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Windows Server Support Interview Questions and Answers (L2)
What is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP?
To avoid problems in the network causing by Mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000 must be validated by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stops serving the clients

Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication.
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP

How to monitor replication
We can use Replmon tool from support tools Storage Types:Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic Disk Storage Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include multidisc volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisc basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional. Dynamic Disk Storage Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, you can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Editionbased computers. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers. However, you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RAID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, or the Standard, Enterprise and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003.

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Storage types are separate from the file system type. A basic or dynamic disk can contain any combination of FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS partitions or volumes. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. However, all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. To do this, follow these steps: 1. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. 2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. 3. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Manage if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. 4. In the left pane, click Disk Management. 5. In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. 6. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then click OK. 7. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Click Convert. 8. Click yes when you are prompted to convert the disk, and then click OK. Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Additionally, after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up the data or move it to another volume. Dynamic Storage Terms Brief explanation of RAID Levels RAID 0 – Striping RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of the following layouts: simple, spanned, mirrored, striped, or RAID-5.

3 A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple, concatenated regions. A simple volume can be extended within the same disk or onto additional disks. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks, it becomes a spanned volume. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A spanned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical disks. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant. Striping is also known as RAID-0. A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical disks. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy. If one of the disks fails, the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. A mirrored volume cannot be extended. Mirroring is also known as RAID-1. A RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. If a physical disk fails, the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended. The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows (for example, Ntldr, Boot.ini, and Ntdetect.com). The system volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the boot volume. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. The boot volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system volume.

What are the different backup strategies are available
Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup The Backup utility supports five methods of backing up data on your computer or network.

Normal backup

With normal backups. It marks files as having been backed up (in other words. It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Daily backup A daily backup copies all selected files that have been modified the day the daily backup is performed.4 A normal backup copies all selected files and marks each file as having been backed up (in other words. Differential backup A differential backup copies file created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. Copy backup A copy backup copies all selected files but does not mark each file as having been backed up (in other words. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest. you will need to have the last normal backup set as well as all incremental backup sets in order to restore your data. It does not mark files as having been backed up (in other words. the archive attribute is cleared). which maintains Indexes about objects. restoring files and folders requires that you have the last normal as well as the last differential backup. reliable. Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups because copying does not affect these other backup operations. Incremental backup An incremental backup backs up only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. If you are performing a combination of normal and differential backups. which maintains the relationship between resources and enabling them to work together. Active directory is derived from X. you need only the most recent copy of the backup file or tape to restore all of the files. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. If you use a combination of normal and incremental backups. The backed-up files are not marked as having been backed up (in other words. the archive attribute is not cleared). You usually perform a normal backup the first time you create a backup set. the archive attribute is not cleared).500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol what is the physical and logical structure of AD? Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests—Trees— Domains—Child Domains—Grand Child—etc . the archive attribute is cleared). What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role. the archive attribute is not cleared). What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service.

g. Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP? Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly e. Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS? TTL is Time to live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. Whereas Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000? After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS How to take DNS and WINS. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encrypted format.5 Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. If user time stamp matches to its time stamp. Then Domain controller decrypts the encrypted time stamp information based on the password information stored in AD for that user. default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc What is the role responsible for time synchronization? PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. LDAP and Global Catalog? Kerberos – 88.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration. Domain partition 4. LDAP – 389. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources What are the port numbers for Kerberos. Global Catalog – 3268 what is the use of LDAP (X. this is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. DHCP backup %System root%/system32/DNS %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP .Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3.

The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31. We cannot provide redundancy for standalone DFS in case of failure. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited.6 What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). There are two types of DFS-domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) . or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives What is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically. What is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).00 or later NIC. The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1. Client requirements:PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1. We cannot provide redundancy for standalone DFS in case of failure. or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. which is used to install operation system remotely. We can perform following operations from recovery console We can copy. rename.000 How many root replicas can be created in DFS? 31 What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS? There are two types of DFS-domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. Both the cases we need to create DFS root (Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links (A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).

It updates the password changes synchronizes time between DC’s.7 Active directory “Directory” service What are the services installed when RIS is installed. Read about RIS. High Level Can we establish trust relationship between two forests? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. It also services Client Installation Wizard requests. structure and design of schema. . Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon (TFTPD) A RIS server uses TFTP to download the initial files needed to begin the remote installation process to the client. Infrastructure Master: It’s for updating user and group information and updating Global catalog. In Windows 2003 it is possible What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roles are Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master Naming Master: Is responsible for addition (or) removal of domains and maintaining unique domain names. Only one DN master in entire forest. RID Master: Relative Identifier is responsible for assigning unique id’s to the objects created in the AD. Only one PDC Emulator per domain. Only one schema master in entire forest. SIS services reduce the storage requirements needed to store these images by combining duplicate files. Schema Master: Is responsible for over all management. PDC Emulator: Is responsible for providing backward compatability for NT BDC’s in mixed mode. Single Instance Store (SIS) SIS services consist of an NTFS file system filter and a service that acts on the volume on which the RIS images are kept. Boot Information Negotiation Layer (BINL) This service listens for and answers DHCP (PXE) requests.

To update the schema of a forest. At any one time. it represents the reference by the GUID. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. For certain types of changes. such as the Active Directory.0). "the last writer wins"). you must have access to the schema master. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. and the DN of the object being referenced. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a . while discarding the changes in all other DCs. Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. Once the Schema update is complete. only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference.8 Brief all the FSMO Roles Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. In a forest. it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. the SID (for references to security principals). There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. In a single-master model. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. In such cases. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain.

9 Global Catalog server (GC). cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. At any one time. Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise.0 Server- . the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC emulator. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. all the domain controllers have the current data. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. In a Windows 2000/2003 domain. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security Principal SID created in a domain. Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role (or there is no requirement of Infrastructure master role) Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. As a result.

Infrastructure Group memberships may be incomplete. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. then you will not miss this FSMO role. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem. PDC Emulator Will be missed soon. Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate.10 based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4.0-based or earlier clients. If you only have one domain. RID Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. there will be no time synchronization in the domain.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003. then there will be no impact. NT 4. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. member servers. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations. Schema. At any one time. However. as this table lists: FSMO Role Administrator must be a member of Schema Schema Admins Domain Naming Enterprise Admins RID Domain Admins PDC Emulator Infrastructure . then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. Important: If the RID. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Restrictions Schema Original must be reinstalled Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Can transfer back to original Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Loss implications Schema The schema cannot be extended.

The changed data is replicated between domain controllers. Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.the database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted. Normally. Remember that Active Directory is a multi-master independent model where updates are occurring in each of the domain controllers with the changes being replicated over time to the other domain controllers. Defragging the NTDS. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 servers running Directory Services (DS) perform a directory online defragmentation every 12 hours by default as part of the garbage-collection process.DIT file on its peers. To create a new. The database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted (or online). So why defrag it in the first place? One reason you might want to defrag your NTDS. which is disturbed in all DC’s In non-authoritative restore. defragmenting the NTDS.DIT file that has been defragmented offline (compacted). What is Active Directory De-fragmentation? De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation The size of NTDS. not the database. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object. Active Directory routinely performs online database defragmentation.DIT file and to enable offline defragmentation. for example if you deleted a large number of records at one time.11 What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore. so there is no guarantee that the files are going to be the same size across all domain controllers. but this is limited to the disposal of tombstoned objects. This defragmentation only moves data around the database file (NTDS. smaller NTDS.DIT file is to save space.DIT file isn’t something you should really need to do. An NTDS. perform the . Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time. However.DIT will often be different sizes across the domain controllers in a domain.DIT) and doesn’t reduce the file’s size .DIT file probably won’t help your AD queries go any faster in the long run. the database self-tunes and automatically tomb stoning the records then sweeping them away when the tombstone lifetime has passed to make that space available for additional records. can be much smaller than the NTDS.

What Are Lingering Objects? A lingering object is a deleted AD object that re-appears (“lingers”) on the restored domain controller (DC) in its local copy of Active Directory. The tombstone object is a placeholder that represents the deleted object. Select the Directory Services Restore Mode option. You’ll see a dialog box that says you’re in safe mode. Tombstone objects are kept for 180 days. the tombstone object is transmitted to the other DCs. (Enter the commands in bold. after which they are garbage-collected and removed. From the Start menu. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently. you’ll see the following text. with no DS running. W2K will start in safe mode.dit Restart the computer.) C:\> ntdsutil ntdsutil: files file maintenance:info .12 following steps: Back up Active Directory (AD). If the process was successful.DIT file with the new. This can happen if.dit %systemroot%\ntds\ntds. file maintenance:compact to c:\temp You’ll see the defragmentation process. Click OK. When replication occurs. after the backup was made. select the OS option. (Enter the commands in bold. replace the old NTDS. the object was deleted on another DC more than than 180 days ago. and press Enter...exe In the command window. Use the local SAM’s administrator account and password to log on. Then. When a DC deletes an object it replaces the object with a tombstone object. and boot as normal. compressed version. After 60 days object will be deleted permanently from all Dc’s. What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. and press F8 for advanced options. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s.. enter quit to return to the command prompt. . Press Enter again to start the OS. which causes them to delete the AD object as well. select Run and type cmd. Reboot the server.) C:\> copy c:\temp\ntds.

In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fail. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. . which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. How to define alert mechanism Spot Light . How to deploy the patches and what are the software’s used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs. SNMP Need to enable .13 If a DC is restored from a backup that contains an object deleted elsewhere. Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology. The deleted object will “linger” in the restored local copy of Active Directory. the restored DC will not receive the tombstone object (via replication). Because the tombstone object on the other DCs has been removed. In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. What is white space and Garbage Collection? refer question 7 What are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Health. which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. and so it will never be notified of the deletion. We need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and schedule time to synchronize in server. When active server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. This cluster will not provide any high availability. Then approved update will be deployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy What is Clustering. Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster. which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications. the object will reappear on the restored DC. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster. When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.

This can be configured from services. which controls the startup behavior of DNS. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution. What are the different types of partitions present in AD? Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest Schema Partition—replicates entire forest Domain Partition—replicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) Knowledge consistency checker.msc--. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record. For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it.SNMP service -. called replication topology. making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. especially in a split namespace scenario. refresh. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain? We can use. to other domain controllers in the site. The KCC maintains a list of connections.14 How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and Remove programs. We can configure TTL. On Domain controller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change. which is a first record in DNS.Security Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. But the BIND version should be 8 or greater What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6? Refer Question 1 . and retry intervals in this record. Also an administrator can configure connection objects. DELL OPEN MANAGER) running.it generates the replication topology by specifying what domain controllers will replicate to which other domain controllers in the site. In windows 2003 it is possible. The KCC ensures that changes to any object are replicated to all site domain controllers and updates go through no more than three connections.

thus allowing the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies. and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. system services. the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes). because by default it will be associated with domain GPO. and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected. ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only. The ASR Wizard. The wizard backs up the system state. it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. What is the use of SYSVOL FOLDER? Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. does the backup portion. Domain controller policy. volumes.15 What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system. . Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain. located in Backup. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. and all the disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level What is Domain Policy. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder. an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this. ASR will try to restore all the disk configurations. but under some circumstances it might not be able to. you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path. It restores all the disk signatures. and how to perform a restore. ASR also creates a file that contains information about the backup.

all domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows Server 2003. After this requirement is met. native & interim…. When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. The following table summarizes the Active Directory features that are available by default on any domain controller running Windows Server 2003: Feature Functionality Multiple selection of user objects Allows you to modify common attributes of multiple user objects at one time. Additional Active Directory features are available when all domain controllers in a domain or forest are running Windows Server 2003 and the administrator activates the corresponding functional level in the domain or forest. all domain controllers in the domain must be running Windows Server 2003. a set of default Active Directory features becomes available. new Active Directory features are activated by the Windows Server 2003 operating system over its Windows 2000 counterparts.0 or Windows 2000–based domain controllers in the environment will no longer function.0 or Windows 2000 in your environment. To activate the new domain features. Important:raising the domain and forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003 is a nonreversible task and prohibits the addition of Windows NT 4. Any existing Windows NT 4. These levels only affect the way that domain controllers interact with each other.etc) What are the domain and forest function levels in a Windows Server 2003-basedActive Directory? Functional levels are an extension of the mixed/native mode concept introduced in Windows 2000 to activate new Active Directory features after all the domain controllers in the domain or forest are running the Windows Server 2003 operating system. ensure that you will never need to install domain controllers running Windows NT 4.0–based or Windows 2000–based domain controllers to the environment. the administrator can raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003 (read Raise Domain Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Domains for more info). After this requirement is met. and the current forest functional level must be at Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 domain level. the administrator can raise the domain functional level (read Raise Forest Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory for more info). When a computer that is running Windows Server 2003 is installed and promoted to a domain controller. Before raising functional levels to take advantage of advanced Windows Server 2003 features. To activate new forest-wide features. Note: Network clients can authenticate or access resources in the domain or forest without being affected by the Windows Server 2003 domain or forest functional levels.16 What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed. .

a set of advanced features becomes available. For example. When you raise the functional level of a domain or forest. however. Domain Functional Level . Only the new attributes are replicated. For example.The inetOrgPerson class has been added to the base schema as a security principal and can be used in the same manner as the user class. Windows Server 2003 is the highest functional level that is available for a domain or forest. If you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. the Windows Server 2003 interim forest functional level supports more features than the Windows 2000 forest functional level. not the entire global catalog. the domain or forest operates by default at the lowest functional level that is possible in that environment. only Windows Server 2003 domain controllers can operate in that domain or forest.17 Drag and drop functionality Allows you to move Active Directory objects from container to container by dragging one or more objects to a location in the domain hierarchy. you cannot introduce any domain controllers that are running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003 into that domain. Partial synchronization of the global catalog Provides improved replication of the global catalog when schema changes/add attributes to the global catalog partial attribute set. Secure Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) traffic Active Directory administrative tools sign and encrypt all LDAP traffic by default. InetOrgPerson class:. The Windows Server 2003 functional level supports the most advanced Active Directory features. Active Directory quotas can be specified in Active Directory to control the number of objects. Signing LDAP traffic guarantees that the packaged data comes from a known source and that it has not been tampered with. Ability to add additional domain controllers by using backup media Reduces the time it takes to add an additional domain controller in an existing domain by using backup media. You can also add objects to group membership lists by dragging one or more objects (including other group objects) to the target group. This applies to the forest functional level as well. When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. Efficient search capabilities/Search functionality is object-oriented and provides an efficient search that minimizes network traffic associated with browsing objects. or computer can own in a given directory partition. you can control the replication scope of Domain Name System (DNS) zone data stored in Active Directory so that only specific domain controllers in the forest participate in DNS zone replication. This allows you to take advantage of the default Active Directory features while running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003. Members of the Domain Administrators and Enterprise Administrators groups are exempt from quotas. but fewer features than the Windows Server 2003 forest functional level supports. a user. Application directory partitions Allows you to configure the replication scope for applicationspecific data among domain controllers. group. Universal group membership caching Prevents the need to locate a global catalog across a wide area network (WAN) when logging on by storing universal group membership information on an authenticating domain controller. Saved queries Allows you to save commonly used search parameters for reuse in Active Directory Users and Computers Active Directory command-line tools Allows you to run new directory service commands for administration scenarios.

the corresponding features. Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: local and global groups. logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4. .0.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Windows Server 2003 • Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. All domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest level increases to interim. and supported domain controllers are as follows: Windows 2000 mixed (Default) • Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4. Constrained delegation. The four domain functional levels. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings Windows Server 2003 interim • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.18 Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only. The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. After the domain functional level is raised. Note that with each successive level increase. the feature set of the previous level is included. domain controllers that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain. SidHistory. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003. User password support on the InetOrgPerson object Class. you can redirect the Users and Computers containers. if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. Windows 2000.0 or created by the promotion of a Windows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional level. Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: group nesting. their corresponding features. Forest Functional Level Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. For example.0. converting groups between security groups and distribution groups. global catalog support Windows 2000 native • Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000. universal groups. This mode is only used when you upgrade domain controllers in Windows NT 4. Windows Server 2003 • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 • Supported features: domain controller rename. Windows 2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when Windows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. Three forest functional levels. and their supported domain controllers are listed below.

Print-Memory. Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation . Security-Identifier. • Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replication using Linked Value Replication. ms-DS-Entry-Time-ToDie. Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Windows Server 2003 • New features: Partial list includes universal group caching. Windows 2000.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003. For example.19 Windows 2000 (default) • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Windows Server 2003 interim • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Ms-DS-Trust-Forest-Trust-Info. Message Queuing-Secured-Source. 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Windows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000 After the forest functional level is raised. domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the forest. Trust-Attributes. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode. InetOrgPerson objectClass change. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. install from media. Message Queuing-Multicast-Address. Windows Server 2003. Windows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim (Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4. if you raise forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003. Trust-Type. quotas. Domain Rename.0 Domain" section of this article. See the "Upgrade from a Windows NT 4. Attributes added to the global catalog. Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) in the Jet Database Engine. Windows 2000 Native mode. Dynamic auxiliary classes.0. Application Groups. TrustDirection. Improved topology generation event logging. application partitions. Improved Replication Topology Generation. Trust-Partner. Defunct schema objects. Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4. No global catalog full sync when attributes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role. rapid global catalog demotion. Cross Forest Trust.0. Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003 • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: all features in Interim Level. Print-Rate.

For example. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. For testing and troubleshooting purposes. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translate network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator.20 (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind network address translators. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. • Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500. and the server uses IPSec NAT-T. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition. These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based computer How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data. To reach servers that are located behind network address translators from the Internet. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relationship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. static mappings must be configured on the network address translator. you may experience connection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object. except security principals. configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings: • Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500. When a server is behind a network address translator. members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool. Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing . to reach a Windows Server 2003-based computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet.

and organizational unit). How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the Windows 2000 Setup program. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which policies are applied). GPMC will display all the above information. it is cached on the domain controller for that site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. It will be appear in Start menu—Programs. Once user click the shortcut or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how? Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating . If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS). When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example. With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. In addition. Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful. format drives. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive. What are the settings enabled in each policy. Security Settings. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which is used for managing group policies and display information like how many policies applied. Who are the users effecting by these polices. By default.21 what is universal group membership cache in windows 2003? Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. The next time that user attempts to log on. Scripts. who is managing these policies. the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. and perform many other administrative tasks. Using the Recovery Console. If it is applied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. With Publish option you can apply only on users. you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console. . domain. on which OU’s the policies applied. domain controller. including Administrative Templates.msi package for that application. and Group Policy Software Installation. RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Once the universal group membership information is obtained. site. Folder Redirection. you can start and stop services. the results can conflict. Internet Explorer Maintenance. it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000.

Integration with DNS. OU’s. . and Windows 98 operating systems and other point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet How do you promote a server to a domain controller(in windows 2003) over a slow wan links. Workgroup: A collection of computers connected together without a server (only clients). Structure of AD: Logical and Physical Components of Active Directory: Logical Structure: Domains. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN). Windows® 95. Printers.22 There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: If you are unable to start your computer. you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. Trees. enabling remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation. you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM drive). Forests and OU’s. Contacts and Shared folders. Groups. Flexible with other AD Services. As an alternative. What is the protocol used by AD for Directory Access? LDAP (Light-weight Directory Access Protocol). Physical Structure: Domain Controller and Sites. Domain: Domain is a collection of computers connected together with a server and users. Policy based administration. PART-1 What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a centralized database which it contains information about objects like Users. Scalable. Features of Active Directory ? Fully Integrated Security. Take the backup of system state from the DC and restore it in the server where you are promoting using “dcpromo/adv”and select restore from backup.

Site: Site is a physical component of AD. Object: It is a representation of an entity. Objects in AD: Users. Schema: Set of rules: Schema is design of AD. Attribute: Attribute is a piece of information about objects (properties of objects). Member Server: 2000 of 2008 server which is part of the domain.23 Tree: Tree is a logical component of AD. New Technology File System CDFS and UDFS. deleting & copying of file and folders in a systematic manner on the Hard Disk. Transitive Trust: . What are different File System supported by 2000 and 2003? FATNTFSFile Allocation Table. Groups. Trust: Trust is the process of offering or accessing resources from one domain to another domain. defines objects and classes. Additional Domain Controller (ADC): It’s a backup server for DC. OU’s. File System: File System provides the services like saving. Printers. What is a role of ADC? It maintains backup of AD to provide fault tolerance and network load balancing. Standalone Server: Server. Child DC: Is a sub domain controller under root domain controller which share name space. which is not part of the domain. Forest: A Forest is a collection of trees which don’t share contiguous name space. Computers. FAT32. Group of TCP/IP subnets connected with a high-Speed WAN link. Domain Controller: Server with Active Directory installed. What are different functional levels of 2008? Domain Functional Level and Forest Functional Level. Contacts and Shared folders. It is a collection of domains which share contiguous name space. Class: Class is a collection of AD objects.

Security and Group Policy. Profile: Profile is combination of User Environment. Domains and OU’s. Security and Rights which can be applied on Sites. Explicit Trust: It is a manual trust established by administrator between two forest and domains. Audit. Implicit Trust: Trust between the Parent Domain and Grand-child Domain. Reverse Lookup: Resolving IP Addresses to Host names. What are SRV records? – There are 6 srv records. NBNS: NetBIOS Naming System. Ex: If A trusts B. MSDCS: contains DC’s information. Ex: WINS Forward Lookup:Resolving Host names to IP Addresses. Sub netting: Dividing the same network into smaller subnets. Zone: Zone is a sub tree of DNS Database. Gateway: Address of a Router.24 It is a Two – way Trust. Host Record: It’s a file contains host names to IP naming information. Group Policy: It is a combination of Permissions. Ex: If A trusts B. DNS:Domain Naming System or Service used for resolving host names to IP’s and IP’s to host names. Desktop Environment. B doesn’t trust A. Routing: Process of providing communication between two different networks. B automatically trusts A. What are the different policies supported in 2k? Account. In/Non Transitive Trust: It is one – way Trust. .

25 TCP: UDP: Sites: contains GC.( 169. IP Lease: DHCP Server offers an IP to the client for a period of 8 days. contains domains DNS specific information. provides the zone startup information. Domain DNS Zone: Forest DNS Zone: SOA: It stands for Start of Authority: Useful when a zone starts. Process of DHCP: DORA is the process which plays in DHCP.255) . what happens? Obtains an IP from APAPI (Automating Private IP Addressing). What is default time for replication to take place between DC and ADC? 5 seconds and 3 seconds for immediate change. Registry: Registry is a configuration database about system.0. If the client is unable to connect DHCP Server. The client selects an IP and request DHCP to confirm it.254. Acknowledgement: Virtual Directory: Using virtual directory we can have child websites or links to parent websites.0 to 169. The DHCP Server offers a group of IP’s to the clients to picking.255. Kerberos and LDAP Information. Discover: Offer: Request: The client discovers DHCP. Scope: Range of IP Addresses. contains Sites information. hardware and software. contains Forests specific information. This offer is called IP Lease. DHCP Server makes a confirmation by sending a DHCPACK to the client. contains Kerberos information. DHCP: Assigns IP’s to the clients requested dynamically or automatically.254.

0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to 2003 Domain Rename--.Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy UI—Enhanced User Interface Grater Security Cross-forest Authentication Cross-forest Authorization Cross-certification Enhancements IAS and Cross-forest authentication Credential Manager Software Restriction Policies Improved Performance and Dependability Easier logon for remote offices Group Membership replication enhancements Application Directory Partitions Install Replica from media .supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name Schema Redefine--.Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active directory schema AD/AM--.26 PART-2 Features of windows2003 ACTIVE DIRECTORY Easier Deployment and Management ADMT version 2.

FILE AND PRINT SERVICES Volume shadow copy service NTFS journaling file system EFS Improved CHDSK Performance Enhanced DFS and FRS Shadow copy of shared folders Enhanced folder redirection Remote document sharing (WEBDAV) IIS Fault-tolerant process architecture----.0 protects the server. increasing application availability. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a hierarchical database. while queuing requests Rapid-fail Protection---.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and applications based on a flexible set of criteria.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool.updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000. by automatically disabling Web sites and applications that fail too often within a short amount of time Automatic Process Recycling--.mspx Difference between NT & 2000 NT SAM database is a flat database.IIS 6. including CPU utilization and memory consumption.27 Dependability Improvements--.IIS 6.The IIS 6. IIS 6.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/overview/technologies/def ault. IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools Health Monitoring---. .If an application fails too often within a short amount of time. and other applications.microsoft.0 will automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued requests to the application Edit-While-Running http://www.

which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified domain names. This is proprietary for Windows Types of DNS Servers Primary DNS Secondary DNS Active Directory Integrated DNS Forwarder Caching only DNS . Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements Difference between PDC & BDC PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database. Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data Difference between 2000 & 2003 Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003 Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS Volume shadow copy services is introduced Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers in the domain. It is not possible to reset a password or create objects with out PDC in Windows NT. Both can also handles FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service. It is just for identification. Difference between DC & ADC There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. What is DNS & WINS DNS is a Domain Naming System. Windows 2000 supports FAT32 Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). Functionality wise there is no difference. In windows 2000 default authentication protocol is Kerberos V5.28 In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only read only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. which resolves Netbios names to IP Address.

HTTP-80. Telnet – 23. If client already got the IP and having lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.29 If DHCP is not available what happens to the client Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network. LDAP-389 What are the different types of profiles in 2000 Local Profiles Roaming profiles Mandatory Profiles What is the database files used for Active Directory . Kerberos-88. HTTP.mplicit Trusts 2. File level protection is not possible. Telnet. what are the different types of trust relationships 1. In NTFS we can apply both share level as well as file level security NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems What are the port numbers for FTP.NTFS & NTFSVersion5 NTFS Version 5 features Encryption is possible We can enable Disk Quotas File compression is possible Sparse files Indexing Service NTFS change journal In FAT file system we can apply only share level security.Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server DHCP Discover (Initiated by client) DHCP Offer (Initiated by server) DHCP Request (Initiated by client) DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server) DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer) Difference between FAT. DNS FTP-21. DNS-53.

ntds.log. Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger network does super netting What is the use of terminal services Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user that application.30 The key AD database files—edb. During AD installation.log. What is the protocol used for terminal services RDP -3389 What is the use of LDAP (X. Dcpromo lets you specify alternative locations for these log files and database files NTDS. Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain. because by default it will be associated with domain GPO. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO.log. Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only.DIT What is the location of AD Database %System root%/NTDS/NTDS.dit. res2. Domain controller policy. . Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) What is Domain Policy.chk—all of which reside in \%systemroot%\ntds on a domain controller (DC) by default.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol. and edb. which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers What is Active Directory De-fragmentation De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS). res1.DIT What is the authentication protocol used in NT NTLM (NT LAN Manager) What is sub netting and super netting Subletting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for identifying additional sub-networks Super netting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one larger block of addresses. Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller.

it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000. domain controller. Using the Recovery Console.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller SID history List of important port numbers 21 FTP . the results can conflict. format drives. As an alternative. and Group Policy Software Installation. Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: If you are unable to start your computer. or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. In addition. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator. When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example. Scripts. and organizational unit). The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive. site. you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM drive). you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console. you can start and stop services. you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. and perform many other administrative tasks. Security Settings.31 What is the use of SYSVOL folder Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the Windows 2000 Setup program. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and With Publish option you can apply only on users. read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS). including Administrative Templates. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. Internet Explorer Maintenance. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems Netdom. Folder Redirection. domain.

IKE (IPsec) (UDP 500) What is Bridge Head Server? Crisis Management? .32 23 25 42 53 67 68 80 88 101 110 119 123 139 161 180 389 443 520 37 3389 443 220 3268 3269 500   Telnet SMTP WINS DNS BOOTP DHCP HTTP Kerberos HOSTNAME POP3 NNTP NTP NetBIOS SNMP RIS LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) (Network time protocol) HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS) RIP Time Terminal services SSL (https) (http protocol over TLS/SSL) IMAP3 AD Global Catalog AD Global Catalog over SSL Internet Key Exchange.

What are Windows 2003 modes?    . /domainprep). Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number? Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog? Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has recommended? (depends on the volume of data) How DNS and DHCP are integrated? If RID master fails what happens? tool used for FSMO? Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy? Netdom. Can a user is able to login if the DNS server fails(if you have only one DNS Server). What is the authentication process? What is the role of GC in authentication process? What happens if DNS server fails. what is the issue if both resides on same system? When you require a Infrastructure Master. DMZ concept in Firewalls.33      Mail flow in Exchange Server. Tell me one example when Infracture master and Global catalog will be on one DC.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller               How to trouble shoot if a DHCP client won’t get IP from DHCP Server? What is online and offline fragmentations? Garbage collections and white spaces? Question on System State data Backup? Diff types of DNS roles and Zones? What are the steps you follow when you are promoting a server as ADC in windows 2003? What are the two parameters you run before upgrading the server to an ADC(/forestprep.

34    What are FSMO roles and explain then? Stress on PDC emulator? 2003 advantages? .

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