Information system An information system (IS) - or application landscape - is any combination of in formation technology and people's activities using that

technology to support op erations, management. In a very broad sense, the term information system is freq uently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, d ata and technology. Information systems are distinct from information technology; Information system s are also different from business processes. Information systems help to contro l the performance of business processes. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processin g (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) in formation. It consists of computers, instructions, stored facts, people and procedures. In other words it is the collection, storage, retrieval and discrimination of da ta for analyzing.

Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemin ation of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectroni cs-based combination of computing and telecommunications. Anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via an y multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the IT domain. IT provides businesses with four sets of core services to help execute the busin ess strategy: business process automation, providing information, connecting wit h customers, and productivity tools.

The term server is used to refer to one of the following: A computer program running to serve the needs or requests of other which may or may not be running on the same computer. A physical computer dedicated to running one or more such services, to serve the needs of programs running on other computers on the same network. Client server Technology: Client?Sever ? Through Networks ? Client Client?Server?through Networks ? Client Multi Tier Server: multi-tier Sever (often referred to as n-tier Sever) is a cli ent server Sever in which the presentation, the application processing, and the da ta management are logically separate processes. For example, an application that uses middleware to service data requests between a user and a database employs multi-tier Sever. Presentation tier or Client Tier This is the topmost level of the application. The presentation tier displays inf ormation related to such services as browsing merchandise, purchasing, and shopp ing cart contents. It communicates with other tiers by outputting results to the browser/client tier and all other tiers in the network. It acts as a user inter face. Application tier (business logic, logic tier, data access tier, or middle tier) The logic tier is pulled out from the presentation tier and, as its own layer; i t controls an application s functionality by performing detailed processing. Data tier This tier consists of database servers. Here information is stored and retrieved . This tier keeps data neutral and independent from application servers or busin ess logic. Giving data its own tier also improves scalability and performance.

but as a rule it's protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. Media of communication. and used in further analysis. The integration l ayer is used to integrate data and to have a level of abstraction from users. Satellite communication 2. ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provi des comprehensive checklists. while an intranet is designed to be a private space. The receiver (sink) who receives the message Different forms of communications are: 1. The following are the basic requirements for working of a communication system. A data warehouse maintains it s functions in three layers: staging. Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns from large data sets invo lving methods from statistics and artificial intelligence but also database mana gement. The sender (source) who creates the message to be transmitted 2. 1. A medium that carries the message 3. integration. Th e access layer is for getting data out for users. An intranet may be accessible from the Internet.The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is an Information Techn ology (IT) management framework that provides practices for Information Technolo gy Services Management (ITSM). Staging is used t o store raw data for use by developers (analysis and support). tasks and procedures that any IT organization can tailor to its needs. It is the automatic or semi-automatic analysis of large quantities of da ta in order to extract previously unknown interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster analysis). the kn . The Extranet is a portion of an organization's Intranet that is made accessible to authorized outside users without full access to an entire organization's intr anet. and access. The data stored in the w arehouse is uploaded from the operational systems. Communication is possible only with wired and wireless connectivity of the computers with each other. Internet Intranet and Extranet There's one major distinction between an intranet and the Internet: The Internet is an open. A data warehouse (DW) is a database used for reporting. public space. Data communication refers to the transmission of the digital signals over a comm unication channel between the transmitter and receiver computers. Knowledge Management In an organization which is giving preference to knowledge based working. V. IT development and IT operations. unusual records (anomaly detection) and depend encies (association rule mining). Communication 3. These patterns can then be seen as a kind of s ummary of the input data. Remote area communication 4.

providing access to. Business intelligence (BI) has two basic different meanings related to the use o f the term intelligence. Risk management: Presence of a good risk management system will help in the smoo th flow of the business for a longer period. the people are treated as assets and they are termed as human assets. analysis. In knowledge management. is the human intelligence capacity applied in business affairs/activities. then the business is able to dim inish various kinds of risks. Best practices: The best practices in business mainly consist of a leader who le ads the organization. The set standards are practiced in the future for better productivity both in q ualitative and quantitative terms. The management should sketch new policies and the policies have to be executed on the right time to overcome the risks. legal. economical. p olitical and technological factors.owledge is managed in a better way in terms of quantity and quality in complianc e with the organization policies to achieve the ultimate goal of the organizatio n. such as data mining and data . in simple terms is the process of setting standards. A good risk management system shoul d be able to understand and measure the risks. Business intelligence is a broad category of applications and techn ologies for gathering. Benchmarking: Benchmarking. transparent and flawless communication from top to bottom level and v ice versa and constructing futuristic plans for generating positive results. The instruments of knowledge management: Change management Best practices Risk management Benchmarking Change management: Change is inevitable. summarized views of business data and is used for reporting. Business Intelligence enables organizations to make well informed business decis ions and thus can be the source of competitive advantages. COMPONENTS OF BI: Online Analytical Processing or OLAP provides multidimensional . less frequently. The term implies havi ng a comprehensive knowledge of all of the factors that affect the business. He or she should be able to lead the human assets by examp le. It might happen because of environmental. modelin g and planning for optimizing the business. The second relates to the intelligence as information valued for its currency an d relevance. The organization which adopts change quickly will be able to cope with the new developments. In change management the business becomes sensitive to change. The ultimate objective of business intelligence is to improve the timeliness and quality of information. An organization undergoes change due to so many reasons. When the risks are monitor periodically. The business migh t be able to achieve the good results on the basis of how sensitive they were in adapting to changes. OLAP techniques and tools can be use d to work with data warehouses or data marts designed for sophisticated enterpri se intelligence systems. The primary. Once business intelli gence is gathered effectively and used proactively then the firms can make decis ions that benefit the firms. The best practices include establishing attainable targets. Other BI tools are used to store and analyze data. flat management structure. and analyzing data for the purpose o f helping enterprise users make better business decisions.

It req uires Business Process Re-engineering and works on RPG (Record Program Generatio n System) Advantages: With ERP. a convergence of people. hardware and software into an efficient production. ERP Vendors: SAP. Cloud computing allows consumers and busine sses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficie nt computing by centralizing storage. etc." "platforms. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software appl ication." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers differ ent products for businesses and individuals around the world. Having a workable and efficient ERP system in place is savings in relation to en ergy consumption and data management. The position of the firm as in comparison to its competitors 2. Changes in customer behavior and spending patterns 3. PHP. mapping. information visualization. Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP is actually a process or approach which atte mpts to consolidate all of a company s departments and functions into a single com puter system that services each department s specific needs. Business intelligence reveals: 1. Implementing ERP typically requires changing existing business processes. Pearl. Oracle. embracing finance/accounting. The social. management information systems. PostgreSQL. Ruby. decision support systems and forecasting. This leads to efficiency in customer management and perceived company effectiveness in delivering on custome r expectations. sales and service. JD Edwards. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all busine ss functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connection s to outside stakeholders. memory. Software as a Service (SaaS). Having an ERP system in place implies having a single hardware system to handle the different requirements. NA Vision. and political environment 6. BAAN ERP Languages: JAVA. It is. My SQL. demographic and economic information 5. Best practices are incorporated into most ERP systems. People Soft. future trends. document warehouses and do cument management. Market conditions. servi ce and delivery system that creates profit for the company. MARSHAL. It integrates intern al and external management information across an entire organization. in a sense." and "infrastructure. Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "applications. Trend Analysis. Apache. knowledge management. all elements in the supply and production chain can be eas ily accessed by all those who need the information. regulatory. and dash boarding.warehouses. The capabilities of the firm 4. . manufacturing. customer relationship mana gement. This means that the softw are reflects the vendor's interpretation of the most effective way to perform ea ch business process. processing and bandwidth. Python. geographic information systems. What the other firms in the market are doing Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote server s to maintain data and applications.

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