Government Control of Land Development Fall 2009 – Prof. Davis – Samsel II.

   Constitution: Substantive DP, EQ, & Takings; Fed Ct Barriers 1: Substantive DP 2: EQ 3: Takings o 3: Intentional Takings (Eminent Domain) o 4: Unintentional Takings: Physical Invasions & Regulatory Takings  5: Categorical Takings: : Loretto (Physical) & Lucas (Economic)  6: Penn Central Balancing Test; 7: Exactions  7: Remedies (2 options) 7: Fed Methods of Suit/Available Remedies 8: Fed Barriers to Const. Relief (Ripeness & Abstention); § 1983 Euclidean Zoning 1: Zoning Power 2: Procedural Hurdles: Standing; Exhaustion of Remedies; Securing Judicial Review; Form of Remedy 5: Standard of Review: Fairly Debatable Test (Hard look v. Soft look) 6: Recurring Issues: Density & Intensity of Use (Large Lot & Site Rqmts) 7: Residential Uses (Single/Multi-Family; ―Family‖; Mentally Handicapped) ―Family‖ 8: Manufactured Housing 9: Commercial & Industrial Uses: Formula Biz, Control of Competition 11: Nonconforming Uses: Hastening Disappearance & Amortization (affm) 13: Special Protection Uses: Adult & Religious (4 authorities) Exclusionary Zoning (low income) & Discrimination (race) 1: Exclusion: Affordable housing (state) 2: Discrimination: Standing & Claims (Constitutional or Fed Fair Housing Act (FFHA)) (fed) Flexible Zoning: Variances, Exceptions, & Amendments 2: Zoning Variances: Use & Area 3: Special Exception 4: Rezoning (Amendment): Estoppel/Vested Rights; Spot Zoning; Quasi-Judicial v. Legislative 7: Other Forms: Floating Zone; Contract v. Conditional Zoning 8: Site Plan Review. Role of Comprehensive Plan. 9: Initiative & Referendum Subdivision Controls: Exactions & Takings (residential) 1: Subdivision Denials & Controls 2: Exactions: Dedications; In Lieu Fees; Impact Fees. Step 1: Exaction? 3: Step 2: Authorized? Step 2a: Zoning Issues. Step 3a: Nollan Nexus Test 4: Step 3b: Does Dolan apply? Step 3c: Dolan Rough Proportionality Test 5: Step 4: Tougher State standards? Growth Management Strategies & Alternate Urban Development Forms 1: Slowing Growth: Quota Programs (fed & state standards) 2: Facility Related Programs: Phased Growth & ADF (Adequate Public Facilities) 3: Controlling Growth: UGB (Urban Growth Boundaries) 4: Limiting Public Services (leapfrog)

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CH. 2: CONSTITUTION: SUBSTANTIVE DP, EQ, & TAKINGS; FED CT BARRIERS SUBSTANTIVE DP LIMITS (FED CONST.) TERMINOLOGY  Federal Cts call it substantive DP.  State Cts call it ―unreasonable, confiscatory, arbitrary, etc.‖  Bottom Line: Same thing. Relation to public health, safety, morals, or general welfare.

POLICE POWER  Rule: States possess a general power to regulate to protect ―the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare.‖ o This is the basis of power to regulate land use and development.  Fed gov‘t has NO police power, BUT possesses a large power to regulate in ways that affect land use and development under Art. I, § 8 of the Const. LAND USE REGULATION  General Rule: Govt can regulate the use of property by exercising their police power.  Purpose: The right of govt to legislate (enact laws) to protect health, safety, public welfare, and morals. o Effect: NO compensation is required if the regulation is const. and otherwise valid. o Govt could hardly go on if to some extent the values incident to property could not be diminished w/o paying for every such change in the general law.  Limit: Limited by the DP Clause of 5A and 14A. o When state or local regulatory legislation is found to be improper exercise of police power, it can be enjoined as a deprivation of liberty or property (or both) w/o DP of law. SUBSTANTIVE DP V. TAKINGS  BOTH require legitimate state interest/concern + substantial relationship/advancement.  Difference is the remedy: o Substantive DP: If the regulation is improper, the restriction will be struck down. o Taking: You get compensation.  Effect: Even when a LO can‘t make a Takings claim (to get compensation), he can challenge the land use reg itself or the way it is applied. o Can be a Substantive DP claim or EQ claim  Substantive Facial: not constitutionally permitted.  Substantive As-Applied: Demand is not legitimately related to review  EQ: similar demands not made on other developments. SUBSTANTIVE DP RULE: George Washington Univ., 183  Step 1: “Standing-like” Pre-Requisite: Must have a liberty or property interest to have Sub. DP claim. o 2 Tests for Finding a Property Interest (in the land use context):  Minority Test: Must have an ownership interest in the land. 3rd Cir.  Majority Test: “New Property” Inquiry: Focus on the structure of the land use regulatory process and look to the degree of discretion to be exercised by govt officials in granting or w/holding the relevant permission. The Rule!  More discretion for officials = less likely a property interest Can start o E.g. virtually unlimited discretion = NO prop int. w/ either o Do board members get to apply their own personal tastes? step 1 or 2. o Mere expectancy is NOT enough for property int. Look to state law.  Little or no discretion for officials = more likely a property interest o E.g. Absolute entitlement = prop int. (if you do this, this, and this, then you get this). E.g. bar exam. o Look for ―shall‖ language, e.g. 2

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Step 2: Even if a prop int is found, subst. DP imposes only very slight burdens on govt to justify its actions. o Requires land use regs to serve a legit govt purpose. o Rule: Constrains ONLY egregious govt misconduct. o Test: Egregious conduct can be found in 2 ways:  1) Ignore the law. i.e. Trammels significant personal or prop rights.  2) Irrational. i.e. Substantial infringement of state law prompted by personal or group animosity/hostility o Applied to GWU: Govt conduct was NOT egregious. Held: rational to treat students differently. Common setting for Sub DP challenges: o Exclusionary and aesthetic zoning and other regs that raise legitimacy of purpose issues. In Practice: Some cts reverse the order of GWU. Just find no DP violation and avoid property question.

Agins is still viable for a substantive DP analysis: We do need a nexus b/w the regulation and health, safety, and welfare, but that is a substantive DP analysis, NOT a takings analysis. Lingle, 171 EQUAL PROTECTION LIMITS (FED CONST.) EQ Protection claims rarely used for land use regulations/takings.  EQ Claim: Similar demands not made on other developments.  Requires fairness in the application of govt regulation.  DP Clause applies to property, whereas EQ protection clause applies to people.  Advantage over DP cases: Many courts do not place same limits on getting EQ claims into court. 3 Tiers of the Std of Review in EQ Protection cases:  Strict Scrutiny. Applies when there is: o (1) a suspect class, OR  e.g. racial discrimination in land use reg. o (2) a fundamental interest involved.  e.g. free speech affected, by e.g. sign regulation. o Requires compelling govt interest, which courts seldom find.  Intermediate Scrutiny. Applies when there is: o Discrimination based on certain characteristics, like gender.  Rational Basis (most common). o Most land use regulation gets RB b/c they affect only economic interests in the land. Key! o Relaxed standard: Mere rational relationship, plus there is a presumption of const. o Apply this standard whenever there is NO suspect class, fundamental int, or certain characteristics.  “Class of One” Cases/Selective Enforcement. o Claim: P alleges he is singled out. To win: o Rule: P MUST show (1) intentional different treatment + (2) NO RB for the difference in treatment. o Olech, 193 : P required to provide 33-foot easement for water supply when all others have 15-foot rqmt. P also alleged ill will.  SCOTUS: No RB for different treatment. EQ violation. Ill will may make a difference.  Davis: You MUST allege ill will to beat 12(b)(6). Then prove it to win claim.

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TAKINGS Intentional Takings  ED Unintentional Takings (govt ―takes‖ land but doesn‘t mean to)  Regulatory (police power preventing use)  Inverse Condemnation (physical invasion)

I.

Intentional Takings: Eminent Domain

EMINENT DOMAIN  The power to take private property for public use  Both fed and state governments have ED power o It‘s the only inherent power of the fed gov‘t (not provided for in the Const)  Two Limits on ED Power o (1) Must be for a public use, and o (2) Must provide just compensation o 99% of fights in this area are about just compensation; 1% about ―public use‖ o Fed Limit derives from 5A: ―No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without DP of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use w/o just compensation.‖ o State Limits derive from State const (all require just compensation) & 14A: ―No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, w/o DP of law; nor deny to any person w/in its j(x) the EQ protection of the laws.‖ Include 2 Limits: Public Purpose + Just Compensation “PUBLIC USE” = PUBLIC PURPOSE  “Public Use” really means ―public PURPOSE‖ Berman 70 o It may be ok for the property to end up in private hands w/o complete access to the public. o Govt condemned all land in the area b/c of blight, although B‘s property itself was not blighted. o B challenged govt as giving property from 1 indvl to another o Held: ―Public use‖ doesn‘t really mean ―use by the public‖ o Govt‘s ED was upheld b/c it served as public purpose, i.e. ridding blight.  Public Purpose: Kelo Modern Standard/Spectrum o Clearly Unconstitutional: Govt may NOT take A‘s property for the sole purpose of transferring it to B, even if A is paid just compensation. o Clearly Constitutional: Govt may transfer property from one private party to another if future ―use by the public‖ is the purpose of the taking. o Gray Area: Govt claims ―public purpose.‖ Public Purpose should be defined broadly, w/ deference to legislative judgments: Kelo  Appears that if Legislature says it‘s a public purpose, Court will not substitute its judgment.  E.g. Transferring land among private indvls for economic development/revitalization IS a public purpose.  Keys: (1) State authorized economic development and (2) city had Keys! comprehensive, thoroughly deliberated plan (not spur of moment).  HI created ―rent-to-own‖ program b/c 99% of land owned by 5 families. Midkiff, 71  Effect: Transferring land b/w private indvls  Held: Even w/ no blight, it served a public purpose: freeing up land use and bringing down land prices.  “Reasonable Certainty” Rqmt? NO. Once a Ct determines there is a public purpose and the means are not irrational, the Ct will NOT 2 nd guess whether the expected public benefits of the plan will actually accrue. 4

prohibiting ED for economic development purposes or restricting it to more narrowly-defined blighted properties. if it goes too far. 100% Total Regulatory Taking  (3) Penn Central taking  (4) Land use exaction violating the standards set forth in Nollan and Dolan.  Permissible public purposes include economic development.g. 5A sets the fed constitutional floor for public use (i. II. public purpose)—a minimal test to meet—a legislative decision that gets substantial deference. greater public notice and approval by elected public bodies. o A regulation can affect land so significantly that it is the f(x) equivalent of a taking of property for which compensation is paid. it will be recognized not just as a police power exercise but also as a taking (which requires just compensation). o NO sentimental/personal values: Excludes personal value attached to property/amt seller would ordinarily require to leave his home. Amount & Character of Land Rqmt? NO.  Issue Moving Ahead: Although govt does NOT physically take any land.  Thus. 5 . o A strong public desire to improve the public condition is NOT enough to warrant achieving the desire by a shorter cut than the constitutional way of paying for the change. 82 o There is a scale/spectrum. Objective appraiser. NOT whether it substantially advances a state interest.  Lingle: The Agins ―Substantially Advances‖ formula is NOT a valid takings test. State Responses to Kelo: o 3 LegislativeTypes  Substantive restrictions on the use of ED  E. It‘s a question of degree. o Standard: What willing buyer would pay willing seller. NOT ―full‖ compensation b/c impractical to calculate additional values or relocation costs.  Requiring more than FMV compensation when principle residence is taken.g. Again.  JUST COMPENSATION  Fair market value at the time and place of taking. o Bottom Line: 5A sets the floor. indvl must sue the govt (hence. inverse from normal condemnation/ED)  Two types: o Physical invasion (per se takings) o Regulatory (more controversial) Evolution of Regulatory Takings  Rule: While property may be regulated to a certain extent (w/o requiring compensation).  States are welcome to further restrict the definition of public use by state const. fix blight.e. o Thus. & breaking up a land oligopoly to get the market to function normally. o It has NO place in takings jurisprudence. Pennsylvania Coal. Unintentional Takings: Inverse Condemnation (Physical Invasions & Regulatory Takings) Inverse condemnation: Gov‘t takes private property but fails to conduct formal proceedings/pay just compensation. once the public purpose is satisfied. Physical Taking o (2) Lucas: NO economically viable use. provisions. the Ct will NOT 2nd guess whether the city needs particular tracts of land.  Key: Look at the effect on the LO.  These are legislative judgments. o Judicial: Many states have rejected the Kelo rationale in applying state const. at what point does an indvl have a taking action b/c the regulation ―takes‖ the land? ROADMAP: A LO seeking to challenge a govt regulation as an uncompensated taking of private property may proceed under 1 of 4 theories:  Categorical Takings: o (1) Loretto: Permanent.  Imposing more procedural protections  E.

‖ although others have value?  SCOTUS hasn‘t addressed/resolved.  Temporary invasions are NOT per se takings. a nuisance. perhaps. o Per se taking! It‘s irrelevant whether LO still has economically viable use for land. (2) physical invasion.  E. o State Property Exception: The taking was an existing function of state (property) law.g.g. No further inquiry is necessary or allowed.  E.  Mobile home park not required to rent if it doesn‘t like ceiling (i. If 1%.‖ o Permanent: Absolute right to exclude is taken.g. cuts in favor of property owner. Palazzolo  e. o i. hence. etc. period.  Whole Parcel (Denominator) Rule. o Look at it from landowner‘s perspective. [154]. i. o Physical. forced pricing (setting electricity rates).g. REG TAKING #2: LUCAS: NO ECONOMICALLY VIABLE USE [142]  Rule: If the regulation deprives landowner of ALL economic value. o Nuisance Exception: If what LO was doing amounted to a private nuisance.g. complete destruction of value. does NOT include rent control (price ceilings). Can‘t sever portions and claim taking. Total.  E. o Easement. o e. 0%.  Limit: Does NOT apply to personal property. J.  Bottom Line: If just regulating. Beach Mgmt Act prevented all development (to prevent beach erosion). etc. o Separate addresses or separate tax treatment carry little weight. Regulations are NOT per se takings. SC): Lots should be considered as one parcel when evaluating the economic effect of a govt regulation. (3) by. no physical invasion by govt). o Various Approaches (for applying the Horiz. or authorized the govt is ALWAYS a taking. PHYSICAL INVASIONS [119]  Rule: Any (1) permanent. o ―No‖ economic value means NO. Nuclear plant ordered to remove all improvements from land upon discovery that it sits on an earthquake fault. ―Categorical Taking‖: Game over. welfare. e.  Govt doesn‘t take merely a strand of the bundle of prop rights.  MUST look at the entire bundle.g. o If taking or invading. 6 . but chops through the bundle.e. submit evidence that lots should be treated separately. Keystone Coal. govt must pay (it‘s a taking). State rights. o Vertical: Clearly established for up-and-down (air rights and mining rights). he never had a right to do it anyway. something inherent in the title. Small cable box attached to house.e. 2 parcels up on a hill did not deprive the entire 74 acres of all economic value.  Presumption can be rebutted by either side. Lake bed owner denied permit to build landfill b/c it would cause flooding of neighboring land.o All regulations MUST advance a legit state interest to take to begin with. taking a slice of every strand. as opposed to physical invasion or taking title. it cuts in favor of govt. o Rationale for Exceptions: The use of the properties for the now-regulated (allegedly taken) properties was always unlawful. 118 o Horizontal: Can a taking exist where some lots have been ―taken.  Preventing LO from doing something on a portion of land is NOT physical. Whole Parcel Rule in Lucas cases):  1) Rebuttable Presumption (Mass. Categorical “Per Se” Takings A.e. go to Penn Central.g. even if not what LO wants. substantial relation to health.  Ct refused to find a taking for the 50% of coal required to be left alone. Marshall. [148]  E. REG TAKING #1: LORETTO: PERMANENT. It‘s a taking. ―Only unreasonable people change the world.

 Former Penn Central Factor: Character of the Govt Action  Physical invasion by govt = more likely to find a taking.e. city had NO intention of removing the land restriction.  Applied:  Station can be used exactly as it has been for years. halting growth to preserve the lake. apply Penn Central.  Factors (not exclusive): Degree of contiguity. extent to which parcel was treated as a single parcel.  2) Flexible Approach (Ct of Fed Claims):  Underlying principle: Fairness.g. dates of acquisition. Temporal “Whole Parcel” Rule: You can NOT divide ownership over time and demand payment for periods.  Whole Parcel Rule (aka Denominator Rule): Don‘t look at each parcel of the property (e. by itself.  Coal mining could still be profitable/practical at 50% rqmt. B. o i. standing alone.e. it intended to lift the regulation when a plan was developed. Otherwise. Find the precedent that helps your cause to argue your case.  Tahoe was a temporary moratorium. o But it may affect the investment-backed expectations!  e. [160]  Safety issue? Amount to nuisance? E. Maybe more. o (2) Interference w/ Investment Backed Expectations (big! subset of #1):  Still getting reasonable return? Total rejection? Other compensation rights received?  LO still getting a reasonable return. Not absolute. require parcels to be left unbuilt. PC challenges as Reg Taking.g. is NOT enough to overcome the presumption. o Look at the FSA to determine if a taking occurred. height restrictions. TOOLS TO ARGUE WITH:  Every taking case we‘ve read is still good law (although conflicting).  The deprivation MUST be unconditional/indefinite. actual impact of the regulation on any indvl  Diminution in property value. 7 . and extent to which the regulated lands enhance the value of remaining lands. Lack of a common development plan for the 2 lots. Held: NO taking. o Comm‘n refuses to grant request for change to Penn Central station.  Penn Central Facts: NYC imposed regs in landmark districts: o Affirmative duty: maintain building.  Lucas was unconditional.e. 118 o (3) Importance of the public interest served by the regulation or the Government’s reason for imposing the temporary restriction.  Transferrable Devel Rights (TDRs) may or may not be just compensation (not a taking here). b/c tourist effect. Reasons for imposing the temporary restriction. mining structure supports. You can‘t claim temporary deprivations of 100% of economic value. air rights). but certainly a big factor easing the burden on LO.  Many zoning restrictions are OK (even when preventing most beneficial use): prohibition on industrial use. Penn Central Takings: Balancing Test (1% to 99% restricted) o REG TAKING #3: PENN CENTRAL BALANCING TEST [104]  Rule: To determine whether a regulation/restriction amount to a ―Regulatory Taking. Regulation requiring that 50% of coal be left alone for structure support was ok. Negative duty: Don‘t change building w/o comm‘n approval.  Interference arising from public program adjusting the benefits & burdens of economic life to promote the common good = less likely to be a taking. just said 55 stories was too tall.‖ apply 3 factors: o (1) General (Economic) Impact on the Land Owner (least important):  i. can NOT establish a taking.g. Tahoe modification  i.  Not all towers were denied.  Buying w/ Notice: Buying property w/ notice of existing ―taking‖/restriction does NOT prohibit a takings claim. Keystone Coal.

First English  Remedy: You ONLY get compensatory damages.  Municipalities: YES. the regulation already passed = Land restricted.e. it would pay 2 months. Condemn the property (ED) and pay just compensation. regulatory taking. See Nollan and Dolan. o e.  i.177 also). (couldn‘t build church in flood plain). absent extraordinary delay.  Drop in property value due to conversation about regulation is NOT compensable.  e.  Preliminary activity is NOT a taking.e.  Rationale: It‘s just like a physical invasion. First English involved an extraordinary period of years = temporary reg taking. REMEDY for Inverse Condemnation (Physical or Regulatory):  Rule: Once ruled unconstitutional (i. the govt has 2 options: o 1) Repeal the regulation and pay for the interim period*. Plymouth Pro-Govt Language: A Taking can NOT be shown simply b/c P lost the ability to exploit a property interest to the full extent it believed was available for development. are incidents of ownership. A taking is a taking. etc.  2) Loss of income production  3) Claimant‘s ability to recoup capital  4) Interest on present value of the property FED REMEDIES FOR CONSTITUTIONAL VIOLATIONS FEDERAL Methods of Suit/Available Remedies:  Takings (Inverse Condemnation) Claims: o Method 1: Can directly sue the govt. o 2) Pay for the restriction. Must leave a pillar of coal for worker safety. NO longer valid distinction/argument. relationship to public welfare. including planners. Doesn‘t matter whether it‘s a physical taking. Aesthetic Features: Can bear a subst. Public Harm v.  Mere fluctuations in value during the process of governmental decisionmaking.  * Temporary Takings: o General Rule: If a govt pulls a bad regulation. Ch.g. Public Good: DEAD.  i.g. o Causby: Direct overflights above P‘s land destroyed the present use of the land (chicken farm). o Held: Taking. o Method 2: Try a § 1983 suit (but it has more limits):  States: NO. o Limit: Safety.g. C. Not a person under § 1983. Various Options:  1) Fair Rental Value for the period. o Value for Temporary Takings. REMEDIES for INVERSE CONDEMNATION—FIRST ENGLISH “All Takings are Equal” Rule: Ct will NOT distinguish b/w different types of takings. If govt had it 2 months. etc.  Exception: Extraordinary Delays may require compensation. it MUST pay for the interim period. 8 . o Limit: Normal Delays in Govt Decisionmaking (before Regulation is passed) is NOT a taking. a taking).  E. 5A is self executing.e. OR  (but NOT entire just compensation). Uniquely Public Functions: Govt actions to acquire resources to permit or facilitate uniquely public f(x) have often been held to constitute takings. Treat all the SAME. Reciprocity of advantage changes. REG TAKING #4: LAND USE EXACTION.6-Subdivision (p.     Average Reciprocity: Most common for LOs—the reg is falling unfairly on just a few people. Penn Coal gave up everything for nothing in return: No reciprocity of advantage. NOT a reg taking.e.  i. Govt had not merely destroyed property but was using a part of it for the flight of its planes. mayor.

 (2) Final Decision Rule: Local land use agency must make a final decision on the application. o Practically ALL states have the required compensation remedy. EQ.  Principle: State cts should be allowed to decide cases when there are strong reasons for allowing litigation to be tried in state. you can sue in fed ct. 2. Action is ripe upon passage of act. RELIEF UNDER § 1983 OF FED CIVIL RIGHTS ACT  Add 1983 stuff later.  (1) Reapplication Rule: LO must make at least 1 meaningful application for approval of his development and MUST reapply if the application is rejected. there can be NO conclusive determination that he has been denied all reasonable beneficial use of property. o § 1983 is NOT a bypass around the finality requirement.  “Exhaustion”: Admin or judicial procedures whereby LO can seek review of an adverse decision and obtain remedy if found unlawful. Can NOT just sue the govt. 1A. or Fed Statute claims: o Method: MUST use § 1983. o Until LO seeks variance. 9 . a fed ct MAY decline j(x) under ripeness or abstention doctrines. Remember:  Not really an issue when govt acts first. ct.  Remedy: Consequential or punitive (not against city) damages MAY be available in addition to compensatory damages. o Certification can also be used by fed cts to get help from state cts on unresolved issues.  (4) State Court First: LO MUST sue in state court for compensation if state compensation remedy is available. o Exception: If alleging fed govt took the land.  Abstention is OPTIONAL for the fed judge. rather than fed. These rules o Finality v. DP. BIG LIMIT on BOTH: Even if there is an available method and remedy (above). A. o Typical Problem: Finality can be issue when LO goes to govt asking for something. concrete injury. FED Courts!!  “Finality”: Definitive position from the initial decision maker that inflicts an actual.‖ or that the local authority has dug in its heels and made it abundantly clear it will not grant a permit.  Especially true where a sensitive area of social policy is at issue. RIPENESS: Land Use Ripeness Rules Williamson County.  (3) Seek Variance: LO MUST apply for variance or other available admin relief from an adverse decision. [See 197] B. FEDERAL BARRIERS TO CONSTITUTIONAL RELIEF 1. o Exception: Finality is NOT required for facial attacks. ABSTENTION 2.  Less likely to apply abstention where 1A issues are raised in land use cases. o Exception: Futility Rule: Repeated applications are NOT required where special circumstances indicate a permit application is not a ―viable option. Exhaustion apply ONLY in  NOT required to exhaust all admin remedies. ABSTENTION  Pullman Absention Guideline: Fed cts should abstain from exercising j(x) when: o resolution of a difficult and unsettled question of state law would make a decision on a fed constitutional issue unnecessary. 204  General Rule: Ripeness is jurisdictional: A fed ct does NOT have j(x) of a case that is not ripe.

e. in theory o Freedom o Less government spending  Con Free Market o Externalities (effects that are not priced by the market. Economist o Planner concerned about resolving conflict. P wins but doesn‘t get injunction. development. I. ag. o Economist concerned about growth.g. Transforming farmland into urban area is non-reversible.  i.  Purpose: Protect against unreasonable interference w/ the use and enjoyment of land. No enjoinment. o Most nuisance cases involve recurrent activity rather than an isolated wrongful act. If the validity of the legislative classification for zoning purposes be fairly debatable. public transportation. no injunction (D gets to continue his actions after compensating P)  Boomer: Concrete company in industrial area. etc. undesirable elements. like a pig in the parlor instead of the barnyard. Smart growth Conflict & Conflict Resolution in the Use of Land  i. INTRO TO LAND USE CONTROLS The Challenge of Land Use Policy Why use Land Use Controls?  Prevent conflict among LOs. environmental quality o E. NUISANCE & COVENANTS OR EASEMENTS (not on final) ―A nuisance may merely be a right thing in the wrong place.g.Ch.  Principle: One should use one‘s own property so as to not injure the property of another. 10 . o Court will NOT speculate. 1: I. Are we justified/should we do it?  Policy Goal: Finding the proper balance b/w land use controls and the free market  Pro Free Market: o Most efficient. the legislative judgment must be allowed to control.  Four Possible Outcomes of Nuisance Suit (depending on state): o No nuisance.  Prospective Relief? Majority Rule: NO. D pays permanent damages and still gets to operate. preserving farmland. quality-of-life issues. housing development. and  Resolve conflicts (if prevention doesn‘t work). traffic noise.  Conflicting Uses of Land o Recreation.  Connection to (1) taxation (primarily property) and (2) provision of public services  Sprawl v.e.‖ A. noxious fumes. labor & capital. Harm must occur before nuisance happens. paid for by others)  E. NUISANCE LAW Nuisance law is the legal antecedent for land use regulation. etc. or environmental impacts  Unrepresented parties in the transaction o Imperfect information  Planner v. Either bad quality or housing. o Nuisance: grant injunction o Nuisance: damages only. visual distractions. permanent damages in lieu of an injunction o Nuisance: grant injunction BUT winning P must pay the D compensatory damages for losses caused by the injunction.

 Bind the promisor. Notice (filed at recorder‘s office or actual)  For the Benefit to Run: o Intent.  E. Promises relating to the use of land. industrial area). Burden on person harmed in avoiding the harm caused (who got there 1st. Privity of Estate (Vertical (some interest)).Two types:  Private Nuisance (like Bove) o Most common o One LO claims a 2nd LO has substantially interfered w/ his use and enjoyment. Still need public regulation. substantial interference w/ use and enjoyment (whether intended or not)  (3) Unreasonable harm  Test: Weigh the harm against P v. Touch or Concern the Land. COVENANTS & EASEMENTS Covenants & Easements  Privately created.  Lack effective planning.‖) Moving Ahead: What‘s missing from just nuisance law & common interest communities (covenants & easements)?  They are backward-looking. B.  Just have it done and sue for damages. Touch or Concern the Land.) o Social Utility of D‘s Conduct: Social value law attaches to primary purpose of D‘s conduct. e.e. Privity of Estate (Horizontal and Vertical (entire interest)).  For the Burden to Run: o Intent (usually inferred). a private party MUST show special damages above what the general public suffers.  Held: Feedlot enjoined as public nuisance BUT developer pays the feedlot. o Webb: Town development encroaches on cattle feedlot (making the feedlot smell a nuisance).g. D ―condemning‖ others to his use.g. Practicability of changing the conduct (better methods?) o Slight Harm to P? Most courts will still find a nuisance IF D‘s conduct has little or no social value OR the nuisance is a result of pure malice or spite. (i. health and safety. Writing.g.  Developer had special damage over general public.  (2) Actual. Suitability of the land invaded to the nature of the area (e. Don‘t embrace externalities. o Elements (determined by the act itself. Suitability of land for D‘s conduct (zoned industrial?). and perhaps later successors. social utility of D‘s conduct o Gravity of Harm Factors: Extent. Could be a person walking around w/ a disease. P ―coming to‖ a nuisance v. Character. Writing.  Doesn‘t even have to be a land use. ―I won‘t build a house. promisee. Social value the law attaches to the land invaded (P‘s land). Notice  Remedy o Affirmative Promises: No equitable remedy/specific performance. o Bove: Being 1st is only a factor. not the effect):  (1) Intentional conduct. o Negative Promises: Specific performance is okay. o Standing: To bring suit. 11 .  Public Nuisance (like Webb) o Land use that interferes generally w/ the public‘s use of land.

and appearance of buildings. KSA 12-756  Uniformity: ALL regulations. KSA 12-756 o But regulations may differ from one district/zone to another. or should focus. Board of Zoning Appeals (BZA) (aka Adjustment) Grant zoning variances & special exceptions. and  Special uses may be designated w/in each district w/ conditions attached. * Appointed. commercial. STANDARD OF REVIEW. industrial. courts. local govt MUST have power delegated from the state. provisions which: KSA 12-755 o (1) Provide for planned unit developments (PUDs). STRUCTURE A.  Zoning Ordinances: ALL states have passed enabling legislation that authorizes local govts to enact and enforce zoning regulations. MUST be uniform for each class or kind of building or land use throughout each district. and land for residential. # of stories. and size of buildings. o Location. and other purposes. including agricultural land. KSA 12-753  Original Zoning: PC MUST recommend the nature and # of zones/districts before any can be adopted or regulations or restrictions enforced therein. provisions: KSA 12-753 o Restricting and regulating the height.  Standard Zoning Enabling Act (SSZEA).g. o Conservation of natural resources. except as provided in the ordinance. 3: EUCLIDEAN ZONING: STATE COURT HURDLES. o (3) preserve historic structures and districts. o (2) permit transfer of development rights. o Use of land located in flood plains. on the city as a whole and the relationship of various types of land use to a city‘s overall plan of development. o (5): Provide for issuance of special exceptions/uses.  Maps or Textual Descriptions may be used to define boundaries of the zoning districts. * e. use.  Regulations may include. Planning Commission (PC) Advise on enactment and amendment of original ordinances.CH. but not be limited to.  Regulations may include. Usually 3 govt bodies: Local Governing Body (LGB) * Elected.  Most legal and policy issues about zoning trace back to choices made when the district lines and regs were drawn. o Density of population. RECURRING ISSUES Zoning: The division of land into districts having different regulations  Focuses. but not be limited to. o (4) Control aesthetics of new or re-development. I. KSA 12-753 12 . structures. o (Intensity) Percentage of each lot that may be occupied. and other open spaces.  Rule: To act. o (Setbacks): Distance of any buildings and structures from a street or highway. Does ―med clinic‖ include vets? * Appointed. Hear appeals on enforcement of ordinance. ZONING ENABLING LEGISLATION Source of Zoning Power at the Local Level  Starting Point: Local govts (municipal corporations) possess NO inherent right of self govt. o Size of yards. AUTHORITY TO ZONE  Zoning regulations may be enacted. o Modern Zoning Ordinances: Districting has become the core feature.

KSA 12-765(f)  Step 2: ―Any person aggrieved‖ is common language. look at 4 hurdles.  Examples:  Sufficient harm. injury in fact. 13 .  Effect: If you can keep other side from getting standing. NOT down the street. Center Bay Gardens. such as rezoning?  Step 1: RTGDS: Read the God-Damn Statute. noise & pollution from cars. lights from parking lot (all due to WalMart SC) Blanchard.: general allegations of harm. must still demonstrate special damages or harm. e. next door or across the street.e. o If ambiguous. KSA 12-760 o Standing for BZA Appeals: W/in 30 days.g. noise from trailer park. threats of violence.II. LGB is usually the D. Look to the statute. e.g. EXHAUSTION OF REMEDIES EXHAUSTION OF REMEDIES  General Rule: A P may NOT sue (bring ct action) to challenge the legality of a zoning statute or ordinance UNLESS he has exhausted his admin remedies. official. o Taxpayer Status: Very few states have adopted this. any person. greatly increased traffic.  Hence.g.: 750 ft away. use rules below.  General Rule: LOs have standing. e. 241  Insufficient harm. any person aggrieved may file suit in the county district court to determine the reasonableness of such final decision. but neighbor/3rd party is unhappy. Same analysis.  3) LO is satisfied w/ LGB‘s decision. STANDING Who has standing to file suit challenging a zoning approval. Problems emerge for neighbors/3rd parties. o Property Option Right? YES.  2) LO asks LGB for something and LGB says no. it governs. 237  Proximity is ONLY a factor.  i. economic or otherwise. PROCEDURAL HURDLES: GETTING A ZONING CASE INTO STATE COURT 3 scenarios where indvls would seek to file suit in court:  1) LGB takes action that LO does not like. 244 o Same Community Rqmt? NO. a P must allege ―particularized harm‖ resulting from the decision. litter. and ―prudential‖ standing rules adopted by SCOTUS. If LO has option to buy + intent to develop the land. A. which would permit any taxpayer in the area o Group/Neighborhood Organization:  SCOTUS: Very tough standard: actual injury to organization or its members rqrd. destruction of prop by children. Mission Woods can be ok). or governmental agency dissatisfied w/ any order or determination of the BZA may file suit in the county district court to determine the reasonableness of such order or determination. he has standing.  Sufficient harm. possible increase in crime.: shared boundary. fire & health hazards (like raw sewage). o Majority Rule: An adjacent property owner has standing to challenge a zoning decision w/o showing special harm. you get easy win. (Mission Hills v. o 3rd party is the P. (temp RV park used as permanent mobile home park). crime. 1875 feet away from site. as long as really representing neighborhood KS! interests (a light standard). o Fed cts: Standing is governed by ―case and controversy‖ rqmt of Const. Tri-County. o Minority Rule: To obtain standing. B.  Majority State Trend/KS: Grant standing. o Standing for LGB Final Decisions: W/in 30 days of the final decision of the city.

14 . BL went straight to ct (to avoid public hearings). Exhaustion o Finality: Whether initial decision maker has reached a definitive position that inflicts actual. SECURING JUDICIAL REVIEW o Certiorari:  Minority Rule: Direct (Non-Collateral) Attack is permitted IF you are an aggrieved person w/ standing.  Ben Lomond. As-Applied Challenges generally require exhaustion. Just file suit in court. o Exhaustion: Admin and judicial procedures whereby an injured party can seek review of an adverse decision  Zoning Amendments: Legislative v. and non-const. if you‘re not an aggrieved party. or it‘s a legislative decision.Exhaustion IS generally required when non-constitutional issues are present or factual contexts are needed for deciding a const. Facial Challenges: Exhaustion is NOT generally required when the constitutionality option? of the statute is the ONLY issue raised in case.g. Use collateral attack above.  Neighbors/3rd Parties: Neighbors MUST also exhaust admin remedies (if available).  Thus. KSA 12-760 and 12-765(f) o i.e. o KS follows this rule. which means a P can be required to file for a zoning amendment to permit his land use before filing suit.  Purpose: Allow an admin agency to perform f(x)s w/in it special competence. 246 : City erroneously approved permit for BL. Is variance an o Exception 1. o Rule: Certiorari (a direct attack) is available ONLY for review of admin or quasi-judicial decisions.  Source of Admin Remedies: Can be provided by statute or a zoning or other land use ordinance. issues.g. it then revoked. to apply its expertise.. in nature. Ct lacked j(x). option? variance is still available. BZA an  E. appealing ZBA action. to make a factual record. 252 : Held: Enactment/amendment of comprehensive zoning ordinance is legis.  2) The body is clearly on record against you. o Held: BL did not exhaust admin remedies as required. C. public off‘l. o Legislative Decisions: There is NO direct judicial remedy. issue. BL could have appealed to BZA or asked for variance.e. etc.  Majority Rule: (adopted Standard Zoning Act): o Persons ―aggrieved‖ by a decision of the BZA may obtain review by way of a writ of certiorari (an extraordinary remedy to review admin agency decisions for j(x) defects or illegality in the exercise of j(x)). Rather. o Limit: There are usually NO remedies available for 3rd parties. concrete injury. Exhaustion required for application for initial provision.  Thus.  Majority Rule: A zoning amendment is quasi-judicial. no direct appeal lies. you MUST use a Collateral Attack:  1) Injunction: Stop act.  2) Declaratory Judgment: Declare the rights of the city and indvl  3) Mandamus: Order from superior ct to lower ct stating it had NO j(x) to make the initial decision. o Exception 2. etc. and to correct its own errors so as to moot judicial controversies. Futility: Need NOT exhaust admin remedies if it would be futile. Is appeal to  Exhaustion also generally required for a case w/ both const. exhaustion IS required.  Copple. Quasi-Judicial o Rule: Exhaustion is generally required ONLY when the action (e.  Distinction b/w Finality v. zoning amendment) is considered quasi-judicial. 2 keys:  i.  Two types:  1) The body doesn‘t have authority to resolve the issue. ordinance.

 May NOT be granted if harm is merely threatened.  Test the legality of a procedure to avoid going through time and expense of applying for a land use approval as required by procedure.  Ct will NOT issue affirmative order to rezone the land to what P wants.  Refusal to Zone or Rezone (Upzone or Downzone) & Legislative Decisions: o Majority Rule: Specific relief is NOT available  Injunctive relief ONLY (city can‘t enforce the zoning restriction).  Effect: Ct will give the city a prescribed period of time for further legislative action. o Limit: Discretionary Acts.  Declaratory Judgment: o Nature: Authorizes ct to make a declaration of rights even though P has not suffered actual harm.  Adjudication of P‘s rights in advance can forestall an adverse action.e. Mandamus can NOT compel the performance of a discretionary act. i.  Mandamus: o Nature: Compels public official or agency to perform a ministerial act IF he has shown a clear legal right to have the duty performed b/c he has complied w/ all rqmts for the exercise of the duty.  Practical Effect: Much zoning administration is discretionary.  E. and that enforcement by municipality should be enjoined.  Obtain interpretation of a zoning ordinance to clarify zoning rqmts that might impede sale or use of prop. o Claim: LO argues that zoning restriction. o B/c an alternative legal remedy is unavailable. o Enforcement of a zoning ordinance  Injunction can still be brought and cts do NOT require an irreparable injury to enforce. FORMS OF REMEDY  Injunction: o When used: Standard remedy to challenge zoning actions by LGB in states where the zoning process is legislative.  P must return to the LGB. o Issue: When do you have a right to specific relief.  Can be brought w/ injunction action (common). merely striking down restriction. o It‘s a negative remedy.  Rationale: Ct is looking at the restriction.e. o Test: Injunction may be granted ONLY on a showing of irreparable injury. Conditional approval is NOT sufficient.g. SPECIFIC RELIEF  Setting: P wins his challenge and the ordinance/law/statute is invalidated.  But: Mandamus CAN be used to compel an off‘l to make a discretionary decision or to set aside an exercise of discretion when it‘s arbitrary. NOT the proposed use/development. o Ct is not approving the proposed use. Invalidation + What?  Question of Law (rare): Ct can grant specific relief. 2. 15 . REMEDIES IN LAND USE CASES 1. not affirmative. o Examples:  A land use action is imminent (such as comprehensive plan) but not yet occurred. or illegal. as applied to his prop is unconst.  Majority Rule: Leaving land unzoned is unacceptable. May invalidate zoning regs as applied to P‘s land and threaten to leave it unregulated unless the city rezones w/in specified time period. do what you want to do?  i.  Ct will NOT usurp legislative f(x). o Alternatives to Specific Relief  Minority Rule: Ct will invalidate the current zoning law and leave unzoned. so mandamus is often unavailable to compel the exercise of discretionary authority.D.

no discretion). BOP on P: Any govt zoning decision/classification can be overcome ONLY if P can prove by clear and convincing evidence that the zoning classification is: o (1) a significant detriment to P (i. the govt wins. collapse. Euclid zones the land. decreasing its value.  Standard Act. 16 .  Claim: Substantive DP challenge (not a taking)..  A right thing in the wrong place. were ok to protect dangers of fire. Euclid  Effect: Focus of judicial attention is now on the details of implanting zoning.e. Now in court. a ct may grant specific relief if it believes the appellant has sufficiently proved facts that support specific remedy. morals. it‘s OK. does NOT violate 14A DP as a means of govt control of private land use.  Limit: If the action is classified as legislative f(x). safety. morality. Facial attack. but if it‘s w/in a reasonable margin. where such discretion does NOT lie w/ a legislative body. o Fairly Debatable Standard: If P‘s evidence presents nothing more than a debatable question. a sufficient nexus to health. Ct may NOT issue specific relief. nuisance biz etc. o Nuisance law is helpful. o Limit: Some countervailing rules will help this.  Fed Approach/Majority of States/Krause: Cts really leave the decision to the legislature.  No Discretion: E.g.  Facts: Amber Realty waiting for industrial uses to reach it. Downzoning: Some cts will invalidate downzoning (more restrictions on P) and order reinstatement of prior zoning classification.  Zoning can be OK even when some uses are neither offensive nor dangerous. otherwise it violates substantive DP (if fed) or is confiscatory. even excluding apts was ok. rather than concept of zoning Substantive DP & Zoning Euclid v. wholly or partly. Roadmap: You‘ve got past the procedural rules. Not in every application of zoning.  Remand is appropriate where right to judicial relief is not clearly shown.g. like a pig in the parlor instead of the barnyard. overcrowding and the like. A&C). AND o (2) insubstantially related to the public health.  Standard of Review: Fairly Debatable Rule: If the validity of the legislative classification for zoning purposes be fairly debatable. and general welfare of community. o Universal agreement even prior to Euclid that restrictions on building heights. PRESUMPTION OF VALIDITY TEST (applied by all 50 states): Euclid  It‘s the standard of review for Zoning or Rezoning (unless Spot Zoning) Decisions  Step 1. fairly debatable. General Rule: The zoning technique.  Goal: Beat the standard of review that is weighted heavily in favor of deference to govt. o Excluding commercial uses from residential areas is OK. STANDARD OF REVIEW FOR ZONING OR REZONING DISPUTES  III. o Some good uses may be prohibited. open space. § 7: Ct may reverse or affirm. Will NOT subvert the int of the public for a fairly debatable question.e. Denial of Variance or other Remedy & Admin/Quasi-Judicial Decisions o Rule: Ct may grant specific relief ONLY if P shows clear right to relief (e. Here.  Issue: Does the comprehensive zoning plan have a sufficient nexus to health and welfare? Yes. then cash in. Amber Realty [88]  Starting Point: All zoning laws and regs MUST find justification in the police power. unreasonable. unreasonable. the legislative judgment MUST be allowed to control. safety. materials.  Bottom Line: The idea of zoning is const. or may modify the decision brought up for review. in its general aspects. o i. confiscatory. o Devil in the Details: Satisfying the A&C/Reasonableness/Confiscatory Standard: States vary widely in how strictly they scrutinize and apply the language above. restricting it to industrial uses. If variance or special use permit is denied. but a good idea on its face. arbitrary (if state). o Alleges that property values have been decreased w/o any nexus to health purpose.

 Cluster Zoning (makes prop more valuable): Development design that concentrates buildings in specific areas on a site to allow remaining land to be used for rec. o Consider ONLY the language of the text. o 4) relative gain to the public v. o Decrease is economic value alone is certainly insufficient.  Remember: large densities or intensities = land is worth more (for developer) 17 . Developer seeks greater density. also brings costs of additional municipal servs. As-Applied Attacks  Facial: When a ct strikes down an ordinance provision as facial invalid. a P must show that under NO circumstances can the ordinance be applied validly. RECURRING ISSUES IN ZONING LAW Spectrum: Residential ………Commercial………………Industrial  Even w/ this spectrum. Does it have any value? Step 2: Only if P meets BOP is the LGB required to present evidence justifying a zoning ordinance as reasonably related to the public interest. a large residential tower w/ hundreds of apartments can be regarded as more burdensome on adjoining land uses than a modest group of retail and service stores. the regulation is effectively wiped off the books and cannot be enforced by the city against any land user. never its application to a land user. Density/Intensity Typical Measures:  Residential: # of dwelling units permitted per acre of land (density). o Contra: City/county wants less dense. whether residential or non-residential. o Difference in value + something improper required.]. morals or general welfare of the public. o E. minimum lot size.000 sq. safety.u. hardship imposed on indvl prop owner o 5) suitability of the subject property for the zoned purposes. (dwelling units per acre) = Intensity of 20.g. a very few apply the 6 Guhl factors: o 1) Existing uses and zoning of nearby property.  Hence.  Some cts will just take stricter look. common open space. ft. A. While new tax revenues and economic activity. in context of land development in the area. Facial v. o Tougher Std: To prevail. o 2) Extent to which property values are diminished. Density of 2 d. and o 6) length of time the prop has been vacant as zoned.  KS uses the Guhl (Gold in KS) factors  TJP held that economic decline is again NOT determinative. rather.000 sq. IV. ft. Applies the presumption of validity liberally. DENSITY & INTENSITY OF USE Land development is a biz. o Minimum lot size requirement (intensity).  As-Applied: Seek relief from a specific application of a facially valid statute or ordinance to an indvl or class of indvls who are under allegedly impermissible present restraint or disability as a result of the manner or circumstances in which it‘s applied. or preservation of envtl or historic features.  Non-Residential: # of square feet of building allowed. a focus on density and intensity of permitted use. focus on the value of the property as it is currently zoned—NOT what it could be zoned./a. [1 acre = 40.  Down and Dirty Approach/TJP/Guhl Factors: Ct will take hard look for A&C. Favors LOs. o 3) Extent to which destruction of value on P‘s prop promotes the health.  Generally: Greater density = More profit/cheaper.

10-acre. character of community/history. road. o Height Limits: Max height limits that also limit building bulk. saying we don‘t want to be KC  Takings? Generally NOT a serious argument in large lot zoning b/c still has economic value. Liberty. o Floor Area Ration (FAR): Specifies a ratio b/w the square footage allowable in a building and the square footage of the building lot (controlling building bulk). the city has the burden to prove its actions are justifiable.  Character of the Community Justification? Does NOT work UNLESS you have other justifications.  Rule: Ct applies the Presumption of Validity test (above). etc.  Bottom Line: 3-acre lot zoning probably requires unique circumstances.  Environmental Justification? Works ONLY where there is a real problem (like Johnson). o ―We want to be our own city‖ doesn‘t work. reach the point where they go too far and become a problem (i.e. o Held: 4-acre zoning struck down b/c not necessary nor reasonable.  Justifications: Same as above + control on density. o Like above. 2. etc. o In such a case.e. o Frontage Rqmts: Require lots to have a minimum street frontage.  Generalities re: the public benefit of large lot zoning will NOT carry the day. Std of Review:  Justifications: Separation from street noise. o Site Ratio: Limit percentage of lot that can be occupied by building (controlling density and building bulk). 18 . and character arguments were insufficient. even if not a taking. welfare.  Common Site Development Requirements o Yard & Setback Regs: A rqmt of front yards by mandating minimum setbacks from street. DENSITY RESTRICTIONS: LARGE LOT ZONING Large Lot Zoning: Land use strategy for achieving low densities in suburban areas. morals. safety. environmental (runoff).  Held: Constitutional and substantially related b/c City provided specific evidence that 3acre zoning was necessary to protect the special ecology of Edgartown Great Pond and Martha‘s Vineyard.  i.  Developer’s Perspective: You can‘t sell a 3-acre lot for 3 times the amount of 3 1-acre lots.  Usually include side and back yard setbacks also. o Developer wants more intense zoning. welfare.  Claim: These planning tools can be attacked as unreasonably related to health. It becomes very difficult to justify the relation to police power. which are universally accepted.  Legal Justifications that tie zoning restrictions to Police Power (health.  Leading Case Striking down Large Lot Zoning Kohn.  Justify: Tradtl DP + Aesthetic basis.  General sewage.) can be a problem. morals): o Open space. pollution. ensure availability of light & Reasonableness air. all of the legal justifications (above) become so attenuated that they do NOT justify the increased limits.  Key: As residential lot size rqmts increase.e. safety.1. fire.9 or less). Gardner. (i. neighborhood building. o You can‘t make up a general environmental argument for less intense zoning. failed presumption of validity. 291 : o Rule: Zoning may NOT be used to avoid the increased responsibilities and economic burdens which time and natural growth inevitably bring. SITE DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS AS A FORM OF CONTROL Rule: Even site development requirements. they can‘t be justified as valid exercise of police power. 1. attractiveness. o Johnson. albeit less valuable at lower densities.  2-acre lots or larger (3-acre. city requires too much/large). waste disposal. it becomes more difficult to justify the rqmts.  General Rule: At some point. 283 : 3-acre minimum lot size rqmt. o Rule of Thumb: Anything less than 2-acre lot requirement is generally ok.

Moore. o (2) Promote health and general welfare of society  Fresh air. [299]. struck down on Subst. on [293]. provided that no family shall contain more than 5 adult persons.  Non-Residential: May be based on square footage or type of use. reduce noise  General Rule: Exclusive 1-family residential districts are const. Off-street Parking: Limits building area by requiring off-street parking. Generational limits. DEFINING “FAMILY”: SINGLE-FAMILY: NON-TRADITIONAL “FAMILIES” FAMILY  Traditional Definition: ―One or more person occupying a single dwelling and using common cooking facilities. P files As-Applied EQ claim. freedom of play for kids. nursing homes. o Held: Ordinance fails as-applied to P. RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS B. or adoption. You can set limits outside the family. 1. many families)  Control spread of fire. o Limit: Can bring as-applied challenges.  Helps w/ runoff. aesthetic. o It‘s a private realm of family life which the state cannot enter. Open Space and/or Landscaping: Specifies a percentage of lot that must be left in its natural condition.  Modern Problem/Definitions: Cities began change ordinances to limit the # of persons unrelated by blood. ft. Minimum Lot and Building Size Rqmts:  Not only must the lot be a minimum size. 19 . and retirement homes for elderly.g. marriage.  Mentally retarded group home was no different from other permitted uses which did not require a special permit: apt houses. 305 o E.  Limit: Still subject to setback and height limits.‖ o Key: The number of adult persons varied from one ordinance to another. 300 : 6 unrelated students living in house. 2:1 FAR = 2 sq. o Split Success: Group homes for juvenile offenders or mentally retarded or drug treatment centers.g. but the house must also be a minimum size. which prohibited more than 2 grandkids.  No fundamental right or suspect class. SEPARATION OF SINGLE-FAMILY & MULTIFAMILY USES Single-Family Residential Use  Basis. but there was generally NO rqmt that persons be related by blood marriage. Not a quasi-suspect class. of building for each 1 square foot of total lot. bring EQ claim. but requiring special permit. it bears NO rational relationship to the state‘s legit int. City denies special permit. fraternities.  Residential Areas: Based on # of dwelling units in multifamily projects. o Standard of Review: RB Test.g. o Std of Review: Applies RB Test: Rational relationship to legit state interest. cultivate land.e. more space b/w houses. sororities. etc.  Limit: You can NOT mess with the nuclear family (related persons). 2. DP. 308: P wants to build group home for 13 retards in area zoned for such. etc. o i.  E. o Didn’t Fare Well: fraternities. reduce traffic. o SCOTUS upholds ordinance restricting ―family‖ to only 2 unrelated persons.  Village of Belle Terre. 2 Justifications: o (1) Prevent fire:  Less danger of building being lit on fire to begin w/ (1 family v. MENTALLY HANDICAPPED  Cleburne. dorms. or adoption.o o o  E. reduce spread of disease.  Rule: It appears ok to limit the number of unrelated persons to no more than 2.

or Quotas o State and local ordinances are subject to the FHA. MANUFACTURED HOUSING BACKGROUND:  “Mobile Home”: Built entirely at the factory. 3.  BOP is on the govt. or general welfare of community.  But: Court can reverse denial of a conditional use permit if it believes it improper. 20 . State &/or Local Rqmts re: Density. and persons w/ AIDS.  Test: For facially discrim statutes to survive a challenge under FHA. commercial) is ok. ok.  Congress response to Cleburne: Fair Housing Act 1988 Amendment: o Prohibits discrimination against group homes for handicapped.  Includes alcoholism. including discrimination through zoning. both facially and as-applied. ―family. GENERAL RULES FOR MOBILE HOMES:  Total Exclusion? NO. o Majority Rule: Yes.  Integration is NOT a sufficient justification for quotas.  Thus. 504 : MI statute sets group home rqmts for mentally handicapped: (1) space—can‘t be w/in 1500 feet of existing group home and (2) notice must be given to neighbors. Yurczyk. then shipped to its site and placed on a base. High density development. o E.  Held: Facially discriminatory.  State Statutes/Preemption. Thus.‖ etc. but excludes them from traditional residential areas. it‘s ok to require mobile home park locations. o Larkin.  General Rule: These statutes do NOT preempt local zoning control over mobile homes. exclusion from any of the districts (residential.  Appearance Codes? Require mobile homes to conform to conventional housing in appearance and size. 321  Restrict to Mobile Home Parks? While not totally excluding mobile homes. 509  But this means ―total people. Aesthetic objections (less relevant today). Space. ok. industrial. Bears no reasonable relationship to police power. invalid. City of Edmonds. which are often subject to a special licensing rqmt. some special safety standards for the protection of such persons can survive. Neighborhood stability (transients). but also housing built in modular sections at a factory and then assembled on-site.  Exclusion from Residential Areas and/or Industrial/Commercial Areas? Zoning ordinance doesn‘t require location in a mobile home park. the govt must demonstrate they are warranted by the unique and specific needs of those handicapped persons to whom the regs apply.‖ NOT the type of people. safety. o State Licensing of Mobile Homes: Some states require licensing of mobile homes. o Majority Rule: Yes. Ordinances which totally exclude mobile homes are invalid or highly suspect.  Local Resistance to Mobile Homes: o Health problems (proper facilities). o ―Handicapped‖: physical or mental impairment which substantially limits 1 or more of such person‘s major life activities.g. LGB attempts to minimize negative impact upon community by requiring them to be located in mobile home parks. generally eliminates the need to proceed directly under the Const.  Require Conditional or Special Use Permit? Require ZBA approval on case-by-case basis. Ordinance requiring ―on-site construction‖ had NO substantial bearing on public health.  Rule: Statutes that single out group homes for handicapped persons for regulation are facially discriminatory. drug addiction.  Thus.  “Manufactured Housing”: Includes mobile homes. Aesthetic compatibility is a legit govt purpose. morals. o Minority Rule: No. o Majority Rule: Yes. Association w/ low-income status. unconstitutional. o Majority Rule: Yes.  Exception: Reasonable Occupancy Limits are permitted under the FHA (to prevent overcrowding).

 Loreto. o Bottom Line: Still apply the Presumption of Validity to zoning regs. 21 . ft. city may permit taller or bulkier building or relax on-site parking rqmts. and general welfare of community. Can‘t enforce zoning regs that exclude residential design manufactured homes from single-family districts solely b/c they are manufactured homes. so the evidence showed.e. INCENTIVE ZONING & SPECIAL DISTRICTS  Incentive Zoning: A land use regulatory technique whereby city trades valuable density increases for site improvements that are thought to benefit the general public.  Aesthetics of the community CAN be considered a legit state interest. the govt wins. aesthetics. downtown. to which cts give cities generous room for discretion.  KSA 12-736 COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL USES C. Presumption of Validity. of floor area and to 10 employees.000 sq. BOP on P: All zoning ordinances are presumed constitutional. under zoning ordinances.g. o Applied: This would NOT work in Lawrence.e. COMMON ZONING PROBLEMS: IN THE ZONING ORDINANCE These commercial zoning problems turn on issues of policy and planning. safety. but the different factual and policy settings create a distinct set of rules that have specific application to commercial and industrial sites. using the Fairly Debatable standard. o Held: Restriction on # of employees failed to reasonably serve a legit state interest.  Step 2: Only if P meets BOP is the LGB required to present evidence justifying a zoning ordinance as reasonably related to the public interest. o Fairly Debatable Standard: If P‘s evidence presents nothing more than a debatable question. morality. 1. reasonableness.o o State Certification of Mobile Homes: Some states enact require certification that mobile homes meet state construction standards. FORMULA BUSINESSES  Formula Business: Standardized products and buildings/signs. 331 : L (who wanted a Wal-Mart) denied special use permit which limited retail stores to 10. Warren.  Majority Rule: These statutes DO preempt local regulation of mobile homes under building codes. a city MUST have a special area to protect.  Rule: To restrict formula biz or big box stores. 324 KS: Can‘t exclude mobile homes entirely. CA. Any govt zoning decision/classification can be overcome ONLY if P can prove by clear and convincing evidence that the zoning classification is: o (1) a significant detriment to P (i. o Rule: A zoning reg need NOT be in tune w/ modern trends OR allow the most profitable retail development. AND o (2) insubstantially related to the public health. o E. and in some cases. o Govt interest: Preservation of area. Will NOT subvert the int of the public for a fairly debatable question. o Rule: Economically viable use of regulated property is irrelevant to validity of zoning ordinance.g. GENERAL PRINCIPLES BP America. i. KS. o Held: Building 1 large store is NOT the same as building 10 smaller stores. 328  General Rule: Same basic principles apply to commercial and industrial zoning:  Step 1. o BP America: Prohibiting gas stations in downtown historic district was OK to protect the aesthetic values of the community.  Legitimacy of govt int is the key. Determine if there is legit state interest and then determine if the reg is reasonably related. Conceptual basis for regulation of non-residential uses is the same as for residential zoning. It would work in Carmel. e. arbitrary and unreasonable).

D. This is OK IF the primary purpose of the reg is to preserve the existing downtown district (which is a legit state interest). where a zoning decision can favor competitor over another.e. NONCONFORMING USES “Nonconforming Use”: Uses that were once legal. you probably CAN convince a ct that an ordinance limiting the businesses does relate to health.g.  Conforti.  i. it‘s going to be upheld. and kind. thereby protecting local biz).  “Primary Purpose” Test/Rule: o Regulation of economic activity is ok (even if direct and intended) IF the primary purpose of the ordinance or action—i. The use will be permitted some time.  This section addresses control of competition as handled by STATE law. nature.e. morals.  “Too many” Businesses = Dead Land? o Rule: If you can convince a ct that you have enough tools to make an accurate determination. and  (3) Whether the new use has a substantially different effect on the neighborhood. 3 factors:  (1) Extent to which the new use reflects the nature and purpose of the prevailing NCF use.  Bottom Line: As long as a city can articulate a rational basis for its ordinance. and welfare. safety. the primary purpose was to preserve the historic nature of the downtown area. it‘s more of a secondary effect. the private anticompetitive goal of protecting or disadvantaging a particular favored or disfavored biz or indvl is NOT permissible. which is OK. o Limit: Simply trying to protect old biz from new biz is NOT permissible. and welfare.  Likewise. CONTROL OF COMPETITION AS A ZONING PURPOSE 2.  (2) Whether the new use is a different manner of utilizing the same use OR constitutes a use different in character.  Zoning is NOT retroactive. safety. but became unlawful upon passage of zoning laws.  BOP is on the party asserting that the use is substantially the same. 342  General Rule: Merely regulating competition is NOT a sufficient relation to health. NONCONFORMING USES KSA 12-758  Rule: Zoning regulations shall NOT apply to any existing use of any land or building (prior to enactment). of good regulation: Direct and intended effect prohibits some businesses from downtown shopping district. o Except: Zoning regulations DO apply if there is:  (1) A change in use of any land or building OR  (2) An alteration of a building to provide for a change in use. it was valid. morals. its principal and ultimate objective—is the advancement of legitimate public purpose. serving a traditional zoning objective. Belleville. Special District: Takes the place of the set of underlying zoning regs that would otherwise apply zone-byzone w/in the targeted area.  Test for Same Use. Thus. safety. Regulating Economic Activity Hernandez.  i. 360 22 .e. These commercial zoning problems raise legitimacy of purpose issues. converting a restaurant to a disco was NOT the same use. 358 : Converting a movie theater to provide live concerts was NOT the same use.  Applied: Although City‘s ordinance was in part intended to regulate competition (prohibit sale of furniture in downtown area. and general welfare!  E.  Must find a relation to health.

can‘t build bigger screens. LO given 5 years to relocate biz. alteration.  Minority Rule: Will presume an intent to abandon from mere failure to exercise the nonconforming use o Nonuse for a certain period.  (3) Public gain by exercise of police power v. Exam o Constitutionality? Apply Penn Central (below). Repair. KSA 12-758 Change of Ownership? Generally does NOT affect the NCF use. view restrictions on NCF uses as a taking of rights vested under zoning ord.  Majority Rule: The elimination of existing uses w/in a reasonable time does NOT amount to a taking nor does it necessarily require the use of property so that it cannot be used for any reasonable purpose. 23 . a nonconforming use may NOT be resumed. o Limit: Ability to reconstruct is often limited. o Natural disasters are NOT voluntary (e. 12 months. or o (2) More restrictive. and  E.g. it can be restored ONLY if it meets the zoning regulations. analysis o Gage. 368  Amortization Periods: Some ordinances set out the factors to be considered in determining the appropriate amortization period. Ordinance does not prevent operation of biz. 364 : Ordinance amortized a residence that was previously used for plumbing biz and residence. e. o Affirmative Process: Determine the normal useful remaining life of the building and prohibit the owner from maintaining it after expiration of that time. favoring gradual elimination of NCF uses for the public welfare. Expanding Nonconforming Use? Expansion is generally prohibited.).  Majority Rule: Requires voluntariness o i. Alteration. o (3) Prohibit resumption of nonconforming uses after abandonment or discontinuance. o 3-Factor NY Test:  (1) Length of the amortization period in relation to the investment. o (2) Impose limits on the repair.. they infect the area and should be eliminated. Damage Rule: If a building is damaged by more than 50% of its FMV. merely restricts location.  (2) Nature of the nonconforming activity prohibited  Nonconforming uses normally get shorter periods than nonconforming structures.  E.  Held: As-Applied constitutional: Reasonable location nearby and reasonable costs.g.  Modern Local Approaches to Hasten Disappearance of NCF Uses: o (1) Prohibit or restrict the physical extension of nonconforming uses.  Rule: Once discontinued.e. o (4) Amortization (below)  Competing Standard of Reviews: o (1) Expansive view of police power. or reconstruction of nonconforming structures. which is held to run w/ the land. etc. will terminate NCF use.g.  General State Rule: Elimination of NCF use w/o compensation is an unconstitutional taking. add seats. Lamar. Qualitative difference: Louder. Private loss suffered by owners of nonconforming use. storm. Only GA and PA apply this rule.    o All the same + more = not same use. fire.  Minority Rule: ―Amortization‖ is merely a catch phrase. Amortization is an unconstitutional zoning technique.  Held: Facially constitutional: Valid exercise of police power. AMORTIZATION (most controversial method for eliminating NCF uses and structures)  “Amortization”: Systematic and comprehensive elimination of the NCF use or structure. Intent to abandon + Some overt act of abandonment. & Reconstruction: o General Rule Repair is allowed at least to meet health and safety (building) codes. don‘t want to extend life of the building. HASTEN DISAPPEARANCE OF NCF USES:  Traditional Starting Point: NCF uses are bad.g. etc.

review more intensively the justifications for zoning restrictions..  Limit: Shoddy data or reasoning is impermissible.  Applied: City‘s legit interests: prevent crime. life expectancy of investment. o Not Lucas deprivation of all beneficial use b/c other uses still permitted. E. city can disperse adult theatres or concentrate them. and quality of urban life. thus likely lose o Key: The predominate intent must be to regulate the secondary effects (of the adult theatre) rather than suppress free expression of the content. 374  Standard of Review: Cts reverse the usual presumption of validity. If P casts doubt on city‘s justifications. and generally protect and preserve the quality of the city‘s neighborhoods.  Step 1: Ordinance/land use reg MUST be content-neutral.g. rather. NOT content-based. Time.g.  E. o Rule: Interests above are sufficient (i.3 o Method of Attack: City can choose alternate methods to address the same problem.e. adult book stores and cinemas.  Non-Amortization Takings? Probably NOT. this ―voluntary‖ choice eliminates any takings claim. and existence or nonexistence of a lease obligation as well as contingency clause permitting termination of the lease. It was NOT the suppression of unpopular views.  Step 2a: The ordinance/land use restriction MUST serve a substantial govt interest. private loss). the amortization period should NOT be so short as to result in a substantial loss. protect city‘s retail trade.g. the city has the burden to supplement the record w/ additional evidence to ―fairly support its rationale for the ordinance.  EXAM ANALYSIS: IS AMORTIZATION A TAKING?  Not a Categorical Taking: o Not Loretto physical invasion b/c physical means PHYSICAL. If the choice is b/w continuing a NCF use that cannot be changed or expanded.  Sign regulation. adult films). etc. TEST FOR COMMERCIAL FREE SPEECH (including adult biz) Renton. Rule: While an owner need NOT be given time to recoup his entire investment. apply Penn Central factors (in combination w/ amortization factors above) o Investment-backed expectations o overall impact on the owner (i. but rather the secondary effects of such activity on the surrounding community. commercial districts.g. 382 n. o BOP/Necessity of Studies: Cities can rely on studies from other cities so long as reasonably believed to be relevant. it‘s a legislative judgment. KSA 12-758. Alameda.). and o as rearticulated in Tahoe. maintain prop values. the importance of the public interest being served.  Step 2b: The ordinance/land use restriction MUST allow for reasonable alternative avenues of communication. and manner regulation  Content-based would get S/S (compelling interest/least restrictive means). OR relinquishing NCF status to better exploit the property.  Policy Note: Most cities have concluded that dispersal is better method. ADULT BUSINESSES: FREE-SPEECH PROTECTED USES Setting: Free speech review of zoning ordinances applies to a limited number of land uses:  Adult sex businesses. Statutory Authority for Amortization? Most states imply authority to amortize when express authority is not provided. investment realization to date.e. o Ordinance permitted the restricted use in over 5% of the city. place.  E. USES ENTITLED TO SPECIAL PROTECTION 1. Nothing physical here. 24 .  Thus. preserve urban life quality. which SCOTUS held sufficient.  “Substantial Loss” Factors: initial capital investment. e. o ―Content-neutral‖: Does NOT focus on the content of the activity (e.

(3) a site in a manufacturing zone w/ infrastructure is available. o Rule: Apply subst.  In Practice: ―Little RFRAs‖ have NOT been broadly interpreted in favor of religious uses. park. the govt MUST demonstrate that the regulation is narrowly tailored to achieve a compelling state interest. or morals? b) State Statutes: “Little RFRAs” (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)  Many states have adopted RFRA acts which provide more protection that fed or st const. RELIGIOUS USES Setting: Conflict b/w:  Zoning ordinances (enacted to protect community well-being) versus  Location and expansion limits of religious institutions and their accessory uses.  Problem: Churches and their accessory uses often face substantial opposition when they seek the necessary approvals in the zoning process. welfare. 4 Possible Authorities for Zoning Regulations affecting Religious Uses  a) State constitution  b) State statute  c) Fed Constitution  d) RLUIPA (Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act) a) State Constitutions  Majority Approach: Most states treat religious uses slightly better than other group uses. (2) a site is available if reasonably accessible to public. church. o 2. did NOT rise to 1A violation.  Does the particular religious use enhance or detract from the public‘s health. (5) # of adult establishments wanting to operate. (2) # of acres available as percentage of geographical size. (4) # of adult establishments currently in existence. safety. DP (reasonableness/confiscatory) analysis to zoning restrictions. ―Tough shit. on an equal footing w/ other prospective buyers and lessees.6 Renton: Ct upheld restriction that adult theatres be 1000 ft away from residential zones. 383 n. fed courts applied a 3-part test to determine if a land use regulation violated the Free Exercise clause: o 1) Govt regulation must regulate religious conduct. but not necessarily particular needs of adult biz. religious interests. Schad. o (based on federal RFRA that was struck down). That indvls were forced to fend for themselves in the real estate market. and o 3) If (1) and (2) are met.  Rule: If religious exercise is ―substantially burdened‖ by govt regulation. 25 . Factors: (1) geographical size. o Controlling Consideration: Overall impact on the public‘s welfare. o 2) Law must have secular (separate from religion) purpose and secular effect. Boss. Constitution—Free Exercise Clause  Prior to Smith. (4) a site for relocation must suit some commercial biz. o Can‘t completely restrict the activity.‖ Outbid them. welfare and safety of community. particularly in residential areas and downtown redeveloping areas.S. c) U. 384 n.  Minority Approach: Some states treat religion same as other congregate uses (where people get together for things)  NY Balancing Approach: o Premise: Total exclusion from residential district serves NO end that is reasonably related to morals. 374 o Boss Balancing Test. health. NOT belief. and (5) commercially zoned plots are available. (3) where sites are located. Topanga.4  Site Acceptability Test: Must be (1) genuine possibility that a site will become available for new commercial uses w/in reasonable time. perform a balancing test: Govt interests v. or school. Can be directed at non-mainstream religions. reversing the presumption of constitutionality normally accorded to zoning ordinances.

CLUB. (CA 11) 393 o Typical Result: The financing expense of locating a religious use where the zoning allows it. and fundamental responsibility for rendering religious exercise (including the use of real property for the purpose thereof) effectively impracticable. subjecting these ordinances to S/S. primary. is merely an inconvenience and NOT a substantial burden required to find a RLUIPA violation. o Rule: Zoning ordinances are laws of general applicability. Midrash.  d) RLUIPA  Rule: Land use regulations that substantially burden religious exercise MUST be the least restrictive means of advancing a compelling govt interest. versus  Religious interests: Conducting services in compliance w/ applicable zoning restrictions or relocating in suitably zoned district. building. o No SCOTUS case has considered application of the Free Exercise Clause to a land use regulation. thus. o Step 2a: Least Restrictive Means? o Step 2b: Compelling Govt Interest? 26 .‖ for the slightest obstacle to religious exercise incidental to the regulation of land use (however minor the burden to impose) could then constitute a burden sufficient to trigger RLUIPA‘s strict requirement. or conversion of real property for the purpose of religious exercise. Govt interests: Substantial infringement of city‘s zoning policy if conduct were allowed to continue. Modern Test: Similar to RLUIPA test (above). however Smith held that rules of ―general applicability‖ were not subject to the strict scrutiny test. (CA 7) 392  3) “Too Tough” Standard: Any regulation that completely prevents the individual from engaging in religiously mandated activity OR requires participation in an activity prohibited by religion. o Limit: It can be argued that RLUIPA replaced Smith. albeit through special review procedures.  2) “Just Right” Standard: Any regulation that necessarily bears direct. o Step 1: Key/Biggest Issue: Determining whether there is a ―substantial burden‖ o Three Tests for “Substantial Burden” on Religious Exercise: A substantial burden is:  1) “Very Easy” Standard: Any regulation that inhibits or constrains the use. it could be argued that Free Exercise clause does NOT require S/S of them. CA 10-like  This test would render meaningless the word ―substantial.

o Specifically. and (3) proves that he will meet the Mount Laurel test where city has failed to do so (i. regulations that do NOT provide the requisite opportunity for a fair share of the region‘s need for law and moderate income housing conflict w/ the general welfare and violate St rqmts of substantive DP and EQ.and middle-class.g.  Affirmative Measures Required IF Removal of Barriers is Insufficient o Mandatory Set-Asides  Set aside land for poor and middle income housing o Inclusionary Zoning (more attractive to all parties):  Usually density bonuses. or 200 units.  Elimination of barriers is probably NOT enough (if you can‘t prove actual housing).Ch. a city MUST provide a realistic opportunity for decent housing for at least some part of its resident poor who currently occupy dilapidated housing. 4: EQUITY ISSUES IN LAND USE: EXCLUSIONARY ZONING & DISCRIMINATION I.  E. and mobile homes completely prohibited in the town. normally build 160 units  City permits 25% bonus. required amenities like A/C. all effecting to keep out poor people. and it MUST be proportional to the need. obligation). public services. 27 .  “Numberless” resolution that an ordinance addresses some housing is insufficient. APPROACHES FOR REDRESSING EXCLUSIONARY ZONING The Problem: No decent housing opportunities for low. o (4) Judges: NJ SC will pick the judges. MOUNT LAUREL DOCTRINE  General Principle: The constitutional power to zone is but one portion of the police power. o Fed courts deal w/ discrimination.  Rules of Thumb: o State courts deal w/ ―affordable‖ housing and other income-related issues.and moderate-income housing needs. o (6) Proportional: Low and middle income housing is required.  Can‘t wait for housing to dilapidate and kick ‗em out.  Discrimination is a related issue—racial and otherwise. maybe subsidies. apartments. o (3) Show Me the Numbers: A city generally must be able to prove its fair share of low and moderate income housing in terms of the # of units needed immediately. o (8) Builder’s (Specific) Remedies: Court will grant specific remedy IF P has (1) acted in good faith. o Townhouses. A.e. etc. etc. including lowerincome density bonuses and mandatory set-asides.  Specific Rules o (1) City’s own poor (Developed): In its land use regs. STATE LAW: EXCLUSIONARY ZONING—LOWER INCOME ―Exclusionary Zoning‖: Use of zoning ordinances by (primarily) suburban municipalities to exclude housing that is affordable to lower-income households. (2) attempted to obtain relief w/o litigation. o (5) Affirmative Action Rqrd: City MUST use affirmative govt devices to provide realistic opportunities for construction of its fair share of low and middle income housing. o Land use regulations that conflict w/ the general welfare abuse the police power and are unconst.  General ordinance effectively permits only people of at least middle income. o Rationale: Keep (property) taxes low. vindicate the const. Signs! o Limits on # of kids. it must be exercised for the general welfare. fewer schools. o (2) Outsiders (Developing): A city MUST provide a realistic opportunity for a fair share of the region‘s present and prospective low. as well as the # needed for a reasonable period.

FED LAW: DISCRIMINATORY ZONING A. Ct will look to at least 4 factors: o (1) Historical background of the decision  Is there a series of official actions taken for invidious purposes? o (2) Specific sequence of events leading up to the challenged decision  Is there a sudden change of zoning that adversely affects the party? o (3) Departures from the normal procedural sequence  Usual procedures or something different? o (4) Substantive departures  Do the factors normally considered important by the decisionmaker strongly favor a decision contrary to the one reached?  Big Pic: Unless you have ―stupid‖ people running their mouth. 1. but it MUST be a motivating factor. o Low-income housing sponsors/local advocacy groups/home builders association. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION Start: Can bring a constitutional claim (very hard) or FFHA claim (easier) for racial discrimination. CONSTITUTION (EQ thru 14A) Successful claims of exclusionary zoning in fed ct have alleged that restrictive land use controls violate EQ by indirectly discriminating against minorities by excluding low-income and moderate-income households from suburbs.  Thus. Arlington Heights. including: o Civil rights organizations. o Only the most blatant cases will find a case of discrim intent.  Village refused to rezone from single-family to multi-family.  P alleged discrimination against minorities. standing is permitted ONLY to developers of subsidized housing seeking site-specific relief from zoning or other land use restrictions. III‘s ―case and controversy‖ rqmt. o Racially disproportionate impact is NOT sufficient to prove an official action unconstitutional.  Barrier 1: Proof of discriminatory intent is essential to the success of a racial discrimination claim under 14A. B. o NONE of these parties have standing under Art. 28 .II. it‘s very difficult to show a discriminatory intent or purpose. Even minorities might not be affected if they can‘t afford housing. overall effect of land use restrictions is exclusionary. NO one can allege that a general. FED “STANDING” RULES Rule: To challenge allegedly exclusionary (or discriminatory) land use control in federal ct. and o Area residents w/ low or moderate incomes (who are also members of minority racial or ethnic groups). 483  No concrete injury.  NO one else has standing. 485  Standard of Proof of Discrim Intent: Direct and circumstantial evidence can be used to prove discriminatory intent. o Discriminatory intent need NOT be the dominant or primary purpose. o Individual taxpayers.  Rule: Proof of discriminatory intent or purpose is REQUIRED to show a violation of EQ Clause. Warth. which would allow lower-income housing.

g. reasonable attempt to address a substantial concern?  APPLY this test to the 2 different types of justifications below:  Two types of Justifications:  (1) Site Specific: o i. o Broad View: Intent is NOT required.e. o (3) What is D‘s interest in taking the disputed action?. 29 . rather than restrict multi-family development to urban renewal areas only. o Is the restriction restricting integration to only areas where large minority populations already exist? o Step 2: If a discriminatory effect is established. religion. i. and banks. although not enough to satisfy const.g. 494 o Step 1: Is there a prima facie case of discriminatory effect/impact?  i.e.e. evidence.2. o (A) Usually NOT less discriminatory alternatives. landlords. as applied. or national origin. Encourage development in urban renewal area w/ tax incentives or abatements.160 whites v. concerns specific to the site.  (2) Harm to the community generally by perpetuation (reinforcement) of segregation. violation?.  BUT some courts have held that discrimination in zoning ordinances ALSO makes housing unavailable under the statute. CA 7. disproportionate impact on blacks.g.  E. e. realtors. o (A) Usually less discriminatory methods. Prove the challenged practice of D actually or predictably results in racial discrimination. o (B) Are concerns legit or just made up? Must have subst. 28% of blacks)  NOT absolute #s (22. A violation of the FFHA can be established by a showing of discriminatory effect w/o a showing of discriminatory intent. thus fails 1. color. o Look at proportionate (impact) #s (11% of whites v. it‘s sufficient for FFHA where the natural and foreseeable consequence of an act is to discriminate b/w races.  Two Types:  (1) Adverse impact on a particular minority group or applicant o E. survives part 1. Goals of the plan.  Minority Balancing Test: To determine if FFHA is violated. weigh 4 factors: o (1) How strong is P‘s evidence of discriminatory effect?.e. at least in some circumstances. traffic. thus. limit private development to revitalize deteriorated areas. etc.  (2) Plan Specific o i. violate the FFHA. 3. Arlington Heights. is there nonetheless a legitimate non-pretextual justification articulated by the city?  Two-Part Test:  (A) Are there less discriminatory alternatives?  (B) Are the reasons given by the city bona fide and legitimate. 42 USC §3604(a)  Primarily concerned w/ rooting out indvl acts of discrimination by sellers. 493 (on remand)  Focus is on the language ―because of‖: o Narrow View: Intent is required. and o (4) Does P seek to compel D to affirmatively provide housing for minority groups OR merely to restrain D from interfering w/ indvl property owners who wish to provide such housing?  Majority Test: Huntington. o (2) Is there evidence of discriminatory intent.671 blacks). (FED) FAIR HOUSING LEGISLATION (most cases) FFHA forbids racial discrimination in housing: It shall be unlawful to make unavailable or deny a dwelling to any person b/c of race. health. etc. o Claim: Most exclusionary zoning litigation in fed cts allege that local land use controls.

―Self-Executing‖ Features.  Newer Forms of Flexible Zoning o Floating Zone o Contract Zoning  Roles in the Zoning Process o Site-Plan Review o Comprehensive Plan  Initiative & Referendum in Zoning Process Standards that Govern…  Variances: statutory standards.  Granting a variance is meant to avoid an unfavorable holding on constitutionality.  Special Uses: standards in the zoning ordinance 30 . but can be remedied by (A) in any event. Standard Zoning Act also provides for discretionary administrative procedures and a process through which the zoning ordinance could be amended.  Intended to provide relief from land use restrictions of the zoning ordinance.  This system is simple and non-discretionary. o (Special) Exception/Special Use/Conditional Use (all the same):  A use permitted by the ordinance in a district in which it is not necessarily incompatible. CH. o Hypo: LO of small lot doesn‘t like current restrictions. Amendments are often used to take care of limited changes in use. usually confined to 1 lot.  In practice = Spot Zoning. amendments are made in response to substantial changes in environmental conditions or other instances where a policy change is indicated. 5: FLEXIBLE ZONING: VARIANCES. EXCEPTIONS. wants to change applicable zoning restrictions.  We now FOCUS on these discretionary features. in which land uses are allowed as-of-right.  2) He might be able to request a variance (from BZA).‖  This takes on adversary characteristics giving it adjudicative features. What are his legal options?  1) He can ask LGB (likely the PC) for a map amendment to apply a different zoning classification. a technique disapprovingly called ―spot zoning. and remains the heart of zoning administration. Flexible Features: However.  Exceptions are authorized under conditions that will ensure their compatibility w/ surrounding uses. ROADMAP  Traditional statutory techniques through which LOs secure a change in the zoning restrictions applicable to their property 514 o Zoning Amendment:  In theory. but it might cause harm if not watched. Euclidean system is Basic. which contemplates the division of the community into districts.o (B) Same as above.  3) He can also apply to BZA for a special exception IF the use he proposes is listed as a special exception use in the zoning district in which his land is located. & AMENDMENTS Traditional. o Zoning Variance:  Requires unique and individual hardship!  Administratively authorized departure from the terms of the zoning ordinance in cases where a strict application of the terms of the ordinance would be unconstitutional.

GRANTING USE VARIANCES  KS Rule: Does NOT allow use variances. it would amount to a (unconst. o Held: Variance is NOT appropriate even if it created no problem b/c house had a reasonable (conforming) use.  Purpose of area/dimensional/site regs: Promote uniformity of development. o Distinctions b/w zones. o “Profitability” Rule: It is NOT sufficient that the property would be worth more or could be more profitably used if the restrictions were to permit another use. 524  Conditions/Conditional Variance: BZA can usually attach conditions to grant of a variance. setbacks. and density are often more important to developers than use regulations. E. Doesn‘t matter that dentist office would be more profitable or better suited.  Rule: An area variance may be granted IF: KSA 12-765(e)(1) 31 .  Leo: LO wanted a small dentist office on 2nd floor of house. KSA 12-765(e). some LGBs don‘t know or don‘t follow.  Some courts use ―reasonable return‖ instead of ―reasonable use‖ This does  Used interchangeably.I. use ―unnecessary hardship‖ as the governing standard for granting variances. bulk.  USE Variance Rule—“Unnecessary Hardship” Standard: A variance should NOT be granted UNLESS: o (1) the property can NOT be reasonably used under a conforming use.  In Practice: BZA grants variance like candy (w/o regard to law). are often based on density rather than use.  Fundamental Request: Big increase in density to increase return on investment. destroying zone. not permitted in residential zone. o Some acts use ―unnecessary hardship or practical difficulties‖  Two Types of Variances o Use Variance: Allowing a use in a zone that wouldn‘t otherwise be permitted. and in KS!  Can NOT be general problem affecting multiple properties o (3) Can NOT be a self-created problem/hardship. o Area/Dimension Variance: Not a different use.  More intrusive. higher need of necessity required. residential. in turn. so reasonable.  Policy Justification: If this worked for 1 person.8 o Permitted even though most enabling statutes do not expressly confer such power.) taking as applied to the particular property  Standard Language: Most State enabling acts. o Density.  Unnecessary hardship standard applies here. o Permits ONLY area variances. and ordinances based thereon. zoning deals w/ uses. but:  Relaxation of physical rqmts (e.g. Leo. can be controlled in a variety of ways: limits on dwelling units per acre. Usually left to cts to clean up mess.g. e. height.  Minor Request: e. (ZONING) VARIANCE BACKGROUND (BZA)  Setting: Variances intended to remedy situations where the property can‘t be used as it‘s zoned. height limits. makes more sense in commercial rather than res setting NOT apply o (2) the hardship MUST be unique or peculiar to the property for which the variance is sought.  Substantial evidence standard.  Lucas Taking? A takings claim is NOT ripe in fed ct unless LO has already been denied a variance. etc.g. neighbor could jump on board and so on.g. A. lot size. and building size. setback change. o (4) the use to be authorized by variance can NOT alter the essential character of the locality. o MUST meet ALL 4 elements or variance should be denied. o Notwithstanding the clear law. or site variances. area.  General Proposition: Variances should be sparingly granted. GRANTING AREA/DIMENSIONAL/SITE VARIANCES  Setting: Area. B. 533 n.  Variances Run w/ Land b/c not personal. restrictions on % of lot that can be covered. not the users. lot.)  Practical difficulties standard applies here. o It‘s administrative. require paving. o Developer can obtain a modification of these regs through dimensional. open space rqmts per residential unit.

LGB insists that violation be corrected. b/c extensive area. 540 n. o Legislature may require certain uses. o Permitted as a ―matter of grace‖. Usually not public hearings. may be public or semi-public in character.g.  Typically.6  NOT Self-Created: Merely buying property w/ existing condition.e.  Significance of the of the economic injury. morals. safety. Density limits (2:1 to 3:1 ratio).  Usually never challenged in ct.  Courts vary in matter of degree. not a variance. o Limit: Although permitted. o E. Even though this doesn‘t legally meet unnecessary hardship standard.g. b/c of its potentially noxious effects. Area or Use Variance? Some variances fall in the cracks.  Self-Created: LO/developer builds in willful or accidental violation of the zoning ordinance. some retain unnecessary hardship language. Gas station in light commercial district. prosperity. o (2) the exception MUST be listed as a special use in the zoning regulation. o (B): It will NOT adversely affect the rights of adjacent property owners or residents. or general welfare. AND  Magnitude of the variance  Would variance unduly undermine purpose of the ordinance or public interest? o (E): It will NOT be opposed to the general spirit and intent of the zoning regulations. arguing it‘s the best use of land. o E. the ordinance should be amended. o Special use is preferable over variance b/c it has been planned for in advance. o (C): Strict application of would result in unnecessary hardship on LO. Courts split on whether this is an area variance (which gets lesser standard) or use variance (which gets strict standard).  E.  Some cts call it the practical difficulty standard. SPECIAL EXCEPTION/SPECIAL USE PERMIT/CONDITIONAL USE o II. o (D): It will NOT adversely affect the public health. LO wants variance. o (A): The condition/problem/hardship is NOT self-created. and might often be noxious or offensive. AND 32 . o KSA 12-759(d)–(e). or even practical difficulties. slip by neighbors.  If condition affects multiple properties. and NOT ordinarily found in same zone or district. and other problems that may affect residential neighborhood.  ―Unnecessary hardship‖ permits NO discretion here.  i.  E. then seeks variance on the ground of financial hardship. cts read it out of statute.  BZA should have flexibility.  Whether other feasible alternatives could avoid the difficult. Hospital in residential district. area variances don‘t have same devastating effects. NOT a matter of right.  Rule: BZA may grant exceptions to the zoning regulation where: KSA 12-765(e)(2) o (1) Specifically authorized (by statute and ordinance). which it considers to have a potentially greater impact upon neighboring properties or the public than those uses permitted in the district as a matter of right. SPECIAL EXCEPTION/SPECIAL USE/CONDITIONAL USE  Setting: A use permitted by the ordinance in a district in which it is not necessarily incompatible.  Whole idea of variance is to allow something not otherwise allowed by the ordinance. it must meet certain conditions to get approval. but emphasize the test for area variances is LESS stringent. traffic.  (A): The condition is unique to the property. then seeking variance. the use demands a large amount of land. order.  Self-Created: Developer pays premium price for land. variances are granted anyway. but it might cause harm if not watched.g. o Variances granted like candy. go ask for a variance. convenience. 532 n.g.2 In Practice: If client is so inclined. to undergo the special exception process. but ALL generally apply a lesser standard. Bring your specific plan and ask them to grace it—requires special permission.

 BOP on the applicant for a special exception to prove statutory criteria are met. Claim: All criteria are  More than mere scintilla or fairly debatable. presumption of validity is defeated and BOP then shifts to LGB to show validity. Two types of zoning amendments  1) Comprehensive zoning changes o A) to the zoning text or map. Is the BZA‘s decision supported by standard?  Standard of Review: Substantial Evidence (maj. something must be permitted as a matter of right. REZONING  Power: LGB may amend zoning regs (supplement.  Contra Downzoning: Moves the site to a less intense permitted use.  ALL special use? NO. the BZA‘s decision is discretionary subject to substantial evidence. safety. subject to same restrictions as variances. o NO presumption of validity. o Spot zoning accomplishes the same result as a variance or special exception.) o Majority Rule: When granting or denying a special exception.  In practice: Spot Zoning. Bring mandamus action (a right to it. exception as matter of  BZA Discretion: to determine whether (1) the use will be injurious to the public right. not right) argued they must be granted special exception b/c they met all criteria. A district cannot be comprised wholly of special uses. safety. or generally revise boundaries). o Held: State criteria was NOT absolute—permitted discretion by the BZA. otherwise.  If the oppressive result is to only a particular piece of land.  2) Spot Zoning (LO seeks only a map amendment for his tract of land) (more common) o Usually for Upzoning (permitting more intensive land use).  Improper delegation of legislative authority?  Getting to Court: KSA 12-765. Rockhill v. When the variance and special use fail. BZA acts legislatively. still administrative. discretion.  Standard of Review:  Rule: If NO absolute criteria. KSA 12-756 o i. Chesterfield. a variance is appropriate. Southland. Reasonableness standard. morals. Depends on health. the BZA action is administrative.  Even if LGB makes final decision acting on BZA‘s recommendation. morals. LOOK to the Standards in the Ordinance/Zoning Regulation. KSA-12-757  Initiation: Amendment proposals may be initiated by: KSA 12-757 33 .e. 547: CC (denied shooting range (allowed as matter of grace.  If P shows enough proof of irrationality. general welfare. o Special uses may be designated w/in each district w/ conditions attached. o o III. o The BZA‘s decision MUST be supported by substantial evidence. the decision may be mandatory. general welfare and (2) detrimental effect on use/value of whether BZA has nearby properties. 544  Conditions on Special Exceptions? Generally ok.  Crooked Creek. only egregious will be struck down.  Then apply standard below. no discretion). change.(3) the conditions of the use MUST in fact be present (can‘t fake the use). met. BZA has discretion to determine whether the use will be injurious to the public health. o Super Minority Rule: When granting/denying an exception. it‘s not the BZA‘s burden to disprove. 542  Standard of Review: Decision gets presumption of validity: fairly debatable test. affecting a substantial part of the community.  No Discretion: If there is absolute criteria. o Intelligible Principle Rule (Maine only): Ordinances must have sufficient standards to guide the BZA‘s decision. LO is left to seek a zoning amendment. ZONING AMENDMENT Background: Zoning amendment is appropriate where LO is unable to reasonably use his land due to particular zoning restrictions that are unreasonable in application to a certain locality (multiple properties). LO should get  Less than preponderance. the LGB has improperly delegated legislative authority.

widening roads. clearing of land. upzoning. Until this point is reached. o Neighbors can file protest. following a PC vote (regardless of whether PC approved or disapproved).g. As he starts contracting plans. If 20% is obtained. o o A.  (b) All other Developments: Rights vest when LO has all required permits + substantial construction.  What protection does LO have?  Estoppel or Vested Rights Doctrines o Most courts use these terms interchangeably. AND o Signed by at least 20% of real property owners in the area to be zoned/required to give notice. o Notice: public notice and mailed notice of land proposed to be changed by regulations. o The right expires if construction is not commenced w/in 5 years. o Vested Rights: Focuses on whether the owner acquired real property right which cannot be taken away by govt regulation. then 4/5 vote is required of the PC and LGB.e.  e. Vested Rights—When rights vest: KSA 12-764  (a) Single-Family Residential Developments: Rights vest when LO records the plat (i. Rezoning. if proposed amendment would affect a specific property and not general revision. o i. Factors for Approval/Disapproval: LGB shall establish the matters to be considered in the zoning regs. o Very pro government.  Minority (Liberal) Rule: Rights vest at time of application if the proposed development meets the zoning rqmts UNLESS PC can show something was already pending or a compelling reason for going ahead. holds hearing. Hole in the ground + some cement and boards. o PC: Majority vote rqrd (approve or disapprove) o LGB: Majority vote to approve PC or 2/3 vote to overrule PC. get all approvals) o NO construction is required (no shovel in ground).g. 34 . neighborhood opposition develops and in response the LGB downzones the area. although they are not exactly the same. o Estoppel: Focuses on whether it would be inequitable to allow govt to repudiate its prior conduct. or downzoning  Presumption: If LO‘s proposed amendment is in accord w/ the land use plan or the land use element of a comprehensive plan. SPOT ZONING SPOT ZONING  Setting: Treating a small tract of land in the same zone differently. or Indvl LO (Spot Zoning).  e.   LGB or PC.e. general acts that are not exclusively related to the proposed project.  (c) LGB Option: Can provide for earlier vesting of development rights if it chooses. but if don‘t know about it can‘t get 20% you can still file in court). it shall be presumed reasonable.  i. Western Land. amendment = single  multi-family residential. comp plan = residential.e. IF: KSA 12-757(f)(1) o Protest petition is filed w/in 14 days after public hearing. put to vote. architectural drawings. o Preconstruction Activities are NOT sufficient.  Majority Rule: Same as KSA 12-764. Rezoning Process: o PC receives request.  Neighbors/3rd parties can attack the spot zoning by filing suit (could also petition to get 20%. Can also send back to PC. LO reliance is sufficient to estop govt action. B. 560  Minority (Middle) Rule: LO must actually receive the permit to be locked in. Protest Petition: Rezoning amendments REQUIRE 3/4 (75%) vote by LGB. ESTOPPEL & VESTED RIGHTS Setting: Developer buys land zoned for a certain use.

o Applied. 572 n. safety. interests. 569 Minority View: In addition to the test above. Alternate 3-Part Test: o (1) comparison w/ prevailing use in the area. 575 n. it is unlawful spot zoning.      Cause of Action: Allege unlawful spot zoning: No evidence in record of tying the spot zoning to the public good/purpose. Held Invalid Spot Zoning: PUD (planned unit development zone) benefited only 1 owner.  Fairly debatable test goes out the window. o Exception: Rule does NOT apply to comprehensive zoning. o Process: Raise your hand. fairly debatable  substantial evidence). o Judicial action results in the application of a general rule of policy. and general welfare).6 o BIG burden on those seeking spot zoning. a public purpose tied to health. there are few protections for DP concerns and reduces the ability of cts to review the process or substance of the zoning hearing.g. o Rule: If the rezoning simply benefits the indvl or group of indvls. why not require the LO to use that property? Kuehne. C. QUASI-JUDICIAL V.  Quasi-Judicial Rezoning (KS): Rezoning which entails the application of general rule or policy to specific indvls. o Process: 35 . 574 Change-Mistake (Minority) Rule: A rezoning MUST be justified by either: o (1) an original mistake in the zoning ordinance. LEGISLATIVE REZONING o REZONING: IS IT LEGISLATIVE OR QUASI-JUDICIAL?  If characterized as legislative. Test: The rezoning MUST reasonably further the public good or general plan (i. or rezoning affecting a large portion of the public.e. the decision is A&C. RULES  Legislative Rezoning: Initial/original zoning.1 Ultimate Test is the reasonableness of zoning. Wakefield. Otherwise it‘s unreasonable.e. comprehensive rezoning. Griswold.  Factors: Is there already the same zoning nearby? If so. o Standard of Review: Upheld only if supported by substantial evidence.6 o E. o Standard of Review: Fairly debatable test. of good spot zoning: Plan to decentralize biz community. morals. or o (2) by a change in conditions. some states require the adoption of a comprehensive plan and the consistency of zoning with that plan. o Legislative action results in the formulation of a general rule of policy. Bartram. the procedures at the local level change and cts can modify the usual standards of review (i. and o (3) benefit to public/accordance w/ a comprehensive plan. Pierrepont. or activities.  Individualized decisions (either changing or leaving it alone) based on specific facts.  If NOT supported by SE. determined by a # of factors such as compatibility w/ adjacent uses and consistency w/ the comprehensive plan. 575 n. and conflicted w/ the comprehensive plan which designated other area for commercial development. Yellowstone. No record is required. did not benefit the public or the significant wildlife in the area. 568  Does a change in conditions justify rezoning? Those who buy property in a zoned district have the right to expect that the classification made in the ordinance will NOT be changed UNLESS a change is required for the public good. o Look to the effect the change would have upon the comprehensive zoning in the community. o (2) size of the area or # of owners benefited.  Policy application rather than policy setting. therefore it is solely beneficial to the indvl LO. Rodgers Test: Whether the change is part of a well-considered and comprehensive plan calculated to serve the general welfare of the community.  If characterized as quasi-judicial.

‖  Purpose: LGB will change zoning for requested use but NOT allow certain other uses permitted in the zone.  Presumption: If LO meets BOP. CONTRACT ZONING  “Conditional Zoning”: LGB makes NO promise (―deal‖) and there is NO enforceable contract until the LGB acts to rezone the property.e. needs zoning change.e.  “Contract Zoning”: The ―deal. but does NOT create the district on a map until developer applies to have the district placed on his property. FLOATING ZONE (WITH PRE-SET STANDARDS) FLOATING ZONE:  Setting: LGB adopts the text of the zoning district.  Key: The ―deal. i. describe a windmill zone/district. CONTRACT & CONDITIONAL ZONING (W/O PRE-SET STANDARDS) CONDITIONAL ZONING V. mixed-use zoning. A.  The application of the zone to a particular property is a rezoning of that property. but don‘t want to allow dress shop to turn into liquor store. he is presumptively entitled to use the property in the manner he seeks UNLESS:  Govt proves by clear & convincing evidence that a specifically stated public necessity requires a specified. sealed.  It‘s floating above the map waiting to come down. o Universal Rule: Contract zoning.  Standard of Review: Apply same stds as special exceptions: o Use MUST be compatible w/ the surrounding neighborhood. Wait.‖ then LGB rezones the property. welfare.g.5 Key: Character of the hearing. LO wants a dress shop. 584 n.  Zoning amendment will be judged against the comprehensive plan (as a std)  BOP on LO to prove (1) his proposal complies w/ reasonable procedural rqmts of ordinance and (2) the use sought is consistent w/ comprehensive zoning plan. as part of the zoning code. 36 . delivered.  OTHER FORMS OF FLEXIBLE ZONING Bringing flexibility to Euclidian systems (i. more restrictive use (tie to health. or any zone. o E. o LGB keeps control over it. Not signed.  Taking? If govt proves the last step.  i. as defined by a deal. & other zoning techniques that require the exercise of discretion & the approval of a development plan as the basis for development. Thus it‘s a legislative act.  Wait for developer to decide where he wants it. doesn‘t yet go to PC or BZA.‖ o States vary on how strictly they interpret a ―deal. Make Written Record: Govt body (whichever it is) must state its reasons and make a record of its findings of fact (reviewable by a court). w/ its standards and procedures. and ensure it‘s reasonable w/ existing uses. Rezoning conditioned on the execution of a private declaration of covenants restricting the use to which the parcel sough to be rezoned may be put. safety).o o IV. o General Rule: Valid UNLESS there is clear evidence of a contract ―deal. but don‘t place it on the map yet. Rylyns Enters. the burden switches to LO to show this more restrictive use amounts to a taking of his property. where everything is laid out). 576 Limit: Some states reject the quasi-judicial distinction altogether..e. 599 B. morals.g. Govt and neighbors are ok w/ dress shop. o E. is prohibited.  Could be in a residential.‖ o Merely put conditions on a zoning request. o Potential Uses: Can provide a platform for PUDs. commercial. Snyder. it must further the purposes of the proposed reclassification.

o Charisma. screening. it affects the zoning process. but …‖ Limit to professional uses: Put a declaration of covenants in the zoning amendment. general land uses. landscaping or buffer rqmts can consider the adjacent uses. compatibility w/adjacent historic district. PC says ―Yes. parking. Everyone walks away happy: LO (requested use). Traffic problems are NOT ok unless it concerns the ingress and egress of the plan to unsafe and inefficient vehicular conditions.  Minority Approach: State requires city to have a comprehensive plan to engage in zoning.e. conservation of energy. and programs in the general plan. o E.  To permit an LGB this power to deny a lawful use of property would run contrary to requirement of adequate standards. location & dimensions of buildings. policies.  Overlap is ok b/w matters that might be properly considered during a site plan review and conditions that might properly be imposed by a ZBA in granting an area variance.  Soft approach: ―basic harmony‖ Haines. landscaping.  What can be reviewed? o Rule: LGB gets to decide ONLY the shrubbery. VI.‖  Majority Rule: Most cts don‘t give this rqmt its literal meaning. depending on ―compatibility‖ strictness. extracting 1 more thing. what is best for health. neighbors don‘t want it.  Off-Site Conditions can be relevant. NOT the use. Catholic church on corner. means of access. o E. architectural features. o E. o KS: If LGB wants presumption of validity/reasonableness. o Elements which are included in the zoning ordinance or local law. 621 37 . use of renewable energy.g. found consistency.‖  Authorized by statute? Almost never.  Traffic problems would need to be considered in variance or exception requests. preservation of existing natural resources on site.‖  Test: Look at the record before the LGB and determine if it could have.  Once the zoning body determines the zone (i. 618 o “Consistent”: the various land uses authorized by the zoning ordinance are compatible w/ the objectives. neighbors (more restrictions).g.g. signs. despite deviating from the letter of the plan. offls (reelection)  SITE PLAN REVIEW SITE PLAN REVIEW  Setting: Land use agency looks at the specifics/reviews the details of the project. o E. Fasano. o Often contentious b/c land use agency will take one last bite at LO.  BUT it‘s not necessarily required that zoning be in compliance w/ plan to be lawful.  Site plan review may give the LGB its only opportunity to review the design specifics of a development that is a permitted use and can be built ―as of right. so cts usually allow by Home Rule. Kozesnik. But not prohibited either. which may include: parking. 613 : BZA had the power to demand that garage shop build in the ―middle‖ of its lot. adjacent land uses and physical features meant to protect adjacent land uses. o Zoning MUST be ―consistent‖ w/ general plan or it‘s per se unlawful.g.  Key: States vary in how strictly they interpret ―consistency. safety.  “Permitted Use” Rule: o If the use is permitted in the zone. it can NOT reserve to itself the discretion to decide which of the complying land uses will be permitted. ROLE OF THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN IN THE ZONING PROCESS General language: Zoning must be ―in accordance w/ a comprehensive plan. it must meet the comprehensive plan. LGB can NOT challenge a developer‘s specific use and demand a different permitted use. & general welfare). location. rather than towards the edge which would create noise and fume problems for neighbors. 618 o If there is a plan.o V. etc. o LOs have nothing to gain here—the use has already been determined lawful.

Citizens want height restrictions or growth moratoria—use initiative. 644 o A referendum is NOT a delegation of power. o Typical Case: Referendum is used to block zoning amendments that provide more intensive use of single piece of property.  General Rule: Referenda and initiatives raise NO constitutional problems. o So Step 1: Determine whether the LGB action is legislative or quasi-judicial/administrative.  EQ? Requires discriminatory intent. voters can challenge it. Neighbors/3rd Parties can allege that zoning is inconsistent w/ the plan and thus unlawful. LGB hasn‘t ever taken previous action.  VII. o Two Types:  Permissive: A zoning ordinance will NOT be submitted to popular vote UNLESS a voter petition for a referendum is filed.  CANNOT be used for administrative/quasi-judicial actions.e. Spot Rezoning. Initial/comprehensive plan. o Tactic used when LO gets what he wants. Eminent Domain. 38 . REFERENDUM  Initiative: o Voters initiate something. STATE RULES (most commonly used. rarely used. MUST also be approved by voters. o Distinction b/w legislative and quasi-judicial actions is irrelevant. e. the LGB does NOT violate any constitutional protections by holding a referendum. zoning proposal/ordinance. Hard look. Shidel.g.  e. special use approval  Typical cases: Large corporation or amusement park gets approved by PC and LGB. which is difficult to prove.  If Legislative: Ref & Init are okay. but rather a reservation of power by the people. Eastlake.  Mandatory: Anything of a certain nature. 625  Other cts will apply the legislative v.  e. quasi-judicial test/std of review.  i. where LGB enacts zoning amendment.  Citizens must get the required # of signatures. FED CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITS  Very liberal standard—No DP concerns. if passed by LGB. o E. o Can be used as a referendum in states w/o referendums. Strict Scrutiny Std: LGB interpretation is given no deference.g. it will then go on the next ballot (possibly requiring a special election depending on time frame). Quasi-Judicial/Administrative Rules: o Rule 1: Referendums and initiatives can ONLY be used for legislative actions. a zoning action. comprehensive zoning/rezoning  If Quasi-Jud or Admin: Referendums and initiatives CANNOT be used. A. Repealing an Act. voters say NO! B.  Bottom Line: While referendum results may be invalid if A&C.  Referendum: o LGB acts.  Thus intelligible principle doctrine doesn‘t apply.g.  Voters then vote to adopt or reject the ordinance. INITIATIVE & REFERENDUM INITIATIVE V. seeking to repeal the amendment and reinstate prior zoning.g. e. NOT the fed limits below)  Legislative v.g.

developers don‘t want 1) liability or 2) tax burden DENYING SUBDIVISION REQUESTS  Issue: When can a LGB turn down a proposed subdivision plat that meets all subdivision/zoning rqmts?  Rule: Must LOOK to the enabling act and subdivision regulations to determine whether the LGB has authority to deny the proposed subdivision for the reason given. OP. o Traditional: These started before zoning. Subdivison Regs  Zoning: Focuses.  Becomes known as Lot 51.  For improvements to the lot. Subdivision Regulations MAY include. o Dedication of streets to city. Olathe. takings question. and o (10) Any other services. provisions for: KSA 12-749(b) o (b)(1) Efficient and orderly location of streets. 95th St.  Planned Unit Developments (PUDs): Combine elements of both zoning & subdivision controls in a review process that examines the proposed developmental design. remains so thru Lenexa. width. length. o (3) Reservation or dedication of land for open spaces. including 100-year rain and snowfall patterns. etc.  Issue: Raises const. Storm sewers.  Standard of Review: Subdivision control legislation is much more specific than zoning legislation. o These subdivision regulations parallel the zoning regulations. o (9) Stormwater runoff. o (7) Building lines. as method of land description. and uses at the same time. among others.  Then used to ensure that basic amenities conform. o Modern Trend: LGBs attempt to pass on to developers and customers much of the cost of infrastructure required to support new development through exactions. o (8) Compatibility of design. etc. Make sure it matches up w/ other subdivisions. and improvements deemed appropriate. o (2) Reduction of vehicular congestion. etc. Don‘t need to describe by metes and bounds.  Take to Register of Deeds. o Controlled by PC.g. or should focus.  Subdivision Regulations: Concentrate on the internal improvements to a particular parcel of land that is being converted from an undeveloped state to a residential development. KSA 12-749(a)   Rule: PC shall apply subdivision regulations to ALL land located w/in the city and some land outside. on the city as a whole and the relationship of various types of land use to a city‘s overall plan of development. SUBDIVISION CONTROLS KS SUBDIVISION CONTROLS/POWER KSA 12-749 to -752  Prerequisite: Comprehensive plan MUST be in place to adopt subdivision controls (unlike zoning). but not limited to. 39 . o (6) Flood protection. LO must get additional approval. including dedication of land for park purposes. 6: SUBDIVISION CONTROLS: EXACTIONS & TAKINGS Framework: Zoning v.  Lot must meet minimum size rqmts. facilities. o Purpose: Prevent future surprises and ensure that satisfactory infrastructure is installed when raw land is converted to residential use. o (4) Off-site and on-site public improvements.  Get plan approval. intensity.  E. Subdivision Process:  Put pins in the corners of the lots.CH. o (5) Recreational facilities. e.g. I. final approval usually required by LGB.

 Attempt to exact an amount proportional on new residents for the city-wide service..” to finance public facilities.e. some public facility or other amenity as a condition for receiving permission for a land use that the LGB could otherwise prohibit. Baker. 677 : LGB authorized to deny subdivisions if ―offsite factors would render them scattered or premature.  e.. o (2) Taxes (rather than Fees)  Rule: A tax is NOT an exaction. needed b/c of the new development. “Town not ready”? NOT a sufficient justification to deny subdivision approval. Effect: Does NOT provide the broad grants of authority that often allow cts to take a lenient view of scope of authority problems in zoning cases.. city cannot deny in the ―public interest‖ to save money. met all requirements. endangering well-being of residents. LO goes to govt  If city kept granting small developments. City denied b/c would no longer be able to use the land as holding pond—would incur expenses to build a lift station to move the water.or off-site. Conditions/Non-Exactions  NOT Exactions: o (1) Land Set-aside for Private Use  Rule: Exactions MUST be for the public.    II. These apply o (2) In Lieu Fees (PILOTS): Money paid over to city in lieu of land. Developer/LO goes to LGB. different. IN LIEU FEES. Tax rules would apply:  Govt can‘t tax single. it could never take enough land from 1 first. ONLY when  Primarily where it‘s a small lot/development. ―Yes. Remember:  Upon final approval of plat.  End Result: Does the money go into a general fund (tax) or segregated fund to pay the service (exaction)? o (3) Traffic Regulations 40 . premature). further development becomes premature. o Rule: Cts will reverse a subdivision denial if it is based on a reason NOT authorized by the statute or subdivision regulations. o Held: Denial was invalid. Legislative  Money to city for something that may or may not be in the development area.g. MUST be challenged as a regulatory taking.4 EXACTIONS: DEDICATIONS. decisions are  Roads. serving a much broader area than the development itself. LGB says.e. NOT something set aside for private develop. At the point where such a hazard is created. or pay for.  i. in relation to what quantum of services available. o Denial MUST have reason in the statute or subdivision regs! Factual Record: Ct can also reverse a subdivision denial if it finds lack of support in factual record. says: o (3) Impact Fees: Levied in the subdivision control process or at the time a building permit issues. targeted indvls and can only tax for certain things anyway.7  Primary Purpose: Raise money (tax) or mere tools of subdivision regulation?  Amount: A ―fee‖ is a tax if it provides more revenue than necessary to provide the service. o Bottom Line: Denial was appropriate b/c road leading into subdivision would be dangerous. etc.  Various Tests: Text. then govt developer to build a school.  Effect: This is a condition. 724 n. & IMPACT FEES o Exaction: Requiring a developer to provide. sewers. Developer required to set aside rec land for residents in subdivision. 679 : B wanted to subdivide. etc. Garipay. will present the hazard described in the statute and regs (i.‖ o Held: Dangerous offsite access road was premature. “Yes. but.  Most likely Penn Central b/c it still has value. developer turns over FSA to city. 684 n. STEP 1: IS WHAT IS BEING ASKED FOR BY THE CITY REALLY AN EXACTION?  Exactions v. Text. on. o Hazard Rule: LGB must ascertain what amount of development. but…‖  Three Types: o (1) Dedication: Give real property to the city (for public use) for public facilities.

Otherwise. schools. o However.  Moving Ahead: If zoning issues are satisfied. Rule: Condition requiring a traffic-free area/sightline as part of an approval for fast food site plan was NOT an exaction (dedication). sewer regs. o i.g. 689  The city can still take the land.e.  Taking: If there is NO reasonable nexus.  Traffic regulations apply.  STEP 2: IS WHAT IS BEING ENACTED AUTHORIZED BY THE STATE ENABLING ACT?  Sources: Authorization can be found in subdivision regs (always). go to Step 2(a). o Limit: Must meet the two-part test: Nexus (Nollan) + Rough Proportionality (Dolan) o i.e. eminent domain for land. I. o Held: There is NO reasonable relationship b/w the exaction and state interest. City can take exaction for ―free‖ if it meets the 2-part test. City admitted that the rezoning (LO‘s request) would have NO increased traffic. exaction is invalid. IS IT CONSTITUTIONAL. amt/thickness of concrete. (City really wanted to fix intersection). govt exacts.  Example 2: State requires an easement (the condition) for ―protecting the public‘s understanding that beach was there (the state interest: visibility.  Rule: If property owner initiates action seeking govt permission.  Moving Ahead: If the exaction is authorized. fire stations.e. o Fights: police. apply the appropriate regulations. etc. go to Step 2.  The State should have told truth (i. Moving Ahead: If it IS an exaction. Otherwise. Otherwise it must pay. Nollan o Analysis: State could have simply declared an easement. City requests Exaction of some form.  Legit State Interests: Road safety. Otherwise. zone or have sewers permit the exactions? o e. or elsewhere.  Example 1: City required dedication (the exaction) for stated purpose of widening street for increased traffic caused by rezoning (the state interest and proposed use). but not really. which would have been a Loretto taking (permanent. but it MUST pay for it. etc. the condition (exaction) is invalid. STEP 3(A): THE NOLLAN FEDERAL NEXUS TEST & TAKINGS CLAUSE  Rule: There MUST be a sufficient nexus/relationship b/w the condition imposed (the exaction) and the advancement of a legitimate state interest (the city‘s purpose for taking).  To what extent is it fair for the developer to pay for this? o Easy: Universally ok for city to exact for streets (unless maybe width).  Moving Ahead: If nexus exists.). aesthetics.  Issue: Does the enabling statute that allows the city to subdivide.E. TOO MUCH?  Is there a ceiling on what the city is doing? (It‘s kind of a taking. curbs. gutters.e. go to Step 3. o MUST meet the conditional zoning rqmts/tests. o Does the exaction (what city takes) have a connection to the public interest it was taken for/proposed use to which the city will put it? o Exaction must relate to the development. which would have been permitted. Rohn. zoning regs. the govt can require something extra w/o it being a taking. In the special use permit/variance. physical psychological barrier).) o Took it out of the takings realm and put it in the conditions realm. Sewer regs permit a charge (exaction) to hook up to the sewer system. o Held: There is NO reasonable relationship b/w the exaction and state interest. STEP 2(A): SPECIAL ZONING ISSUES:  Conditional Zoning: Treat as Exaction issue AND Conditional Zoning issue. 41 . o STEP 3: ALTHOUGH THE EXACTION IS AUTHORIZED.  Different here b/c LO went to govt 1st.  General Rule: Govt may constitutionally require an exaction as a condition of development—it‘s NOT viewed as a taking (i. it‘s invalid. physical invasion). taking for public access). etc. go to Step 3(b) to decide if Dolan applies.

If not.2 o Middle Approach: If you want to wait. ct must then determine the ―rough proportionality. after Lingle. 42 . 697  Rule: If a nexus exists. it would be easier to meet the rough proportionality test. rather than showing how much will or likely to offset the traffic demand.  TX (& CA): Would apply Dolan! Flower Mound  Others would apply Penn Central.  Example 2: No increased traffic v. we‘ll pay for it. 713.STEP 3(B): DOES DOLAN’S “ROUGH PROPORTIONALITY” TEST APPLY?  Physical Dedications of Land: May depend on Legislative v. Go to Step 3(c)! o Legislative:  Fed Claim: These likely get Penn Central analysis!  These get substantial more deference when they apply to everyone equally. Probably some quantity is necessary. If you‘re in a hurry. o Now. o No Rough Proportionality:  Easement for floodplain purpose was fine.  i. e. 711  Moving Ahead: If Dolan applies. City takes something for nothing (no increased burden). Krupp. 697 o Nollan Nexus is met: Sufficient nexus b/w easement for floodplain (b/c increased runoff by paving lot) and for walkway (increased traffic by enlarging store). Dolan applies.  Mere conclusory statements will NOT work.e. use it. e.)  How far down the road can you look? Rural areas that will turn urban in x years. NOT taking case. this would be an unconstitutional conditional case. STEP 3(C): THE ROUGH PROPORTIONALITY TEST DOLAN.  But ―no precise mathematical calculation‖ is required. State’s interests sufficiently relate to the conditions imposed by the permit. o Step 1: Determine the exactions (city rqmts) o Step 2: Determine the proposed development‘s projected impact o Step 3: Roughly proportional degree of connection (individualized determination)?  Temporal Element: City can plan for something that isn‘t there yet—take account of what will potentially be there when considering what exactions to impose.e.  These are demand-based exactions which are designed to measure the impacts created by the development on community facilities and to covert such demand to a value expressed in monetary fees.g. it‘s ok. Sparks.e. but NO individual determination was made: City merely found that the pathway could reduce some of the traffic demand. you pay for it.  Example 1: LO want to enlarge store and pave parking lot. but NOT for allowing public access on it (LO should still have right to exclude others if merely floodplain purpose).  Impact Fees (Money): Dolan probably does NOT apply. Del Monte and Lingle o Even if Dolan test applied. then Regulatory Taking (Penn Central) likely applies. City requires easement (dedication) for (1) flood plain and (2) public walkway. Dolan‘s rough proportionality test does NOT apply.  e. Rohn.  i. DOLAN. o Quasi-Judicial/Admin: YES. 718 n.‖  Rough Proportionality Test: Degree of connection required between (1) the Exactions (what the gov‘t is taking) and (2) the projected impacts of the proposed development.g. Quasi-Judicial.  Easement for walkway could have been fine. 720 n. City-wide rqmt: Landscaping of 10% and 1 tree for every 8 parking spaces where lot is bigger than 30 spaces  State Courts can vary. (bad roads.g. Del Monte. o “Rough Proportionality”: There must be some individualized determination that the required dedication is related both in nature and extent to the impact of the proposed development. some land = NOT roughly proportional. 689 o i.1 o If everyone has to pay it. Impact fees are already proportional (from the start)  In Lieu Fees: Probably get Penn Central analysis (unless removing all economic value—Lucas)  Total Rejection: If development is rejected altogether.

State may have tougher restrictions (not looser).  Moving Ahead: If govt meets the tougher standard  Too Little (now dead b/c doesn‘t meet fed std): Anything to do w/ subdivision/generalized statements. construction of roadways. the exaction becomes a veiled exercise of the eminent domain power and a confiscation of private property behind the defense of police regulations. STEP 4: DOES THE STATE IMPOSE TOUGHER CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON EXACTIONS?  Illinois “Tougher” Standard for Degree of Connection b/w Exaction and the Proposed Development: o “Specific and uniquely attributable” Test: LGB must demonstrate that its exaction is directly proportional to the specifically created need.  Just Right “Reasonable Relationship” Std: o Valid Exercise of Police Power: The exaction must have some reasonable relationship or nexus to the use to which the property is being made. refuse to issue certificate until all are completed 43 .  Otherwise. Moving Ahead: Federal Constitution sets only the floor. etc. Practical Matter: How do you ensure that developers will complete required improvements on the plats (e. versus o Improper Exercise of Eminent Domain: Exaction is merely being used as an excuse for taking property simply b/c at that moment the LO is asking the city for some license or permit. letter of credit from bank.)?  Cash escrow.  Exaction may take NO more than necessary to satisfy the additional burden.g.

o Step 3: Quota is then allocated by rankings. 777 o They‘re in derogation of the general welfare. o State’s Job to intervene and not the fed cts. ―Not a super zoning board‖ o Even where brought as a right to travel claim. 500 permits on point system. first-served. FEDERAL STANDARD  Rule: Very tough to challenge a quota program (on any method. and fall back on deferential review of land use regulations.  This requires a zoning change to develop anything o Fancier schemes could be handled through zoning in a way that does not violate constitutional takings standards. ct switches to DP analysis. it could just zone all land to where it is developable. Least common method.g. but it may not put a choke hold on further growth. 772  Standard of Review: SCOTUS will apply substantive DP (as applied to an economic reg). o What it may NOT do: 44 .  Preventing newcomers to avoid burdens on public services/facilities is NOT a valid public purpose. GROWTH MGMT STRATEGIES: SLOWING GROWTH A. TAKING & OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES: PETALUMA 1.  Step 1: Does the state authorize the program/restriction/growth limit? If yes:  Step 2: Constitutional limits.  Alternate Methods: Point systems. first-come. o A city may allow itself breathing room to plan for channeling of normal growth (thru zoning laws). 2. o What LGB may do to preserve its character and natural resources:  Participate in state-enacted programs which limit growth by physically limiting the amount of land available for development as a practical matter. 7: GROWTH MGMT & ALTERNATE URBAN DEVELOPMENT FORMS I. but does not make it attractive to development.  Deflecting the growth onto neighbors does NOT serve general welfare. lottery. Zuckerman. but NOT very attractive for development. o RB Std: Rational relation to a legitimate zoning purpose. e. o Step 2: Development proposals are evaluated and ranked: degree to which satisfied criteria. grounds.  Plan & Growth: Slow growth for reasonable time to engage in planning and preparation for growth.Ch.  Method: o Step 1: Each system places a carefully selected # limit or quota on the amount of development which will be approved during a designated time frame. this ordinance does not serve the public welfare of the state b/c town cannot take on its fair share of the state population.  Irony of Quotas: o If a town wants to slow down growth. Petaluma. but NEVER acceptable if it is unlimited or permanent  This places a chokehold on future growth  Mount Laurel Problem: Fair share of growth: Also. QUOTA PROGRAMS HOW THEY WORK  Quota programs are the most direct control on growth.) on fed const. o Permanence  Might be acceptable if it had a time limit or was temporary. STATE STANDARDS (CAN BE TOUGHER THAN FED)  General Rule: Unlimited restrictions/quotas on growth are unconstitutional on state grounds.

where points were given for storm sewers. But if you want to develop it early. Another expert testified with different numbers. this far in 12 years. o NO constitutional violation:  Delay as taking. o Balanced: Considered as a whole. OR (2) resource problem solving specifically. PHASED GROWTH PROGRAMS Ramapo. 1973): o Rosenberg asked the Planning Commission to approve his subdivision plan. orderly development in conjunction w/ the needs of the city. this far in 18. We‘ll build this far in 6 years. schools. build the improvements himself.?  Could be roads. utility services. e. planned growth. o Numbers that the Planning Commission relied upon were trivial & inaccurate. there IS a RB for phased growth plans.  Maryland-National Capital Park & Planning Commission v. or full range of public facilities. courts. o What is adequate response time for ambulances. We‘ll pay for it all. roads. & parks & recreation. FACILITY-RELATED PROGRAMS  1. it was a reasonable attempt to provide for sequential. the development must be within a within a reasonable distance to adequate public facilities. Held: unconstitutional. NOR exclusion. Planning Commission believed that this development would overcrowd already overcrowded local schools. Program: It looked to where growth would take place & when it planned on building public facilities to meet this growth. go ahead and pay for it. as determined case-by-case. legitimacy of program. One expert testified that the development would produce 134 extra students. get credit for future permits. both in inception and implementation. 784    6-year groupings. & firehouses within 1 mile of the potential development. A permit was granted if 15 points were awarded.  Adopt a zoning law for the purposes of limiting the rate of growth for an indefinite or unlimited period. drainage facilities. Different groups submitted local schools‘ numbers to the Planning Commission. such as schools. Rosenberg appealed. but limited # of houses to 10.  4 other elementary schools were within a 1 mile radius. Planning Commission decided that the local elementary school did not have enough space to take on the additional students that would result from this development. ordinance.g. which is a reasonable distance & is adequate. Rosenberg (Mary. ADEQUATE PUBLIC FACILITY (APF) ORDINANCES Common Municipality Feature: You cannot build unless you have ―adequate‖ facilities nearby. so it denied the plan. sewers. o City permitted development on entire plat. so the subdivision plan was approved. 2. getting your 15 points.  Look to the subdivision regulations. NOT a taking issue. fire protection. varies. County ordinance stated that before a subdivision plan is approved. he could ask for a variance.  These schools had sufficient space for these new students 45 . parks & recreational facilities. or get a property tax cut if the area could not be developed. police. B. but the local school only had 34 available spots. purpose and are unconstitutional (state). The check sheet submitted to the Planning Commission says ―there are no additions in the Capital Improvements Program which would increase the capacity of this school or any other elementary schools in the vicinity. Bottom Line: EXCEPT when (1) used to give communities breathing room for periods reasonably necessary for the purposes of growth planning.‖  Adequate can be defined by statute. pay for the improvements. This went on for 15 years. Held: Where existing physical & financial resources of the community are inadequate to furnish the essential services and facilities which a substantial increase in population requires. If the developer did not get 15 points. SUCH quota/restrictions do NOT serve a const. o Keys: NOT permanent restriction.

current use. maybe not. Argued that the city may only use their farm & ranch land if the higher priority land was ―inadequate to accommodate the amount of land needed. but also suitability i. WA.225% growth rate B Held 1: County‘s rate was acceptable because it was based on valid evidence 2 Issue 2: UGB expansion included the appropriate lands A Plaintiffs argue that their land that was included in the UGB expansion was 4 th priority farm & ranch land. community colleges. Type 4.  Adequate means how it fits in w/ all the other factors. School boundaries could be adjusted to take on these additional students The only reason the subdivision plan was denied was because of lack of available schools & this problem could be easily solved. but the Plaintiffs only used a 1. o Relies on the language of the statute.  Studies made every 10 years by cities (over 25.  BUT adequate also means other things:  Comparatively easier. location proximity to current development)  1) Urban Reserve (prime for development)  2) Exception  3) Marginal  4) Agricultural/Forest  Step 2: Complete the growth plan.  Implements Goal 14. Plantiffs‘ land was closer to urban services. o Was there adequate evidence in the record to support the decisions made by LGB? 1 Issue 1: UGB could be expanded A County used a 1. & that the city was required to use up the 3 other higher priorities before it used this 4th priority land. o Turns on the word “adequate‖  If strictly numerically. considered admin decision.  West Linn determines it must add land to the UGB.  Step 1: If growth is necessary based on study. VT.  P argues City used the wrong formula for calculating whether UGB needed expansion. CONTROLLING GROWTH A. o Definition of adequate was questioned in Rosenberg   II. o Relative Priority System (based on topography. Common on West Coast: OR. & downtown Portland.000 population).  Standard of Review: Substantial Evidence. Bottom Line: These ordinances look acceptable on their face.‖ B Held 1: ―Adequate‖ means not only quantity. but often get into trouble when tested. o NO deferential review. CA somewhat.  Subdivision and all that comes after all this UGB stuff. so it was more adequate than the higher priority land 46 . the city must determine which area to expand. Factors 3-7.  Very bureaucratic system  UGB: Urban Growth Boundary.6% growth rate. o Held: Substantial evidence for City‘s calculation. URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARIES: A CONTAINMENT STRATEGY [811] City of West Linn [816]  State plan enforced at the local level. NOT legislative. buses. i.  Argument 2: City must grow into Type 1 lands before using ours. shopping centers.

 DB wants to hook up to city sewers. and what is the legal basis? Bring anything that doesn‘t breathe. what are my alternatives.B. Distinguished CO & DL cases. City [830]  City and county working together to control where growth takes place (NOT necessarily limit growth) o Will extend lines for sewers. big enough development he can‘t build underground. roads. 2-3 short questions 1 medium question 1 large question How does it fit together.  Held: It was reasonable denial based on city‘s comprehensive plan and prevention of leapfrogging. 47 . CONTROLLING GROWTH BY LIMITING AVAILABILITY OF PUBLIC SERVICES Dateline Builders v. o Court disagreed.  DB argues that city is public utility: o Must take all comers unless you have a capacity problem or a deadbeat. FINAL:         Multiple Enabling Statutes Go to Main Room 1st. Where client or mayor comes into my office. o But will NOT approve developments that leapfrog open lands. thereby extending facilities gradually. o The trunk line is existing and nearby. 4 MC questions. what would you recommend. as money becomes available. but City denies the hookup. etc.

nature of use. etc. location.  Provide earlier vesting of rights than provided by statute.  Hear requests for zoning amendments to specific properties initiated by landowner (spot zoning) ???  May be designated to serve as the BZA. PC. intensity.  Site plan review??? (specific details of the project: location. & BZA LGB: City Council. Framework: 1) Can P get in fed ct? Ripeness & abstention barriers. D) Does exaction take too much? Nollan and Dolan.  Apply subdivision regulations to all land w/in the city (and up to 3 miles outside city)/hear the permit requests. what method for which remedy? (Direct suit or § 1983).  Hear appeals on application/enforcement of zoning ordinances.Duties of LGB.  May provide for the adoption or amendment of zoning regulations (zoning & rezoning)  May initiate zoning amendments or rezoning (comprehensive). 1) Does reg meet Fed Subst.  May initiate zoning amendments or rezoning (comprehensive). shrubs.  Advise on enactment and amendment of original zoning regulations/ordinances.  Establish the factors to be to be considered when approving or disapproving a rezoning request. City Comm‘n. 3) Taking A) Eminent Domain? B) Categorical Taking? i) Loretto physical? ii) Lucas removal all economic value? C) Balancing Test: Does regulation go too far—take land? Penn Central. just relax rqmts)  Grant or deny special exceptions o Permitted in ordinance as matter of legislative grace o Not necessarily incompatible. 48 . BZA: Bd of Zoning Appeal or Board of Zoning Adjustment (appointed):  Grant or deny zoning variances (unnecessary hardship) o Use variance (prohibited in KS) o Area variance (not a different. but might cause harm if not watched. o Includes floating zones and conditional zoning.g. 2) EQ claim? Probably not unless ill will. Bd of Supervisors (elected):  Adopt comprehensive plan.  Approve or disapprove BZA recommendations. A) If so.  Approve or disapprove PC recommendations.  Provides reasonable procedures for hearings and notice requirements.)  Eminent domain (taking land for public purpose) PC: Planning Commission or Zoning Commission (appointed by LGB):  Adopt and amend subdivision regulations. height. o E. DP? Should be easy unless egregious.

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