Timber Frame / Wall

Definition Timber framing (German: Fachwerk literally "framework"), or half-timbering, is the method of creating structures using heavy timbers jointed by pegged mortise and tenon joints. In architectural terminology it can be defined as: a lattice of panels filled with a nonloadbearing material or "nogging" of brick, clay or plaster, the frame is often exposed on the outside of the building Introduction The construction of a timber structure is a clean and dry operation. The timber can be cut and assembled with simple hand tools. It has adequate stability and strength to support the loads. Environmental performance – sustainable, renewable, natural.

Advantage of timber frame / wall
I. Strength & Stability Strength varies according to density of timber and defects in timber such as knots, shakes, wane and slope of the grain. Stability depends on a stable foundation on which a stable structure can be constructed


Lightweight Construction Timber construction is lighter than masonry construction. Foundation can be designed to be smaller and less wasteful of material


Fast Construction Off-site prefabrication allows erection of building faster. The dry construction is fast and there is no need to wait for wet trades to dry out


Environmental Performance Timber is a natural and renewable material


Durability Very durable to any weather condition. Maintaining process can prolong the structure exceeding 100 years

DisAdvantage of timber frame / wall
i. Low Fire Resistance Timber is a combustible material. „Fire Stop‟ must be considered in design


High Cost Cost for high quality timber is very expensive since the supply for good timber is very limited.


Less Design Flexibility Design is limited and not flexible

1. Platform Frame A load bearing wall system. Employs prefabrication of frames. Studs extend only from the top of one level to the bottom of the next. No firestops allocated in the design. The completed floor can then be used a working platform. Only until six storey height. Roof structure can only be assembled at the final stage of construction, thus exposing works to rain.

2. Balloon Frame A load bearing wall system. Employs prefabrication of frames. Studs extend from the foundation to the roof. Firestops are required to close the cavities in the wall against passage of fire. Greater speed of fabrication and erection. Only suited for use in two storey building. Roof structure can be assembled right after the studs are established.

In my research, we identify design of timber frame that used in Kompleks Pasir Salak is Baloon frame. Why they used ballon frame in Kompleks Pasir Salak? It is because it is Original design by malay people. Balloon framing is one of the earlier wood construction methods. This type of frame used light frame of wood. The roof is a truss structure that consists of horizontal ceiling joists and sloping rafters.

Components of timber frame
i. Bents Bents are assembled cross-sectional pieces of the frame. They are composed of posts, girts, braces, and rafters. In an extremely simple example of a timberframe structure, a series of bents could be lined up and connected by girts, purlins, and plates to complete the frame. ii. Posts and Rafters In general posts are the vertical members of the timber frame. A king post is the vertical member that is attached at its bottom to a bent plate or a girt and at its top to the junction of the rafters. Queen posts are two vertical members between a bent plate or a girt and the rafters. Common rafters are inclined timbers that support the roof. Principal rafters are inclined timbers that are components of the bent. The common and principal rafters are joined to each other by purlins. iii. Girts and Knee Braces Girts are horizontal timbers used to connect and support the posts. Knee braces are attached diagonally between posts and horizontal members or rafters for added support, in particular between the posts and the rafters at the rafter peak.


Plates The plates are horizontal members to which the lower ends of the rafters, the rafter feet, are attached. Eave plates are located at the outer walls, and midspan plates are sometimes used toward the center of longer rafters for added support.


Purlins Purlins are the horizontal members that connect the common and principal rafters. They also add support for the roof.

A. Timber Normally, timber used in structural applications is visually graded based on rules approved by the American Lumber Standards Committee. However, these rules do not apply to all material that might be used in a timber frame. For instance, grading rules do not generally apply to recycled or remanufactured material. Also, timber produced from a particular subspecies may exhibit properties significantly different from those for the corresponding species group. In these cases, the building official may permit use of such material in a structural application based on visual examination, nondestructive testing, or other rationale provided by the engineer of record B. Wood Pegs Experience suggests that wood pegs used in structural applications must contain sound, straight-grain, defect-free material. Presence of defects or slope-of-grain can lead to failure of the peg during installation. Research results on the strength of pegged connections are based on the use of hardwood pegs with specific gravity of the peg stock equal to or exceeding that of the timber stock.

C. Wood Wedges Experience suggests that wood wedges used in structural applications must contain sound, straight-grain, defect-free material. Presence of defects or slopeof-grain can lead to failure of the wedge during installation. No research on the behavior of wedged joints in timber frames is available. However, use of hardwood wedge stock with specific gravity equal to or exceeding that of the timber stock is required to reduce the likelihood of wedge failure by compression perpendicular to the grain.

Construction Process
a. Balloon Frame The construction process involves setting up the wall studs, and then essentially hanging the floor systems from them. When completed, this resulted in a rigid structure, although unless adequate fire stops were provided, this type of construction could allow a fire to move very quickly through the stud spaces and engulf the house in flames in a short time. b. Platform Frame Platform framing is a method of construction used primarily in small structure applications, such as in the construction of houses or small apartment complexes and buildings. The name platform framing is derived from the manner in which the construction is undertaken. The process used is to build upward from the foundation, or platform. In platform framing, multiple platforms can be constructed on top of the framework. Each platform provides vertical support for each level in the building‟s construction. The amount of support provided depends on the parameters and capacities of the materials used and the manner in which the design of the building has been laid out.

In most cases, platform framing is the method of choice for residential home building because it allows for the efficient upward construction of the residence. The foundation is set, either through the use of pressure treated lumber to prevent rot or through reinforced concrete slab work. This creates the first platform onto which the residence will be built. Once the foundation has been constructed, the first floor of the building can be added to the platform. This then allows for another platform to be built on top of that for two story homes. In one-story homes, the roof may be built directly on top of the first platform and frame. Each platform frame generally consists of a prescribed amount of lumber and hardware. The required amount of materials used for each level in platform framing varies according to each region‟s construction codes regarding residential construction. Most codes, for example, require the foundation‟s platform to be fitted with a sill plate. A sill plate provides a uniform surface atop the platform. This surface allows for a consistent height for each vertical support, or “stud” within the framework of that platform‟s level. These studs are generally required by building codes to be located every 16 inches (40.64 cm). The studs are a means of providing enough stability to support another platform on top of the first. In constructions where there are multiple platforms being built onto the same foundation, each platform after the first must be constructed out of joists. The first joist to be implemented is the rim joist. The rim joist is placed on its side around the perimeter of the sill plate for that platform, which has been attached to the first platform‟s stud tops. This joist system is used to create a stable means of connecting the floor joists, which make up the next platform‟s foundation, to the rim joist, in order to create the platform of the second floor.

Platform frame -Level by level construction -Difficult to construction (complicated) -The speed to construct is very slow -The cost to construct it very high(depends its labour,material, machinery.) -Potential and possibility expose to rain high -Platform more strength

Ballon frame -straight construction -Less complicated -The speed to construct is very fast -The cost to construct it very low(depends its labour(less) ,material, machinery. -Potential and possibility expose to rain low -Platform less strength

a. Frame design The number of timbers in a design is one factor affecting the cost. The addition or deletion of timbers will change the cost of the frame. Complicated roof lines with hips and valleys also increase the cost.

b. Wood selection The choice of wood species and quality also affects the price of the frame. Green wood is less expensive than kiln dried or recycle wood. Species of timber that grow in this part of the country such as white pine are less expensive than those that must be shippec across the country, such as douglas fir.

c. Frame Detailing Architectural detailing and embellishments such as chamfered edges on the timbers, curved arches, drop pendants or cravings can add to the cost of the frame.

d. Frame finish Cost is also affected by your choice of finish. Choices may include less expensive options such as rough sawn wood, a simple stain or wash, or clear oil A more expensive finish may include buffing and waxing, hand hewing, or sand blasting.

e. Additional costs Beyond the timber frame, you will make many choices that will affect the finished square footage costs, such as roofing, windows, flooring and cabinetry.

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