d 577 .2d 122 2 (Div. 693.Ct. Evidence ' 546 (86).). 1 136 Wn. 32 C. 958 P. Jury Nullification Jury nullification82 is permitted in some jurisdictions. Powell. the jury s hall hav e the ri ght to de termine the law and the facts. As Professor Wigmore has observed. Acco rdin gly. 1212 (9th Cir. Const. June 1999) 154 . 90 Wn. if they accurately state the law and are relevant to the charges filed. bu t sha ll d ecla re th e law . neither a Freeman defendant nor any other witness may testify regarding the scope of the law of searches.2d 102 8 (Div. ). Krzyske. Accord. 7 04. State v. 550 F. Diana. the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that: (1) the defendant bel ieved the commission of the crime was necessary to avoid or minimize a harm.2d 575 (19 80). the judge is responsible for determining the law that is applicable to a particular case. but the jury.App.App.2d 319. e. (2) the harm sought to be avoided was greater than the harm resulting from the violation of the law. p rovid es: In all crim inal ca ses whate ver.. 1 00 S.. Evidence ' 1952 (3d ed.g. 889 P. State v. 1940).2d 1028 (Div. StateState v. Bai ley.. expert testimony on law is excluded because the tribunal d oes not need the witness judgment . Valley Land Office.S. Edwards . the jury only decides the facts and the law is provided by the judge. LaF ave & Scott 379. Gallegos. 1 1998). 2 1998).2d 505 (2d Cir. based on its own sense of justice or fairness.if there [is] a reasonable. Inc. Diners Club Inc. 644. 83 Wn. it is improper for a defendant to argue that the jury may acquit once it finds that the defendant s guilt is clear beyond a reason able dou bt. e.App. 110 Wn . 836 F. 62 4. For the defense to succeed. 871 P.2d 850 (1967). review denied. ). Jeffrey. cert. review denied.2d 621 (1994).2d 889 (19 88). 92 Wn. cert. 101 F. IV.S. To the extent that the Freeman defendant wishes to get Freemen views about the law before the jury. 13 7 W n. See Wash. denied. Thus. cert. 136 Wn. 488 U. the need for a grand jury indictment.

1999 WL 274135 .2 d 357. See generally State v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. A motion to preclu de the qu estioning of jurors about their religious views should almost always be brought. 92 Wn. a juror protective order that restricts both the State and the defendant from initiating any post-verdict contact with the jurors absent specific court approval should be obtained p rior to jury selection.proposed by a Freeman defendant. 597 P.2d 967. In all felony cases. Juror Protection Since most Freemen jury trials will be tried by pro se defendants. See generally State v. ___ Wn. See Wash. 3 61. the prosecutor has a duty to bring appropriate motion s in limine to restrict the areas of inquiry in order to p reserve the jurors privacy. 975 P.2d 892 (1979). 1999) (uph olding an order restricting the parties or their agents from initiating contact with jurors post-verdict). art.2d ___. I. Robinson. June 1999) 155 . that is inaccurate in any way should be included in the instructions to the jury. Finch. § 11. however. Const. *43 (May 6.

20. Most Freemen will request a contested hearing on an infraction.0 10.g. A Free men is not op erating a motor ve hicle as de fined in RCW 46.2d 347 (1998). F reemen ofte n asse rt the following sop homoric sta tutory ana lysis in supp ort of their pos ition that Title 4 6 RCW (Washington s traffic co de) doe s not app ly to their ac tivities. Spoka ne v.] A Free men doe s not operate a motor v ehicle as defined in RC W 46.20. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. use s.0 4..04. ) because the mechanical contraption is not self-propelled.022 says that Title 46 applies to any person who operates a motor vehicle on public highways regardless of residency or driver s license status. City of Bremerton v. upon. A Freemen is not operating a vehicle as defined in RCW 46. copartnership.2d 1010 (1986).INFRACTIONS The Infraction Calendar A common intersection between Freemen culture and our legal culture occurs on the traffic infraction calendar. Title 46 does not apply.320 ( Motor v ehicle shall mea n every vehicle which is self-propelled. Title 46 does not apply. and steer it. 949 P. 84 It has be en long e stab lishe d that s tates may r ightfully pres cribe uniform regula tions ne ces sary for pu blic s afety and o rder i n the operation upon its highways of motor vehicles and the state may require the licensing of drivers. There are. E. 235 U. Finally. June 1999) 156 . regulat ions.2d 945 .84 An additional problem is that the Common Law (following Posse Com itatu s dogma ) do es no t reco gnize non -victim crim es such as spe edin g which do n ot re sult in damage to another individual s person or prop erty. i.e. T heir arguments re ly heavily on the use of a thesaurus. The loss will almost certainly be followed by the filing of a RALJ appeal. The contraption is unable to run on its own. Spears. firm. RCW 46. and a human be ing must also put the co ntraption in gear. 85 Washington traffic laws apply to everyone who operates a vehicle upon our highways regardless of whether or not they have a driver s license or whether they are a resident of the state. 7 16 P . 43 W n.022. which they will generally lose. and go something like this RCW 46. or sets in motion. ) but rather a human being. a nd fine s. Maryland. a device. de press the gas pe dal. RCW 46.04 . Ct . 61 0.070. This means that they will generally be seeking a waiver of the superior court filing fee and other costs of appeal. 04.670 ( Vehicle includes every device capable of being moved upon a public highway and in. Title 46 does not apply. Man y of th e issue s discu ssed in the crimina l pro secu tion sectio n of t hese mater ials wil l arise d urin g civil infraction proceedings and will not be repeated here. Title 46 does not apply.405 ( Person includes every natural person. The concept of traffic laws is foreign to many Freemen and is frequently believed to be a violation of the constitutional right to travel. P ort. Ed . or organization. [See also I am not a Person but a Human Being..08. 35 S. RCW 46.A pp. S. corporation. association. Thus. but rather a mechanical contraption or conveyance. p ilots. A Freemen is not a person as defined in RCW 46. who have signed their driver s licenses with the phrase refused for fraud or who have simply returned their driver s license to the Depa rtm en t o f Lic en sin g. supra.1 20(1). it is critical to recall that traffic infractions are civil. Hendrick v. 150. This is the point at which most prosecutors become involved. 3 85 . Along with their C ommon Law s overeignty p hilosophy. Thus. ).37 0 ( Ope rator or driv er means e very perso n who drives or is in actu al physic al control o f a vehicle . but rather runs. review denied.63. some issues that are unique to traffic infractions because of their civil nature.63. 5 9 L. Thus. Freemen.. 273 . RCW 46. A human being must use a key to start the c ontraption and keep it running. 85 believe t hat t hey h ave opt ed o ut o f the sta te an d feder al ad hesion con tract s which allo ws for th e imposit ion o f traffic rules. 134 Wn. 106 Wn. In responding to this request.. 1 40 (19 15 ).2d 141. however. RALJ Appeal Waiver of Fees Many Freemen are in economic distress. T hus.. 275 -76. They will appear promptly and be respectful throughout the proceeding. ). or by which any persons or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a public highway.

020(2)(b). In re Lewis.86 can provide public funds for an attorn ey. O Connor v.2d 589 . 134 Wn. good faith in bringing the appe al. Case law.2 d 15 4 (19 69). the onl y gener al le gislative gran t for p ubl ic fund s for ap pea ls is limited to those occasions for which a litigant has a constitutional right to appeal . 76 W n. 127 Wn.2.2d 1218 (1989) (fees of expert witness appointed by co ur t p ur sua nt to co ur t ru le co ul d n ot be pa id o ut of p ub lic fun ds i n t he ab sen ce of e xpres s la ngu age authorizing the expenditure).. A right to appeal an order entered in a traffic infraction matter has been granted by the legislature. 2d 55 6.00 record preparation fee. Bowm an v. City of Bremerton v. or preparation of the record. 112 Wn. 127 Wn .2d 915. e. O Connor.52 of the worker s compensation statute. in determining whether to exercise its inherent powe r.08. his court fees should be automatically waived. 9 Wn. Superior Court. the court. 949 P. and the cost of transcripts in order to proceed. establishes that even in the absence of an express statute. and then to the supe rior court where a jury rendered a verdict in favor of the employer. further. RCW 3. This means that the individual who is appealing the finding an infraction was committed must pay the $40. Spears.g. 76 Wn. 148. A mere finding that an appeal is not patently frivolous is not sufficient to justify waiver of fees. Grove.2d at 237 and 241. however. Rather. a court has the inherent authority to waive its own filing fee. June 1999) 157 . e.2d 347 (1998). 562. If a court of lower jurisdiction enters such an order. 89 7 P. See RCW 4. Snoh omish County. W aldt. however. in every action brought or appeal pursued by a poor person.2d 630. however.2d at 603. was a wo rker who cla imed that exp osure to industrial chemicals resulted in an occupation-related illness. no municipal. it is worth the effort to bring a CRLJ 60(b) motion to vacate the order to avoid future improper expenditure of public monies.2d 12 52 (199 5). Matzdorff. Grove. 83 Wn. 56 4 P . but the interes t of the general p ublic and other affected individuals as well. See. th e cou rt sho uld not lend its enco uragemen t by wa iving its fees. If an action or petition is patently frivolous.There is no constitutional right to appeal in civil cases. Pursuant to RCW 51.App. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. An example of how compelling a showing of need must be for a court to authorize the expenditure of public funds is demonstrated in the Grove cas e. the judge being asked to approve the waiver must find that the indigent The W ashington Supre me Co urt has the inherent po wer to waiv e the fees and cos ts of litigation in civ il case s in those ra re cas es where justice demand s it. the case was ap peale d first to the Bo ard of Industria l Insurance A ppea ls which found in fa vor of the wo rker. O Connor v. has refused to say that.2d 711 (1974). article 8. 77 Wn. 76 Wn.330 (limits provision of counsel and other costs to those cases where it has been judicially determined that the indigent party has a constitutional right to obta in review).62. preparation of transcripts. 127 Wn. or brought for purp oses of h arassmen t. T he third litigant i n Grove.2 d 3 28 (19 77 ). 458 P. district.g. 87 86 The rule announced in the Ashley and O Connor cases means that the $110. Absent legislation that specifically authorizes the expenditure of public funds to allow an indigent citizen to appeal a finding that he or she committed a traffic infraction.2d at 241.2d 559 (1973).88. Moore v. however. 87 Wn. 774 P.2 d 589. 2d at 7 42 . 87 Wn. But where a case appears to have been brought in good faith and to have probable merit. See. RCW 36.2d 221 . the exerc ise of a so und discre tion dicta tes th at a l itigant shou ld n ot b e den ied h is day in cou rt simply beca use he is financial ly un able to p ay the cou rt fees. IRLJ 5. Matzdorff. § 4 (amendment 11 ) (no funds can be d isbursed from the public treasury except upon appropriation). 571. the right exists in civil cases when granted by the legislature or at the discretion of the court. Honore v. a litigant must pro ve indigency . is not accompanied with legislation authorizing the appeal to be pro secu ted at p ubl ic exp ense . In fact . 5 59 . at 571. or superior court. 9 Wn. that a miscarriage of justice has occurred. Bowman. Saylors. This right. Additionally. 678. RCW 2.2d 141.2d 485 (1 97 0) (co ur ts h ave no po wer o ver p ub lic fun ds c ol lected for pu bl ic p ur po ses ab sen t l egisl ative authorization). Co nst.2d 1 54 (196 9).2d 660.060(7).18. We have held that i n suc h cas es.App. Saylors.2d at 743. The district or municipal court. In re Dependen cy of Grove. 513 P. State Board of Prison Terms. has no jurisdiction to waive the filing fee of another court. 4 58 P. whose request for public funds was denied. proba ble merit o f the issue s raise d and. Ashley v. 87 The Washington Supreme Court. 466 P.. may prop erly cons ider not only the interests o f the indigent litigant. 521 P. may be waived by the superior court.00 filing fee. 88 Wn.020. 239.

00 to $500. his inability to advance or secure the costs of litigation). 875 (N. 534 .80.N. therefore. the burden rests upon a defendant to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the court. RALJ Appeal Waiver of Fees Probable Merit Many Freemen applications for waiver of filing fees and/or notice of RALJ appeal will establish a disagreement with the factual determination made by the district or municipal court. B uelo w. 428 F. t he ap plic ant moving for in form a pau peris status should state with some particularity.Su pp. This claim will not provide a basis for waiving the filing fee if the district or municipal court record does not contain a timely. 47 9 F . 38 9 P . Supp . Braden v. Dreyer v.I. aff d. 197 2). Tex. Jalet.2d 255. See. written demand by th e defendant that the officer attend the hearing. RALJ Appeal Waiver of Fees Indigency The burden of proof of establishing indigency is on the party seeking appellate review. denied. e. 155 F. 1994) (plaintiffs motion to proceed in forma pauperis denied because plaintiffs did not submit an affidavit which the court considered statutorily sufficient).2d 1253 (1 977). and the result suggests incongruity.Supp . 363 N. the Court may go beyond the mere statement of income and inquire into additional relevant matters including the applicant s earning capacity and ability.R. 459 (S.D.D.2d 5 33. Mere disagreement over factual matters will not. and did not state defendant s poverty with some particularity. defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that he or she is financially unable to afford the costs of litigation.2d 723. In order to prevail on a claim of indigency. when the to tality of th e circumstan ces involved are weighed against th e appl icant s statemen t of poverty. definiteness and certainty.D.2d 465. 452 . Estelle. 364 U. 1977) (because inmates are provided the necessities of life. 8 51 (D. 88 Wn.. is barred from second-guessing the factual determinations of the district court.W. motion would be denied). and must be considered and measured in each case by reference to the need or service to be met or furnished . Syracuse Uni versity. R. 586 F. Rutherford.2d 338 (19 76).D. 63 Wn . 413. Jefferson v.Y.2d 10 44 (5t h C ir. 87 Wn.1 (b).2d 483. Carter v.00 ). Another common issue identified in an application for waiver of filing fee is the contention that the district or municipal court erred by considering the officer s statement on the citation. and (3) probable merit. 896 (1960) (where affidavits in sup por t of mo tion of defe nda nt in Cou rt of A ppe als for leave t o pu rsue h is app eal in forma p aup eris recited that defendant was unable to pay costs but failed to state that he could not give security therefor. Courts have found inmate assets of far less than $2000. 122 Wis. however. the Freeman must demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the funds to which the Freemen has access. 349 F. the Freeman defendant must establish: (1) good faith. provide a basis for waiving the filing fee since prob able merit on app eal ca nno t be sh own on t hat b asis. 1 97 3) ( In ord er to prec lud e fraud ule nt o r care less mo tion s of po verty. 848. 19 84) (surveying cases in which in forma pauperis status was denied for prisoners who had access to funds ranging from $45.100. whether in an account in the Freeman s name or in the custody of another. In our experience. 258 (1984) (to sustain a claim of indigency. Sta te v. 563 P. Law Rep.). even small bank accounts may be able t o afford the costs of litigation).appellant has a significant chance of prevailing on appea l. the application for waiver of filing fee can generally be oppo sed under th e indigency or probable merit pron gs. Uni versity. Tex. State v. 277 F.00 to be adeq uate to fund th e costs of litigation.2 d 8 95 (1 96 4) ( Ind igen ce is a r elative term. June 1999) 158 . 595 (S. definiteness and certainty the facts as to his poverty &Further. are insufficient to pay the expected costs of litigation and still meet the Freeman s personal need s. (citations omitted)). cert. 9 53 -5 4. RALJ 9. In order to obtain a waiver of a filing fee. See RCW 7.g. 554 P. a defendant s claim of indigency certainly should be rejected when he puts his own assets into others names and those assets remain at his disposal). F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. The RALJ court. 72 5 (9th Cir. Bey v. Ellerthorp e. (2) indigency. Clark. 92 Ed. by affidavit or otherwise.S. State v. Temple v. United States. General statemen ts of need are insufficient to satisfy the burden.2 d 9 49 .

The fou rth mo st frequ ent c laim th at will be asser ted in a Freem an RA LJ infractio n ap peal is that t he ca se should have been dismissed because the plaintiff was not represented at the hearing. and will not provide a basis for waiving the filing fee.80. authorizes the court t o award attorn ey fees. 50 Wn. Obert. In addition. grants the district or municipal court the discretion to d ismiss an untimely notice of infraction without prejud ice.84.3. 747 P. is authorized by RCW 7.151 since RCW 46.151 does not p reclude this award becau se RALJ 1. and yet. it does not specifically reference RALJ 9.2(b) and (c). See generally City of Bremerton v.63. the prevailing party is entitled to certain costs on appeal. IRLJ 2.2(d). which specifically applies to civil infraction cases. RCW 7.84. however.3(c)(1) ( Expenses Allowed as Costs &(1) statutory attorney fees allowed for a superior court nonjury trial ). June 1999) 159 . F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. RALJ 9. 139. See RAP 15.63. Because the burden of establishing an abuse of discretion is so high and because any dismissal is without prejudice which would allow the refiling of the infraction. however. RCW 4 .3(c)(1) by number.140. this claim will not provide a basis for waiving the filing fee. ).00 statutory attorney fees available in civil cases. RCW 4. RCW 46 . RALJ Appeal Cost Awards If a traffic infraction appeal does proceed.080 (1).2d 502 (1987) (statutory attorney fees are only allowed in civil cases). supra.80.01 0(6).151 was adopted after RALJ 9.2(b )(3) and (c).App.6 3. Further Review The availability of post-superior court review of traffic infractions is extremely limited. see IRLJ 2.09 0(3).2 ( An appeal from a court of limited jurisdiction is governed by the Rules for Appeal of Decisions of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction. The cost of such an appeal is high.1(d) and (e) make it clear that RALJ 9. the costs will generally be limited to the $125.3(c)(1) supersedes RCW 46. State v. If the prosecution was the respondent. and the procedu re for obtaining a waiver of the filing fee is cumbersome.The late filing of the notice of infraction is another frequent situation. This practice. See generally IRLJ 5. Spears.

the constitutionality of the citizen complaint process. official misconduct in violation of RCW 9A. Th e ju dge may consider any allegations on the basis of an affidavit sworn to befo re th e jud ge. law enforcement or other potential witnesses. and Does 1-100.1(c). Our memorandum of authorities regarding the unconstitutionality of CrRLJ 2 . an ti-ha rassmen t pe titio ns or oth er civil action s. Th ese complaints are generally sent by the Freemen to the local United States Attorney for processing. (2) Whether the complainant has adequate recourse under laws governin g small c laims su its. Any person wishing to institute a criminal action alleging a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor shall appear before a judge empowered to commit persons charged with offenses against the State.1 6. June 1999) 160 . Many of the se citizen comp laint s seek to charge vario us feder al felo nies an d co nstitu tiona l crimes. There is virtually no case law regarding the proper co urt procedu re for dealing with an application for a citizen complaint. Michael Stowell.1( c) is a jud icial usu rpa tio n o f a legislative a nd exe cu tive fun ction . The court may also require the presence of oth er po tent ial witn esses. corp orat ion d oing b usine ss with out licen se in viol atio n of R CW 9 .180. which allows the judicial branch to impinge upo n the executive branch s discretionary charging authority.24 . Carol Rainey. are filed in courts of limited jurisdiction pursuan t to CrRLJ 2. or oth er civil pro ceed ings. Further. governing a request for citizen complaint. and other public officials who come into contact with Freemen is the filing of citizen complaints by Freemen. A c opy of th e cou rt s Find ings of Fa ct an d Co ncl usion s of Law is attached in the Appendix.48.1(c).010. an d u nd er o ath. The cou rt may a lso gra nt a n op por tun ity at sa id hearing for evidence to be given by the county prosecuting attorney or deputy.1(c) is as follo ws THE C ITIZEN C O M P LA IN T R U LE IS A N U NC ON STIT UTIO NA L U SURPATION BY THE JU D IC I AL B RANCH OF T HE E XECUTIVE B R A N C H S P O W E R T O D ECIDE W H O IS OR IS N O T C HARGED W ITH V I OL A T IO N O F T HE C RIMINA L LAWS CrRLJ 2.CITIZEN COMPLAINTS The Citizen Complaint Court Rule Is Unconstitutional A recent form of retaliation being experienced by prosecutors. Some of the citizen complaints. See Lorraine Kirtley v.030. at 38-44. an d misp rison of tre ason in violation of RCW 9.79.04 0. In addition to prob able cause.80. The judge may require th e ap pe ara nc e to b e ma de on th e re co rd . We h ave bee n suc cessful in gett ing citize n co mpla ints d ismissed b y the Kitsap Cou nty D istrict Cou rt ba sed o n th is argument.82. search without warrant in violation of RCW 10. the cou rt may consider: (1) Whether an unsuccessful prosecution will subject the State to costs or da mage claims u nde r RCW 9A. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. provides as follows in pertinent part (c)Citizen Complaints. These complaints allege crimes including unlawful practice of law in violation of RCW 2. law enforcement officers. however. 98 000 000 4. other than a judge pro tem. is questionable. Diane Frost. Kitsap Cou nty D istrict Cou rt No . It is th e Kit sap Co un ty P ros ecu to r s Office s po sitio n t hat CrR LJ 2 .045. judges. an d a ccor din gly vi ol ates t he sep ara tio n o f po wers d oc tri ne . the potential defendant or attorney of record.11 0.

State v. State Bar As sociati on v.2d 115 (1980) (same). 87 Wn. XI § 5. 434 U. 107 S. (5) The availability of witnesses at trial. Const. are members of the judicial branch of government.2d 706. Wash. 948 P.440.2d 219 (1984). cert. State. Borden kircher v. 93 L. The prosecutor is given wide discre tion since h e must nece ssarily c onsid er bo th t he st rengt h of t he ca se an d th e pu blic interest before making the charging decision. are subject to constitutional challenges.2d 484. 781-782.(3) Whether a criminal investigation is pending.2d 514 (1996) (same). 88 The criminal prosecution function is an executive branch responsibility. 675 P.2d 294. 713. Judge. Art.2d 1047 (1995 ).2d 163 (1976) (lengthy historical discussion of separation of powers and checks and bala nces doctrines). 921 P. including the common law as well as court rules and regulations. 115 Wn. 85 L. and tha t th e com pla ining wit ness is aware of the gravity of initiating a criminal complaint. Camp bell. On e of the express duties imposed is to Prosecute all crimina l an d civil 88 Court rulings. 133 Wn. State ex rel.94A. 90 7. 93 0.Ct.2d 691 (1997). In re Juvenile Director.Ed . 25 -26.g.S. potential defendant and potential witnesses. III. e. 1094. but is nonetheless considered a fundamental tenet of our political structure.2d 3 51 (198 6).. Lewis . Schillberg v.2d 1. Hayes. 2169. Farmer s Insurance. 132 Wn. The separation of powers doctrine has some different meanings depending upon context. June 1999) 161 . and whether any have been convicted of crimes of dishonesty as defined by ER 609. 103 Wn . 471 U.2d 232. 939 P.2d 736.2d 772.Ed. State v. 94 Wn. (4) Whether other criminal charges could be disrupted by allowing the citizen complaint to be filed. denied. one branch of government can not assume or exercise the power or duties of another branch. State v. 105 Wn. 890 P. §1. 691 P.2d 719. 975. IV. 98 S. Tho rne. Gossett v. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 398. 105 S. 125 Wn. The affidavit may be in substa ntially the following form & The separation of powers doctrine is not expressly set forth in either the United States or Washington constitution.Ct.1(a). See. and (7) Prosecution standards under RCW 9. Wash. State v. nor act to d eprive the others of their lawful powers.. The courts. and factors (1) thro ugh (7 ) justify filin g charges. Both the county Prosecuting Attorney and th e state Attorney General are execut ive officials. 237-245. Although some small overlap can occur without violating the doctrine. 479 U.S. State v.2d 526 (198 5) (recognizing prosecuting attorney as executive branch official). Wash.2d 79 6. It has responded by adopting chapter 36. th e ju dge may au th or ize th e ci tiz en to sign and file a complaint in the form prescribed in CrRLJ 2.S. §1 (Attorney General is member of executive branch).C t. is a matter left to the discretion of the prosecuting attorn ey. Art. 762. of course. The Constitution of this state authorized the Legislature to establish the powers and duties of the county prosecutor.2d 1264 (1997). Art.2d 901.2d 175. 129 Wn. 713 P. Cascade District Cou rt.2d 954. of the necessity of a court appearance or appearances for himself or herself and witnesses. Id.27 RCW. but its core concern is with protecting the powers and duties of the three branches of government. denied. Const. State v.2d 929 (1984). 71 8 P. 621 P. Bli lie. 552 P. 797 P. cert. or the number of such charges. Ammons. 663 (1978). 100 Wn.Ed. Const. 357. If the judge is satisfied that probable cause exists.2d 604. The decision to file or not file charges. 54 L. of the possible liability for false arrest and of the co nse qu en ces of pe rju ry.2 d 1141 (19 90). (6) The criminal record of the complainant.

See. is not subject to RPC 3.g.110. Second. 755. wh o may o r ma y not even be an atto rn ey. the courts simply could not claim such authority.1 0. See RCW 43. 2 1990) (district court judge had no power to appoint special prosecutor to handle case that prosecutor refused to proceed with). §2 0.2d 827 (1994). 125 Wn.89 The Legislature however has seen fit to authorize another executive branch officer. See former RC W 10.2 d 1306 (Div.10. 90 The Legislature knows how to do so when it desires. This procedure allows for ample prosecutor inpu t.2d 277. RCW 10. State v. Ladenb urg v. CrRLJ 2. through its own rule. 197 1 ex. 3 50 (189 2). To the extent such a check was seen as necessary.App. it fails since the court has not been granted such authority by the Legislature. CrRLJ 2. if the rule is interpreted to mean that the court can order the prosecutor s office to act upon the newly filed charge. Cary. the Legislature has provided for the Attorney General to intervene in appropriate criminal cases. RCW 43.2d 748..2d 88 (1998). 701. 885 P. assessed costs against the complaining witness. RCW 10.1(c) is a judicial usurpation of a legislative branch decision to delegate to the executive branch the power to decide who is or is not charged with violation of Washington s criminal laws. supra. Lewis.232. Waggo ner v. 27. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. supra (number and nature of charges left to the prosecuting attorney). Ace H ardware. 29 Pac. The court s usurpation of the charging power presents multiple problems in the Freemen context due to the fact that most citizen complainants will provide the court with a one-sided version of events and the citizen complainants. No legislation has been found that grants any portion of that power to the judiciary or to a private citizen of this state. Th is is a clear in vasio n o f exe cu tive authority. 28. RCW 36.actio ns in w hich the state or co unt y may b e a pa rty &. repeale d by c. The judiciary can not assume this power on its own. Se ss. Westerman v. 784 P. In re Permstick. Model Procedure Prior to the Kitsap County District Court holding CrRLJ 2. 3 Was h. or is asserting that it can delegate that authority to a private cit ize n. 672. The following procedure is designed to redu ce th e po ten tial fo r har assmen t of inn oce nt defen dan ts unt il th e con stitu tion ality o f CrRL J 2. 134 Wn. Lewis. the Attorney General.1 violates the separation of powers doctrine on two levels. and then jailed him pending payment. to seek criminal prosecution in some instances.16 0. as can be seen in another statute dating from territorial days. 67. The Legislature has not seen fit to give the courts that power. not the courts. First. 89 A territorial statute which survived until modern times authorized an indictment obtained by a private prosecutor and also made the complainant liable for costs if maliciously brought. The Legislature has not seen fit to create a similar c heck on the p rosec utor s dec ision not to file a n information or co mplaint.16.190. 56 Wn. 953 P. State v.1(c) violates the separation of powers doctrine. There the Legislature empowered the superior court to direct a prosecutor to proceed with a case after an indictment has been returned by a grand jury if the court is not satisfied with the prosecutor s written reasons for refusing to prosecute. The policy argument that a judicial citizen review process is a necessary check on the prosecutor s powers is one which must be addressed to the Legislature. The Legislature has not seen fit to give this power or oversight to the judicial branch. the court established the following procedure for dealing with applications for citizen complaints.. 90 CrRLJ 2. e. and accordingly is unconstitutional.1(c) unconstitutional. it appears that the judiciary. June 1999) 162 .232. 298 . Indeed. nor do es it have inherent authority to do so .8 s duty of fairness to the potential defendant. 020 (4) (e mph asis added). Cam pbell.0 1. is taking on the executive function of filing and prosecuting criminal charges. The only case construing that statute arose after a jury acquitted the defendant. unlike a prosecuting attorney or an attorney general exercising prosecutorial functions.1 (c) is fully established. since the power to initiate charges is exclusively an executive one.

g. Gra nt Coun ty.94A.1(c).2d 1306 (1990). 1 American Bar Association. 49 1-92. 125 Wn. Haga.2d 911 (1996) (while prosecutor had conflict of interest in representing clerk in a position contrary to commissioners. (2) antiquated statute.At the hearing. RCW 9. Potential Defendant(s) and a special citizen complaint cause number is assigned. 892 P. and (4) uncon stitutionality of CrRLJ 2. Defendant(s) . a fo rma l o rd er w ith find ings of fact and conclusions of law should be drafted by the prosecutor and entered.A summons is sent to the complainant by the court staff for a hearing before an elected judge for the determination of probable cause.2d 1012 (1967) (the opinion of the victim of a crime regarding whether the defendant is guilty of the offense is irrelevant to the issue of whether there is sufficient evidence to support a verdict). Garri son. to any public servant who has been listed as a defendant in the application for citizen complaint. See. 4 Wn. § 35 ( This provision shall not constitute a basis &for providing a victim or the victim s representative with court appointed counsel ). [Name(s)]. 481. The citizen/victim may wish to further contro l the pro cessing of the case and th e ultimate sent encing recommend ation. see Westerman v. The ethical obligations of prosecutors may prevent the prosecutor from proceeding with the case if a conviction is unlikely or the prosecution is contrary to th e office s standards. p rosecut or had no d uty to bring litigation o n beh alf of coun ty officer against the coun ty.440(1)(g). [Name]. See. Finally. in appropriate cases.2d 571 (1971).94A.1(c). 3.440 (1)(a).94A.2d 1067 (1994) (prosecutor s representation of two public bodies with directly adverse positions ruled a conflict necessitating appointment of a special prosecutor) and Osbo rn v. 50 7 P. If th e re qu est for th e fil ing o f a citiz en co mp laint is d en ied . the complainant is provided an opportunity to present the facts that will support the charge and reasons why the court should authorize a citizen complaint to be filed.A court file is opened that b ears the case name [Name].2 d 1006 (1973) (same).9 (2d ed. Any potential defendant who wishes to speak to the court is given an opportunity to do so.App. I. [Name(s)]. and the district court lacks the power to ap point a special attorney. Ladenburg v.2d 615. 384. It is anticipated that such a complaint will be entitled State of Washington ex rel. art. do not exist for such an appointment .2d 15 9. even th ough a victim s wishes. of course. Who prosecutes a filed and authorized citizen complaint is far from clear.440(1)(b). 3. the prosecutor s office is given an opportunity to address the adequacy of the showing and the seven factors contained in CrRLJ 2. Eggan v.App. a complaint will then be ordered to be filed. A citizen complaint is not required to be dismissed if the prosecutor does not agree to proceed. Const. 4.1. For further discussion on this issue. the most common grounds for opposing the citizen complaint are: (1) prosecution is contrary to legislative intent. Campb ell. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Cf. The court s findings should cover every element of crimes the Freemen may have committed in t he filin g of t he cit ize n c om pl ain t (s uc h a s ma lic iou s pr ose cu tio n a nd /o r in tim ida tin g a judge or public servant). 427 P.8. State v.2d 277.. 56 Wn. 701. e.7. 8 Wn. is not dispositive. 82 Wn. (3) improper motives of complainant. have to retain his or her own attorney. Stat e v. If the request is granted.App . Public funds. 130 Wn. June 1999) 163 . e. Standar ds for Cri mina l Justice §§ 3. Aside from lack of probable cause. though relevant to a prosecution . Complainant v. 784 P. at least by analogy. appointment of special prosecutor improper so superior court award of public monies for attorney s fees reversed). Notice of this hearing along with a copy of the application is sent to the county prosecuting attorney and. 3. therefore. 481 P. RPC 3. 2. 926 P. RCW 9. Complainant v. review denied.g. RCW 9.6. The citizen complainant should. State. Cary..2d 312. 1980 ). 315. 71 Wn.

Post-District Court Review
At least one individual whose application for citizen complaint was denied has sought review of that decision b y the sup erior cou rt pur suant t o a writ of error. The Kitsap Coun ty Prosec uting Atto rney s Office takes th e po sition t hat a criminal action is only b egun b y the a ctua l filing of a co mplain t. Bec ause the denial of an application for citizen complaint occurs prior to the actual initiation of a criminal proceeding, the case is civil in nature and the aggrieved person s ability to obtain a waiver of the filing fee and/or the preparation of the record is limited to the same degree as any other civil appellant.91

91

A full discussion of the law concerning indigent civil appeals is contained in the Infraction sec tion o f thes e ma teria ls, supra.

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COPING W ITH F REEMEN DOCUMENTS
The variety of documents that have been filed by Freemen in various state offices is staggering. A nonexhau stive list incl ude s ÿÿIn a felony theft prosecution: (1) a Part One Non-Statutory Abatement from the supreme Court, Kitsap county, Washington; (2) an Order to Quash and a Part Two Non-Statutory Abatement from the Supreme Court, Washington State Republic, Common Law Venue; (3) a notice of removal of action from the Supreme Court, Washington State Republic, Common Law Venue; and (4) a writ of habeas corpus from in the venue of the Kingdom Of God under the jurisdiction of God s Law, Kingdom Of The Lord Ecclesiastical Common Law Cou rt, Ecclesiastical Court and co mmon law Cou rt with original and exclusive jurisdiction, our one supreme Court, Washington state republic, common law venue in and for the People of the Kingdom Of The Lord located as de jure Washington state republic, Kingdom of God. ÿÿA Distress (Bonded) which instructed the bank to distress All of the funds of the Lewis County Treasury, which are held in your case and custody and tru st, until this Distress is satisfied. ÿÿIn a felony theft prosecution: (1) a 31 page document entitled Constructive Notice of NonJudicial/Pre-Judicial Commercial Process and Intent to File Security Instrument and Commercial/Common Law Lien that was recorded with the Kitsap County Records Department. The Freemen documen t sought $7,914,1 00.00 from two sup erior court judges, the prosecuting attorney, a deputy prosecuting attorney, and a legal assistant for prosecuting the Freemen lien filer without a grand jury in dict ment , for ca using t he issu anc e of be nch warra nts, for co mpel ling th e defe nda nt t o sub mit samples of his handwriting, and for generally violating their oaths of office; and (2) UCC -2 Fixture Filings and Claims of Commercial Liens against the property of the prosecuting attorney, a deputy prose cutin g attorn ey, an d two super ior co urt ju dges. ÿÿA Declarat ion of In de pe nd en ce wh ich pu rp or tedl y ex pa tri ated th e d eclaran t s res in t ru st t o t he for eign jurisdiction known as the municipal corporation of the District of Columbia & . This declaration was served by mail upon Ralph M unro, Christine Gregoire, Madeleine Albright, Janet Reno, Queen Elizabeth the Second, and Pope John Paul II. The declarant also paid $297.06 to have published a legal notice of his Declara tion o f Indepen denc e in the l egal newsp aper for Th urston Coun ty. ÿÿA federal citizen complaint charging the prosecuting attorney and a deputy prosecuting attorney with numerous constitutional felonies and asking for an award of $10,000.00 per count per defendant; received from a Freeman defendant in a misdemeanor barratry prosecution. ÿÿA public servant questionnaire that was directed to the sheriff and to various school district personnel after the individual received a written notice pursuant to RCW 28A.635 to stay off school property pend ing an investigation o f an inciden t that occur red on schoo l prop erty. ÿÿAn Official Act Reaffirmation of Oath of Office (Non-Statut ory) and Private Security Agreement (To Protect and Affirm Unalienable Rights) requesting Kitsap Prosecutor Russell D. Hauge to re-affirm by way of a private security agreement that he will not allow other government officials to knowingly violate the Freeman s rights and to waive any rights of immunity from any civil or criminal prosecution brought by the Freeman to redress any grievances received in a civil infraction case. ÿÿA certification of administrative judgment that was recorded with the Kitsap County Records Department after the Kitsap County Clerk refused to accept the document in connection with a prosecution for failing to pay city taxes and for operating a business without a license. This document purported to be an affidavit from a Freeman acting as a Private Administrative Hearings Officer. This Freeman identifies himself as having been certified as qualified, effective 20 May, 1996, to be a

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Judicial Officer in and for STATE OF WASHINGTON by Barbara Durham, Chief Justice, Washington State Sup reme Court, and Na ncy [sic] McQueen, Administrator of the Cou rts of STATE OF WASHINGTON* & *In Resume: Qualified STATE OF WASHINGTON GR-8 Judicial Officer . 92 This judgment provided that the Freeman defendant had no further duty to attend proceedings in the municipal court and that the municipal court had no authority in law to compel the Freeman defendant s attendance because the Freeman defendant was not a named party to the municipal court action and the prosecutor stipulated to the loss of jurisdiction by not responding to the Freeman defendant s bill of particulars. ÿÿA demand for bill of particulars served directly upon law enforcement officers following a traffic stop in cases in which charges had not yet been filed. These documents are frequently lengthy and often contain a glossary of terms. Careful attention must be paid to the definitions assigned to various words, because these definitions are frequently at odds with our legal system s understan ding of the same term. Each document must be carefully read. Often, buried in the document, will be a reference to the public disclosure a ct or the freedom of inform ation. If these words appear, a prompt answer must be sent with a copy of the documents being requested that are in the possession of the office that received the document unless the requested document(s) is exempted from disclosure by RCW 42.17.310 . The answer may properly request clarification of exactly what documents are being requested, so long as the clearly identifiable public documen ts are sent or made available for review. The document(s) most frequently requested are copies of the oaths of office of the judges and/or prosecutors who have been involved in any manner with the Freeman. A lot of effort and time can be saved by collecting copies of every local judges and prosecutors oath in one place. If a document has been recorded with the county auditor or recording officer, a decision must be made regarding whether a notice of invalidity should b e filed or whether to pro ceed with a show cause pro cedure under Chapter 60.7 0 RCW. The cautious approach is to file a notice of invalidity with every document that names a public official or employee as a defendant or respondent regardless of whether the document uses the word lien or includes a money judgment.

92

General Rule 8 establishes a procedure for administering a qualifying examination for lay candidates for judicial office. These

judic ial of ficer s are limite d to p racti cing in di stric t cou rts, mu nicipa l cou rts, po lice c ourts , and o ther co urts t hat are inferio r to the superior court, and as court commissioners and administrators. An individual who successfully passes the qualifying examination receives a certificate from the Chief Justice of the Washington Supreme Court and the Administrator of the Courts. A successful applicant may then be appointed or elected to certain courts. GR 8 currently provides no mechanism for licensing such judges. The rule provides no mechanism for disciplining a successful test taker who uses the GR 8 label of approval improperly. An individual who successfully passes the test, but who is not appointed or elected to serve as a judicial officer in a Washington state court is not subject to regulation by the C.J.C. Individuals who misuse the GR 8 label may be subject to criminal prosecution under a number of statutes, including RCW 9.1 2.0 10 (b arrat ry); RC W 40 .16 .03 0 (offe ring fals e inst rume nt for fili ng or rec ording); R CW 9.3 8.0 20 (fa lse re pres entati on); and RCW 42.20 .030 (intrus ion into public office).

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Sov ereign Veryl E dward. ÿÿA Freeman who received a speeding ticket filed liens against the state trooper who issued the speeding ticket and the district court judge who upheld the ticket. at 1-2. 94 Shutt v. State v. will be held in c ontem pt of c ourt a nd fined one hundre d milli on do llars .70. through agreement of the parties. or through a court-imposed lien. 45 0. June 1999) 167 . Rights to a lien on another s property are usually created by statute. 93 A few examples of such filings include ÿÿA Fr eem an w ith th e re sul t o f stat e an d fed era l co urt pro cee din gs. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. 627 P. sui juris. Whil e co un ty a ud ito rs a nd rec or din g officers a re n ot req uir ed to acc ep t su ch lie ns for filin g. 42. Co mmon L aw lien s create the p oten tial for d elays in c onveya nce o f prop erty u nless they are stricken by a court order.A pp. These n on-c onse nsua l.g. 96 -1-00235-4. filed purported liens against six state court judges.App. Know les. Sa id fine shall be s ecu red b y co nsens ual c omme rcial lien up on all p rope rty of s aid J UDG E and paya ble to the d amaged party. a nd KIT SAP CO UNT Y J AIL. sui ju ris. sui juris. 5. A common law lien is one granted under principles developed through judicial case law as distinguished from liens created by the agreement of the parties or by statute. be immediate ly returned to him. 455-56 . Freemen will also file Common Law liens upon the property of public officials and employees to secure the fines assessed by the Common Law cou rts for viola tions o f a Freeman s Commo n Law r ights. Murray v. The only common law lien which has been rec ogn ize d in Wa shi ngt on pe rta ins to pe rso na l p ro pe rty an d r eq uir es t ha t t he on e cl aim ing t he lie n h ave independent and exclusive possession of the property.94 they can potentially cloud title to property if a title company posts the bogus lien. Eisenberg. Washington Sta te Repu blic. It is further ordere d that all priv ate prop erty take n from Sove reign Veryl Edw ard. Freeme n frequ entl y file Comm on La w liens u pon the p rope rty of pu blic o fficials and e mplo yees be cause they are dissatisfied with public officials or employees decision. It is further ordere d that shou ld SUPER IOR CO URT O F WA SHINGT ON. Although these purported liens are invalid under the provisions of RCW 60.2 d 1188 (1980). two prosecuting attorneys and a d eputy prosecut ing attorney. See. e. 26 Wn. Knowles. Failu re to com ply with this ord er is co nsent to lien any and all property of said JUDGE.030 and the common law of Washington. an d wi th th e di spo sitio n o f a complaint before Judicial Conduct Co mmission. fail to c omply with this or der. Knowles..CLEARING F REEMEN LIENS A lien is an encumbrance which one person places upon the property of another as security for some debt or charge. Co mmon Law Venu e in relationship with the the ft prose cution of Ve ryl Edwa rd Knowles provide d in part that It is further ordered that Sovereign Veryl Edward. A p ers on may file a p ur po rte d l ien by simp ly t aking a pie ce of p ap er t o t he rec or din g officer an d p aying a no min al fee. Kitsap County Cause No.2d 146 (1981) (involving asserted possessory lien upon aircraft for cost of repairs). 29 Wn. shall be immediately released from the custody of SU PERIO R CO URT OF W ASH INGT ON . 93 The ord er issu ed by the Suprem e Co urt. Ex. a federal bankruptcy judge and th e court bailiff and two former chairs of the Judicial Conduct Commission: ÿÿA Freem an wh o wan ted c ertain legislatio n en acted filed lien s against n ine stat e senat ors. This type of common law mechanic s lien is issued in favor of persons who by their labor and skill have given additional value to t he property in qu estion. ÿÿFreemen who claimed eight statewide elected officials did not have a right to hold office filed liens against th ese officials an d a nu mber o f state rep resent atives and senat ors. C OURT OF KITS AP. the JUD GE w ho is s erve d with thi s ord er and fails to co mply . 613 P. Moore. This can be particularly troublesome because the property owner may not discover tha t a pu rport ed lien has bee n filed un til in the midst of a tran saction in volving the pro perty. Knowles . CO UNT Y O F KITS AP.

and (3) is not a court-imposed equitable or constructive lien.030 to provide that a notice of invalid lien may be filed with the appropriate recording office by an attorney who represents the governmental entity which empl oys th e ind ividual against who m a lien has b een filed. ÿÿThe court may allow for service by mail upon the person who filed the lien. the l egal exp enses in curre d. (2) does not depend upon the consent of the owner to the property affected for its existence. state.70. Th is section provides an expedited. The particular features of the expedited procedure include ÿÿAn expedited show cause procedure that will allow a person whose property is subject to a claim of Common La w lien to h ave the validity of the lien det ermined by a co urt in a time frame as short as six days.010 was amended by the addition of definitions for the terms state or local official or employee and federal official or employee. ÿÿThe filing fee for a petition to strike invalid liens is set at $35. which was codified in Chapter 60. less expensive judicial procedure for remo val of frivolou s liens. ÿÿRCW 60 .060 was adopted. T he n ew de finition m akes cle ar tha t a non con sesual commo n law lien is any lien that is: (1) not provided for by a specific statute. or local official or employee based on the performance or non perfor mance of tha t official s or emp loyee s dut ies. While such a n ord er was lib erall y given.70 RCW. Ch. Th e expe dited proc edu re is availab le to any p erson who believes a claim o f Commo n Law lien is in valid.they do not have a duty to reject for filing or recording any claim of lien. June 1999) 168 . and the disruption in the personal affairs of the public officials and employees led the Legislature to enact legislatio n to make it ea sier to re move th e pu rpor ted l iens.70. A sample notice of invalid lien and sample show cause forms prepared by the Attorney General s Office are contained in the Appendix. the difficulty of locating the individual who filed the lien in order to effect personal service. un less ba sed on a specific co urt o rder o r unl ess a specific statute authorizes the filing of such lien.70.070 was adopted. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. County staff have indicated that the high vol ume o f filings and the difficul ty of asc erta ining th e legal basis fo r each filing make s it impossible to decline such filings. changed existing law in the following way ÿÿRCW 60 . ÿÿA new subsection (3) was added to RCW 60. ÿÿRCW 60. Laws of 1995. The a tto rney who files th e no tice o f invalid lien is required to mail a copy of the notice to the person who filed the lien to seek to establish the validity of the lien if he or she chooses to do so. 19.70. ÿÿThe co urt mu st pro vide the prevailin g party wit h co sts and atto rney s fees. ÿÿRCW 60. th e waste of limited judicial resou rces. at 45-58.00. r egardl ess of wh eth er he or sh e is a pr ivate cit izen o r pu blic official or employee. This statement that such liens are not recognized will red uce t he like lihoo d th at a tit le co mpan y will give any cr eden ce to such l iens. once a purported lien was recorded. the document would remain on file as a possible cloud on the title of prop erty until legal action was initiated seeking a court order striking the purpo rted lien. Prior to 1995.010 was amended to make the d efinition of nonconsensual commo n law lien more accu rate.70. This section clearly states that Washington law does not recognize any claim of lien against a federal.

a sense of fair play and decency. Explain that the legal arguments they presen t for th eir con stitut ional ist belie fs have lon g been a nswere d by re al co urt ru lings. David Neiwert. with facts and reality. but firmly. F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. Point out that there is a legitimate. perfectly rational explanation for literally every p iece o f evidenc e th e Pat riots c an p rod uce for th eir th eorie s tha t th e govern ment is part of a grand conspiracy to destroy the nation. mus t refl ec t t he ver y valu es th e P at rio t s b el iefs mo st de ep ly co rrod e: a public discourse based on mutual respect. or stony silence. and an appreciation of the value of community and cooperative action. 43 (199 7). 58 Mon tana L. Id. 19. Rev. But that response ultimately. June 1999) 169 . The in flammato ry nat ure o f the Fre emen s plea dings an d argume nts u suall y inspires o ne o f two resp onse s: an equally h eated coun terargument. There is a third course: to respond with respect and courtesy. at 42. and our patience has frequently been exhausted. The follo wing tho ughts fro m David Neiw ert sho uld be co nsider ed b y all p ubl ic officials an d emp loyee s The sp irit of re spec t ha s bee n no tab ly ab sent from mo st disc ussion s of th e Pat riots. The Movement challenges so many of Americans everyday assumptions about the core foundations of society that it is often difficult to even begin to respond. Ash on the Sills: The Significance of the Patriot Movement in America. and that the web of pseudo-legal theory the Patriots espouse is a sham with no recognizable legitimacy. in large part because the Patriots themselves are so openly contemptuous of everything outside their belief system that it is difficult not to respond in kind.F INAL THOUGHTS ON OUR RESPONSES Dealing with Freemen has been frustrating at times. many dating back to the Civil War. to be effe ct ive. neither of which is effective. especially not in the body of law as practice d in America toda y.

Appendix F REEMEN A RMAGEDDON S P ROPHETS OF H ATE AND T ERROR (3d ed. June 1999) 170 .

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