I. Course Objectives A. To introduce you to Christian Apologetics B. To give you the tools and guidance to better prepare you in defense of Biblical truth. C. To challenge everyone in this class to give their very best to the Lord and his church. II. The Purpose of this Study is: A. To prepare Christians to engage unbelievers intellectually with humility as we strive to defend and promote the cause of Christ. B. To promote a greater understanding and deeper faith in the God we love. C. To edify and challenge the local body of Christ to greater zeal and commitment to the Lord. III. The Purpose of This Class is NOT A. To win arguments B. To memorize apologetic techniques C. To overwhelm others with our intellect D. To be busy IV. Class will begin: A. With prayer, emphasizing: 1. Genuineness/Sincerity 2. Opportunity 3. Expectancy 4. Daily Spiritual Examination V. Attendance We will meet for 12 weeks. It is imperative that you be on time and completely prepared for all classes. This means all reading assignments need to be completed before class time along with all assignments, reviews and memory work. VI. Grades/Tests The purpose of this class is to challenge each person to do their very best. There will be quizzes and tests thru out the classes to encourage everyone to evaluate their progress and understanding of the material. The final test will be a take home test consisting of 5 questions. You will be asked to answer 3 of the 5 questions without notes or aides.
VII. Reading Assignments You will be asked to read a variety of books, articles and debates covering a number of Apologetic subjects. You will have the option of choosing a number of different topics to study. Every reading assignment must be carefully evaluated and reviewed by the student. You will need to hand in a reading evaluation sheet for all readings. This is the first step in carefully examining everything and holding fast to that which is good. VIII. Structure of Course Memory Verse for each class A. Discussion questions to begin each class B. Report to field activity by class C. Questions concerning field activity D. Study questions at the end of the chapter E. Vocabulary list for each week – memorize F. Final report at end of class: overcoming and answering an objection or problem related to Apologetics G. Book report, on index card include: 1. Who is writer 2. Background 3. Strengther 4. Weaknesses 5. Agree/Disagree 6. What was learned 7. Recommend/Not Recommend IX. The Personal Goals of this Class 1. To make a difference in this world through our words, actions, thoughts and prayers 2. To be a catalysist for change in this world 3. Make 100% commitment to live victoriously every day 4. My goal is heaven, my power is the gospel of Christ, my purpose is to glorify God – we must never forget that! “The desire to make a difference in this world and to have a positive impact on the lives of others should motivate us to dream big dreams and our faith in God should give us the courage to turn our dreams into realities for often our own fear is the only thing preventing us from attaining greatness and success.” Practical Virtues, Floyd Flake, p.2
1. Apologetics 2. Logic 3. Fallacy 4. Theism 5. Atheist 6. Deist 7. Pantheism 8. Naturalism 9. Miracle 10. Prophecy 11. Evolution 12. Resurrection 13. Philosophy 14. Morality 15. Rational//Irrational 16. Truth 17. Real 18. Ontological Argument 19. Telelogical 20. Cosmological 21. ??? 22. Empirical 23. Intelligent Design 24. Relativism 25. Religious Pluralism 26. Postmodernism
where did God come from? 18. it is irrational.
. You can’t prove there is a God. 17. The Trinity is irrational and illogical. 12. I have my own beliefs. Faith is not rational. It is unfair to send people to Hell because they never hear some ????? 11.Objections to Christianity
1. you have yours. 2. What I believe is true for me. Christians are hypocrites and judge everyone else. You are a Christian because you were born into a Christian home/nation. 19. 4. Why is there so much suffering and cruelty in the world if God is all loving and powerful? Why doesn’t he stop it? 5. What I think is important is to love others. what you believe is true for you. The Bible contradicts scientific evidence. 15. Christianity is divided with many different denominations. 3. 8. If everyone needs a first cause. Why would God reject people who are trying to do good? 7. The Bible is full of mistakes. Modern man no longer feels a need for God to make sense of his life. If God works miracles. so who is right? 9. I think all religions are going to Heaven. 14. 16. 10. 6. where is the evidence? 13. Christianity is too exclusive and other religions are also good.
24 2. 3:15-16. 9:3 . B. The English term “apologizing” for is used differently than the Greek term. the resurrection of Jesus Deity.16 and in I Pet. Apologia was a Greek legal term meaning an answer. N. a defense. For everyone a. 1. a.) Verb Apologeomai used Acts 19:33 . Definition of Apologetics 1. – Does not use the words Apologia or Apologeomai in technical Sense of our modern word Apologetics or Apologeomai in offering a reasoned defense of the faith is evident in Phil. 4. Logos = word.T. “But sancify the Lord God in your hearts and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for
. Apologetics derives from the Greek word (noun) Apologia or Apologeomai (verb). 26:1-2. A more comprehensive definition of Apologetics would include not only the defending of Biblical truth claims against error and false teaching but would also include the propagatin and justification of sound doctrine. It does not mean “I am sorry”. For example: Gods existence. 3:15. a reply a.My defense Acts 25:16 . 12:11 Rom.Make his defense I Cor.My defense Phil 1:7 . miracles. Introduction to Apologetics A. 1:16 I Pet. c. Importance of Apologetics 1. etc. Not until 1794 was the word Apologetics used to designate a specific Theological Discipline.Defense of the Gospel Phil. prophecy. Logic Reasoning. 3:15 2. 2:15 Acts 25:8. b. 1:7.) Noun Apologia used Acts 22:1 .Make a defense Acts 24:10 – Make my defense Lk. Apologetics is the presenting of evidence and logical arguments or reasons why a person ought to believe in something a. Greek root words: Apo = From. Many Theologies have used the word “evidences” to designate the study of defending the truth against critics. 3.Lesson 1
I.) I Pet. Ex: Plato’s apology is a record of Socrates defense after being accused of rejecting the gods of Greece and corrupting the youth.
) Note from this passage: a.” 1. Apologetic Argument of Jesus
. 3.T. See Hand Out 2. refuse to know 3. This I involves philosophical. Gods existence and divinity clearly revealed 2. Apologetic – General Revelation a. whose mouths must be stopped.) You need to be prepared to give a reason for this hope e. D. authors 1.) Enemies of Christ must be silenced c.) Need to maintain a clear conscience 2. criticisms. teaching things which they ought not. both idle talkers and deceivers. that he may be able. For Elders a.” 1. Persuasion: The goal is to convince others of the truth of the Christian faith and bring them to the point of commitment. questions and misunderstandings from unbelievers. Defense: This seeks to clarify the Biblical position by answering objections. those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed. Use of Apologetics by N. For there are many subordinate.the hope that is in you with meekness and fear. “…holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught.) Elders must have knowledge to – • Teach sound doctrine • Refute those who oppose sound doctrine C. scientific and historical evidence for the “Faith”? 2.) You have a reason for this hope d. Proof: The setting forth of the case for Christianity. by sound doctrine.) Enemies of Church teach false doctrines and cause much harm b.) You must answer with gentleness and respect f.) Note the following from these verses: a. that when they defame you as evildoers. especially those of circumcision. who subvert whole households.) You have a hope in you c. All humans “knew” God by suppress the truth. Purpose of Apologetics Primarily in Three Areas: 1. Titus 1:9-11.) Christ is Lord in the Christian heart b. for the sake of dishonest gain. both to exhort and convict those who contradict. Rom 1 1. having a good conscience.
a. 3:15-17 b. The defense of the Christian faith in order to reach the lost a. Give reason for our hope – I Pet. Apologetic Argument of Paul at Athens a. See Hand Out E. Paul – Acts 17 c. Peter – Acts 2
. I John 4:1-4 3. Col. 3:17 2. Apologetic Example a. 10:31. See Hand Out 3. I Cor. Refute false philosophies – Col. Jesus b. 22:37-40. 2:8. The glory of God – Mt. Contend for the faith – Jude 3 c. Reasons For Apologetic Activity 1.
24:32. Jn. 20 Imparts Life Will Judge vs. 24 and I Pet. 1:19-28) Witness #2 – The Greatest Works – miracles Jesus works – vs. Jn. 26
Jesus is clearly stating that he and the Father are one. 36 Miracle of healing – Jn. 17:5. 5:46. 26 (Eternal Life) Possesses Life vs.vs.19 Perfect Knowledge of Father vs. 9:7 Witness #4 – The Greatest Book – Torah Jesus states in Mt. Acts 3:18. 38 The voice of the Father spoke at the baptism of Jesus – Mk. 5:1-9 Admitted by Nicodemus – Jn. 44.Apologetic Argument of Jesus
Jesus defense in John 5:19-47 My Father worketh even until now and I work. 20 Imparts Life Doesn’t Judge Honor Source of Salvation Possesses Life vs.
Originates Sons Works Loves the Son vs. 26
(Works) (Love) (Life) (Judgment) (Honor) (Salvation)
Does the Fathers Works vs. 22. 27 Shares Honor vs. 33-35) John called Jesus the Lamb of God. Mk. 24 Will Raise the Dead vs. 3:2 Witness #3 – The Greatest Being The Father . 5:17 that he came to fulfill the law and the prophets See also Lk. His relationship to the Father is not the same as the rest of the Jewish nation rather he is claiming equality with God. 23 Words of Salvation vs. 37. 1:10
. So where’s the proof????
Evidence to Support Claim: 5 Witnesses
Witness #1 – The Greatest Prophet John the Baptist (Vs. the Son of God who takes away the sins of the world (Jn. 5:17 The context: Jesus heals a lame man on the Sabbath-Jesus points out to the Jews that in healing on the Sabbath he is acting in conformity with his fathers will.
2.Witness #5 – The Greatest Law Giver Moses vs. 45-47 Ex 20 – Passover Lamb Num. 3. eyewitness and miraculous Jesus provides multiple witnesses for his claims The power of the argument rests in the integrity and credibility of the witnesses
. Jesus gave reasons and evidence for his claims The evidence is firsthand. 4. 21:8 – Serpent lifted up Leviticus – Looked forward to sacrifice
Lessons for Us
Purpose of Human Beings – vs. He spoke in a variety of different places to anyone who would listen D.Synagogue with the Jews – vs. Proclaimer of Foreign Dieties – vs. The Argument 1. He understood his audience – background E. Response to Argument 1. Text and Structure A. Some scoffed 2. Reaction of the Philosophers 1. Some were willing to hear more 3. 2. 22-23 2. Gods desire for all – vs. 26 3. Greek Poets understood Mans nature vs. What We Can Learn from Pauls Speech A. Universal Human Nature – vs. Nature of True God – vs. Before the Areopagus – vs. 32 III. Solution of their curiosity a. Marketplace with populace – vs. 30 e.vs. 26 2. He discussed “statues” C. Resurrection as evidence for belief in this one God B. 3. 27 4. B. Limits set by God vs. Nature of Mankind 1.Apologetic Argument of Paul
Acts 17 – Paul among the Athenians I. Idolatry – unnerved him
. Babbler – vs. He dialogued with everyone – Spoke – Listened B. 24-25 b. Some believed – vs. Conclusion of Gods nature . II. Context of the Argument Act 17:16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens he was deeply distressed to see that the city was full of idols 1. 2. 29 d. Point of contact – vs. Philosophers – vs. 20-21 A. 28 c.
I Cor.) Exchange glory for idolatry 2.) Immorality/Depravity 3. See his power and Deity –vs. Mankind – 1. Wrath revealed against ungodliness and wickedness b.) Is condemned
. Is universal 4. Gal.do not know God b.) Rejects truth for lies c. Can Sinners Know About God? a.General Revelation
A. Answer: Pagans can know about (cognitive) God yet not know (intimate/personal) God a. Is limited 3. Note: Rom 1:19 – Know about God Rom 1:20 – Clearly seen. Psalms 1. I Thes. 4:8 – You did not know God d. hear feel b. think. Rom. Comes from nature – self evident 2. Starts from visible to invisible 2. Rom. Do Pagans know God? 2. We are moral – Rom. II Thes.) Worship created instead of Creator 4. 1:8 – You did not know God c. 4:5 – Gentiles…. 19 C. Suppress the truth c. Apprehension of the Divine 1. 1:18-20 a. Is because of our “image” a. 1 1. 1:32 E. Intellectual blindness results from moral hardness. Knowledge About God 1. Ps.) Is morally responsible/has free will 2. About God –vs. 19 B. see. Inate – within nature 3. We reason.. – World……did not come to know God 1. being understood Rom 1:21 – They knew God Rom 1:28 – Not see fit to acknowledge God Rom 1:32 – Know the ordinance of God Here Paul says clearly that the Pagans knew God b. 1. From his creation D. 20 4.
. Jews would have exposed body if a lie B. 1:19. Other knew the tomb was empty 3. Disciples could not have preached the resurrection in Jerusalem had the tomb not been empty The Resurrection Appearances – I Cor. 3. He was buried c. Gal. 15:3-8 A. 12:34 ff 1. Buried by Joseph of Arimathea –a rich member of Sanhedrin (historical person) 2. On the third day – time of empty tomb C. Appearance to Apostle Paul – Acts 9:1-9 Note Paul’s past: What would bring about such a profound change in his life? The Origin of the Christian Faith A. 2:9. 9:9-11
II. Tomb discovered empty by women 1. The fact of the resurrection appearances 1. Women were second class citizens 3. Lk.The Case for the Historical Reality of the Resurrection
I. The Empty Tomb A. He was raised – empty tomb d.. The reliability of the burial story1. Women were not accepted as legal witnesses 2. Mk. Resurrection was to come at the end of world not within history – Jn. 11:23-24. Appearance to all the Apostles – Acts 1:21-22 6. 1:18.
III. Thomas C. Peter proclaims Jesus the Messiah – Acts 2:23-26 B. Disciples knew the tomb was empty 2. Women first discovering the tomb empty-strange if concocted material D. Disciples did not believe in resurrection – Mk. The Messiah of Judaism was not to die and be raised – Jn. Appearance to the Twelve – see Lk. 15:3-5 – Early evidence of truthfulness of Christ burial a. 24:34 2. Evidence for the burial story 1. Acts 21:18 – Why did James become a follower? 5. I Cor.. 12:17. Appearance to James – Acts 1:14. Appearance to 500 Brethren – “Most of whom remain until now. Jn. but some have fallen asleep” 4. Died for our sins b. Appearance to Peter – Gal.
Focus attention on backing an argument with solid support (evidence.) Circumstancial – “Poisoning the well” 3. 3 Common Fallacies to Watch Out For 1. Red Herring – using diversionary tactics to lead away from the main point 10.3 Varieties 1.) Wishful thinking 2. an appeal to pity 2. Identify the Right Kind of Evidence Necessary to Make a Good Argument A.Attacks the Person.) An appeal to force – See handout a.) Begging the question 3.) An appeal to an untrustworthy authority 2. Take Time and Effort to Gain a Correct Understanding of an Opponents Position A.) An appeal to the people 3. reasons) and avoid irrelevant emotional appeals. facts.) Not the cause for the cause 3.) Genetic fallacy 2.) Amphiboloy 6. Category mistake 7. Ad Hominem Fallacy.) Complex question 3. Try to Stay on Topic When Offering a Rebuttal A.10 Ways to Avoid Faulty Thinking/Reasoning
1.) An appeal to ignorance 3. Suppressed Evidence – occurs when an argueer emphasizes only the evidence that supports their position while suppressing any counter evidence. Nazis.) After this therefore because of this 2. Straw Man – is an exaggerated or extreme version of another’s position 9. Render a Fair Assessment of All Evidence for Another Position A.) Equivocation 2.) Faulty analogy 4.) Abusive – name calling (communists. Present Substative Evidence in Support of an Argument A. 3 Common Fallacies to Watch Out For 1.) To quoque (“you too” in Latin) – To accuse one of hypocrisy to avoid the argument 8. Be very careful not to presume A. inc) 2.) Oversimplified cause 4.
. Always Respond Directly to an Opponents Argument and Avoid Character Related Issues A. Facists. Some Common Fallacies 1. 2 Common Fallacies 1. A. Be Sure That the Arguments Reflect Clarity of Thought and Expression A. Some Common Fallacies to Watch Out For 1. Express caution in analyzing casual relationships and conceptual comparisons A.) Hasty generalizations 5.
The Nature of Truth 1.
.) Suppress the truth – Rom. Truth is not: a. New Testament a.) Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Truth – Jn. “That which is coherent” 1.) Jesus is “Truth” a. 45:19 2. 1:18 B. Old Testament a. 1:3) 3.) The end justifies the means b. 31:5.) Comprehensiveness is one test for truth but not the definition of truth. 8:7. 17:17 2.) Gospel is the “truth” – II Cor. Truth – The Testaments 1.) Truth is telling it like it is. 3:4 a. 10:1 2.) God is true – Ps. c. 1. untrue 1. The idea is faithfulness and comformity to facts.) “Thy word is truth” – Jn. Biblical View of Truth and Knowledge A.) God is True – Rom. Correspondence with reality 1. 9:5 3. Jer. “That which feels good” 1. 11:10 3. stability.Lesson 3
I. 1:18 (exact image – Heb. Defined – aletheia = genuine.) Coherence is a negative test for truth. 2. Isa. but not necessarily true if they are.) Feelings have nothing to do with truth statements. “That which is comprehensive” 1. Defined – emet = support. d.) Truth conforms to fact – Dan.) Jesus perfectly corresponds to the father – Jn.) Correspondence can be within and without.) Speaking the truth – Prov. Truth is: a. opposite of false.) Gods word corresponds to his thoughts – thus his word can be trusted b. 2. 14:17 4.) Statements are wrong if they are inconsistent. a.) Communication depends on informative statements – Thus correspondence to facts is what makes statements informative 2. “What works” – Pragmatism1.
) All scripture is inspired – II Tim.) Hence truth is not personal. Gods Truth is Absolute in Nature a.) Gods word is powerful – Heb. Gods Truth is eternal a.C. Phil. one life 2. C. to everyone and excludes nothing – “All truth is God’s truth” 1. 3:6. Biblical truth is without exception or exemption. Characteristics of Biblical Truth 1. desires or beliefs (See Rom. Truth is Universal a.) God speaks truth thru the prophets in the Old Testament and the New Testament 3. This means it applies everywhere. Epistemology (How we know what we know) always is determined by the nature of reality.) What or who is the source of knowledge? 3.) No man cometh unto the Father b.) Jn. 1:18-20 – God has made known His existence thru creation and conscience 2. Truth is Revealed by God a. Mal.) I Cor. Cuts across cultures 3. Objective truth is truth that is not dependent on any persons subjective feelings. Truth is Exclusive. you have yours” 3. 40:8. Gal. Specific.) God will tolerate no other gods – Ex.) What is knowledge? 2.) “No other name given under Heaven” – Acts 4:12 2. 3:3-4 – “Let God be True”) 1. Knowing the Truth 1.) What are the limits of knowledge?
. private or relative.) Gods truth will set all people free – Jn. 4:12 – Language conveys truth 4. a. Ps. Law of now contradiction states ”Nothing can both be and not be in the same respect” 1. 8:4-6 – “There is no God. 4:19 2. it doe not change 1.) Scope of Christs authority is unlimited – Eph. Rom.) Gods word stands firm – Isa. Precise and Exact a. Objective Truth Exists and is Knowable a. 119:89 4. 9-10. 1:21-22.). 6:24 – Cannot serve two masters 6. This “truth” is intended to transform us – Ps. Truth is not created or invented by people or societies 1. 2:6. 3:16 2. one truth. 40:8 – “The word of our God stands forever”.“I have my beliefs. Isa.) Mt. but one” 3. 20:3 2. Consider these questions 1. 14:6 – There is but one way.). 51:6. God will not tolerate departures from his truth 1. 8:31 5.
Exactly what is knowledge? a.) This knowledge is apart from reasoning or experiences and is immediate.4.) Rationalism – reason is the source of all knowledge 2. The Christian’s knowledge of God is a matter of certainity a. 20:12 3.) Is the capacity to know things without reliance on sense experience.) One needs warrant of justification for it to be knowledge. 2:15 b. Certainity is the intellectual apprehension of an objective state of
.) Law of Non-Contradiction states –No statement can be both true and false at the same time in the same way.) But belief is not knowledge Ex. then what he knows must be true. 1.) Thomas – John 20:27 5. 11:4-5 4. 1:1-4 2.) Intuitive knowledge of the Divine – Rom.) Man is created in God’s image b.) Ex. Lk.) How can one know that God exists? b.) Objection: Mirage/Magician b.) Mysticism – direct knowledge of God may be obtained separate from empirical experience and prepositional revelation. then what he knows he actually believes a. 2. I Jn. a.) If someone knows something.) Empiricism – experience is the only source for knowledge 3. Man never landed on the moon. People believe many things 4. c. Logical Knowledge (Reason) 1. 3.) If someone knows something. Sources of Knowledge a. Consider some answers 1. D. Prov.) Lord created our “eyes and ears”. Man is the only true “knowing” subject of the natural order. Knowledge is justified true belief. 1:18-19 c.) The universe was created for man.) The speech in the book of Acts all employ logical reasoning to convince people of their lossness. Intuitive Knowledge 1.) Revelatory events of the past were empirically knowable by witnesses. 1. Sense Experience – (Empirical) 1. 2. a. 2.) Jesus told John’s disciples “Tell John what you see and hear” Mt. a.) Man’s means of knowing are limited by his nature and the universe he inhabits. 1.) Intuitive moral knowledge is universal and real – Rom. a. Conclusion 1.) This would include truths of logic and mathematics b.
affairs. 2. We should be confident in speaking to others. a. Paul said “I know what I have believed”, II Tim 1:12 b. The Apostle John writes “We know him who is true”, I Jn. 5:20 c. I Jn. 2:3 – “We know that we have come to know Him”. d. I Jn. 4:13 – “We know that we abide in Him”. e. I Jn. 5:13 – “That you may know that you have eternal life”.
Communication Points to Always Observe
1. Listen carefully to the other person, even if you think you know what he is saying -Make eye contact -Use non verbals -Listen for facts, evidence 2. Clarify the issues -Watch word usage - Listen to argument structure 3. Use illustration whenever possible -Abstract concepts are best explained by illustrations or analogy 4. Take control of emotions -No yelling, expressing disgust, interrupting, name calling, etc. -If emotions run high, put off – leave 5. Avoid getting sidetracked -Treat all questions as genuine -Stay on topic -Answer, then move on 6. Don’t lie or “fake it” -If you don’t know the answer, say so -Tell them you will get back with them 7. Put them on the defensive -Ask questions to clarify, to find origin, authority, reason for…. -Listen to their answer to ask next question 8. Resist the desire to “win” -Goal is to win the person-not the argument-be sensitive -Don’t go for the throat -If the argument becomes uncomfortable or awkward, back off 9. Recognize a closed mind – Mt 7:6, Prov. 26:4-5 -Seek to clarify the honesty of their heart to determine if they are a truth seeker -Don’t talk with 2-3 or more people -Use good judgment around others 10. Always remember-it is your job to sow the seed -Not to give the increase -Not to draw people to you
God and Logic “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength” Mark 12:30 I. God and the Mind of Man A. God created man in his image - Gen. 1:26 1. Identifies man as unique from all of the created order (different) 2. Identifies man as sharing with God divine characteristics (similar) a. Man is intelligent 1. Not like horse – Ps 32:8-9 2. Like divine mind – Rom 12:2 3. God says “Come now and let us reason together” Isa. 1:18 3. Mankind has the ability to reason a. This is demonstrated throughout the old and new testament especially in the life of Jesus and the Apostles – Mk. 12:29-31, Acts 26:26 II. Introduction to Logical Thinking A. Logic 1. Defined: the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning Intro to Logic, Irving M. Cop: 1986 Macmillian, p. 3 B. The 4 Primary Laws of Logic 1. These laws are fundamental to all understanding and communication a. The Law of Non Contradiction Explained: No statement can be both true and not true at the same time and in the same sense *This is a self evident truth for most all thinking people b. The Law of Excluded Middle Explained: A proposition is either true or false-it must be one or the other c. The Law of Identity Explained: If any statement is true then it is true A=A d. The Law of Rational Inference Example: If A=B and B=C, then A=C C. The Nature and Necessity of Logic 1. The laws of logic are universal-for all people and all time a. There is no western-eastern thought 2. The laws of logic were not created by man but rather discovered
a. Logic. The Apostles Use of Logical Reasoning A. They are objective in nature. 5. Acts 17:2-3. Jesus Use of Objective Evidence 1. 30 8. c. d. 28-29 6. A statement’s meaningfulness depends on logic. inable us to know and understand God. 30 Throughout Jesus ministry he used logic to present and advance his claims. 11. The laws of logic are undeniable. p. Jesus use of reason (argumentation) Mt 12:24-30 1. 25-26 4. Argument from analogy – vs.and we are a part of it because we are created in God’s image 4. The Law of Excluded Middle – vs. 25-26 2. The Law of Rational Inference – vs.E. The Law of Rational Inference – vs. John 20:24-29 IV. Argument from analogy – vs. Mark 2:1-12 2. B. W. Reductio Ad Absurdum – vs. Dialegomai a. One cannot use logic in the real world. Argument from analogy – vs. “To think different things with oneself. Paul’s missionary journeys – He “reasons” with his audience a.by him. 22-31 b. to ponder then dispute with others” An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. The laws of logic have their origin in the mind of God. like math.it is impossible to engage in any type of intelligent dialogue and not use logic. 29 7. a. 27 5. Acts 18:4. 252. To deny the need for logic one must first utilize it – hence it is self defeating. like mathmatics. Vine b. Without logic there would be no such thing or concept of true or false. is a real concept 3. The Law of Contradiction – vs.19 c. b. 26 3. Acts 19:8-9 1. The Apostles use of Rationality 1. 17. The laws of logic. III. “In classic and Hellenistic Greek is expressed by our loan – word dialogue”
. Jesus Use of Logic Reasoning A. John 2:18-22 3.
Peter – Acts 2:14-39. 3. 1:14 c. Confirmation of the Gospel results from the evidence which we see and experience thru Gods external world and our internal perceptions. nor conform ones thoughts or life to Gods Revelation without the use of logic. is closely linked with it and similarly the noun dialogismos. discussion” The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology Vol. 1:16 d. p. Therefore logic is necessary for understanding reasonable statements and propositions which is a necessary precondition for the communication of truth to individuals. Conforming of our life to Gods revealed will cannot happen without the use of logic. I Cor. I Jn. which God has placed within all of us.
. One cannot “believe and not believe” or say “Christ is both God and not God”. thought. consideration. Illogical and self-contradictory statements and beliefs are incomprehensible and thus not worthy of our trust and confidence. Logic is unavoidable. weighing. The Christian cannot comprehend. Lk 1:2-4 b. confirm. The appeal to eyewitness testimony a. 2. 15:1-8 3. By conforming our life to his will we learn to love God “with all our minds” Mk. The Use of Objective Evidence 1. The Christian and Logic A. Comprehension of the Gospel is absolutely necessary before one can believe it. II Pet. 12:30 B. Jn. undeniable and indeed invaluable to the seeker of truth. consider. We cannot believe or know anything unless we have confidence in our ability to reason. Remember salvation results from believing the truth and only the truth. think through. 3:6-16 2. 3. 1. calculate. 1:1-3 IV.820 Editor Colin Brown B. Paul – Acts 26:26.“The verb dialogizomai.
Six Enemies of Apologetics
1. Cowardice – Col. Arrogance .Memorize pat answers . Indifference 2. 4:2-6 . Ignorance .Build straw man 6.Use clichés .Live and let live attitude .Need to be tolerant . 5:11-12 5. 3:15 Some people believe that faith and reason are incompatible Faith = Absence of evidence Faith vs science
.Too much trouble 4.We have the truth and we are right! . Superficial Techniques .Afraid – Cannot answer questions – Mt.Fail to carefully examine other teachings .Bury head in the sand .Employ stereotypes Don’t care about what others say Do little to speak up or out I Pet. Irrationalism 3.
Moral values are intelligent messages conveyed from one mind to another. young and needy since these actions in no way promote the survival of the species?
. They are a product of intelligence B. Rather they are known thru introspection and reflection. Three Possibilities Answered 1. Is lying. Moral norms have a force or “oughtness” about them. 5. 2. the disabled. elderly. Thus moral norms are not the result or an intelligent designer but the result of accidental causes. But some evolutionists would argue that morality exists because it is necessary for survival 1. We do not discover morals thru empirical methods. The breaking of moral norms usually results in feelings of pain and guilt and a sense we have done something wrong. 4. They are a product of chance 3. particles or other parts that can be measured by scientific instruments. 3.) Illus: If my fortune cookie states “you will inherit much money soon” should I quit my job? b. 2 B. stealing wrong? d.Lesson 7 God and Morality
I. Rom. Source of Morality A.) So why do we help the weak. Moral norms exist – and are known 1. II. 1. chemistry. 1 2. Moral norms are not physical 1. retarded. Are moral norms the product of chance? a. They are an illusion 2. Is murder wrong? c. Are moral norms an illusion? a. Is anything wrong? Or is everything relative? 2. They have no physical properties such as weight. Is rape always wrong? b.) Illus: If my Alphbits cereal spells out “sleep” should I go back to bed and not go to work? 2. Nature of Morality A. Rom. They influence our will. Three Possibilities 1. height.
this in no way argues against their realness. 2) because they share the divine image of God c.) All men “know” this “oughtness” (Rom. non conscious. It also involves motive and intent. The basis/foundation for objective moral values is the person of God. Moral Laws Suggest a Moral Law Maker . Mankind did not start moral values-no can man set aside moral values. No human rights 4.) Will mass murders go unpunished? 4.) Why do we experience guilt? 3. Is the basis for moral values impersonal. The alternative: Without God1.) Evolution is only concerned with the sorts of behaviors that are conducive to the preservation of the species but morality is more than behavior. a. Or is the basis a personal. B.) Are all men endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights? III. unguided. How can the effect of morality felt by all be explained apart from an adequate cause – God 1. No personal responsibility 5. Defense of Divine Authorship or Moral Values A. A duty is something that is owed. but something can be owed only to some person or persons. But if morality is the product of naturalistic evolution. Moral Rules are the Product of Intelligence a. Objective moral values do exist and we can recognize them 1. The concept of moral obligation is unintelligible apart from the idea of God. valueless processes over time? b. b. No judgment/condemnation IV.
. No intrinsic human dignity 3. No moral obligation 6. Illus. The Moral Law is Not of Human Origin 1. cultural development or personal choices then rights do not truly exist. guided. God is Foundation of Objective Moral Values A. loving.God 1.) Why is justice important? 2.: Planning to explode a car bomb but doesn’t (intent) 3. No right or wrong conduct/actions 2. personal God? B. Because discerning of moral values may have gray areas. a.2.) His laws must be obeyed 2. They are a given. a. conscious. benevolent. Example: Dusk/Dawn 2.
2. sin. for the present and the future… It is and will be valid for all nations and all times” The Nuremberg Trials. The Scope of Moral Values are Universal and Timeless-all are Subject. D. 3. 1997 Lucent Books 3. Condemnation and Punishment of Evil is Just 1. Do we not sense an unfairness about the world that demands a righteous judgment? 5. a. C. we cannot be freed from its obligations by any legislature…This (natural) law does not differ for Rome and for Athens. wrong. Think of all the Hitlers b. rights are impressed upon us from without. treat and think of others is directly related to our view of man. yet we all do. 4. The moral imperative is an expression of belief in a moral God who rules the universe in a moral fashion. etc is meaningless. Sin left unchecked results in a world of ugliness. Values. wickedness.
. Earle Rice Jr. Can abortionists escape? 3. So to speak of evil. Justice requires that evil be punished. unchanging. Moral law is a moral prescription from a moral prescriber beyond us. If there is no absolute moral standard of judgment then obviously no action of humans is right or wrong. 2. Act 17 2. Nuremberg Trials. we cannot abolish it.for crimes against humanity Cicero-Roman orator and legislator wrote: “True law is world wide in scope. Evil is real. everlasting… We may not oppose or alter that law. How we see. 1. The concept of justice is predicated upon a moral standard.
) I Kgs 13:1-2 (Josiah) 2. 2. The prophecy must deal in specific details. This prophecy is an
. Defined: A miracle of knowledge. 1. Beyond the power of human knowledge insight.) Dan. Prophecy – 1.) Isaiah 44:28. Exact fulfillment must characterize the prophetic statement. Criteria a. True prophecy must be beyond the power of man to foresee C.True prophecy must significantly precede the person or event described. b.Nations 2.Must be beyond a reasonable guess or calculation – “It will rain tomorrow” b. Ch. Can look to past – Creation week – Moses b.) Jonah 3:10 – God spared city Fulfillment was not unconditional but was predicated upon the response of the nation. To predict that “something” will happen to “someone” at “sometime” is not impressive.Lesson 13 The Power of Prophecy I. 2 . Prophet a. Spokesman for God – Ex 7:1-2 b. Jonah 3:4 – Nation shall be “overthrown” 1. c. Predictive Prophecy – 1. Nature of Prophecy 1. Present situation – Amos 1:1 c. not vague generalities which could possibly fit future circumstances. not merely a high probability of fulfillment. Not all prophecy is predictive in nature a. 45:1 (Cyrus) 3. 18:22.) See Deut. Future events 1. Born of a Virgin – Isa 7:14 Messiahs coming was not predicated upon anyone or anything other than God’s will. a declaration of something or someone yet future. Prophecy – Conditional/Absolute a. Introduction to Biblical Prophecy
A. Ex. Also known as “seer” – Isaiah 9:9 B. . Proper Timing . Ex. Isaiah 41:23 for Gods exacting standards 3.
44:7-8. Double Fulfillment Possible – 1. Heb. Why Predictive Prophecy is Relevant for Apologetics
A. Prophecy – Literal/Figurative a. This is the chief evidence God offers in the Old Testament to verify his power and claims – Isa. 1:19 – Refering to his witnessing of the Christ – Mt. 2:7 a. Ex.) David speaks of enemies – Ps 41:9 2. Need to ascertain how a New Testament writer is employing an Old Testament text 1. B.) Is the New Testament writer modifying an Old Testament text under inspiration of the Holy Spirit? 4. Christ not to be left in grave – Ps. 5:5-10.) Is he borrowing language from Old Testament text? 2.) Is an Old Testament text being used as an Illustration? 3.absolute statement. 110:4.) Christ our high priest – Heb.) Christ resurrected from dead – Act 13:33 c. Prophecy – Partial/Complete Fulfillment a. 1:4 d. 7:1-17 c.) Prophecy – Typology a. 1. it is not dependent upon any conditions. Peter states: “So we have the prophetic word made more sure. 6:20. to which you do well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place” II Pet.) Christ is superior to angels – Heb. 40:3 2. Melchizedek symbolized Son of God as King – Ps. 41:21-23. Ex. Jonah 3 days in great fish – Matt. 5:5 4. Fulfilled prophecy refutes religious sceptism 1. 16:10 b. Deut.) Is the New Testament writer saying this is a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy? b. 13:14-15 Read c.) Christ speaks of Judas – John 13:18 See John 6:64 3. 12:40
II. Type – is a figure of something future called an antitype. If Isaiah did not write these prophecies who did? Another
. 17:5 C. Ex. 1. 1:5 b. John Baptist – to pave a highway in the future – Isa.) Type is a pictorial prophecy b. Multiple Applications Possible 1. Ex.) Ps. God thus employs prophecy as an Apologetic tool. 6:9-10 Fulfilled Matt.) Christ declared son – Rom.) Isa. 18:20-22 a.
Sinful. 52:13.C. Isa.
III. Possible Old Testament Servants a. 45:1 c. Isaiah 42:1-9. Cyrus – Isa. Isa. Nebuchadnezzar – Jer. 3 – The contrast is made between “He” and “Him” vs. Justifies many. 53:8 – Note contrast between (Messiah) “he”
. Thus the message of the prophet and the reliability of the text are both confirmed. Romans – Dan. The earliest text of the book of Isaiah was recovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls (1947). Did not know LordIsa. 53:9. 7-8. God’s “arm” (servant) Isa. The Suffering Servant is a person not the nation a. 52-53 2. 50:4-11 and 52:13-53:12 4. b. Who is the Suffering Servant? Isaiah 52:13-53:1-12 1. 44:21. dealing with Judah and Jerusalem’s future and redemption B. Greeks. Isreal – Isa.
Israel 1. 45:4 2. 23
3. “We”. 2. Two Servants Contrasted
a. 3.These messages historically date from the times of -The Babylonian captivity when Jerusalem has been captured (587 B. 11 3. The prophet Isaiah lived approximately 700 years before the coming of Christ.C. 70 weeks prophecy – Dan. Background 1. – 680 B. Messianic Prophecy: The Suffering Servant Prophecy–Isa. Medes-Persians. 49:1-13. The term “man” is used in verse 3. 2:13-53:1-12
A.prophet an editor or redactor? But why? 2.C. 53:2.Isa. 49:3 d. 53:1. If Daniel’s prophecy concerning future events is true (Babylon. Righteous-Bears sins Isa. 740 B. 22 3. Needs redemption
1. 27:6 b. It contains 66 chapters and is recorded on a leather scroll dating from the 2nd century B. 9). then history confirms the events foretold many years before. 2. 44:22. 59:16 2. Isaiah recorded four unique prophetic messages about his Servant – a.C. Messiah – Isa. 53 8Isa. ) -Isaiah 52 is located in the portion of scripture.Isa.
53:12 fulfilled Matthew 28:8 / Luke 23:34
. Only after suffering – vs 14 2. 53:8 fulfilled I Corinthians 15:3 / 5:7 7. Isaiah 53:1-9 a. Isaiah 53:10-12 a. 53:1 fulfilled John 12:37-38 2. Isa. This thought would be unacceptable to any suffering Jew at this time. Servant glorifies God – vs 10 b. Honored among the Gentiles – vs 15 c. Summary of Isaiah 53 1. Isa. Isa. Servant would be highly exalted – vs 13 b. Isa. Believers would be justified – vs 11 c. 53:10 fulfilled John 1:29 / Acts 8:32 9. Israel rejects the servant – vs 1-3 b. 53:11 fulfilled Acts 13:38-39 / Romans 5:18 10. Isa. Isa. Isa. Isa. Isa. 53:89 – Messiah is killed and then buried d.is cut off. Isa. The Prophecies of Isaiah 53 1. Servant is honored – vs 12 D. 53:7 fulfilled Matthew 26:62 6. 53:4 fulfilled Matthew 8:16 / Galations 3:13 4. for transgression of “my people” (Israel) c. 53:9 fulfilled I Peter 2:22 8. 52:15 – “He” will sprinkle many nations (Gentiles). Isaiah 52:13-15 a. Israel misunderstands His death – vs 4-6 3. Israel kills the servant – vs 7-9 c. Isa. 53:3 fulfilled I Peter 2:4 3. A. 53:5 fulfilled Romans 4:25 / I Peter 2:24 5. Isa.
. 53:4 Have a reasoned answer ready. Why would others “hide their face” from Him? Isa. what they had not heard they will understand”? 8. 7. How we see. 5. Make a list of “observable features” and “unobservable features” of the servant. “What had not been told them they will see. Fulfillment in New Testament – Mark in Bible 3. 10. 2. Look up the fulfillment of each verse for the next class. 4. Be able to recite in class. 6. treat and think of others is directly related to our view of man. What value do these chapters have to your life? 3. What does Isa. Write down your thoughts after each reading. Memorize the verses that mean the most to you. 53:3 9. This prophecy points to the miracle of the resurrection of Gods Son for our salvation. 52:15 mean.Homework
Read Isaiah 52-53/5 times before next class 1. Is healing included in the atonement? See Isa. What should we pray more earnestly for after studying this chapter?
What You Need to Know
1. Isaiah 53 – Mark in Bible 2. Do we not sense an unfairness about the world that demands a righteous judgment? 5. Are they of Apologetic value? How? Why? 4.
regardless of the area of consideration – scientific. etc. newspapers. world traveler Proves Nothing!! b. colleges. authored over 10 books. Carefully consider all the evidence. Biblical. Our body of knowledge is constantly growing and changing as new
. Example – “Benefits of Prayer” c. religious organizations.
C. moral..V. From friends. For beliefs we already hold c. 1. We all tend to accept evidence: a. Magazines. etc D.) Christians – sun revolves around world . lectures nationwide. teachers we like. psychological. Watch for vested interests in the presentation of evidence. T.
1.The Importance of Evidence
How we approach (view) evidence greatly affects our conclusions. Documented evidence over undocumented evidence a.Ex. Watch for educated authority over uneducated authority a. We will never arrive at the truth if we are sloppy in examining the evidence. From certain ethnic backgrounds. Well known author. 1. Trustworthy witnesses over untrustworthy witnesses a. computer. Example – “Gay Genes” b. etc b. even though he holds a PHD (Carl Sagan – Phy Anthropology) 3. Is the author or expert speaking out of his field? A medical Doctor is not a biblical scholar. Presuppositions of : 1. Evolutionists 2. Nasa finds missing day 2. leading expert has written extensively. even that of an opposing view. A large consensus does not establish truth. Consider the date of the evidence and how time may affect it – 1. Example – “Benefits of Eggs” B. A.) Athiests. historical. radio. Be sure the source of the evidence is reliable and free of bias. Remember the majority of scholars are not always right.
Is global warming a fact? E. Is there enough evidence? a. Ex. Is the author selective with the evidence? 3. We grow when we open out eyes to the world around us a. Trust sources which rely on careful logic and sound reasoning is.discoveries are made. Evidence points us to the truth 2. Example of Intelligent Design: Do the facts support the conclusion? 2. Shroud of Turin 2. 1. Example: Second Hand Smoke 4. Act upon the implications and applications of the evidence 1. Requires us to engage our minds – reason – evaluateconsider – weigh .evidence
. How much research went into this project? F. Has science proven Evolution? 4.
1:15. Lord – Mark 12:35-37. Son of God – Matt. He claimed authority to forgive sins – Mk. others say Elijah. Jesus will come “on the clouds” in Judgment 3. 1:2 b. Jeremiah or one of the prophets. Claimed “oneness” with the Father – John 10:30-33 d. “ Some say John the Baptist. “Who do you say I am?” Mt. 16:28. Col. John 20:28 c. God – John 1:1. He received worship – Matt. Jesus equated himself with the Father a. Heb 1:3 c. Jesus sits at Gods right hand e. To know Jesus is to know God – John 14:7 b. 2:5-7 b. 20:28 b. He had authority over life & death – John 5:21 d. Mark 14:61 d. Creator – John 1:3. Claimed to be the Great “I Am” – John 8:58-59 c. Messiah – Matt. Jesus exercised Divine Perogatives which attested indirectly to his identity a. 7:13-14) d. To honor the Son is to honor the Father – John 5:23 e. The New Testament Central Theme is about the Person of Jesus A. 24:30 5. 18. Jesus claims to be “Son of Man” (Dan. Image of God – Col. 1:16. 16:13-16 I. Col. Mark 14:61-64 b. Claimed God as his father – John 5:17-18 (unique relationship) b. Access to the Father is through Christ – John 14:6 2. Jesus the Uniquely Divine Person 1. Jesus made claims that appeared blasphemous to the Jewish religious leaders a. 16:16. actions or rules proclaimed or attributed to Jesus: a. To trust in Jesus is to trust in God – John 14:1 d. 5:26. Jesus claims to be “Messiah” c. and still others. Jesus use of Divine titles demonstrates his Diety a. Heb.” “But what about you?” He asked. He claimed power to judge – John 5:22-27 4.Lesson 9 The Uniqueness of Jesus
“Who do people say the son of man is?” They replied. Divine qualities. To see Jesus is to see God – John 14:9 c. 1:16
. 28:16-17 c. Self Existence – John 1:3.
“Behold a virgin will be with child” (NAS) c. 7:14a. Eternal – John 1:1. 11:43 3. Spence and Joseph Exell – “The Rendering “Virgin” Has the Support of the Best Hebraists. Glorify God and to provide evidence for belief – Jn. 16:15-18 b. 6:1 3.) Man born blind healed – Jn.000 – Jn. Note: All these miracles were public in nature and clearly observable a. “Who being in very nature God…. Col.d.) “One who has not yet borne a child” John Walton. Virgin . Eerdmaius) 1962 p. “Behold a young woman shall conceive” (RSV) 2. “Behold a virgin will be with child” (KSV) e. 30-31 2. Jesus was uniquely God in the flesh 1.) Mans ear is restored – Lk.Defined a. 2:11. Extent of Jesus miracles a. “The Word became flesh” John 1:1. “Behold. a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and shall call his name Immanuel” (ASV) b. Septuagint – Parthenos (Isa. Jesus is the God-man a. 10:128 b. as Lowth Gesinus.) H. 8:58.) Widows son raised – Lk.) Jesus appears to apostles – Mk. 7:11 2.) 10 lepers cleansed – Lk. 17:11 c. 1:16-17 e. Delitzch. 6:2-20. 2:1-11 2.” Pulpin Commentary (Grand Rapids MI. Ewald. 14 b.) Jesus feeds 5. 1997 New International Dictionary or Old Testament Theology & Execesis (Grand Rapids MI: Zonoervan) 3:415-419 2. “For in Christ all the fullness of Diety dwells in bodily form” Colosians 2:9 d. Omnipotence – John 1:3. Unique Birth of Jesus Christ 1. 7:14)
. Kay. 6:19 3. D. 17:5 B. 9:1 2. Again: the purpose of the miracles was to demonstrate his power/authority over the seen and unseen real. Over nature 1. The miracles of Jesus were unique 1.M.D. 22:49-51 3.) Jesus walks on water – Jn. 2:19. Over death 1. Hebrew – Alma (Isa.) Lazarus raised – Jn. “Jesus Christ has come in the flesh” I John 4:2 C. 7:14) 1. Purpose of Jesus miraclesa. Over physical infirmity 1. Isa.being made in human likeness” Phillippians 2:5-6 c.) Water turned to wine – Jn.
Frederick William (2000) A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago. Jesus enemies 1.) Peter – “He committed no sin. 5:21 b. Jesus Uniquely Fulfilled Hundreds of Old Testament Prophecies 1. Mt.) Died for sins – Mt. Garments parted – Ps. 7:14 as prophecy fulfilled by the virgin birth of Christ. Bones Not Broken – Ps.)Thief on the cross – “This man has done nothing wrong” Lk. 27:19 2. Lk 23:33. Sold 30 Pieces of Silver – Zech. Some prophecies foretold the miraculus a. Mt.“A female of marriageable age with focus on virginity” Danker. 43 c. The Unique Character & Teaching of Jesus 1. Virgin Birth – Isa. 2:22 3. 5:2-Mt. Estimate of the disciples 1.) John the Baptist – “I need to be baptized by you” Mt 3:4 2. Mocked – Ps. 27:41. University of Chicago Press) p. no guile was found on his lips” I Pet. Jesus example 1. 2:1-6 b. 7:14-Mt. c. The apostle Matthew cites Isa.” Matt. 11:12.) Judas – “I have sinned in betraying innocent blood” Mt 27:4 3.humility 2. 34:20.) Washed disciples feet . Some prophecies were fulfilled by Christ’s enemies a. Hands pierced – Ps. Jn.) Pilate’s wife – “Have nothing to do with that righteous man” Mt. Many prophecies were very precise a. Mt. a. 36 3. 40:3-Mt. Buried in Rich Man’s Tomb – Isa.) His love for sinners – woman at the well 4. Coming of John – Isa. 22:16. Sit on David’s Throne – Ps. IL. 23:41 5. Jesus Charactera. 20:25-27 b. Jn. 27:54 c. Born in Bethlehem – Mic.) His compassion – for lost and suffering
. 3:3 2. 27:57-60 c.) Paul – “For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin” II Cor. 19:33. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet …Behold a virgin shall be with child. 19:24 F. 26:14-15 b. 22:18-Jn.) Roman centurion – “The son of God” Mt. 26:28 3. Matthew 1:18-25 a. 2:6-Acts 13:33 4. 53:9.. “Now all this was done. Many prophecies were not under human control. Resurrection – Ps 16:10-Acts 2:24-32 b. 777 3. 22:7-8. 1:22-23 E.
) We are hopelessly lost without God 3.) Destiny * My destiny is to live in eternity with him * This gives me hope/joy e.) Meaning * I exist to serve and glorify God * My meaning is found in knowing and loving him (relationship) c. harmony and joy d.) Hometown marveled at his teaching – “Where did this man get this wisdom” Mt. values.) We are made in God’s image c. hope of eternity 2.) The multitudes were “amazed at his teaching….) His teaching reveals who God is and who we are a. body. priorities. career. Jesus teaching a.image b. money.) His teaching addresses the most important questions of life a.) Thoughts.) His teaching touches all areas of life a. morals.
. 27:28-29 2.not as their teachers of the law” Mt. choices.) Origin * I am created by a loving God. Had divine authority 1. relationships. * I share a unique bond . death. Was recognized as unique 1.2.) Guards – “No man ever spoke the way this man does” Jn.) Note: How all 4 points are intimately tied together forming the Christian worldview. 7:46 b. 13:54 3.) God is love b.) Morality * My choices are based upon his character * His laws bring peace.
He was the Son of God yet washed the disciples feet. The multitudes were “amazed at his teaching because he taught as one who has authority. Even the guards state “No one ever spoke the way this man does” – Jn. As a child the synagogue “was amazed at his understanding and his answers” – Lk. 13:54 6. and not as their teachers of the Law” – Mt. His hometown marveled at his teaching. 2:47 4. 7:28-29 5. “Where did this man get this wisdom and these miraculous powers?” – Mt. 2. “No one ever spoke the way this man does” – Jn. 7:46 3.The Character and Teaching of Jesus are Unique
The Reliability of the Gospel Accounts
I. Time Frame of Events – Did the writers live during the period that these events took place? 3. Internal Integrity – Do the authors agree or disagree? Do they contradict each other? Are they honest? 4. The majority of information concerning Christ’s life is found in the four Gospels Matthew. External Verification – Are the Gospels accurate with secular facts? Do dates coinside with historical events and what does archeology have to say?
. Manuscript Evidence – Do we have sufficient copies to determine a reliable text? 2. Mark. 1. Introduction A. Luke and John.
Acts 18:2 – Claudius commands all Jews to leave Rome a. 80” William Albright III.) Confirmed by inscription dating Gallio’s appointment as proconsul in Achaia at July 51 (See Acts 18:12) c.Lesson 12 The Reliability of the Gospel Records
I.) Time Frame of Events – Did the writers live during the period that they claimed these events took place? 3. Therefore Paul wrote his Epistles between AD 50-AD 62 B. Suetonius records this event – AD 49 b. Over 5.D.) Earliest – Chester Beatty and Bodmer Papyri (fragment – Gospel of John) Dates from 50-158 A. Luke and John B. 4 Tests to Determine History of Documents 1. Roman procurator of Judea (Acts 25:12) – AD 60 a.Are the Gospels accurate with secular facts? Do dates coinside with historical events and what does archeology have to say? II. “We can already say emphatically that there is no longer any solid basis for dating any book of the New Testament after about A. Date 1. The majority of information concerning Christ’s life is found in the four Gospels of Matthew. 3:6 and Acts 18:5) 2. Paul is sent to Rome by Festus. I Thess. Dating of Luke’s Gospel:
. New Testament Manuscript Evidence A. Mark. The Dating of Paul’s Letters 1. From Rome Paul wrote Prison Epistles – AD 60-62 b. Intro A. Paul probably arrived at Corinth AD 50 1.000 New Testament Manuscripts B. Eusebius states that Paul was executed in Rome under Nero c.) Internal Integrity – Do the authors agree or disagree? Do they contradict each other? Are they honest? 4.) Manuscript Evidence – Do we have sufficient copies to determine a reliable text? 2. Written from Corinth (See I Thess.D.) External Verification . Time Frame of Recorded Events: A.
Phil 24) and during the Roman imprisonment (II Tim 4:11) d. An eyewitness – onlooker – Heb. Authored – Gospel of John 1-11-111 John and the Revelation 1. 1:1-2. 4:20 b. 9:7 c. Rev. 10:41
. John 3:24 – John not yet thrown into prison c. 18:16. Apostle John and Peter – Jn. Acts 2:32. 27:1-28:16 c. Luke was a companion with Paul on his journeys – Acts 16:10-17. “Sixth Hour” d. Details of place a. 18:1 d. 24. Luke tells us his earlier work (Gospel of Luke) was written before (Acts 1:1) thus sometime between AD 58-61 C. Cann in Galilee – Jn 2:1 e. Luke was with Paul when Colossians and Philemon was written (Col. Acts ends with Paul in Rome – Acts 28:30 (AD 60-62) b. Dating of John’s Writings: 1. John the Baptist did no sign – Jn. Early Witness of Christ A. Pool of Silom – Jn. John 20:1 – “First Day of the Week” 2. Gerizim – Jn. 19:13 John was very familiar with the topography of Palestine in the first century 3. 20. Kidron Valley – Jn. Labbatha – Jn. 19:35. 21:24 I Jn. I Peter 5:1. 20:5. Apostles were “witnesses” of Christ – Acts 1:8. 19:35. Details of People a. John 2:1 – “Third Day” b.) Hence – All of John’s writings would date no later then AD 96 IV. Houghton Miffin Co. Acts1:1-5 a.) Most scholars date the either in Ad 68-69 of AD 95-96 2. Defined – Witness ”One who has seen or heard something…to be present at or have personal knowledge of” The American Heritage Dictionary. 1387 1. 1985 p. John 4:6 – “Jacob’s Well”. Apostle John wrote – much of the New Testament a. 5:19 3. 32 B. 4:14.1. John 4:40 – “Stayed Two Days” e. I Tim. John 12:1 – “Six Days Before the Passover” f. 10:28 4. 21:20.) Irenaeus claimed that John lived until the time of Trajan AD 98 3. Luke wrote his Gospel and the Book of Acts – Lk. 1:1-4. “Details” of Time a. II Peter 1:16-18 2. 1:1-3 1. Charges against others must be sustained by ”two or three witnesses” Mt. Mt. Apostle John was a “witness” of events – Jn. The Pavement. 21:18. John 19:14 – “Sixth Hour” g.
John Mark – cousin of Barnabas Col 4:10 1. Jn. 18:13 4. eyewitnesses personal friends – relatives of Jesus 3. Nathanael was from ???? in Galilee – Jn. He “witnessed” great miraclesa. Capernaum is down hill from Cana of Galilee (mentioned 3 times) . Luke – a physician. Jn. 11:1-44 – Lazarus dead for 4 days f.b.Jn.) From the first birth of Jesus 4. 19 b. Nicodemus brings 100 pounds of myrrh and aloe to apply to the body of Jesus – Jn. 4:46.) He traveled with Paul 2.) eyewitnesses – see Lk. 4:4. Goal of his work – a. 49. City of Samaria – Synchar – near a field Jacob gave his son. 13:15 3. Later identified was a “fellow worker” (Philemon 23)
. Luke had investigated everything carefully a. Jn. Caiaphas was the son in law of Annas – Jn.) He was aquainted with the facts through first hand knowledge or personal inquiry 3. 5:2 d. educated D.39 c. Miscellanious Details a. 21:2 d. has a well . Maceabean Feast of Dedication occurs in the winter – Jn. Background a. “Many” had written accounts of Jesus a. 2:1-11 – Saw 680 liters of water turn to wine b. 9:1-8 – Man born blind is healed e. Jn. Traveled with Barnabas on missionary tour – Ax. 20:1-29 – Jesus raised after 3 days C. 51 c. Acts 1:8 (who were there from the “beginning”) b. Gospel of Mark 1.) carefully – accurately ( akribos) means going into minute detail 1. Traveled with Paul Ax.) Produce “certainty” in Theophiles 5. 23 5. Jn.) Luke had opportunity to converse with Apostles. 6:1-15 – 5.) possibly earlier works by Matthew of Mark 2.) Luke writes accurately and orderly 4. 24:48.) Servants of the Wordc. Lk. 15:39 2. 19:38. 11. 5:1-9 – Man crippled for 38 years c. 1:1-4 1. 10:22. Luke’s accounts are from competent sources a. By the sheep gate is a pool with 5 porticoes – Jn. Luke – A Reliable Historian? a. 4:46-54 – Healing from a distance Jn.Jn.000 men fed d. Jn.
5:13 2. * Jesus looked around Mk 3:5.Asset that Matthew and Mark wrote their Gospels and this is based upon the eyewitness testimony of the Apostle Peter. Papias’ Fragments – (AD 140). 3:1. * Out to Bethany – 11:11 3. *Simon of Cyrene – 15:21 3. 10:23. *Praetorium – 15:16 d.Refers to Matthew 22:14 as “scripture” 4. II Pet. Details of People 1.Clement of Rome –(AD 95).Refers to verses in the synoptic Gospels. 6th hour – 15:33 c. * Joseph of Arimathea – 15:43 4. Peter refers ro Mark as “my son” I Pet. 2. 34. *Barnabas a murderer – 16:6-15 2.4. Papias Fragments (Bishop of Laodicea) AD 140 asserts that Matthew wrote one of the Gospels while Mark wrote another Gospel based on the eyewitness testimony of the Apostle Pater. Details of Place 1. *Jerusalem 11:1 2. 10:7 2. * Two days before Passover – 14:1 3. Historical Context 1. The Gospels Were Quickly Viewed as Inspired Works A. *Herod??? Strongly opposed Jesus (Mark 3:6. of Olives – 13:3 4. Testimony of Apostolic Fathers 1. 3. * Jesus was tried by Roman Prefect of Judea. I Tim. New Testament writers 1.Quotes portions found in all three synoptic Gospels. * On cross Mk. * Late – 11:11 2. 5:32. Two other fragments testify that the Apostle John dictated his Gospel to Papias himself. Eyewitness Account a. *Jesus emotions 1:40-43. *In Galilee when Herod Antipas was tetrarch (6:14) 2. 15:34 3. Vivid Detail 1. V.
.5 2. Ignatios & Polycarp – (AD 115). 11:11 b. Historical Elements of Mark’s Gospel a. Pontus Pilate 3. *3rd hour – 15:25 5. Barnabas – (AD 135). 3:15-16 calls Pauls epistles “scripture” B.2. 5:18 – Refers to Lk. 12:13) 3. * Sat on the Mt. Details of Time 1.
) Luke writes accurately and orderly 4. 1:1-4 1. eyewitnesses personal friends – relatives of Jesus 3. From Rome Paul wrote Prison Epistles – AD 60-62 b.) He traveled with Paul 6. Paul is sent to Rome by Festus. Acts 1:8 (who were there from the “beginning”) b. Luke’s accounts are from competent sources a. Suetonius records this event – AD 49 6. 1:1-4.II. “Many” had written accounts of Jesus a.) From the first birth of Jesus 8. Luke – A Reliable Historian? a. I Thess. Eusebius states that Paul was executed in Rome under Nero c. Luke was with Paul when Colossians and Philemon was written (Col.) Servants of the Wordc. Time Frame of Recorded Events: A. 24:48. Therefore Paul wrote his Epistles between AD 50-AD 62 B. 2. Written from Corinth (See I Thess. Acts ends with Paul in Rome – Acts 28:30 (AD 60-62) b. Roman procurator of Judea (Acts 25:12) – AD 60 a. Paul probably arrived at Corinth AD 50 1. 21:18. 20:5.) He was aquainted with the facts through first hand knowledge or personal inquiry 7.) eyewitnesses – see Lk. 4:14. Luke tells us his earlier work (Gospel of Luke) was written before (Acts 1:1) thus sometime between AD 58-61. Phil. Goal of his work –
. Luke wrote his Gospel and the Book of Acts – Lk. 3:6 and Acts 18:5) 2. Dating of Luke’s Gospel: 1. The Dating of Paul’s Letters 1.) possibly earlier works by Matthew of Mark 2. 24) and during the Roman imprisonment (II Tim 4:11) d. Luke had investigated everything carefully a. 27:1-28:16 c. Acts 18:2 – Claudius commands all Jews to leave Rome a. Acts 1:1-5 a.) carefully – accurately ( akribos) means going into minute detail 5. Lk.) Confirmed by inscription dating Gallio’s appointment as proconsul in Achaia at July 51 (See Acts 18:12) 7. Luke was a companion with Paul on his journeys – Acts 16:10-17.) Luke had opportunity to converse with Apostles.
Authored – Gospel of John I-II-III John and the Revelation 1.a. External Evidence that John the Son of Zebedee Authored 4th Gospel a. Hence – All of John’s writings would date no later than AD 96
. Clement of Alexandria AD 150-215 states that John composed a Gospel 8. Irenaeus – AD 130-200. Most scholars date the either in AD 68-69 of AD 95-96 2. Irenaeus claimed that John lived until the time of Trajan AD 98 3. Muratorian Canon attributes the fourth Gospel to John C. educated 3. Source of Irenaeus knowledge of the origins of the Gospel of John seems to be Polycarp AD 69-155 who knew the Apostles b. Luke – a physician. Identifies John the Apostle as author of the Gospel of John 1. Apostle John wrote – much of the New Testament 1. Dating of John’s Writings: 1.) Produce “certainty” in Theophiles 5.
13:2) 3. Faith and Reason A.Lesson 2
“The conflict between Christian theism and atheism is fundamentally a conflict between faith and reason. 4:17-20) c. 1979. Pisteuo – verb.) John 6:69. p. Faith and Knowledge a. Faith=Spiritual Life (I Cor. Faith=Content of the Faith i.gospel (Jude 3) f. 2. Faith – Greek a. “But these signs are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ…”
. Faith=Obedience (Heb. 1869.” Jn. Faith=Belief (John 12:42) b. proof Lindelle Scott.” 2. A Greek English Lexicon. Faith=Strong Personal Conviction (Rom.e. 14:23) g. Pistis (belief) and gnosis (knowledge) are closely related 1.a means of persuasion. an argument. 3:9) e. The Apostles “have known that surely I came forth from you and they believed that you sent me. “you shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free. Faith=Steadfast.) John 20:31. 10:39) d. Loyal (Gal.” Atheism: The Case Against God. Faith – Uses of a. 5 “Faith is believing in something when common sense tells you not to. Biblical Faith 1. 14:6 – ”I am the way. p.primarily has reference to the act of faith or belief b.” 4.) John 17:8.noun. the truth and the Life.”(See Jn 16:27-30) 3.” Movie: Miracle of 34th Street I. Faith=Trust (Rom. “We have believed nad have known that you are the Christ. Pistis. 1272-1273 The terms suggest a prior understanding (knowledge) of what is to be believed.) John 8:32.
b. Reason functions in scientific.) Biblically speaking. Faith and reason are opposites a. 10:17) 2. Dualism – separates faith and reason. Faith is based upon knowledge 1. Various Theories Concerning the Relationship Between Faith and Reason 1. * Reason and faith correspond to the public and private sectors. Rationalism – holds that everything we know by faith can also be understood or discovered or proved by reason.” 6. Against the evidence b.scripture (Rom. Eyewitness testimony vs.
.5. Jesus is God incarnate? c. “These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God that you may know that you have eternal life. 5:21 B. Faith is unreasonable a. 22 iii. Jesus is the God Man C. * Faith is not a blind leap.) Should human reason sit in judgement of God? 2. subjective realm. Faith deals with God-putting our trust in him/Reason requires us to trust our own judgement 1. Beyond the evidence Rather one believes on the basis of evidence sufficient to establish the conclusion. a. Peter used a variety of types of evidence on the Day of Pentecost: i.) General knowledge comes through nature the created realm (Ps.) I John 5:13. Rom. Miracles of Christ vs. Without the evidence c. 3.) Acts 2:14-40. Prophecy vs. 27-32 ii. Fideism – contends that faith alone (without reason) is all that is needed for salvation.) Why should we consult/use human reason to know or understand the divine? 2. b. 25-28 * Faith often is portrayed biblically as knowledge based upon testimony. one does not believe that God is: a. Faith vs Reason Misconceptions 1.) Saving Knowledge (Gospel) comes only from special revelation . 1:19-22) 3. I Thess. God is 3 persons but 1 being? b. Faith functions in the personal. mathematical and empirical realm. 2. 19:1-6.
) Moral Law c. memory. Christians are created in God’s image with an intellectual capability a.
.) Seeing-learn truth about world 2. “Prove all things” (literally. The Basis for a Rational Faith 1.Biblical Position a. I Thessalonians 5:21 a. intuition.) Trinity b. not to reason 2. Note other occurances: 1. Truths known by faith and not by reason 1.) I Tim.) Believing that stories in the National Enquirer are true – would be due to the fascination with the sensational. The purpose of these faculties is to assist us in aquiring knowledge 1. 2. etc b. Truths known by both faith and reason 1.) The rational/logical act of offering our bodies to God is consistent with our purpose/goal of our life. that you may prove” 2. don’t go beyond the evidence! b. Among these are perception. “Renewing of your mind. The offering of our bodies to Gods service is called “your reasonable service”.12:2.4. Truths known by reason and not by faith D.) Testimony-learn from others 4.) Wishful thinking – “gas prices will soon hit an all time low” – unreasonable 2. “put all things to the test”) in other words. Biblical Reason 1. “Do not believe every spirit but test the spirits whether they are of God” 3. reasoning. 1. The use of our intellectual abilities determine how reasonable or rational our beliefs are 1. 3:10. Christians are commanded to give a “reason for the hope” – this clearly involves the intellect/mind.1. “But let these also first be tested” 3. b.) I John 4. Romans 12:1 a.) Reason logically-know what truths are implied by the truths we already believe E. testimony.) Rom.) Memory-learn from the past 3. Apolgia – give an answer/defense used of formal and informal dialogue. I Peter 3:15 a. God has given us cognitive faculties to help form our beliefs a.
4. Prophecy is made up? 3. The will/volition of man believes or rejects the message a. Resurrection –> -> ->Deity 2. Gods gives us evidence to believe a. 16:31)
. The logos (word. Is he a fraud? b. Thomas – saw/felt/believed 2. reason) is the principle which unifies all of reality and renders that reality intelligible to us F. Faith is a volitional commitment of an informed intellect touched by the love of God 4. Did Apostles lie? c. Prophecy -> -> -> ->Deity c. The supreme biblical affirmation of the place of reason is applied to the Son of God who enlightens all b. This evidence is evaluated by the intellect/mind a. Conclusion: 1. John 1:1 a. miracles of Jesus -> Deity b. John 20:26-31 a. We – did not see/feel/yet believe (Lk.
Something Exists – Solipsism is a dead end street for most people B. It is a set of presuppositions (or assumptions) which everyone holds (consciously or subconsciously) about the basic makeup of our world. No Statement Can Be Both True and False at the Same Time – Communism and Christianity make divergent claims concerning the nature of reality therefore they cannot both be true. love. What is a World View? A. Theology . It is a grid through which human beings filter. power or for others it is themselves or man. 1. and rumors. the universe is a closed system.Lesson 5
World Views – Seeing the Big Picture
I. half truths. 2. 3. All People Have Absolutes – for the Christian God sets the standard. We all deeply desire to find the truth. For example: God exists. For others It is the state. for our life. III. All People Desire the Truth –No one “wants” to believe lies. Either man is in control or God is! D. Whenever we come into meaningful contact with another person. our peace of mind. Metaphysics (Ultimate Reality) Is the universe eternal? Did an external God create the world? Is there
. opinions. interpret and then interact with the world around us.God Does he exist? What is his nature? Is he personal? 2. E. Ones world view is capable of either revealing the world as it truly is or distorting and tinting our perspective of the actual world. There is no such thing as a neutral worldview!!! II. Regardless of One’s World View: A. Some Basic Assumptions Which Most People Hold. we are forced to deal with his or her world view. is good. free choice is an illusion. Core World View Beliefs 1. C. All People Exercise Faith – All of us presuppose certain things to be true without absolute proof. our family.
Epistemology (Knowledge) Can we trust our senses? Role of reason and sense? Is truth relative? Relationship of faith and reason? Is knowledge about God possible? How? 4. Revelation – We know something only because we are told. 3. How do you determine what is right and wrong? (Ethics) 1. Is there a God or Gods? (Theology) 1. 2.purpose for the universe? What is the nature of the universe? Is cosmos material? Is the universe closed? Are miracles real? 3. 3. 2. 4. Agnosticism – There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that a supernatural being exists. Why is there something rather than nothing? (Cosmology/Ontology) 1. Evolved Social Animal – We have instinctive traits that cause internal conflict. Tabula Rasa – We are born blank slates 2. 4. Revealed Absolutes – conduct is revealed from a loving God. 8 Questions That Can Help Us Understand Another’s World View A. Utilitarianism – The greatest God for the greatest number of people. What is real? (Metaphysics) 1. How do you explain human nature? (Anthropology) 1. How do you know that you know? (Epistemology) 1. Conventionalism – might makes right. a totalitarian society sets the standard of conduct. What is the nature of the universe? 2. Whatever powers exist in the universe are purely natural and not supernatural. Matter is eternal. Rationalism – The mind is the center of our source of knowledge. Created Image Bearer – Man created good but sinned. 3. Ethics – (Focus -> Why certain actions are wrong) Are there moral laws that govern human conduct? Is morality subjective Or objective? Is morality relative? 5. 2. 3. Everything that now is had an impersonal beginning. Everything that now is came from nothing. D. Everything that now is had a personal beginning. Ethical Relativism – Ethics are cultural or situational. Ethical Determinism – There is no free choice. We know only what is perceived. 2. B. 4. Inherent Goodness – born good but society causes us to behave otherwise 3. Theist – I know that God exists. Atheism – There is no supernatural being who exists. C. E. Anthropology Are we free? Determined? Are we just bodies/minds? Do we have a soul or spirit? Does death end our existence? IV. 3. Is anything supernatural?
. F. Empiricism – The source of our knowledge is found in the senses.
4. 3. Have a coherent and intelligible world view. World Views and Apologetics A. We need to believe that anyone can change. Is the universe eternal? G. B. Science. 1. A skillful Christian who understands the various world views can ask probing questions which will enable you to ask the right questions and detect inconsistences within particular world views. 2. Example: Death is an illusion C. D. 1. IV. intuition or pragmatism. feelings. Has explanatory power (big picture) *World views cannot be decided on the basis of instinct. Nihilism – Life is meaningless/absurd. it will have factual support. 2. 2. biblically influenced world view. Theism – God is the author and director of life. B. Experience. Both internal and external. A true world view must be non-contradictory and it must fit the facts of experience. Strive to do the above at the right time. tradition. (subjective) 3.3. Optimistic Humanism – We create our own meaning. 1. Paul of Tarsus
. A strong foundation in correspondence. Death beings extinction of personality and individuality. Not one line of evidence but rather a cumulative case by converging lines from several sources of data. Example: Morality. 1. This works in courts of law. In order to reach others for Christ we need to be aware of the following: 1. Archeology…. D. place and circumstance. 2. What happens to a person at death? (Immortality) 1. Have a consistant. A high degree of coherence or internal consistency. sense perception. H. Criteria for Evaluating World Views A. Death brings reincarnation or realization of oneness with the cosmos. 2. It will consider and explain facts from all areas of reality. Be able to defend or refute argument against the Christian world view. Is there a purpose/meaning to life? (Teleology) 1. Like strands of a rope. Must explain all the relevant data. 3. custom. Death is the gate to life with God or to seperation from him. 2. 1. All ideas are logically interconnected (Law of Gravity). Example: You are pre-determined and have free will violates the Law of Non-Contradiction. V. thru him we find meaning and purpose.
If God exists why is there no evidence? a. Objections to natural Theology 1. a. a. Lewis argued that our need for God may be evidence that God exists. 4. No rational argument will compel belief. 6. S.) Witnesses would be accused of hallucinating 2. 5. b. therefore we should not. not only because I see it. Confuses metaphysics and epistemology 3. Some Problems With an Atheistic World View A. miracles and wonders 1. Can we rationally establish the existence of God? A. there is no good reason to believe in God.” .) Demonstration was not caused by God b.) Demonstration would be declared a natural phenomena 4. There are other ways to perceive realities than by senses. Bible does not rule out these kinds of arguments 2. a. C. but by it I see everything else. If God worked signs. There is no ground for reason 2. S.Lesson 6
The Existence of God “I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen. Lewis I. Because God in invisible. b.) Demonstration was an optional illusion 3. Theistic arguments cannot compel belief in God – so pointless? a.C. Additional factors/evidence can strengthen case. If there is no God: 1. God is just a projection of religious imagination. The Bible gives no such argument. Turning the Tables – Atheists deny God because they have a Father complex. Finite beings cannot prove an infinite God. There is no objective truth
. God desires our trust 1. a.) Faith requires a deeper trust in him II.
Arguments for the existence of God 1. History of Theistic Arguments A. Helps build a cumulative case for the Christian worldview 1. Islamic and Christian thinkers 3. All truth is subjective 3. promoted serious doubts about the existence of the Biblical God. The rejection of God results in the belief 1. Rational 3. Provides an opportunity to break soil and prepare hearts. especially with the rise of evolution. Originated in ancient Greek philosophy 2. Enables us to give a better explanation of the nature and meaning of the universe. Universe is uncaused 4. Life has no ultimate meaning a. There is no future justice a. Makes us more aware of the strengths of the Christian case 1. There is no eternal hope a. All atrocities. Matter created mind/intelligence 5. Matter created morals 6. Christians dismissed as anti-intellectual D. E. Experience 2. Matter created life 3. There are no absolute morals a. Seems to be contrary to human nature B. Matter became conscious III. We create purpose for our lives b. David Hume (1711-1776) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) subjected theistic arguments to rigorous criticism 4. Because we are finite mortal beings 6. 1. No ultimate right or wrong 4. Intuition C. That matter is eternal 2. Nineteenth century developments in science. But our purpose is self defined 5. The Value of Theistic Arguments A. Further developed by Jewish. From motion to an Unmoved Mover
. 1. Free will is just an illusion 8. All morality is created b. Provides an incentive for the seeker to consider the truth claims of Christianity. Strengthens our faith in God and gives us greater confidence in speaking to others about him IV. Traditional Arguments of Thomas Aquinas – 5 Ways 1. B.a. sins and evils will never be punished 7. Goes beyond special revelation B.
Experential arguments 7. Historical arguments (miracles) 6. Anthropic Principle – (The fine tuning of the universe) – From the fine tuning of the fundamentals of physics. intelligence and complexity arose by chance and coincidence 3. complexity and design evident in the universe 1. All design. Argument #1 – God uniquely accounts for the physical universes beginning 1. 2. Col. and information comes from an accidental. The Cumulative Case for Gods Existence A. Cosmological arguments states: Whatever begins to exist has a cause for its coming into being. This explanation is in harmony with Gen. Current scientific theory poses the universe began 14 billion years ago 2. 3. Argument #4 – God uniquely accounts for the reality of objective ethical
. Thus the universe has been in existence only a finite period of time. 1:16-17 . Moral arguments 2.2. From degrees of perfection to a Most Perfect Being 5. The effect is far greater than the cause D.) From design in nature to a Designer of Nature C. The Law of Entropy (2nd Law of Thermodynamics) states that energy is being dissipated gradually and equally. Argument #3 – God uniquely accounts for the reality of abstract nonphysical realities 1. 3. The ones we are absolutely conviced of. 2. random source. Which arguments presents the strongest case for Theism? 1. Telelogical arguments (design) 3. Today there are many arguments for the existence of God 1. The universe began to exist. to DNA code.“All things were created that are in Heaven and that are on earth…visible and invisible” E. The fundamental laws of logic 2. 4. The ones which we understand the clearest and are able to communicate to others easily. 1:1 C. truth. Argument #2 – God uniquely accounts for the order. From Contingent being to a Necessary Being 4. Practical arguments (Pascal’s Wager) V. The objective nature of Numbers b. From effects to a First Cause 3. B. Ontological arguments (idea of God) 4. Conclusion: All knowledge. to the “just right” nature of the solar system. therefore the universe has a cause for its coming into being. The ones which best explain the important realities and phenomena we encounter every day. The most important and wonderful realities of life cannot be detected by human senses a. Cosmological arguments (cause) 5.
our sense of the divine b. then all life is meaningless. Moral values are a fundamental part of human life. This explains our religious nature. G. purpose and significance that human beings sense and yearn for 1.values 1. Most people “sense” that their lives have real objective meaning a. This explains our need and desire for justice H. If there is no law giver then there is no law F. Argument #7 – God uniquely accounts for the aesthetic nature of man 1. Most people yearn for a purpose that extends beyond the grave 3. Rom . Ps. All men have a “sense of beauty” 2. every bit as real as gravity (also unseen but felt) 2. Moral values were recognized at Nuremberg by the world court. If this world is meaningless. How can there be a crime against humanity if there is no such thing as right and wrong? 3. Argument #6 – God uniquely accounts for mans sense of the divine 1. Yet most look yearn for something more. We grieve for the child who dies “too soon” 2. If man is made in Gods image then: a. 2:14-15 3. Why is there a consenus among all people that waterfalls inspire awe?
. This explains our guilt feelings and conscience c. Argument #5 – God uniquely accounts for the meaning. 19:1-4 2. Romans 2:15 – God has written a moral code (conscience) within the heart. If all beauty is artificial and not real then why are we the only animals to have this ability? 3.
Loss of absolute truth B.K. Religious Relativism – maintains that one religion can be true for one person or culture but not for another. The Far Reaching Effects of Relativism on Society A. objectively true or false.Slavery? . Confusion concerning what is right and wrong C.Infanticide? D. Laws are changing and numerous E. History and language are in flux D. Because there are different opinions of morality in the world. Example: .Genocide? . C. no objective ethical right and wrong. No truth is universally. and no day was ever more clouded than the present” George Washington 1786 II. No religion is universally or exclusively true. Moral Relativism – Maintains that there are no moral absolutes. Cultural Relativism – says that what is immoral in our culture is not necessarily immoral in another country. Objective Relativism – is the view that the beliefs of a person or group of persons are “true” for them. 1.Lesson 8 Moral Relativism
“Morality is always dreadfully complicated to a man who has lost all his principles” G. Chesterton I. Relativism is Everywhere A. B. “No morn ever dawned more favorably than ours did. Judicial review reflects a relativistic bent F. Religious beliefs are simply an act of birth. there is no reason to think that one is any different than the other. but not necessarily for others. Entertainment media continues to push the envelope further
IV. “Divorce is wrong” 3. Moral Absolutes – Moral values that are true for all people at all times and is not subject to change. Morality is changeable b. Killing is wrong. The Nature of Moral Relativism A. All moral principles are valid only relative to culture or individual choice. Statements whose truth is relative to something 1. “Sardines are tasty” 2. Promotes intolerance. reap an act. Example of moral statements 1. Morality is individual B.
. sow a habit. E. 3. sow an act.Example: Video games G. It is right to keep promises. You ought to be faithful. C. Persuasion is prohibited on many university campuses 1. The Nature of Moral Absolutism A. 2. Religion embraces relativism Examples: Homosexuals Divorce Abortion 62% of Evangelicals say they disbelieve in any absolute or unchanging truths. We need to be careful on how we approach people of different belief systems. To be exclusivistic is to be arrogant 1. sow a character. Tolerance is the cardinal virtue. 4. C. III. Claims of Relativism a. Moral Relativism – holds that there are no universally valid moral principles. reap a destiny. Morality is subjective c. 1. Example of non-moral statements. Proclaiming “truth” is a narrow minded view. One should be loyal. To not accept others beliefs. ideas. 3. You got that calculation right. Philosophy is just a thought but sow a thought. “Blood transfusions are sinful” V. How can everyone be wrong and only you be right? 2. 1. B. 1. self righteous nut. No. 2. reap a habit. Some Implications of Relativism A. that’s the wrong color for you. 2. and lifestyle is to be a religious. He ought to trim his beard. reap a character.
. 6. A universal (not local) obligation – a duty for all places. It can’t be relative to the relative. Hence relativism is good. The Need for Absolutes 1. An eternal (not temporal) obligation – a duty at all times c. An objective (not subjective) moral duty. b. a. “Ought” statements are moral statements. Even relativists say “The world is getting better”. How can we know what better is? If there is no best? 3. Note: unspoken assumption . C.honesty. loyalty B. It is an obligation for which a person is accountable. Measurement is impossible without absolutes. Moral Obligation 1. A moral duty is good in itself (an end). Example: Life saving 2.a duty for all persons. Cultural Influence 1. “You absolutely ought not to believe in moral absolutes” is a self defeating statement. not merely good as a means.1. 5. a. b. 4. An absolute moral obligation is: a. Otherwise both sides of every moral dispute are right. Anthropologists and sociologists have discovered moral relativism to be an empirical fact. Simply ask “Relative to what?”. a. “ought never” are absolute moral statements. Bad morality has bad consequences. Also – moral disagreements between cultures would be impossible unless there were some deeper moral agreements. Everything is relative to an absolute. Our desire is for happiness – moral absolutes would make us unhappy by promoting guilt feelings. Example: In Eskimo culture killing old people is right.moral rightness is a matter of obedience to culture values. in America it is wrong. Example – murder. Morality deals with what is right as opposed to wrong. 3. a. Psychological 1. Good morality has good consequences. Moral absolutes are unavoidable a. VI. A moral obligation is something we “ought” to pursue a duty.honor. B. absolutism is bad. Arguments for Relativism A. therefore feelings of unhappiness and guilt are bad consequences. 2. kindness . Morality is prescriptive (an ought) not merely descriptive (an is) 4. 3. Moral disagreements demand objective standards. 2. lying . b. Different cultures and societies have in fact different moral values. 3.
2. But isn’t freedom at least one objective value? b. c.C. b. This is our fundamental right. All people are taught to believe the values or morals they are taught by their parents and culture. If freedom is good. Everyone remembers from childhood experience what it feels like to be morally obligated. D. Freedom 1. The Golden Rule. “right” and “wrong”. Why be tolerant? Why be intolerant? Where is the moral law against being tolerant? Why should we be tolerant of sexual predators? Murderers? VII. Social Conditioning 1. Relativists must believe that nearly all human beings in history have ordered their lives by an illusion. Moral Experience 1. absolutism threatens freedom. neither is tolerance. If we were raised up in Hindu society. And freedom is for all people thus presupposing the real value of equality. 3. Compare relativists like Mussolini and Mau Tse Tung against moral absolutists like Moses and Confucius. We should have the right to create our own values. Moral relativism alone guarantees freedom. then non-freedom must be bad. thus assuming some objective good and bad. Relativism has never produced a good society. Some fallacies of relativism view of tolerance a. Relativism is tolerant of other views and values thus it is superior to absolutism which is rigid and restrictive. The origin of values thus seems to be human minds. Of absolutism is intolerant of other views why is this not the case against the sciences? Science is not about subjective truth but about objective truth. 2. c. 2. For most people evil is a reality. we would have had Hindu values. only a bad one. C. a. Consequences 1. Arguments for Absolutism A. Remember using words like “ought”. because freedom presupposes values. Moral Language
. C. 3. This reality is experienced by all people thru our senses. “should”. 2. 3. 2. Absolutism is the norm in all of human history. Freedom cannot create values. Tradition 1. 2. Tolerance 1. B. What about the rules of mathematics? B. If no moral values are absolute. 3. Consider a number of serious flaws in this assumption. Note assumption: Whatever we learn from society must be subjective.
2. indecency. 3. For Thought and Reflection A. 2. People act as if they believe in the objectively real and the universally binding moral principles. S. Moral language which everyone uses everyday blames. Everything is relative.would be meaningless if relativism were true.
5. You believe you are right because you were raised in a Christian home.1. VIII. self-indulgence and self centeredness. Your values are right for you. Relativism dismisses truth. counsels. but not for me. There are few if any true moral relativists. Conclusion 1. or commands . C.
. 3. which is the only way of salvation. How would you answer the following relativistic statements? 1. Lewis makes the argument that people quarrel about right and wrong. 4. Who are you to judge another?
2. IX. Relativism ignores sin and its consequences. Christians are intolerant!
4. Relativism promotes immorality.