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CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

OCTAVIAN G. ILINOIU, Ph.D., C.Eng., Lecturer
Department of Civil, Urban and Construction Engineering Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest

First Edition

-Bucharest 2003-

Formwork. Chapter 8. construction. and direct construction works. provides information and specifies the materials and workmanship required for manufacturing concrete reinforcement. Steel Reinforcement. Chapter 1. Chapter 4. Off-site Prefabrication. The primary object of this first volume. Batching and Mixing Concrete. Chapter 10. with projects ranging in size from the small to the very large. properties. Chapter 7. Vibration and Concrete Finishing. mouldwork and shoring. Ilinoiu. Handling and Placing Concrete. Building Material Transport Machinery and Equipment. Curing Concrete. The graduate civil engineer must be therefore familiar with the range of these common factors. all sharing common factors . and the quality control of it.workers. Chapter 11. This course book will be limited to presentation of basic principles and process techniques in construction execution. and those which follow. application. and the required organization and control. performance. procedures and techniques in common use. G. and removal of formwork.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING PREFACE The construction sector is a major part of the construction industry. machinery and materials. It is intended as an aid and a guide to circumvent some problems encountered in design and execution. advantages and limitations. Chapter 6. Erection of Precast Concrete Elements. is to provide a reference guide to Construction Engineering within the framework of the Civil Engineering Department – English Section of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest. provides information concerning precast concrete. techniques and manufacture requirements for different types of elements. and must be able to plan. Compaction. A review is presented of various curing requirements and techniques for undertaking the process on site and in precast concrete production plants. presents theoretical back ground regarding erection of precast concrete units. provides a background on the benefits of compaction of concrete and the techniques for undertaking the process on site. processing. Chapter 2. provides an introduction in the field of Construction Engineering and method of industrialization of construction works. provides an overview of conventional concrete technology form material science and engineering systems perspective – specifically its structure and composition. provides basic information in relation to related concepts of concrete curing. 2003 i . outlining present techniques and materials related to construction technology for their evaluation and improvement. presents fundamental concepts in regard of handling and placing techniques required for cast in place conventional concrete and the quality control of it. presents relevant information regarding proper equipment and procedures for handling and transport of building materials. addresses the design and presents basic information and specifies materials. Industrialization of Construction Works. Chapter 3. Concrete. is devoted to discussing the proper equipment and procedures for batching and mixing concrete by ensuring uniform quality throughout the mix. Chapter 5. Chapter 9. The content of this book is arranged in 11 chapters that are summarized below.

.CBD..APA. USA Officine Riunite Udine SpA – ORU. Germany Building Science Insight . USA American Society of Civil Engineers . Germany Heidelberg Cement AG. Canada National Institute of Standards and Technology .ASCE. Canada Civil Engineering Corps Washington – CECW. Germany International Council for Building Research and Documentation . USA American Society for Testing and Materials . Sweden MACON SA. Italy OSCAM S. Germany Morgan Manufacturing Co. Radu Popa and Mihai Teodorescu. and literature: American Concrete Institute .NIST. USA EFCO. views and comments are the writer's own. England BHS – Sonthofen..V.CIGMAT. Canada Institute for Research in Construction . USA Winget. USA Cement and Concrete Association Australia Center for Innovative Grouting Materials and Technology . trade associations and manufacturers and who have given advice. England Tremix. USA American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials – AASHTO.CIB.BSI. The author has presented some positions as starting points for drafting a course book rather than as the only positions that can be adopted. USA ATEX C.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING ACKNOWLEDGMENTS These notes are originally based on the ideas of Drs.NRCC. Romania SBH Tiefbautechnik.p. However. Romania MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktieengesellschaft. Germany International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures – RILEM SC SOMACO SA.IRC. institutions. Canada Canadian Building Digest . The author gratefully acknowledges the support of a number of organizations. Germany The Engineering Wood Association .A.ASTM.B. UK ii . Canada International Committee on Asian Concrete Model Code National Research Council .ACI.A. Italia PERI. USA Thwaites Ltd. USA Elba –Werk. Belgium Bell Engineering Group.

........... .. 58 Figure 4-9 Mechanism of cement setting..........................26 Figure 2-25 Stack wooden mould....................25 Figure 2-23 Concrete pilot mould ................ 50 Figure 4-3 Measurement of slump from height of slump cone ...........................32 Figure 3-6 Chairs and spacers ....................................10 Figure 2-3 Steel panel...................................................13 Figure 2-6 Climbing formwork ..........34 Figure 3-10 a......17 Figure 2-11 Below grade footing forms .. Bending of bars with three pins and a key................. b.........16 Figure 2-10 Permanent formwork ... 43 Figure 3-26 Detail of column and slab reinforcement intersection........ 42 Figure 3-25 Typical alternate tying procedure of individual reinforcing bars to produce a mesh ............ Rotating drum with screw die arrangement .............. 54 Figure 4-6 Effects and phases of plastic shrinkage......13 Figure 2-7 Sliding formwork...............................................................11 Figure 2-4 Pan forms .................................. 39 Figure 3-23 Typical automatic/tack welding machine... 47 Figure 3-32 Typical storage off the ground of reinforcement ..................................10 Figure 2-2 Typical plywood sheathing panel ..... field width of 320 microns......... 48 Figure 4-2 Fresh concrete sliding on chute............ 38 Figure 3-20 Electronic measurement model.............................................................17 Figure 2-12 Shallow footing................................................................................. Unhydrated ordinary Portland cement particles......... 41 Figure 3-24 Sleeve splice connection ............... 46 Figure 3-30 Detail of slab reinforcement...... 44 Figure 3-28 Typical procedure of wiring main beam reinforcement to stirrups and ties .................................................35 Figure 3-13 a................28 Figure 3-2 Standard types of reinforcing bars PC 52 and PC 60......24 Figure 2-22 Form accessories...... 62 Figure 4-14 Moisture conditions of aggregate........... Typical-bending plates......... 47 Figure 3-34 Typical arrangement of reinforcement manufacturing shop...22 Figure 2-20 Typical telescopic joists......... b..... c.................................................. 47 Figure 3-33 Typical wire coil storage..................................26 Figure 3-1 Characteristic stress..12 Figure 2-5 Plywood panels.......................................... 61 Figure 4-13 Angularity and surface texture.................................. 45 Figure 3-29 Typical wiring procedures ..........................................33 Figure 3-8 Straightening of steel bars delivered in coils with an electrical chain winch................................................14 Figure 2-8 Formwork table. 51 Figure 4-4 Entrained air voids in concrete................ 59 Figure 4-12 Significance of aggregates grading ............................................36 Figure 3-16 Fixed arm and variable arm meshbending machines ............................................... A sectioned clinker nodule...................CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Typical dimensioned lumber panel.. 46 Figure 3-31 Typical storage of wire in spools .......................................34 Figure 3-12 Standard hook and stirrup details for reinforcement........26 Figure 2-24 Static metal moulds............ 53 Figure 4-5 Types of concrete shrinkage .....31 Figure 3-5 Typical reinforcement spacing section .... 38 Figure 3-21 Typical mesh cutting machine ............................................ 37 Figure 3-17 Hoop and spiral bending machine 37 Figure 3-18 Typical spiral reinforcement ....................strain curves (σε) for steel .......34 Figure 3-11 Rolling-mill arrangements .............................. Figure shows long needle-like crystals and short crystal–like formations of calcium-silicatehydrate gel..................................................21 Figure 2-19 Typical steel column formwork.......31 Figure 3-4 Typical profile of SBPA .................. 40 Figure 3-23 Splicing of steel reinforcing.......................17 Figure 2-13 Wall formwork.......................................................... 54 Figure 4-7 a.. 56 Figure 4-8 Speed of cement components heat hydration ..............19 Figure 2-15 Typical slab-on-grade edge formwork .... 62 iii ........33 Figure 3-9 Typical strengthening and cutting machine..............................16 Figure 2-9 Form table assembly ............................. 38 Figure 3-22 Typical arc-welding outfit...........30 Figure 3-3 Dimensions of wire mesh .. 59 Figure 4-10 Schematic view of cement setting 59 Figure 4-11 Compressive strength gain of mineral cement components.................................................... 43 Figure 3-27 Column cages being assembled on site..........36 Figure 3-15 Typical stirrup bending machine ....................................................... Bending of bars with two keys...................................20 Figure 2-17 Spandrel beam form details ..................32 Figure 3-7 Pliers for straightening bars attached to winch................................20 Figure 2-18 Typical example of column formed with plywood panels stiffened with triangular yokes..................19 Figure 2-16 Girder form details............. b.24 Figure 2-21 Typical adjustable steel shores ...............................35 Figure 3-14 Hook bending machine ....18 Figure 2-14 Typical gang panel..... 37 Figure 3-19 Manual shears ..................................................

...... 109 Figure 9-11 a...........................86 Figure 7-5 Typical types of construction joints 87 Figure 7-6 Construction joint formed......... ................... 108 Figure 9-9 Typical protection of fresh cast concrete with heating forms ..........................79 Figure 6-11.........74 Figure 6-2 Push chart...........................79 Figure 6-13 Pumps for concrete transport .................76 Figure 6-7 Belt conveyor................................92 Figure 8-6 Hand tapping tools...............96 Figure 8-11 Typical positioning of clamp vibrators in formwork ................................. Heating aggregates before introduction in mix.................... 99 Figure 8-17 Trowels (floats) for surface finishing ...................91 Figure 8-4 Types of vibration............................................. 128 Figure 11-11 Transfer of prefabricated facade to the working level .........88 Figure 8-1 Typical detail of concrete showing sand in a cement paste matrix...91 Figure 8-5 Typical aspects of concrete compaction during vibration ............... 128 Figure 11-10 Typical gantry crane .............................................................................................4 Typical lifting devices for precast concrete members ................... 118 Figure 10-4 Layout of Conveyor setting ............. Placing techniques for flatwork...........80 Figure 7-1 a.. 118 Figure 10-3 Typical Multiple Beam Tensioning Stand cross section setting for prestressedconcrete units ........................................69 Figure 5-6 Backward flow mixer ............... 100 Figure 8-18 Power float ..........................................96 Figure 8-12 External vibrators..................................................... 127 Figure 11-9 Self propelled crane ..........................................................83 Figure 7-1 b...............................74 Figure 6-3 Forklift truck........................................ Procedures for casting a structural concrete wall in enclosure... 125 Figure 11-6 Typical tower crane..... 108 b..62 Figure 5-1 Twin shaft batch mixer ......... 110 Figure 9-12 Typical curing racks in steamchamber....................69 Figure 5-8 General layout of concrete plant..............................97 Figure 8-13 Vibropress..... Air supported structure .........75 Figure 6-4 Typical types of dump trucks..........................................68 Figure 5-4 Reversing drum mixer ....................................71 Figure 5-10 Linear batching center ............................................. b Typical surface vibrator.... 100 Figure 8-19 Methods of concrete surface finish ....67 Figure 5-3 Tilting drum mixer..96 Figure 8-10 c................................. b................. 131 Figure 11-12 The precast facade is secured with temporary bracing ............. Degree of compaction varies across width when surface vibrators are used........94 Figure 8-8 a..97 Figure 8-14 Compacting by rolling ..CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 4-15 Main moisture conditions of aggregate ...... 125 Figure 11-5 Crane clearances .. 122 Figure 11..........................5)...........................84 Figure 7-2 Compacting columns ....... ..... 108 Figure 9-5 Typical heating enclosure . 126 Figure 11-7 Track-mounted crane ..............78 Figure 6-10 Truck mounted concrete pump ...79 Figure 6-12 Typical tower pump detail ........................ 112 Figure 10-1 Reinforced concrete centrifuged pipe .......................... 127 Figure 11-8 Lorry mounted crane............... heat source underneath the aggregate pile...................... 109 Figure 9-8 Heating form ..........................................................................92 Figure 8-7 Typical internal vibrator.....68 Figure 5-5 Forward flow mixer .....75 Figure 6-5 Chute and hopper.. 97 Figure 8-15 Standard set of vacuum dewatering installation... ...... Boom extensions of pump .................78 Figure 6-9 Rail cars ................69 Figure 5-7 Vibrating mixer..............................................................95 Figure 8-10 a.............................. Internal / poker vibrator.......................72 Figure 5-11 Cement silo .............. 122 Figure 11-3 Typical stack storage of precast stairs units ....... a.............................. 109 Figure 9-10 Typical solution of concrete protection using insulating blankets.....85 Figure 7-3 Slab concreting ......66 Figure 5-2 Single shaft drum mixer..................................... 103 Figure 9-2 Variation of concrete strength with curing environment (W/C =0...... Example of working procedures with vibrator ... Precast concrete curing acceleration cycle......................................... 108 Figure 9-7...... Concrete placing techniques for columns and walls ................................................................. 131 iv .77 Figure 6-8 Transit mix truck.................................................... 116 Figure 10-2 Layout of Stand setting .......... 104 Figure 9-3 Spraying on a curing compound ...........75 Figure 6-6 Typical concrete buckets .... 121 Figure 11-2 Typical job-site casting yards ... 105 Figure 9-4 Temporary shelter ...........89 Figure 8-3 Sinusoidal motion ...............................94 Figure 8-9 b....... 100 Figure 9-1 Effect of duration of water curing on the permeability of cement paste .................. 98 Figure 8-16 Compacting by centrifugal force......................................................85 Figure 7-4 Typical types of concreting joints for arches/vaults ...... 108 Figure 9-6 Framed enclosure ...........................................80 Figure 6-14 Pneumatic pipeline..........70 Figure 5-9 Mixing tower ...........73 Figure 6-1 Wheelbarrow................................................................ Use of poker vibrator .........Batching plant............................. 118 Figure 11-1 Typical trailers .......

.. Classification of Reinforcement ...2........12 2.... Form Materials . 55 4...... Properties of Fresh Concrete .. Theory of Mixes . Form Accessories ...........2...........................................9...... Reinforcement Assembly Workmanship.........5................2. Plastic and Aluminum .......... Wall Reinforcement Assembled with Cages ......3. Quality Assurance of Reinforcement .....3.2........1. Assembly of Wall Reinforcement ... 46 3.......... Reinforcement Bending.......... Permanent Formwork.... General Considerations ...3... Footing Forms ...2.. Wall Reinforcement Assembled with Individual Bars ..........9....... Form Liners ........27 3...................4.......4.3........... Non dismountable Formwork ........... Slab Reinforcement Assembled with Individual Bars .. 65 v ..22 2...... 65 5..... Characteristics of Aggregates. III TABLE OF CONTENTS.... Steel............................... Wood ..............3...... Batching Concrete ....14 2.3...3....2.. Classification by Final Destination ...............1...9.......2.....1............1.....2..9......2...12 2. 50 4....CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE .............25 2...... 44 3...........11......3............. Wall Forms......3...................................8....................... 44 3......... Straightening of Steel Bars............... Cutting Devices (Shears)........................6.. I ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..6....3........1.................19 2.............2.......2......1..............3.........2....1.1.....3......1........... 52 4...4........1.... Chemical Composition ......3..3............17 2............23 2.9......2.2....1..7..10 2........... 49 4.. Column Forms..............1..1...........3..................2..........4.. 58 4....................3.................................. Properties of Concrete ....... Welding .............................................30 3.1..2...... 46 3......25 CHAPTER 3..3................ 35 3............1..............1........1.......................................... Transport and Storage of Reinforcement47 3....10 2..... 41 3...... Physical Properties of Portland Cements...........9.......4.......3.......... General Considerations .... 35 3.................. Manual Bending .2.......24 2............ Additions .3.......3... CONCRETE ..3................12....2......... 55 4. Standard Types of Portland Cement............3.......................1.....3...............3........1..........1... Dismountable Formwork . Classification and Types of Concrete49 4...9..........................22 2....1......................... Automatic Bending Machines ..................... Fabrication of Steel Bars...............1.................... Construction Industrialization ....V CHAPTER 1............... 33 3..... Assembly of Beam Reinforcement with Individual Bars .......... 55 4... Classification of Formwork............... Shoring Members ........8..................................16 2....17 2...........1.. Cements . 44 3......................... Water ...... Wires .............28 3..17 2.......9 2....3.. 38 3....12 2........4..2....... Classification by Structure and Use ........3......... 37 3......6......25 2. 50 4. Concrete Materials.32 3...... 60 4.......2. BATCHING AND MIXING CONCRETE ...... 59 4.......................II TABLE OF FIGURES .2.. 56 4.6.. General Considerations ................ 64 CHAPTER 5. FORMWORK ................ Assembly of Column Reinforcement 43 3...12 2...7... 48 CHAPTER 4....2.....1....... Floor Forms..5...... Splicing of Reinforcing Steel .....1..2... Combined Straightening and Cutting Machines ...27 3. Aggregates...............6.23 2.7 1........26 3......3......6......4.. Release Agents .............................31 3.....3....3.2......... 39 3.1.....................4.. Durability..........1...2........3.....2... CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT ...................................7 CHAPTER 2......... 32 3.. 64 4.....1............................ Properties of Hardened Concrete.........3...18 2........ Moulds.......... 57 4............ 65 5...... 61 4. General Considerations ....... Plain and Deformed Steel Bars . Reinforcement Manufacturing Shop ........5................4........2.......... 47 3......9.....3... Reinforcement Concrete Cover .................... 49 4.3................ 36 3.. 42 3......1.......7 1..... Standard Bar Diameters and Types of Reinforcement........6.......6.....21 2....... Stirrups and Wire Meshes....10... 55 4.................6.............. Patent Formwork.4.. Manufacturing Process .............31 3.9...4......... INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS .....11 2..1...............9. Basic Components and Main Types of Moulds..............3........ General Considerations .................................3..7 1....................1.9 2........................ Classification of Moulds ................. 45 3............. Assembly of Slab Reinforcement.......... Influence of Portland Cement on Concrete Properties ...2..............1.............. Mesh Cutting Machines... Welded Wire Mesh Reinforcing .........................4. Formwork Removal........9.... 62 4..2....... Basic Principles of Industrialization......................3........ Material Properties ..............2...........................27 3.30 3..........................2...................5.......................

...2...6......... Preparation before Placing Concrete .........2...1.............1.............. Concreting Different Types of Members ....... 120 11..................2.3. Categories of Transport ................... Selection of Lifting Devices and Equipment ......70 5...1...... 135 vi .........3........ 128 11....... Machine Mixing .................................6....1. Linear Mixing Center ...3. General Considerations . CURING CONCRETE............2.. 130 11..... 114 10.... Compaction of Concrete..... Turbulent Mixers..........5..................103 9.... 123 11.........2. Curing Under Temperature Ranging from 5 o C to 30 oC.............................. General Considerations ........1.... Concrete Products Precasting Methods 116 10.... 117 10..1....2.. Job Planning ......3.. 121 11......3.................. Arch..5............. Basic Principles for Concrete Placement ..1.1...........2..... Unit Preparation . Basic Curing Requirements......... 132 11.... Concrete Pipe ...............5..................71 5............2.......4......6. Mixing Concrete...........102 9... Concrete Surface Finishing ...3....2...........2.91 8...... Transport and Storage of Precast Units ........ Mechanical Compaction............ 121 11..................................98 8.......... 134 ENDNOTE .................. Vault and Shell Concreting .. Code Marking.. Manual Compaction .... Health. Schemes and Procedures for Unit Erection.. Revibration ................... Drum Type Concrete Mixers ............... 106 9......... Effects of Accelerated Curing on Cement and Concrete Structure ...........2... 110 9......65 5. VIBRATION AND CONCRETE FINISHING.3.....................2................ Vibration ..............2........5......... Forced Action Mixers ........2...............5..103 9....................84 7.................... COMPACTION...... Manufacturing.86 CHAPTER 8...........1.... Vacuum Dewatering..................5.... Wall and Column Concreting...6...1..............2................ Cold Weather Concreting .........................1...........2....3........................................5............3...66 5.....................................2.........3..... 123 11....6. Unit Erection Detailing Sequences131 11.......... Vibration.......3..........3........................................3.4.........92 8. 105 9.3..........5. 123 11... General Considerations .....82 7.............69 5....3.................3......71 5. 114 10.......... General Considerations ......................... Accelerated Concrete Curing. 129 11......... Connections .....................5.. 132 REFERENCES .. 106 9...........102 9...........1.... Rolling...102 9....................... Methods of Concrete Curing ....3.... Under-Vibration and Over-Vibration ....................5. 114 10..........99 8. Inspection of Units After Transport and Storage ....5...................................... Storage and Handling of Aggregate......74 6...90 8.......... ERECTION OF PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ..... 110 9. 120 11. Concrete Joints ..3.......1...81 7........... Safety and Welfare Regulations . 115 10..... 120 11......2... Applying Pressure ..............................3....... Sequence.......4..........CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 5............2...... Product Certification .....................86 7.........84 7............................1.....3.......81 7.........3...........2.............2....1..... General Considerations ..............89 8..................... Slab and Beam Concreting ..1....1..........3..3...........5.........100 CHAPTER 9. Industrialization of Factory-manufactured Systems..... General Considerations ................. Curing Concrete in Extreme Weather Conditions .............. Water and Cement ............. Hot Weather Concreting.2.. 106 9......1..5......... 119 CHAPTER 11......... Off-site Precast Manufacturing Technologies............................97 8..1............93 8.. Inspection of Erection and Correction of Dimensional Tolerances ..1.74 6.............. 115 10........3.....6... 105 9........3...4.................. Duration of Curing ...................73 CHAPTER 6....................1........70 5.........4.................92 8........2................ HANDLING AND PLACING CONCRETE .......2....97 8......65 5....................1........85 7.................3................ 110 9..4..........4.. OFF-SITE PREFABRICATION...... BUILDING MATERIAL TRANSPORT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT .......................2..2..6....6........1............................ 130 11....2... Mixing Times ... Mixing Tower.....1......................3... 111 CHAPTER 10...2..... Hand Mixing ......93 8.......1...2.......... Delivery.74 CHAPTER 7..1....... Vibrating Mixers ......98 8.. Erection of Precast Units ....3......................3..... Batching and Mixing Plants .................4.....67 5......4...3.. Preliminary Execution Works ............. Basic Characteristics ................2.......4...89 8...... Quality Assurance........ Scheduling...3......2..2....69 5. General Considerations ................3.. Manufacturing Procedures.............68 5.102 9............. Classification of Concrete Accelerated Curing Procedures .......5...... 116 10... Centrifugal Force ..4..99 8.............2....3..... Placement of Concrete in Extreme Temperatures ....................1.......

2. once with the Industrial Revolution. Just as importantly. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION The efficiency of industrialized production results from the careful. …his progress in technology was made by trial and error. prefabrication can dramatically improve productivity. Britannica) 1. and adequate time should be allowed for working out details before operations can commence.1. The method controls construction costs by economizing on time. pre-planning of each stage is essential. which made possible impressive results. labor. Tradition is still used in the field of “wet” construction.3.site layout. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The history of technology. Industrialization is concerned with both on-site and off-site methods of construction organized in a systematic way in such that erection can proceed as a continuous operation. 1. manufacture. and materials. and labor is vital in construction procedure. work sequence. represents man's efforts to control his material environment for his own benefit. It was only toward the end of the 18th century. and fixing of standardized components. in the field of construction. components. design. and by employing mechanical plant and equipment. by incorporating factory produced units and components into traditional in situ concrete construction. particularly on work of a repetitive nature. . Many prefabrication technologies deliver a better product because building is done in a quality controlled sheltered environment.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 1. that technology started to transform itself form craft skills…. products. The following summary lists the basic principles of mass production: . machines.Developing new construction methods like industrial type production to constantly improve efficiency in the scope of improving labor productivity (minimizes the amount of human effort required). systematic application of the ideas and concepts outlined above. and processes (DEX 1998). Preplanning of activities should cover . erection time has been shortened considerably. Whether traditional or industrialized. Sometimes the contractor uses part of the site as a workshop or temporary factory for the production of woodwork or pre-cast components. This is achieved by careful planning of activities carried out and by setting up a production line to provide an organized flow of components. on-site organization of materials. Much traditional building procedure remains site-bound and labor-intensive. However. INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS 1. to applied science. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIALIZATION Definition of industrialization: The application of scientific principles to the optimal conversion of natural resources into structures. For many thousands of years. wages. mechanical plant. (Encpl. 7 . Man has been able to do this using tools and applying reason to the properties of matter and energy. systems.Prefabrication of building components.

Larger spaces comprise multiple modules (n x M). construction engineering and management. continuous flow of product from the factory requires distribution and marketing operations to bring the product to the client. Planning begins with the original design of the product. Changes in product design may converge toward high costs.g. dimensional tolerances. Proper planning can eliminate the problems encountered. to permit the task to be divided into sub-processes assigned to different individuals. 8 .) within the construction site. Simplification and standardization of component parts through: 1. These operations must improve construction quality. raw materials and component parts shall be adaptable to production and handling by mass techniques. and third. because maximum efficiency is desired. while smaller spaces sub modules (M/n). breakdowns occur. highly repetitive human motion patterns and minimal handling or positioning of the workpiece that can be easily learned and rapidly performed with a minimum of unnecessary motion or mental readjustment. dimensional co-ordination – agreement made between the manufacturers of building units and the designers in order to simplify assembly by standardizing sizes. and if the rate goes too high. to justify the substantial capital investment often required for specialized machines and processes.Planed in detail because the large. welding etc. material types) on all parts of the product further increases the economic benefit that can be achieved. machines. machine maintenance cannot keep up. . modular design – a technique that uses a standard size module (1M = 100 mm) as the fundamental unit for space planning. including the flows of materials and information throughout the process. parts location. second. a production line is designed to operate most efficiently at a specified rate. and the costs of production rise. If the required production levels fall below that rate. tying wires. tools. . to allow large production runs of parts that are without difficulty fitted to other parts without adjustment. Usually. flexibility to accommodate changes economically must be planned into the system. and standardized materials and processes facilitate statistical control and inspection techniques to monitor production and control quality. Limitations of industrialization in construction . standardized design.Large enough. operators and machines are being inefficiently used.the resulting system is inherently inflexible. The imposition of other standards (e.Carefully estimated because the selection of techniques depends upon the volume to be produced and anticipated short-term changes in demand.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Careful division of the production operations into specialized tasks comprising of relative simple. Carefully designed. projects are required to achieve the maximum benefits that application of these principles can provide. to permit large production runs so that human effort and capital are efficiently employed. - - 2. For the industrialization of construction to be efficient. the application of the principles of industrialization has led to major improvements in uniformity and quality. the production flow of components/materials shall be: . first. Advantages of industrialization in construction: In addition to lowering cost. operators must work overtime. Developing new and improved construction materials in factory type prefabrication up to the total elimination of the time consuming operations (reinforcement bending. The entire production process is planned in detail. The large volume. and work positions are often quite precisely adapted to details of the parts produced but not necessarily to the workers involved in the process.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS If concrete is to be poured. . economical and functional requirements that should be kept in mind when designing and constructing formwork.Formwork must be dismantled and moved as easily as possible so that construction of the building advances. The technical requirements of formwork are: . size and location of the member in the structure according to the drawings. labor 12%) = 40%.Formwork must be capable of supporting the designed loads any other applied loads during the construction period. 9 . could be as follows: concrete (materials 28%.1. .Formwork care and maintenance should be done according to specifications. labor 7%) = 25% and formwork (materials 15%. to produce the required structural element. .Form sections must be of a size that can be lifted into place without too much difficulty and transported from one job site to another. To ensure that the formwork is economical and practical to build.Designed so that the whole formwork can be assembled and dismantled with unskilled or semi-skilled labor.Manufacture of forms must lead to low cost of materials. reinforcement (materials 18%. and labor. the designer puts forward the following basic technical. . In other words. as circumstances will allow.Forms should assure the attainment of the desired shape. on the job site some means of support.Units should be interchangeable so that they can be used for forming different members. A typical breakdown of total construction percentage costs. .Forms must be strong enough to withstand the pressure of fresh concrete and working loads. The economic requirements of formwork are: .Forms must be made to fit and fasten together with reasonable ease. . labor 20%) = 35%. if necessary. b. .Careful selection of finish surface and linings to produce the desired concrete surface result direct from the formwork. FORMWORK 2. . in place-monolithically. .Forms must be as simple to build. and to maintain their shape during the concrete placing operation.Panels should be tightly connected so to minimize gap at the formwork connection to prevent leakage of cement paste. formwork is a temporary “mould” into which fresh concrete and reinforcement are placed to form a particular reinforced concrete element with a predetermined strength.The design must be made so that the forms may be removed without damage to the concrete or to themselves. is necessary to shape. c. The functional requirements of formwork are: . . . a. .Formwork should be as repetitive and as adaptable as possible.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 2. to position it precisely (level and location) and to retain it until it sets. They must be able to withstand a good number of reuses without losing their shape. energy. known as formwork.

. 1984. 5. and Hygiene Regulation in effect. 4. Edge framing. Teodorescu M. preferably at pretender stage. Braces.Forms must be made so that workers can handle them in regard of safety. Desirable materials for making formwork (e. The weight of the panels should not exceed 30-40 kg for those lifted by one worker and 60-70 kg for those lifted by two workers. .g. FORM MATERIALS Materials of formwork shall be selected and the formwork system shall be designed and constructed so that the concrete structure has the satisfactory performance required as per design and the safety of workers are guaranteed. WOOD Figure 2-1 Typical dimensioned lumber panel Caption: 1.. Source: Popa R. steel. Longitudinal frame (stud). 10 . wood. reusable.. 3. durability.2.2. 2.1. 3. plastic. Teodorescu M. 6. 2. A balance of the above requirements should be achieved. Longitudinal frame (stud). Holes in edge framing for tie insertion. Plywood sheathing. insulating materials) shall have the following properties: sufficient strength. aluminum. Figure 2-2 Typical plywood sheathing panel Caption: 1. 2. Noggins. so that an economic and competitive cost can be calculated. Lumber planks. 1984. and/or recyclable and volume stability during application. respecting the Health. required stiffness.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Forms must be as light (without any strength reduction) as possible so that one or two workers can handle them. Source: Popa R. Safety. Transverse frame. 2. lightweight..

STEEL Steel angles and bars are used as supporting members for form panels faced with plywood or steel sheathing. relative low cost. better flexibility. Although dimensioned lumber has been used as sheathing material in the past. while dimensioned lumber is now used primarily for framing. Socket. Dimensioned lumber (Figure 2-1) used in formwork is usually of the softwood variety (spruce. more difficult to assemble and repair. low cost of erection/ stripping. lightweight. 3. Plywood produces smooth concrete surfaces and can be used repeatedly. plywood sheets have replaced it in this application. fir etc. 6. Teodorescu M. 4. Welded steel sheathing. 2. Frame. minimizing deflection during concrete pour. Plywood (Figure 2-2) is a sheathing product made of several wood veneers with their grain lying (normal to one another) at right angles and firmly glued together under pressure. Source: Popa R. non-inflammability. 2. Braces. Connecting pipe piece. Pipe. pine.. and shoring.2.) because of its availability and good strength. having excellent strength properties. 1984. and limitations: heavy. bracing. easier to repair and reusability. Steel forms have the following advantages: very good durability and easy to clean. no distortion with moisture changes. workability..CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Wood in the variety of dimensioned lumber or plywood sheathing is a widely used material for formwork panels because of its good strength. Figure 2-3 Steel panel Caption: 1.2. producing a panel that has uniform properties in both directions. 11 . 5.

well cleaned and re-oiled . and/or strutting. PLASTIC AND ALUMINUM Plastic reinforced fiberglass is a desired material for sheathing do to its reusability. Its advantages are its lightweight and strength. Advantages of using pan forms: low cost. Lining material may be re-used if it is in satisfactory condition. final destination. Forms can be classified in accordance with a number of criteria.1.3.Forms shall be erected one side of the wall formwork.3. 2. CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURE AND USE 2. I and U-shaped. Joints in the lining shall be filled with patching plaster or other plastic filler. speed of erection and striping.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 2-4 Pan forms Source: ATEX. Aluminum sections are used also as beams for supporting slab formwork or as wales on wall formwork. splits. warp. Pan forms (referred to also as Waffle Moulds) are used in oneor two-way ribbed slabs. DISMOUNTABLE FORMWORK Prefabricated forms (referred to also as Traditional Wall Formwork) consists of standard size framed panels tied together over their backs with horizontal members called wales that provide resistance to the horizontal pressure of fresh concrete. such as by: structure and use/reuse of formwork. tight form. loose knots or other defects which will prevent obtaining a smooth. 2. All sheathing in contact with concrete surfaces shall be sized to uniform thickness and free from wane. ensuring its correct alignment.2.Insertion and positioning of steel reinforcement cage before the formwork for the other side is erected and fixed.3. . quality of panel sheathing. lightweight. and toughness. plumbing. members for form panels. strength. shoring members and form accessories. Aluminum expensive compared with the other materials is used as supporting.3. 1999.Forms shall be tightened by means of slotted wedge that passes through the lower end of the slot. There main advantage is that they are can be reused many times at a convenient cost. 12 . simplicity. .1. CLASSIFICATION OF FORMWORK The basic components of a formwork are: form panel (comprised of panel sheathing and panel frame). 2. materials used. A standard procedure for site formwork assembly is as follows: . mouldability.1.Forms shall conform to the shape and dimensions shown on the drawings and shall be accurately set to line and grade.

5. 6. 1m) using the same forms in a repetitive fashion to obtain maximum usage from a minimum number of panels. Positioning of horizontal members (wales) to increase the overall rigidity of the formwork panels and to align them. Figure 2-5 Plywood panels Caption: 1. Tie rod. Working platform. 3. 3. 13 .. Nut.. covering them at the outside with plate washers to ensure that the loads are evenly distributed over the wales. Source: Popa R. Clamp. Plate washer. Forms for walls. 8. Loop tie. Plywood panel. Source: Popa R. 4. Concrete kicker. Teodorescu M. 6. etc... 5.Casting the concrete and allowing it to harden after which the forms are removed.Resumption of the same operations (casting and curing) for the next 1 m lift until the required height has been reached. Clamp. Plumbing member (strut).Positioning of the first concrete lift against a 300 mm high kicker. 2. 2. which shall not be closed until just before placing concrete. 9. Plastic cone. for site operations. Shoe. Tie. All forms shall be thoroughly cleaned and soaked with water immediately before filling. 1984.. Wedge. Figure 2-6 Climbing formwork Caption: 1. Adjustable brace. Climbing Formwork is a method of casting a concrete wall in known vertical lift heights (approx. is as follows: .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Correct spacing of forms at specified distance from one another by using plastic spacer tubes in which ties are inserted. Teodorescu M. 1984. Insertion of ties between wales. Base plate. 7. 11. 8. Wale. 10. 4. Pipe spacer. A standard procedure. Pair of steel studs. 7. shall have large cleanout openings at their lowest points. 12. . Plywood panel. .

Side panels forms. The sliding formwork is comprised of the following basic parts: 1. Control equipment for horizontality inspection. Steel framed yoke. NON DISMOUNTABLE FORMWORK a. 11. 3. 10. labor and planning economical. 2. this method is suitable for constructing water towers. Hydraulic jack. 1984. Lower interior platform. Sliding formwork (referred to also as Slip Formwork) represents a formwork system that slides continuously up the face of the concrete wall that is being cast. Because of these factors. Buck. Lower exterior platform. with an overall sliding clearance of 6 mm by keeping the external panel plumb and the internal panel tapered so that it is 3 mm in at the top and 3 mm out at the bottom. Upper exterior platform. Control equipment for vertical plumbing inspection. silos. 14 .3. The climbing operation is possible do to a series of hydraulic jacks that operate on jacking rods. Horizontal wales stiffen the side forms along to resist the lateral pressure of concrete and transfer the loads of working platforms to the supporting yokes. 3. Jacking rods. Form panel with steel face. Electrical installation. Upper interior platform. 8. 13. and multi-story buildings that have repetitive floors. 5. 14. Teodorescu M. bins. 7. Source: Popa R. Yokes assist in supporting the suspended working platforms and transfers the platform and side form loads to the jacking rods. Water installation. very good durability and easy to clean. and limitations: heavy.3. Hydraulic jacks are anchored at the base of the structure and embedded in the concrete below the forms. no distortion with moisture changes. The formwork system presents the following advantages: they cast the structure monolithically and jointless. chimneys.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 2.20 m in height. or pneumatic. Figure 2-7 Sliding formwork Caption: 1. more difficult to assemble and repair. for finishing operations and to carry jacking and control equipment. giving the true wall thickness.. 9. 6. 4. Working platforms are usually provided to ease the work of the concrete team. 2. and a height of at least 20 m to make the cost of equipment. The jacks may be hydraulic. Window opening. for storage of materials. 4.1. electric. usually 1. in the center position of the form. made of timber or steel. the wall should have a uniform thickness (with a minimum number of openings). 12.. 5.

. b.Careful control of concrete supply to ensure that stoppages of the lifting operation are not encountered. If the jack rod is to be reused.Round-the-clock working which will involve shift working and artificial lightning to enable work to proceed outside normal daylight hours. new lengths are added as concreting continues. The lower clamp now grips the climbing rod while the upper clamp is released and raised to a higher position when the lifting cycle is recommenced. The success of a slip-forming operation depends on good planning. . it is withdrawn from the wall after the forming is complete.Formation of a concrete. rises.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The jacks used are usually specified by their load bearing capacities and consist of two clamps operated by a piston. be as continuous as possible. 300 mm high. There main objective is to reduce the time factor in erecting. striking and re-erecting slab 15 . the forms for the projection built around them. The sheath prevents concrete from bonding to the jack rod and leaves it standing free within the hardened concrete. . designed to stand the stresses placed on them by the constant heat of liquid concrete. After the forming is complete. This may mean having standby plant as an insurance against mechanical breakdowns.Adequate facilities for supplying concrete to the forms at any height and an adequate concrete supply. The upper clamp grips the jacking rod and the lower clamp. As the form rises and reaches the top of the first set of rods. it must be added after the forming is complete. being free. . A standard procedure regarding site operations is as follows: . . and the structure cast. This is made possible by sheathing the rod with a thin pipe. Some of the major factors contributing to successful slip form construction are: . . design. The 2. pulling the yoke and platforms with it until the jack extension has been closed.Assembly of wall forms fixed together with yokes. in spite of changing temperatures. upper working platforms.Placement of first concrete lift. and jacking device. In some cases. and supervision so that the operation may in fact.0 m lengths of rod are usually joined together with a screw joint arranged so that no joints occur at the same level. Table formwork is used when casting large repetitive floor slabs in high-rise structures. . which is attached at its top end to the jack base and moves up with the forms.If a concrete projection from the wall is required. the dowels can be bent out.The proper concrete mix design and careful control of the concrete to maintain the proper slump and set. A pocket is formed in the wall with dowels bent in so as not to interfere with the operation of the forms. . . The clamps operate on a jacking rod of 25 to 50 mm diameter.Anchorage of vertical reinforcing rods at the base of the structure that extends upward between the inner and outer form. The commencing rate of climb must be slow (150…450 mm/hr.) to allow time for the first batch of concrete to reach a suitable maturity before emerging from beneath the sliding formwork. . the rod is left unsheathed and remains as part of the reinforcing.When openings are required to be produced in the wall bucks are inserted in the section of the wall. kicker incorporating the wall and jacking rod starter bars.Reliable forms. .Suitably trained staff accustomed to this method of constructing in-situ concrete walls.5 to 4.A supply of reinforcing steel at hand and experienced workers to do the fabricating as work progresses.

2. securing and bracing them. 7. Deck joists. 3. Steel adjustable props. Base plate. 2. Teodorescu M. 8. 4. Plywood decking. - The procedure for assembling a form table is as follows (Figure 2-9): Positioning the stringer on the ground as required by the shop drawings. 6. 9. Adjustment for aligning and leveling of form. Final extraction of forms by maneuvering them clear of the structure to a point where they can be attached to the crane that lifts and repositions them to there new location. 5. Stringer.3. 16 . It has the same common aim and similarity as traditional formwork.4. Casting the new concrete slab and after hardening – removal of formwork. Figure 2-9 Form table assembly Figure 2-8 Formwork table Caption: 1. Bolting the deck joists to the stringer with bolts. Source: Popa R. Wheel. Provisions regarding existence of a working platform at the external edge of the slab that means elimination of independent scaffolds.. Maneuvering the form into position by attaching the handling loops to the crane hook. removed.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING formwork by creating a system of formwork which can be struck as an entire unit. Horizontal struts. Balancing in horizontal position and lowering on to the recently cast slab for repositioning. Laying the plywood on the joists and nailing them tighter by driving them directly into the lightweight steel. Handling loops.1. hoisted and repositioned without any dismantling. Inclined Source: EFCO 2001. bracing. 1984. Positioning the adjustable steel props as support members (suitably braced) to carry the framed formwork decking (a framed wheeled arrangement can be fixed to the rear end of the table form so that the whole unit can be moved forward with ease).. satisfying most of the technical. standardization and dimensional co-ordination of forms and by easy methods of positioning. PATENT FORMWORK Patent formwork (referred to also as System formwork) is usually identified by the manufacturer's name. economical and functional requirements by the simplification.

Wood pegs. Figure 2-12 Shallow footing Continuous footing against excavations forms cast Caption: 1. 2.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 2.1. Vertical sheathing.3. no surface finish is necessary. 2. Spreader. 6. 4. The external face or cladding is supported by the conventional internal face formwork. gypsum board. Poaling boards.2. precast stone or concrete). Wales. 17 . formwork is left permanently in place because of the difficulty and cost of removing it once the concrete has been cast. however. Excavation of the last 100 mm of a footing cast in earth immediately before the concrete is placed. Spreaders. CLASSIFICATION BY FINAL DESTINATION 2. Lining of trenches with wax paper or polyethylene film to prevent earth-absorbing water from the concrete. Figure 2-10 Permanent formwork Source: ACI – Construction Engineering Journal.2. Traditional wooden panel. Battens. 5. the size of which is governed by the supporting capacity of the internal formwork.1. which can in certain circumstances overcome the external support problems often encountered. Because the footing is below grade. 5. PERMANENT FORMWORK In certain circumstances. FOOTING FORMS Figure 2-11 Below grade footing forms Caption: 1. This method is. - A standard procedure for execution of footings is as follows: Positioning according to design to avoid loss of bearing area and eccentricity. 3.. 4.1988. generally limited to thin small modular facing materials (insulating board.5. 3. Horizontal sheathing.3.3. Wales. Plywood panel. Source: Suman R. Other times. it is used as both formwork and outer cladding especially in the construction of in-situ reinforced concrete walls. 2.

When there are no studs. to shape and retain the concrete until it sets.Fastening of plywood sheathing to the studs. to hold the sides of the forms at the correct spacing.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 2. 6. to hold the forms erect under lateral pressure. with the tie ends being threaded through predrilled holes. 8. Working platform. . Note: When studs are used in form construction. strongbacks-vertical members tied together in pairs with long ties through the form-are set and braced to provide vertical rigidity. Sole plate. teodorescu M. b..When one side of the form has been completed. Formwork panel.Ties and spreaders. Studs. prefabricated forms and giant panels respectively gang forms. Spacer. . a. . to form a framework and support the sheathing or Wales. . to keep the form aligned and support the studs. Sheathing. the other may be built in sections and set in place. defined lifts or continuous from start to finish: built in place forms.Proper location on the foundation or slab from which the wall will rise. Source: Popa R. In such a case. Several basic methods are available which will enable a wall to be cast in large quantities.3. Base plate. Figure 2-13 Wall formwork Caption: 1.Panels will be bolted or clamped to adjoining sections. 3. WALL FORMS The basic wall forms components are: Panel sheathing. Adjustable steel prop.Insertion of ties as sheathing progresses. 5. Tie rod. 7.Sole plate anchoring on either the foundation or slab with preset bolts. A standard procedure to assemble a built in place wall form may be as follows: . 1984. The first panel should be set and leveled at the highest point of the foundation to establish alignment for the remainder . 9. . clips. a. Guardrail. wales are placed against the plywood sheathing. Plate washer. or wale brackets nailed to the studs. Studs. 10.2.Braces..2. . 18 . between the double-sided wales. 4. 2. Reinforcement. Built-in-Place Forms are built in place when the design of the structure is such that prefabricated panels cannot be adapted to the shape or when the form is for one use only and the use of prefabricated panels cannot be economically justified. c. wales are placed outside of them and held in place by nails. Wales.

. or steel forms will be required for forming the edges (steel edge forms are commonly used on larger jobs and for highway work).3. .Usually a vapor barrier will be placed under the slab on grade. 2.3.Plank. will normally be formed by the use of giant panels (panels much larger than the normal standard size) or by gang forming.2. 2. If a single layer of rein- 19 . external bracing must be provided to securely support both forms. Tightening of ties where possible and where not or not allowed. Teodorescu M. 1. Screed. 3. 1984. Steel strut. in tension only or in both. Cast concrete. The ties and spreaders will plumb the second form automatically. Slab edge form. Figure 2-14 Typical gang panel Caption: 1.Concrete will be placed on compacted earth or gravel leveled base (the granular material serving as a capillary break under the slab where moisture in the subgrade be a problem). Figure 2-15 Typical slab-on-grade edge formwork Caption: 1. as when forms are braced on one side only heavy wire or cable is suitable for bracing that will be in tension only. Proper placement of the reinforcement in the slab is important if it is to be of value. . form the wales or strongbacks. Stud. If one form is plumbed as soon as it is built. - Reinforcement in slabs on grade may or may not be specified depending on the slab area and the use of control joints. Source: Suman R. Source: Popa R. 1988. b. FLOOR FORMS The design of forms for concrete floors depends a great deal on whether the floor is a slab-on-grade or a structural slab supported on a steel or concrete structural frame. Normally the amount of steel that is specified for slabs on grade is for crack control rather than to increase the strength of the slab. 4. Giant Panels and Gang Forms.The forms will be held in place by wooden pegs.. A standard procedure to produce a good slab-on grade from is as follows: . . 3. Wales. the wall must be plumbed as the braces are installed and anchored. in which the concrete will have to be placed in two or more stages or lifts. Plumbing of formwork. These large forms are built or assembled on the ground by fastening together a number of steel (wood)-framed panels and bracing them strongly to withstand crane handling. by adjusting the braces. Slab-on-Grade Forms are forms for concrete slabs placed on grade are usually quite simple. Braces may act in compression only..CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Braces will be attached to the sole plate. 2. If braces are not adjustable. High walls. plywood. there is no need to plumb the opposing one. Form sheathing.

8. 4. strike-off formwork will commence with the beam and girder sides. 6. 7. Shore head. Source: Andres C. Girder. 1998. followed later by the column forms. the screed is removed and the depression filled. The reinforcement will be placed on its proper location according to the drawing on chairs. When concrete has been placed to the correct level. and spacers made of either metal or concrete. 4. which will transmit shear from one to the other (see Concrete Placement). 11.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING forcement is specified.Girder side forms will overlap the bottom form and rest on the shore heads and the sides of the column form. 5. Ledger. 7. 6. Tie. Wales.. Prop. 9. . Joist.Larger girders will have the side Figure 2-16 Girder form details forms vertically stiffened to prevent Caption: 1. Stud. Prop. Figure 2-17 Spandrel beam form details Caption: 1. 20 . Tie back. and finally by the beam and gird bottoms. Temporary wooden guides named screeds will be positioned in the slab area to help in bringing the concrete to the correct grade. Panel end support. construction joints must be made between them. buckling. 9. . Panel sheathing. Spandrel Beam Forms (deep beams that span openings in outer walls) need to be carefully formed. 5. 12. Ledger. 8. If the slab is to be placed in sections. Structural Slab Form general procedure assembly is as follows: . Double shores. The extended shore head also frequently supports a catwalk for workers. its location should be 50 mm below the top surface of the slab to help control cracking in the top of the slab. 3. Shore heads are often extended on the outside to accommodate the knee braces used to keep the forms aligned. . Slab for sheathing. Stringer. Source: Andres C. Ledger. 2. Plywood sheet. 10.Positioning of the girder or beam form bottom.Side forms will be held in place by ledger strips nailed to the shore heads with double-headed nails. Brace. Brace. - 2. Form alignment must be accurate to produce an attractive wall. bolsters. 3. - When constructing the girder and beam forms each part must be removed without disturbing the remainder of the form.. 2. 1998. Shore head.

and keeping them in a vertical position are prime considerations by using braces.Inspection of yokes to ensure that they withstand bending and shear and that deflection will not exceed 1. As column sizes increase. .Final check of column forms position. and ready to support the ends of the girder and the beam forms that will be built to them.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 2. Source: Pestisanu C. It is therefore necessary to provide tight joints and strong tie support. Note: The length of the column form is determined be subtracting the thickness of the bottom of the girder form that the column is to carry from the column height indicated on the plans or in the column schedule. . A standard procedure to assemble a steel column form may be as follows: . they are carefully located by chalk line or paint and anchored in position. The form consists of four panels.Four-panel assembly by fastening them together on each corner. . modular panels provide a fast and more accurate column form than jobbuilt forms.Location of forms accurately by using templates. Modular steel panel forms provide several ways to form columns of various shapes and sizes. . horizontal stiffening are used (ties of this type are generally referred to as yokes). COLUMN FORMS Column forms are often subjected to greater lateral pressure than wall forms because of their comparatively small cross section and relatively high rates of placement..5 to 3 mm steel sheathing) that are fastened together at each corner with wedge bolts or clamps. either the thickness of the sheathing must be increased or vertical stiffeners must be added to prevent sheathing deflection.Selection of proper type and thickness of sheathing.Anchor them at their base. . Assemble three sides together.20 m and maximum edge of column 95 cm. Figure 2-18 Typical example of column formed with plywood panels stiffened with triangular yokes. 21 - . set the partially completed form in place.2.3.Locate column forms accurately by using templates. .Provision of a cleanout opening at the bottom of the form so that debris may be removed before concrete placing begins and to allow the placing of concrete in the bottom half of the form without having to drop it from the top. 1995.5 mm. and add the fourth side later (this would probably be done in setting column forms for a job where the reinforcement is already in position). they are carefully located by chalk line or paint and anchored in position. Generally.Marking the location of each yoke on the side of the panel. bracing.Assembly of yokes on the top of the first panel height.4. In Figure 2-19. A standard procedure to assemble a column form may be as follows: . . which sets partially. 1. completed form in place. plumbing.Mark the location of each yoke on the side of the panel. . of various widths and lengths (maximum forming height of 7. .

bracing. 22 .4. uniform coating. Sprayer application requires less material and produces a smoother. RELEASE AGENTS Release agents (referred to also as Bond Preventives) have traditionally been used as coatings to formwork to prevent adhesion of the concrete.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Stacking the rest of the panels until reaching the desired height and positioning the rest of the yokes on their upper frame. Steel panel.To improve stripping of the form from the concrete surface without damaging the sheathing material or the concrete. Final check of column forms position. For a smooth finish plywood. and waxes. Main limitations of different agents used: discoloration. 2. residual deposits. 2. chemical release agents. These include oils. steel. or failure to prevent bond conducting towards possible destruction of the concrete. plumbing. Source: IPC. Filler panel. and ready to support the ends of the girder and the beam forms that will be built to them.5. FORM LINERS Form liners serve two purposes: . Yoke. Inclined brace. 2. . plastic and rubber liners are used but are usually limited to a single application. emulsions. Figure 2-19 Typical steel column formwork Caption: 1. Liquid bond preventives can be applied by hand or power-operated sprayer. 3.To produce a desired texture on exposed concrete surfaces. while for textured finish. 4. and fiberglass are usually used.

.The unfastening of accessories will be done steadily without shocks.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 2.5 N/mm2 – for the lateral parts of the formwork. .0 m. continuing symmetrically up the supports. 70% of the concrete class for the inferior formwork parts of slabs and beams. A special attention should be given.0. 85% of the concrete class for the inferior formwork parts of slabs and beams.00 m. Shores and reshores shall be in the same position on each floor to provide a continuous support from floor to floor.0 m. The shores will be removed when the following values of concrete strength percentage is achieved: 95 % for members with maximum spans of 6. when casting defects are seen (honeycombing. with a span of minimum 6. The rate of hardening is temperature dependent and affects the timed removal of formwork. . They can be divided into two major categories: horizontal shoring and vertical shoring. The time varies depending on the structural function of the member and the rate of strength gain of the concrete (concrete class.0 m. w/c (mass ratio of water to cement).When forms adhere to the concrete.0 m. SHORING MEMBERS Shoring members are used to support concrete forms and their contents. . The shores and joists will be dismantled beginning from the middle of the members span. . after form removal. protecting the concrete from damage and the form panel so that it may be reused without extensive repair. at no time shall large areas of new construction be required to support their own weight even temporarily.Formwork shall not be removed until the concrete maturity has developed sufficiently so to support all loads placed upon it. to the construction member because it will bear the whole design load. type of cement. FORMWORK REMOVAL The removal (referred to also as strike-off or stripping) of formwork shall be carried out by ensuring the strength of concrete and the stability of the remaining formwork. which will more than double in winter conditions. 2. which is very important especially for long-span members in flexure.) that can influence the stability of the structure the works will be stopped until repair and rehabilitation.Beam and joist bottoms shall remain in place until final removal of all shoring under them. separation should be achieved by inserting wooden wedges and not by forcing the crowbars against the concrete..The parts and connections of the forms shall be so arranged that removal will be simple. During formwork strike off the following rules must be followed: .The procedure will be supervised by the engineer. The following values of concrete hardening levels are recommended for striking off: 2. 115 % for members with spans grater than 12. slab and joist forms and beam and girder bottoms.The Engineer shall approve the sequence and pattern for removal of shores and for reshoring before any of this work is done. with a span of maximum 6.. Forms shall be designed so that removal may be made in the following order: side of beams and girders.6. . .12.Joist forms shall be designed and removed so that the shores may be removed temporarily to permit removal of joist forms but must be replaced at once. caverns etc. 112 % for members with spans of 6. 23 . temperature during curing).7.

.According to their load and span.Vertical steel shores may be adjustable pipe shores or shores made up of prefabricated metal scaffolding. 1998. 1999. with wedges at the bottom to adjust the height. Horizontal shores (also referred to as telescopic joists or centers) have the following characteristics: . 2.8 to 9m. or T head shores. . . concrete slab). FORM ACCESSORIES 24 . two-piece adjustable posts. they can bear a specified load. . Figure 2-20 Typical telescopic joists Source: Chudley R.An assembled unit is lightweight and can be carried by one laborer. EFCO 2002. .g. . Scaffold-type shoring.They can be precambered to compensate any deflections when loaded. double wood posts. Vertical shores are those that support the horizontal ones from a firm base below (e.8.Vertical wood shores may be single wood posts. is usually assembled into towers by combining a number of units into a single shoring structure.They require shoring and bracing.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING a. Figure 2-21 Typical adjustable steel shores Source: Teodorescu M.Are manufactured from wood or high-tensile steel with clear spans from 1.. b.

1. The only loads they bear are weight of mould. By structure and use . According to the materials used for fabrication: The choice of materials is mainly a question of economical justification on individual projects. MOULDS All concrete sections made with poured-in-place concrete require some temporary means of support for the freshly mixed. They can be of metal. some means of support is necessary to hold the concrete in place during its curing period. this temporary framing is known as a mould. Cross bracing. d.Non-bearing moulds. Wood wedge. Bolt screw. .. Plate washer with tie clamp. coupled moulds (2 elements) and batteries of moulds (several elements). frame. corner Caption: a. wedges. Source: Popa R.. These products include the following items: ties.1. 8. concrete inserts.9. b. Scaffold tubes secured with wire lashing. By the position it has in the technological flow: .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Along side the basic components of formwork a number of products are available to aid in making forms stronger and erecting them faster. b.Bearing moulds. form rods.9.9. 3.dismountable (some components of the mould can be dismantled for removal) and non-dismountable (removal is achieved by griping or expulsion of precast units). e. Tie spreader units. with bolt. Lash clamps. Panel clamp. brackets. wood. 5. column 2. e. According to the solution adopted of heating the concrete . 7. CLASSIFICATION OF MOULDS a. 2. According to the number of units that are formed in the same mould . clips. c. Teodorescu M. and many others.heating moulds and nonheating moulds (that are introduced after formation into steam rooms). As in the case of precast sections. plaster. Steel clamp. concrete etc. pressure of concrete on lateral faces and weight of reinforcement. 2. 2. 25 . Steel shaped clamp. d. Shore. shores. d. They bear both the loads stated above and those of the tensions given by the prestressed reinforcement. concrete. Plywood panel.Portable: it moves from one workstation to another like in conveyer prefabrication technology or flow of aggregates. According to the loads that they bear: . 4. and shoring elements.Stationary: used primarily in the stand prefabrication technology. 6. spreadFigure 2-22 Form accessories ers. plastic concrete. c. BASIC COMPONENTS AND MAIN TYPES OF MOULDS The basic mould components are: form sheathing.2.individual moulds (1 element). 1984. keys. . Cone.

. lower operational costs. The stack may be started in an excavation to permit a greater number of elements to be poured direct from transitmix trucks. 1984. 6. 8. 5. Tie rods. CHAPTER 3. 4. 3. simplifies curing. are used to produce the required number of finished moulds.. Teodorescu M. A mould can be used only once. Plaster moulds are used for various architectural or ornamental details. For this reason and ease of stripping.are sometimes used in place of milled woodwork. Concrete face. The moulds are made of casting plaster containing jute fiber and further reinforced by rods. Heating duct. Figure 2-24 Static metal moulds Caption: 1. Mould sheet. 5. Figure 2-25 Stack wooden mould Caption: 1. Concrete moulds . Bolt. 2. especially if a detail is repeated. The stack method conserves space. Stud. Wooden moulds – presents the limitation given by the woods tendency of the wood to swell. 3. 6. Mould base. 7. It consists of casting one element on top of another. Sheet frame. Several intermediate models. it is best not to recess deep into the concrete mass. 4. Prefabricated element. 4.. Edge form. 7. Mould concrete base. The most common method of casting concrete using moulds is by using the stack method. All castings in one stack should have identical dimensions and openings of identical size and location. permits castings to gain added strength before removal. Source: Popa R. Concrete mould. Striking of device. 3. 1984. Metal plate. withstand the required number of reuses within permissible tolerances without excessive maintenance. Brace frame. limit size variations.. Metal moulds . Figure 2-23 Concrete pilot mould Caption: 1. Source: Popa R. 2. 2. Mould sheathing. Compacted sand. where necessary. CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT 26 . as it is broken in stripping. Thermal insulation. with each successive element utilizing the preceding element as a casting bed. Teodorescu M. and eliminates extra handling.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING In designing such details an effort is made to: select standard shapes and sizes for economy of mouldwork.referred to also as pilot moulds because when precasting individual moulds a concrete replica (pilot model) of the final mould is constructed. cast from the pilot model. Steel angle shape.

secures other reinforcement against displacement caused by concrete placing. 3. transferring stress from concrete to steel and protecting the steel against fire and against corrosion. but the elongation is higher. particularly the carbon content). and PC 60 with ultimate strength of 37. The combination of concrete and steel in reinforced concrete is mutual beneficial. The most common steel grades are: OB 37. The low-strength steels are more workable than the high strength ones.1. . 52.2 x 10-5).CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 3. .Confinement reinforcement limits the transverse volumes increase of concrete in compressed areas. and 60 N/mm2.The cement paste in concrete bonds strongly to the steel bars. increasing the longitudinal deformation and strength. .Their coefficients of thermal expansion are approximately equal (αsteel = 1.Main reinforcement (continuous reinforcement). improves the load-carrying capability of the structure by providing high tensile strength. Steel reinforcements may be used in concrete in more than one manner: .8…1. 27 . reinforced concrete would tear itself apart by internal stress. or by improvement through mechanical working of steel (cold SR 438/4-98 or hot pressing STAS 438/1-89). . CLASSIFICATION OF REINFORCEMENT The type of reinforcement used will be selected and fabricated so that the reinforced concrete structure has the satisfactory performance specified in the design. and generally increase the ability of reinforcement to control shrinkage cracking.Repartition (distributed) reinforcement . if this were not so. Concrete provides an alkaline environment to steel embedded in it.Positioning reinforcement.2 x 10-5 and αconcrete = 0. 3. when subjected to wide temperature changes. below which 5% of all possible test results would be expected to fall. fy. and therefore remain firmly bonded. but they expand or contract by similar amounts. allowing them to work together as a composite material: . Characteristic strength is the value of the yield or proof strength (ultimate specified strength) of reinforcement. limits cracking by bearing tensile stresses.also referred to as discontinuous reinforcement. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Reinforcing steels can be divided into two categories: low-strength (mild) and high strength.2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS It is important to understand that correct sizing and positioning of reinforcement can increase both strength and durability of reinforced concrete. to be capable of sustaining heavy loads over considerable spans.3. PC 52. The workability of steel is assured by batching (altering the chemical composition of the steel. thus protecting the steel from rusting.

and the material makes a recovery (it returns to is original size once the load is removed).91. we measure the limit value for which a certain permanent elongation is recorded. STANDARD BAR DIAMETERS AND TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement is usually provided by steel bars (also referred to as re-bars) or by steel wires welded together to form a mesh or fabric. The types of steel bar for concrete reinforcement must comply with the requirements of STAS 4381/1-89. Source: Carare T. Ductility is the ability of the steel to sustain high strains before failure. AB – plastic region. 4383 . Table 3-1 Reinforcement types and application.4-80b and NE 012-99. As the stress is increased. For OB 37 this limit is shown by the tendency of oscillation or of stagnation of the display testing device while its elongation grows. If a load is applied to a material. 3. the elastic limit of the material has not been reached. because of this. 6482/2. 4382/2 .3.89 and STAS 6482/1-73. it must have exceeded its elastic limit (yield point) thus remaining permanently deformed (plastic limit). 28 .4. can increase both ultimate tensile strength and yield strength. C –failure. Altering the chemical composition of the steel.strain curves (σ-ε) for steel Caption: OA-elastic region. 1986 Stress-strain relationship is a measure of the elasticity of the material. If the material does not recover on the removal of the load. Necking occurs when material starts to decrees its cross-section and increases its elongation.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 3-1 Characteristic stress. For PC type steels the necking (tendency of elongation without load increase) is not shown through the equipment monitor. Types and characteristics are summarized below. particularly the carbon content. the steel begins to act in a plastic manner until failure. Type of steel Round smooth bars STAS 438/1-89 Drawn smooth wire for reinforced concrete STAS 438/2-91 Welded wire fabric for reinforced concrete SR 438/3/1998 Deformed bars for reinforced concrete STAS 438/1-89 Prestressed reinforcement -Smooth wire STAS 6482/2-80 -Deformed wire STAS 6482/3-80 -Strands Symbol OB 37 STNB STNB PC 52 PC 60 SBP I and SBP II SBPA I and SBPA II Field of applicability Main or distributed reinforcement Main reinforcement of welded wire fabric or welded cages for distributed reinforcement Main reinforcement for concrete grade min C 12/15 Main reinforcement for concrete grade min C 16/20 Main reinforcement for concrete grade min C 25/30 Reinforcement varies as a result of its processing.

00 – 7.60 – 1.0. that can be bundled in 5-10 coils/bundle On metallic or plastic spools: Wire Diameter [mm] 0.400 450 . 14.30 mm φ 6 – 12 mm φ 14 . 32. 25.for concrete prestressing 1 Wire for Concrete Prestressing (plain round.0.0. SBPA – in Rom.80 . 440 max. 22. Hot Rolled Structural Steel OB 37 Size Technical Characteristics 6. 12.12 mm φ 14 .50 – 7. Sarma pentru beton precomprimat amprentat.1.0. 22. Sarma trasa rascoapta) Drawn wire for concrete (STNB – in Rom.5.40 mm (STR – in Rom.20 . 440 Inside Diameter [mm] 250 . PC 60. Deformed Steel PC 52.40 .0. 40. SR EN 10025 2. 28.30 mm Heat Treated Cold Drawn Wire . 29 . 16 % PC90 min.120 80 .00 .60 60 .20 Work Weight 160 Spool Characteristic Inside diam Outside diam Axial diam Height 160 250 22 200 The wire is delivered: . 235 N/ mm2 φ 14-40 = min. 16.0.00 – 10. crimped or indented) SBP – in Rom. 25. .00 mm.30 mm Individual rods > φ 30 mm Source: Ductil Steel SA. 16.80 1. High tensile steel wire and strand . 36.0.0. 355 N/mm min.0.0.0. 28. 20 % min. Size SBP 1. 32. 440 max.0.0 mm Yield point Tensile strength Elongation Grade PC 52 PC 60 PC 90 PC 52 PC 60 2 min. 890 N/mm2 min. 410 max. PC 90 Size Technical Characteristics 6. 360 N/ mm2 Elongation A5 = min 26 % Delivery of reinforcement Grade OB 37 Coiled bundles (40 – 600 kg) φ 6 . 20.300 250 .00 Weight [kg] max.coils packed in crepe paper secured with adhesive band. Wire for General Purpose.0.200 Tensile Strength [N/mm2] Tensile Strength [N/mm2] max. 255 N/ mm2 Tensile strength = max.650 550 – 650 Size Technical Characteristics Delivery max. 36.spools packed in crepe paper or with stretch folio.not for prestressing Source: Ductil Steel SA.80 3.5 kg.30 mm φ 10 . 8.0.0. . 590 N/mm2 min.0.00 5.0. 40.60 1. Sarma pentru beton precomprimat.12 mm Bundles of bars (8-20 m length) φ 14 . SBPA 5. STAS 889 1.650 450 . 20.00 mm.coils (spools) unpacked. 15 40 . 18.100 80 . 410 N/mm2 min. SR EN 10025. 450 Delivery Coiled of 2 .0. 18.0.0 mm Yield point φ 6-12 = min.0. 10. 440 max. 10.0. 590 N/mm2 min. 8.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Hot Rolled Steel 1.50 . 510 N/mm2 min.0.2.0.00 . Sarma trasa neteda pentru beton) Wire for meshes 4. 14.80 Wire Characteristic on spool Net Weight 17 .0. 12.0. for Netting and Knitting Black wire for tying 0. secured in 3-4 places.00 mm Diameter [mm] 0.0.0.10.0. 8 % Individual rods > φ 30 mm > φ 30 mm > φ 20 mm Delivery Delivery of reinforcement Coiled bundles (40 – 600 kg) Bundles of bars (8-20 m length) φ 6 .

0 7φ2.387 2.423 0. Figure 3-2 Standard types of reinforcing bars PC 52 and PC 60 Source: Carare T.0 2. either smooth or deformed. Consequently.0.0 7. 3.693 0.295 0. WELDED WIRE MESH REINFORCING Another form of concrete reinforcing consists of wire rods.4.5 7φ3.430 9.570 19.070 10. 2.767 3. these types of reinforcing bars are called deformed steel bars.268 0. they have the length up to 10 m.55 Unit Weight [kg/1000m] Min.739 Delivery Spools with diameter of 900 mm.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Diameter mm 1. A typical notation of welded wire reinforcing is written as: 14 GQ 246 Where: 14 represent the order number of the mesh.0 Cross Sectional Area [mm2] 1.2 Cross Sectional Area [mm2] 22. spools packed in crepe paper or with stretch folio. 4.0 3. if they are rolled.466 3.410 22.80 kg. PLAIN AND DEFORMED STEEL BARS The simplest form of bar surface is the plain (smooth) bar. Diameters of smooth wire used range from 3 to 10 mm.0 6. The sheet sizes are manufactured in standard lengths of 4.870 15. The welded meshes come as sheets or rolls depending on the diameter of the wire or rod used.0 7φ4. G represents the general use of the mesh.210 Technical Characteristics 2.1.746 12.7 4.910 7.0 Diameter [mm] 6. 1986 3.4 m.1 12. 3. lugs (or protrusions) are rolled on the bar surfaces (the uneven surface of the reinforcing bars help them to bond tightly to concrete). mm2 30 .6 9.172 0.142 4.5 2.31 34. Q represents the shape of the eye.190 30. Toron pentru beton precomprimat) -7 mm wire configurations with tensile strengths that vary between 1670 and 1860 N/mm2.270 38. The wire is delivered: coils (spools) unpacked. weight 100-600 kg.4.5 3.0 5.0 mm Symbol 7φ 2.480 Unit Weight [kg/1000m] 1. coils packed in crepe paper secured with adhesive band.74 49.8 m and widths of 2.630 28. 0. known as welded wire mesh3 (also referred to as welded wire fabric). while deformed rods can range from 4 mm to 10 mm or larger. Strand for Concrete Prestressing (TBP – in Rom.93 88. 2.187 0.46 cm2/m = 246 mm2/m). 246 represents cross sectional area of wire (2.5. In order to improve the bond between reinforcing and the surrounding concrete. Max. secured in 3-4 places.1 7.0. Size Technical Characteristics Delivery Coiled of 50.388 0. Spacings (pitches) between wires range from 50 mm to 300 mm.2. welded into grids.548 8.853 5.

2. Enough cover must be provided to protect the reinforcing steel from the environment against corrosion (rusting). SBPA) will develop at greater bond strength than plain round bars and are available in 5. Figure 3-4 Typical profile of SBPA Source: Carare T. Consisting of six individual wires twisted about a hemp (core) rope core to form the strand. 3.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 3-3 Dimen sions of wire mesh Source: Carare T. REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE COVER Two important criteria (provided by STAS 10107/0-904) must be considered in the location of reinforcing bars in a concrete section: 1. 1986 Nominal parameters of meshes Length of mesh Lc Width of mesh Bc Width between extreme longitudinal bars B Width between extreme transverse bars L Longitudinal spacings between wires Transverse spacings between wires Size (mm) 2000-7000 1000-3000 950-2950 1950-6950 from 50 mm to 300 mm from 50 mm to 420 mm 3. The wire can be plain round. crimped or indented with a diameter range of 2 to 7 mm. Crimped and indented bars (SBP. and to provide some internal lubrication when bending stresses are involved. and 7 mm diameters. Other types of wires can be an assemblage of three or more ropes twisted together for extra strength. The function of the core is to provide a firm cushion for positioning the wires in the strands. 31 . 6..4. Proper spacing must be provided between the bars to ensure that the concrete to be placed without any blocking of coarse aggregates and an easy flow around the bars so to develop the necessary bond with the bars.5 mm diameter. to maintain a firm rope structure. This stranded wire rope for concrete (used in prestressing) is made of steel wire manufactured from cold drawn plain carbon steel.5. WIRES Tie Wires are plain.3. or a rope made by twisting together several strands of metal wire. cold drawn annealed steel of 1. 1986.

Figure 3-5. diameter.4 bar diameters 1. Figure 3-6 Chairs and spacers 3. the following types of chairs.6.4 maximum aggregate size nor 30 mm Maximum distance 500 mm Minimum concrete cover of reinforcing bars is Where: S . 32 . STRAIGHTENING OF STEEL BARS Hot rolled steel rods delivered in bundles or coils need be strengthened with the help of specific machinery or tools according to the steel type. grade.4 bar diameters 1.1.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Spacing of reinforcing bars is computed taking into consideration the following limitations: φmax aggregate = minimum distance between rebars .. 50 mm for columns.6. FABRICATION OF STEEL BARS. Figure 3-5 Typical reinforcement spacing section Source: Carare T. D .5 mm Common spacings of reinforcing bars are as follows: 25 mm for beams.4 maximum aggregate size nor 30 mm Not less than 1.Clear concrete cover considered according to environmental restrictions. 1986.Distance between longitudinal bars To ensure the proper location of the bars or wire mesh. 75 mm for slabs and walls. Not less than 1. bolsters and spacers made of either metal or concrete can be used. STIRRUPS AND WIRE MESHES 3. and type of delivery.

. Hook plate. The winch will be operated and the steel bar will increase its length until it reaches the mark on the platform. a. 2. a. with a hydraulic power of 50 and 100 tons respectively (corresponding to a maximum rod diameter of 32 and 40 mm). 5. at that point the operation will be stopped. cutting. 3. 1984. b. 7. a. strengthening. Cable without end. Hook for straightening. The machine is available in two basic models. Only then the steel bar can be considered as being straight.2. . Anchorage plate. 3. Al< 2 x Length of bar /1000 = 2x50/1000 = 0. Normally the initial length of the steel bars is marked on the platform its original length.10 m= 10 cm. Peg. Figure 3-8 Straightening of steel bars delivered in coils with an electrical chain winch. Source: Popa R. and handling devices of large quantities of reinforced concrete rods. 3. and after computing their final elongation there. 33 . Elongation hook. Source: Carare T.2.5x A (bar surface = π d2/4) x R0. 4.Elongation: the total elongation must not exceed 2%o.12 mm. Is used for OB 37 and PC 52 φ ≤ 12 mm and for PC φ 10.. Straightening of steel bars delivered in coils using a normal chain winch. on which a cable is fastened. Popa R. Straightening of steel bars delivered in coils with an electrical chain winch. the end of the winch that is connected to reinforcement. Coils.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The following methods of strengthening can be employed. Re-bars. and the other side a manual chain Figure 3-7 Pliers for straightening bars attached to winch is fixed firmly. b. On one end. a peg is driven into the ground. location will be as well marked. A plier is secured at winch. 1984. 1986. Winch.6. Hook fixing for straightening: 1. The straightening verification is achieved by: . Device for straightening of steel bars delivered in coils. Wheel. Straightening device: 1.Straightening force: F≤ 0. it is necessary to have a 50 m length and 2-3 m wide concrete platform on which to execute the works. The strengthening of rods is usually achieved with a force that must exceed half of the necessary stress needed to reach its yield point R0. 8.. They consists of a control console able to interface a remote PC for programming of work orders and a mobile shear able to cut twelve 32 φ rods at the same time. 4.2 . Straightening of steel bars delivered in coils with an electrical chain winch consists of two procedure phases: straightening phase and elongation phase (as described). For the commencement of operations. Teodorescu M. 2. COMBINED STRAIGHTENING AND CUTTING MACHINES These machines are comprised of automatic measurement. Teodorescu M. Wedge.

4. They are measured and cut by a powerful hydraulic shear and then transferred onto the powered roller collection tracks from where they are sent to the workstations. This track is equipped with double pneumatic tilting system for unloading of the cut bars. Rotating drum with screw die arrangement.5 m from each other that are moved by pneumatic pistons that activate a set of levers. 34 . 6. The entire structure rests on a frame fitted with powered wheels for traverse in front of the store and tracks of the bending and storage stations. Frame.. 3. along the channel infeed mouth. by powered rollers at a speed of 100 m/min. Reinforcement coil. Automatic measurement device. The rods are introduced in the infeed mouth and pulled. These can use an alternating rolling principle on horizontal and vertical rolls. 7. Figure 3-11 Rolling-mill arrangements Caption: 1. 7. Reel.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Measurement and transfer track is complete with an independent retractable measurement that stops at a distance of 0. b. 1984. 9.. 5. Source: Popa R. Measured rod. A primary straightening takes place in several passes through roll stands in open. 2. Vertical rolling-mill arrangements. 9. Rod. Infeed mouth. semi continuous. Infeed mouth. 3. 5. Shear. as shown in Figures 3-10 and 3-11. Rotating drum with screw die arrangement Caption: 1. 8. Traction wheels. Frame. Traction wheels. Coil. 4. Teodorescu M. or fully continuous arrangement. Figure 3-10 a. Figure 3-9 Typical strengthening and cutting machine Source: OSCAM SpA. Measurement device. 1984.. 6. 10. Reel. 8. 2. Horizontal mill arrangements. Source: MCI. Teodorescu M. Shear. 1984. Source: Popa R..

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

3.6.3. REINFORCEMENT BENDING
Reinforcement is fabricated to shapes and dimensions as indicated on Shop Drawings. For the reinforcing bars to withstand the designed loads, they must be worked on by bending them at different angles, in the scope of assuring there crossing form one part to the other of the concrete sections and for assuring a good bond with the concrete. Sometimes section sizes may have to be altered to accommodate the bending of steel. The usual bent diameter is adopted according to the steel type and grade, anchorage conditions and loads (STAS 10107/0-90). Bar bending should not be carried out if the temperature of the steel temperature is below -10°C. It is permitted to heat the steel as long as this does not exceed 100°C specially when bending bars with bigger diameters that 25 mm.
Figure 3-12 Standard hook and stirrup details for reinforcement

The preliminary works that need be completed before bending starts are: removal of soil, oil spots and paint from the bars; removal of loose rust by light hammering and removal of adherent rust by brushing or wiping with a cloth. 3.6.3.1. MANUAL BENDING Manual bending of steel bars can be achieved by using simple plate and pin devices. The bending procedure consists of simple or successive bending of bars at a given radius (usually indicated in the Shop Drawings). Bending is made at different radiuses using different size pins, according to the nature of bending (e.g. hooks, inclined bars etc.), the profile of the bars and quality of steel.

Figure 3-13 a. Bending of bars with two keys; b. Bending of bars with three pins and a key; c. Typical-bending plates Source: Carare T., 1986.

c
35

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 3.6.3.2. AUTOMATIC BENDING MACHINES These machines are produced in a wide range of models for bending of up to 50-mm diameter rods. They are equipped with cycle counter, self-test and up to 90° angle corrector. They are suitable for installation at sites and in prefabrication shops.
Source: Carare T., 1986, OSCAM SpA Figure 3-14 Hook bending machine

These type of bending systems use a central fixed pin, that ensures that the rods are not pulled or stretched during bending, thus assuring high level precision. a. Stirrup Bending Machines are automatic machines for construction of stirrups and shaped parts from coils, particularly suitable for medium production runs.

Figure 3-15 Typical stirrup bending machine Caption: 1. Horizontal rolling mill arrangement; 2. Infeed mouth; 3. Strengthening arrangement; 4. Traction wheels; 5. Shear; 6. Bending arm mechanism. Source: OSCAM SpA.

They are used to bend hot-rolled rods. The two-way bending head also makes it possible to produce multi-sided stirrups. The straightening unit promotes fast, trouble-free modification of diameter without requiring further adjustments. 36

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The work cycles are programmed, stored, and controlled by a dedicated industrial computer installed on a console complete with buttons and selectors for manual operations. b. Mesh Bending Machines are hydraulically driven machines for bending welded mesh consist of work cycles that are controlled by an electronic appliance with keyboard-type programmer that can record 60 cycles containing up to 10 angles to be carried out in sequence. The scope of this machine is to both flatten the mesh so it will not have reveres bends or tendency to spring back and to bend it.

Figure 3-16 Fixed arm and variable arm mesh-bending machines Source: Popa R., Teodorescu M., 1984.

This type machine is available in a basic fixed-arm version with differently shaped 19to 28-mm bending arbors and a variable-arm version that makes it possible to form difficult shapes without rotating the mesh and to bend the various diameters according to regulations. The standard models have a length of 4 and 6 m that can be modified according to needs, being able to bend up to 12-mm mesh. c. Hoop / Spiral Bending Machines are available in various versions for horizontal or vertical forming of hoops and spirals from straight bars (with a diameter of 6 to 40 mm) or coils. They feature different feed speeds for production of hoops and spirals from a minimum diameter of 300 mm to an unlimited maximum diameter. The bending diameter setting and adjustment device is mechanical-manual or hydraulicautomatic according to the models.
Figure 3-17 Hoop and spiral bending machine Source: OSCAM SpA.

Figure 3-18 Typical spiral reinforcement Source: OSCAM SpA.

3.6.4. CUTTING DEVICES (SHEARS)
The rod-cutting machine is suitable for job sites and prefabrication shops, with medium-small production runs that do not require high-level automation.

37

Electro-mechanical machines available in various models for cutting of 6.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 3-19 Manual shears Source: Carare T. A hydraulic model is also available with an up to 60-mm cutting capacity. The electric motor drives a small hydraulic pump that supplies the cutting cylinder. These machines are able to cut the rods from the minimum to maximum diameter without any adjustment. Feed speed can be adjusted up to a maximum of 25m/minute to adapt to the different diameters and mesh width. Cuts mesh 4 to 6m in length..6. The range includes a large number of models for cutting of up to 25-mm diameter rods. They are electro-hydraulic portable tools for rod cutting. Two models are available: manual model (manual movement of the measurement locator) and electronic measurement model (automatic positioning of the measurement locator controlled by a computer).to 42-mm diameter rods (they are able to cut the maximum diameter also in the case of high strength materials). The cutting length is set by positioning a mobile locator along a roller track against which the rods are driven by using an electric winch with a steel cable. The machine is complete with powered wheels for sideways movement. and up to maximum diameter of 12 mm. 3. The cutting unit consists of a special shear mounted at the end of the track. 1986. OSCAM SpA. Figure 3-20 Electronic measurement model Source: OSCAM SpA.1.4. MESH CUTTING MACHINES Hydraulic mesh-cutting machine consists of a mobile cutting head with two pairs of opposing blades for cutting in both directions. Figure 3-21 Typical mesh cutting machine Source: OSCAM SpA. 38 .

1. stresses can be generated which interfere with bonding. 6.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 3. only particular weldable steels can be used. and ammeter. Electrode holder and a suitable shield or helmet for protecting the eyes of the laborer. or transferring loads to other steel members (in accordance with C28-835 and C 150-846). Electrodes. resulting in heat to locally melt and fuse two pieces of metal. allowing the metal pieces to be easily fused together. 3. Electric arc. Welding may be done with: Direct current . As welding effectively makes a larger piece of the same material. Metal arc welding with consumable rod electrodes (named also line welding) consists of an arc that burns between the electrode and a rod of suitable composition (heavy cellulose or mineral coating) and the parts to be welded. 2.7. 1986. . All these methods use high amounts of energy. the flame temperature being about 3. 5. - 39 .000° C. the protective slag formed by the melting of the coating is removed by chipping. WELDING Welding is technique of jointing metals by heating with/or without the application of pressure and filler metal. Resistance Spot/Seam uses electrodes on either side of metal sheets to be joined. such as 60 cycles alternating current. Welding generator or transformer with a control panel for varying the current. The main techniques used for welding are: 1. there are repercussions in having one large piece. Electric arc uses an electric current in conjunction with a filler rod. do to this some components have to be designed so that large sheets are joined by riveting in this case cracks cannot then jump across separate components.AC (an electrical current that reverses its direction at regular intervals. high enough to melt any metal locally. After each layer. 2. Source: Carare T. or 60 hertz) that is usually supplied by a suitable transformer provided with taps to adjust the current. ultimately causing cracking. When the welded areas cool.. Gas uses a hot flame from a torch to melt the metal in conjunction with a welding or filler rod. 2. Gas/ Torch welding is carried out by the heat produced by the burning of acetylene with pure oxygen. a voltmeter. 4. Electric cables. The metal parts should be properly shaped before the welding takes place by beveling them on both edges when they are to be joined in the same plane or by butt-welding. and welding should be restricted to fixing reinforcement in position between crossing members. at the same time ensuring continuity of the metallic bonding and crystal structure across the join. When welding thick materials the edges to be joined must be bevel so to form a V that will be filled up by melting into it a rod of suitable composition. Note: Welding reinforcement on site is not encouraged. 3. Metal parts to be welded. The metal is fused at both ends of the arc and the fused electrode deposited in the joint in a series of layers until it is properly filled. Figure 3-22 Typical arc-welding outfit Caption: 1.DC (flows in one direction and does not reverse its direction of flow as does alternating current).Alternating current . Defects can spread across large areas of material.

Impurities and the small amount of oxide that forms during welding remain on the surface. high-current power source with force applied to the joint through two electrodes. easily removed after they have been cooled by grinding or machining.2 seconds) using a low-voltage. after proper shaping.. and pressure being so adjusted as to 40 . Tack welds are made at regular intervals on sheet metal that has an overlap. current. a lap seam may be welded in spots by clamping the seam overlap between two electrodes and passing the necessary electrical current between them and through the overlapping edges of the plates. trodes. built into the welder and as close as possible to the jaws. 3.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING As the weld proceeds. Teodorescu M. OSCAM SpA. which hold the parts and transmit the current to them. 1984. The voltage required is so low and the current so high that the only convenient source is a large-turns-ratio transformer. The parts to be joined. A large electric current is then passed through the joint until it has reached the required welding temperature. as scale. most of the current and therefore the weld is confined to a spot of about the same area as that of the elec. when further pressure is applied upsetting the joint and completing the weld.Figure 3-23 Typical automatic/tack welding machine Source: Popa R. As the electrical resistance of the surface contact is least in the region under pressure. the rod metal should be added until the surface of the joint is built up a little above the edge of the plates. are pressed together. Resistance (Tack/Seam) welding is made in a relatively short time (typically 0. the speed. The mechanical strength depends upon the number and size of the spots. Where air tightness is not required.. Seam welding is a continuous process wherein the electric current is successively pulsed into the joint to form the weld. one on each side. The overlapping edges of sheet metal are passed between two narrow roller electrodes.

Lap splice. sufficient lap lengths must be ensured. d. Lap lengths shall not be less than 40 times of the reinforcing bar diameter or as shown on the Drawings. when so. Figure 3-23 Splicing of steel reinforcing Caption a. the sleeve can be filled with a grout or a molten metal. When required. 3. Cracking of the joint can occur if the weld is not done with the proper preparation of the bar. Splices are considered as either tension lap splices or compression lap splices depending on the stresses that are encountered at the point of splicing. This method is usually limited to relatively thin sheets. Three types of splices are available to the designer for the splicing of reinforcing steel: welded splices. 41 . if allowed. they shall conform to STAS 10107/0-90 and C 28-837. C 150-84 Norms. welding of reinforcing bars shall only be permitted where shown in the Drawings or approved by the Engineers.8. All welding shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of C 28-83 and C 150-84 Norms or approved equivalent. welded splices are not recommended when splicing normal reinforcing bars. Normally. lap length shall be increased. but is readily applicable to straight seam or to circular seams. Because of the large amount of heat required in the welding process. Where laps cannot be staggered or be made at points of reduced stress for physical or any other inevitable reasons. To accomplish this continuity when using small length bars. Mechanical splices are normally used for large bars as butt type splices where welding.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING produce a continuous seam or a series of overlapping spots. splicing is necessary. the properties of the bar will be affected in the area of the weld. Strapped weld splice (with cover plate). The splices will be made only as required or permitted on the Shop Drawings. and mechanical splices. e. Side lap weld splice. would be time consuming and expensive. All laps shall be staggered (alternating) or be made at points where stress in the steel is less than half the allowable stress. the provided lap shall be in accordance with STAS 10107/0-90. but there are times when larger lengths are necessary to ensure their continuity in the structural member. SPLICING OF REINFORCING STEEL Reinforcing bars can be fabricated and shipped only in predetermined manageable lengths. Each method has its limitations. A mechanical splice usually consists of some type of metal sleeve that is held securely in place by a wedge driven over the sleeve ends. b. Butt welded splice. In some applications. and one method should not be substituted for another without approval from the engineer. c. The lap splice is the most common type of splice primarily because they are cost efficient and simple to manufacture. Mechanical splices can also consist of couplers that are threaded over the bar ends. Mechanical sleeve splice. or as authorized by the engineer. Their lengths are established according to code requirements and must be indicated on Shop Drawings. lap splices.

loose mill scale.Bar lists and Bending schedules shall be furnished in accordance with design drawings. within an acceptable tolerance and sufficiently secured to maintain continuity (displacement) of the cage through the period of placement and curing of concrete. 3. beams – 1 spacer/m. laps. anchorage length. . retarders. . 1988. Tying of re-bars shall be made according to specific rules for type of member (slab. ACI – Construction engineering Journal 2002.9.The location. and beam): - 42 . oil.3 spacers/m2.Lapping lengths of re-bars will be calculated while splicing of re-bars shall be welded or tied. for beams – 4 spacers/m2. in the drawings.Reinforcing bars shall be accurately placed at the position prescribed. or reduce the bond (normal handling and fabrication prior to embedment in the concrete is usually sufficient for he removal of loose rust and scale form reinforcement). grease or and other substances which can be shown to affect adversely the steel or concrete chemically. loose rust. paint. . wall. General rules that must be followed for correct reinforcement assembly: Reinforcement should be free from mud.. . and splices of reinforcing bars shall be in accordance with the design documents and drawings.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 3-24 Sleeve splice connection Source: Suman R. . REINFORCEMENT ASSEMBLY WORKMANSHIP The standard of reinforcement workmanship on site will be such as to ensure the required performance for the structure throughout its service life. to achieve this chairs and spacers will be used: they will be positioned as follows: slabs .The concrete cover value shall not be less or mare than the value specified in the drawings by an appropriate limit.

Splicing of longitudinal bars over the starter bars.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Slab and wall: the mesh network will have all the marginal intersections. than the ones designed.Lifting the cage to the top of the job position. tightness and cleanness of formwork. 3. and correctly spliced respecting the technical specifications and structural design. tied.Lowering slowly the cage and positioning it manually into location. . is allowed only if the re-bar cross sectional area is equal or bigger by 5% than the initial one.Inspection of dowels (starter bars) for surface cleanness. by lapping (if necessary) or by welding (using a single seam weld). . The inclined (bent) reinforcement will be tied to all the stirrups that they intersect.Marking with caulk on a starter bar the exact position of stirrups.9.Splicing of bars is achieved between stories by welding.Positioning of stirrups over the lapping area – starter bars. . . stability. circular spacers will be used. that they are held. A standard procedure to assemble column reinforcement shall be as follows: . They can be assembled as prefabricated steel cages that run on a story height or as individual bars. ties). Substitution in the field of bars differing from the design should be done only with the approval of the designer. on at least two rows tied. . and the lateral reinforcing that encloses the longitudinal steel (stirrups. Figure 3-26 Detail of column and slab reinforcement intersection For achieving the minimum concrete cover. 43 . . ASSEMBLY OF COLUMN REINFORCEMENT The reinforcing steel in columns consists of two parts: the longitudinal bars that run the length of columns. and at the same time assuring the proper geometry surface. .Hanging the cage on the crane sling. positioning etc.Inspection of cages before positioning in the scope of remaking possible ties that are unfastened and for positioning the circular spacers on the longitudinal bars (minimum l spacer/1 ml of column). . Assembly of reinforcement assumes that they are positioned correctly in the form. Substitution of reinforcement shall be done according to the following: Using other diameters.1. the rest of the longitudinal bars will be tied from two to two intersections. Figure 3-25 Typical alternate tying procedure of individual reinforcing bars to produce a mesh - Beam: All the intersections between the longitudinal bars and the edges of the stirrups/ ties will be wired. The new diameter chosen will be 25 % bigger or smaller that the one designed. for the rest of the intersections the tying can be made two by two on both directions (alternate). straightness.

WALL REINFORCEMENT ASSEMBLED WITH INDIVIDUAL BARS A standard procedure to assemble wall reinforcement with individual bears shall be as follows: . 3. Inspections of cages before positioning in the scope of remaking possible ties that are unfastened. . . Figure 3-27 Column cages being assembled on site 3.Final inspection of reinforcement. Inspection of dowels (starter bars) for surface cleanness. that they are held. . straightness. it must be fabricated as shown on the plans and placed and held in position within the specified tolerances.Positioning of ties. it must be fabricated as shown on the plans and placed and held in position within the specified tolerances. . positioning etc.Positioning and wiring of vertical bars to the tied horizontal bars. For achieving the minimum concrete cover.Wiring of a number of horizontal bars to the vertical ones of the reinforcement cages.Positioning of reinforcement cages in boundary elements. 3. Lowering slowly the cage and positioning it manually into location.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Unfastening the cage from the crane sling. The spacing bars and concrete cover must be checked for compliance with the plans.2. . Welding the reinforcement to achieve a temporary support to the cage.9.9.1. circular spacers will be used.Assembly of formwork on one side of the wall. tied and correctly spliced in accordance with technical specifications and structural design.Marking with caulk the position of longitudinal and vertical reinforcement bars on the formwork surface. Wiring the stirrups to the longitudinal bars from the bottom upwards.9. stability. The spacing bars and concrete cover must be checked for compliance with the plans. tightness and cleanness of formwork. ASSEMBLY OF WALL REINFORCEMENT The walls can be reinforced using one of two systems: with individual bars or with prefabricated reinforcement cages. . Final inspection of reinforcement. Assembly of reinforcement assumes that they are positioned correctly in the form.Assembly of the second face of formwork on the remaining side.2. .Positioning and wiring of the remaining horizontal bars to the vertical bars. . Hanging the cage on the crane sling.Positioning of circular spacers on the reinforcement (minimum 2 spacers/m2). WALL REINFORCEMENT ASSEMBLED WITH CAGES A standard procedure to assemble wall reinforcement with cages shall be as follows: Transport and lifting of reinforcement cages without deforming them. Positioning of circular spacers on the reinforcement (minimum 2 spacer/m2).2. 44 . . Lifting the cage to the top of the job position.2. and at the same time assuring the proper geometry surfaces.

Positioning and wiring of the remaining bottom longitudinal bars. the best practice is to wire the stirrups to the tie bars and main reinforcing in the inverted position on horses.Inspection of beam formwork to ensure its proper geometry surfaces.Positioning and wiring of the top longitudinal bars. stability. . . cleanness. and tightness.Positioning and wiring of the inclined (bent) reinforcement bars. the bars are held in position inside the formwork by securing them to the form ties. 45 . The whole assembly is supported on chairs set on the form bottom. held in alignment by stirrups. The spacing bars and concrete cover must be checked for compliance with the plans. . in order to facilitate the placing of additional steel. When using individual pieces (straight or bent bars) they are placed and wired tighter.Positioning and wiring of bottom longitudinal bars to the stirrups according to the design. When using cages. .Positioning the rest of the stirrups in the formwork with their upper side open.Marking with caulk the location of stirrups on the formwork surface. To ensure that the reinforcement is not moved during the concrete pour. After which it is positioned by crane in the required location.2. . . it must be fabricated as shown on the plans and placed and held in position within the specified tolerances. 3. In this case it is imperative that the stirrups by open-end at the top. Final inspection of reinforcement. ASSEMBLY OF BEAM REINFORCEMENT WITH INDIVIDUAL BARS Figure 3-28 Typical procedure of wiring main beam reinforcement to stirrups and ties The beams can be reinforced using individual reinforcing bars or by using cages.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Unfastening the cage from the crane sling. A standard procedure to assemble beam reinforcement shall be as follows: . .Positioning of marginal stirrups in the formwork with the topside open.9.

tied. A standard procedure to assemble slab reinforcement with individual bars shall be as follows: . .Positioning of reinforcement (main or repartition) on the other direction. 46 . . stability. l mm diameter.Positioning of reinforcement bars on one direction. ASSEMBLY OF SLAB REINFORCEMENT Assembly of reinforcement assumes that they are positioned correctly in the form. and at the same time assuring the proper geometry surface. and correctly spliced respecting the technical specifications and structural design.3. Note: The beam reinforcement will commence after concrete placement has finished for the walls or columns at a level not more that 50 mm under their clear height. Figure 3-30 Detail of slab reinforcement. For achieving the minimum concrete cover. SLAB REINFORCEMENT ASSEMBLED WITH INDIVIDUAL BARS Figure 3-29 Typical wiring procedures Source: Popa R.Inspection of slab formwork to ensure its stability and tightness. tied. that they are held.9. Positioning of circular spacers on the reinforcement at the bottom and edges (minimum 1 spacer/ml).Final inspection of reinforcement assumes that they are positioned correctly in the form. 3. . chair spacers will be used. The tying of reinforcement bars is achieved by using two wires of 2 STR type..1. Positioning and wiring of ties. 3.. and correctly spliced respecting the technical specifications and structural design.Marking with caulk the location of stirrups on the formwork surface. Teodorescu M. that they are held. . 1984.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Closing and wiring the topside of the stirrups according to the design.9. tightness and cleanness of formwork.3.

in accordance to the following rule. and grease and to reduce rusting and to identify each range and diameFigure 3-31 Typical storage of wire in spools ter as easy as possible. tying. the grid will have all the intersections between bars tied on minimum two marginal rows. The delivery of the steel bars shall be accompanied by a manufacturers’ quality certificate and a copy of the conformity certificate issued by an authorized company after the steel bars have been certified. in such a manner as to avoid contact with dirt. the bars and meshes are handled separately. cutting. The control of fabrication on assembly lines is very good do to the repetitive units that are manufactured. while the prefabrication of cages is 47 . welding and splicing so to obtain the final product that will be transported to the job site. oil. information for the identification of the batches. Positioning of circular spacers on the reinforcement (minimum 1 spacer/m2). Reinforcement will be stored by raising them off the ground. ease of and avoidance of deformation and properties of the reinforcement will not change. as they require different equipment for cutting and bending. net weight and defined values concerning the performance criteria.10.11. on both directions. for the rest of the intersections the tying can be done from two to two intersections. Figure 3-32 Typical storage off the ground of reinforcement Figure 3-33 Typical wire coil storage 3. shape. REINFORCEMENT MANUFACTURING SHOP The manufacturing shop serves the scope of accurately fabricating and dimensioning the reinforcement according to the working drawings and cutting list by assembly line straightening. In a typical manufacturing yard layout. The documents that accompany the reinforcement delivery should contain: name and type of steel bars according to the standards.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Wiring of bars at intersections. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF REINFORCEMENT Transport and storage of reinforcement shall be done in such a way that the selection. 3. bending.

Inspections before shipment from manufacturer must include tests to assure that the specified grade. bars to fitments. Storage area.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING done on jigs or on job constructed template benches. For moving the reinforcement bundles and coils the yard is usually equipped with a gantry crane or a traveling crane. . 48 . surface. anchorage length.12. The main inspections made on site to assure the integrity of the reinforcement are: . Height and distribution of chairs to maintain required bottom and side covers. And. 3. chairs to bars or meshes). correct shapes. Exterior manufacturing platform (yard). 4. Reinforcement straightening platform.Inspection at the forms should include checking to assure that the steel is supported rigidly enough to prevent distortion or displacement from the planned position or loads from construction operations. tensile8 and bend tests of steel confirm to the design documents. QUALITY ASSURANCE OF REINFORCEMENT Quality control shall be carried out on the following items to ensure that the concrete structure has the satisfactory performance required in the design. 5. Reinforcement manufacturing workshop. . and splices in accordance to the design documents and drawings. Figure 3-34 Typical arrangement of reinforcement manufacturing shop Caption: 1. Effectiveness of tying (bars to bars. Final product storage area. clearance between reinforcement. 3.Inspections in forms are visual inspection of number. variation from nominal weight. with the reinforcement tied or spotwelded. A system of tagging must be adopted to permit identifying tested bars or meshes on receipt at the site. laps. 6. location. fabric and dimensions conform to the design documents and drawings. lap splices. ductility. Shed for manufacturing and mounting reinforcement. 2.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Concrete is a conglomerate of hydraulic cement. The physical characteristics. harbor lock etc. proportioning and mixing of its constituent materials. hydraulic concrete (dams. A concrete mixture that does not have enough paste to fill all the voids between the aggregates will be difficult to place and will produce rough. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF CONCRETE The types of conventional concrete must comply with the requirements of NE 012-999 and STAS 3622-8610. When mixed with water.). wear resisting.1. Many of the characteristics of concrete. industrial. and water. and special destination concrete (acid resisting. CONCRETE 4. refractory.1. material constituents 14-16%. Good concrete that achieves its specific properties depends first on the careful selection. According to their destination. Source: Stutzman P. sand. and the proportions of the ingredients in the mixture influence the properties and durability of concrete. which is an interconnected network of solid and semi-solid phases that gives concrete its strength.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 4. 49 . honeycombed surfaces and porous concrete. and formwork 45-50%. radiation protection etc. concrete is classified as follows: conventional concrete (civil constructions. A typical breakdown of percentage costs regarding construction could be as follows: pumping and placing of the concrete 11-13%. stone. Hardened cement paste may be regarded as a cement gel matrix that contain unhydrated cement particles. 4. The sand and stone are dispersed particles in a multiphase matrix of cement paste. reinforcement 25-30%. forming a natural stone imitation. agricultural. concrete is classified as follows: normal density concrete and light weight concrete and heavy weight concrete. particularly its strength and durability. Figure 4-1 Typical detail of concrete surface. the cement powder hydrates to form cement paste (through a chemical reaction called hydration).. the chemical composition. bridges etc. depend on the development of chemical and physical bonds: between the cement paste and the aggregate particles as the cement hardens. 1993. road concrete. According to their density.1.). and water. known as concrete.). air.

Density11. because its correlates with other characteristics as: compaction. It is therefore very important to consider it in the design of a concrete mix and employ means of control that will ensure its attainment on the job. Some may continue slowly over a long time and others may be initiated by elements in the environment to which the concrete is subsequently exposed. temperature. 50 . It is a dimensionless ratio. the paste becomes thin and will be weak when it hardens. If too much water is used. Relative density compares the density of a material with that of water at the same temperature. so long as the concrete is workable. concrete of predictable properties and performance is regularly produced and used. a. Specific weight is a quality index. consistency.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 4. PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Concrete can be described in terms of their properties. the difference between specific gravity and relative density is usually negligible and the terms are often used interchangeably. Indicates how much concrete is in a given volume. so long as each particle of aggregate is completely surrounded by paste and all spaces between the aggregate particles are completely filled with paste. For building materials. Workability . b.is a prime factor that influences the desired properties of concrete. Workability can be defined as the ease with which a given set of materials can be mixed into concrete and subsequently handled. strength. The character of concrete is determined primarily by the quality of the cement-water paste that binds the aggregates together. it is mass per unit of volume. Figure 4-2 Fresh concrete sliding on chute Source: Elba – Werk. None of the changes that take place relatively rapidly in concrete cease at the end of the formal curing period. usually. it gives references upon the effective quantities of materials used in 1 m3. At the same time. Bulk density = Mass / Bulk volume Solid density = Mass / Solid volume Specific gravity compares the density of concrete with that of pure water at 40 oC. Despite all these complications. and placed with minimum loss of homogeneity and avoidance of segregation. it is useful to consider each property on a continuum. The strength of the cement paste and ultimately the durability.2. freeze – thaw resistance etc. workability. settlement and bleeding etc. permeability. mechanical strength. reinforcement spacing. the more durable and strong will be the concrete.1. 1994. transported. method of placement.2. PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE Desired properties of concrete in the fresh state include specific weight. The proportions of water and cement are usually referred to as the water-cement ratio expressed as the weight of water used per unit weight of cement. watertightness. and other properties of the concrete depend strongly on the amount of mixing water used. Workability is not an absolute property but varies with the size of the structure. temperature etc. ranging form lightweight concrete (≤1000 kg/m3) to normal (≅2400 kg/m3) and heavyweight concrete (≥ 2500 kg/m3). The lower this ratio. The specific weight of concrete is between 2100 and 2500 kg/m3. 4.

This phenomenon is called bleeding. It is very important that the exact method presented in the standard test be followed. Accumulation of water at the top of a mass of concrete is often undesirable. the upper part can gain progressively more water as the filling of the form progresses. the aggregate is dispersed by the cement paste and the particles in the paste are dispersed in the water. it affects its workability. beams.T2 or T3 Stiff -T3 or T3/T4 Medium . The greater the slump the wetter the consistency. 51 . grouting 4 Members or grouted joints with dens reinforcement causing compaction difficulties. The slump cone is standard equipment on every well-managed job. Item no Type of member 1 Plain or weak reinforced concrete footings. Required consistencies vary with the type of structure being poured. Consistency is commonly measured with the slump cone of metal 2 mm thick (Figure 4-2). most of this settlement usually occurs within an hour to an hour and a half before placement. Once chosen in making the mix design. when concrete is placed continuously in a deep form. Briefly stated. Figure 4-3 Measurement of slump from height of slump cone Table 4-1 Test methods for determining concrete consistency.T4/T5 Fluid . there is a period of settlement when the particles come closer together. members with small cross sections 5 Members that require procedures of casting using fluid concrete Class of consistency Stiff . for example. it can be defined as the concrete ability to flow12. e.T4 Medium fluid .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING c. achieved by concrete pumping. the required consistency should be closely adhered to. the accumulation of some water at the surface is not always undesirable because surface water is required to prevent plastic shrinkage and to lubricate the tools used for finishing the surface. bearing walls 3 Idem. but it is not of great significance because the concrete is in a plastic or semiplastic state and no appreciable stresses can result from these changes. water often appears at the surface. columns. amount to 2 per cent or more. Consistency – the consistency of fresh concrete is an important characteristic in that. Slump Compaction grade Time for remodeling (VE-BE) ISO 9812 STAS 1759-88 STAS 1759-88 Table 4-2 Concrete consistency according to the slump cone. During settlement. Temperature . having exuded from the plastic mass. After placing. When concrete is placed. the slump test is made by measuring the number of centimeters (millimeters) which concrete subsides when a standard conical mould into which it has been tamped is removed. Total volume change may. leading to relatively poor quality at the top. tanks.T5* Slump (mm) 30±10 70±20 70±20 100±20 120±20 150±30 180±30 * Superplasticizer additives are required d.Concrete is said to be in a plastic state before it begins to set. On the other hand. in extreme cases.is considered only when it is required as a necessity in the design project that establishes the maximum and minimum values for concrete temperature. Care must be taken that finishing does not begin before the bleeding period is over. Settlement and bleeding . massive elements 2 Reinforced concrete footings.

when all other variables are fixed there is usually a good correlation between strength and other desire properties. Compaction13 . or between the solid volume phase (Vs) and the apparent total volume (Va).150 mm in diameter and 300 mm high) tested at the age of 28 days under ideal curing conditions. a. normally water or aqueous solution. These tests are generally made on samples taken from the forms and allowed to set for some predetermined period such as 3. by capillary attraction. Strength14 .28 cylinder cub C 4/5 C 8/10 C 12/15 C 16/20 C 20/25 C 25/30 C 30/37 C 35/45 C 40/50 C 45/55 C 50/60 4 5 Characteristic strength (grade) of concrete (MPa) 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 10 15 20 25 30 37 45 40 50 45 55 50 60 Table 4-4 Strength of concrete according to age.0 30. or 28 days. strength is not always true indicator of other properties such as durability.5 25 31 37 50 60 1 year Other strengths as: tensile strength. 14. Watertightness15 . such as oxygen. The moisture may contain dissolved salts. volume stability etc.0 50. Concrete classes according to NE 012-99 fc.0 25.28 fc. c. gases. The rate at which water enters is termed absorptivity (or sorptivity).0 7 days 13. The class of specified concrete is defined based on the characteristic strength fck (cylinder/cube) MPa (N/mm2) of a concrete specimen (cube . below which 5% of all possible results will be expected to fall. fcu (MPa) 20. 52 . The basic laws governing these strengths are w/c ratio and temperature-time curing.5 57. The most significant concrete parameters defining the resistance of concrete to deterioration are the permeation characteristics of the surface and near-surface concrete. 7. durability. strength.with the facet of 150 mm or cylinder . and sulfur dioxide. The transportation of ions is therefore often a combination of absorption and diffusion.5 55. and aqueous solutions: Absorption is the process by which concrete takes in a liquid. and shearing strength are affected by the same factors as compressive strength. Actually.2. Table 4-3 Standard concrete classes (MPa).is desired because it prevents the passage of moisture from the exterior to the interior of structures and is undesirable because of its general bad effect on durability.5 20 28 36 Cube strength at given age (MPa) 2 months 3 months 6 months 22 27.(co) is defined as the ratio of the apparent weight (ρa) to that of the specific weight (ρ). However.0 40.2.5 33 44 54 23 29 35 45. such as chlorides or sulphates and dissolved gases. Compressive strength of concrete is the force needed to crush a sample of a given age or hardness. Permeation can be divided into three distinct and connected transportation phenomena for moisture vapor.5 24 30 36 47.is used as a quick method of evaluating other properties of concrete and is generally used as the measure of quality. flexural strength. water tightness. ρ V co = a = s ρ Va b. PROPERTIES OF HARDENED CONCRETE The main desired properties of concrete in the hardened state are compaction. carbon dioxide.5 16.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 4. dissolved ions. Concrete grade 20 25 30 40 50 Characteristic strength.

Most cracking is caused by excessive volume change that occurs during setting. Permeability is associated with a pressure difference and is associated with saturated materials. therefore. the mathematical forms differ. Volume change . and during moisture changes. water movement will occur within capillaries. For a concrete to be successful there must be good adhesion between the reinforcement. It may be tested by measuring the flow. Cracking is more likely to propagate at these interfaces and this can be minimized by choice of aggregate. 53 . gas. and capillaries will greatly reduce flow. Permeability16 is defined as the flow property of concrete which quantitatively characterizes the ease by which a fluid or gas will pass through it. P820 . both in the sense of mechanical strength and resistance to chemical attack. of 100 mm respectively 200 mm height. Concrete relies partly on good mechanical binding achieved in the kind of surface irregularities found on reinforcement. Although these are derived from the same physical processes. P1220). or ions can pass through concrete under the action of a concentration gradient. Figure 4-4 Entrained air voids in concrete Source: Stutzman P. It is. The solid volume is the volume of the actual material. during temperature changes. P420 . The only acceptable level of cracking is a dimensional gap of 0. measured in Bar (1 Bar = 10 MPa). Normally.. Moisture movement in concrete may be usefully considered in terms of both permeability and diffusion. Wider gaps will significantly affect water penetration and the corrosion of reinforcement and durability generally. characterizing the ingress of chlorides and other ions. closely linked to reinforcement corrosion problems. so.Volume stability18 is desired in order to minimize the formation of either small or large cracks in the concrete. 8 or 12 Bar). Permeability is influenced by porosity and hydration of material within pores. 1993. rather than the pores. the greater mechanical degree of interlocking will improve the overall strength of the concrete. The most important driving force for diffusion is the gradient between internal moisture and surface or capillary forces. Vb (Bulk volume) = Vs (Solid volume) + Vp (Volume of Pores) d. The permeability of concrete is a major indicator of its potential durability. through a saturated specimen. Diffusivity defines the rate of movement of the agent and is the mechanism by which carbonation occurs. which describes to what extent it contains pores or voids17 filled with gas (usually air). aggregate and the matrix. P1012 .3 mm or below.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Diffusion is the process by which a vapor. under the action of a pressure differential. subjected to pressure (4. while diffusion is more useful in considering partly dry materials with the fluid driven by chemical or moisture potential. If aggregates are chosen angular as a result of crushing rather than smooth and rounded from the wearing action in running river beds. Porosity is the property of concrete. as well as some weak chemical binding between cement and the aggregate interface. Thermal cracking may arise from great temperature differentials through the hardening concrete member and the outside air temperature. (Permeability grades: P104 . P108 . There are two classifications of pore sizes: capillary pores – space formed between hydrated grains and gel pores – very small spaces in the chemical compounds of the hydrated grains The bulk volume of concrete is the total volume of the material and the pores it contains.

restrained shrinkage cracking. When the evaporation rate exceeds the rate of bleeding and the free settlement period is ended (water evaporates faster than it can reach the surface). often referred to as bleeding. application of water sprays or application of a curing compound to slow the evaporation process (increase the humidity of the surface). known as plastic shrinkage cracking. 54 . Free shrinkage. Figure 4-6 Effects and phases of plastic shrinkage Remedial measures may involve: sun shades (to reduce the concrete temperature) and windbreaks (to control the wind velocity). resulting in vertical and lateral compressive forces manifested. primarily in slabs. a hydrostatic tension begins to develop throughout the mass owing to the formation of menisci at the water surfaces in the capillaries. Restrained shrinkage. b. in deep sections. c Plastic shrinkage .cracking of concrete can occur in the initial set do to shrinkage of the hardening material and from settlement of aggregates and cement and loss of water. by pattern cracking.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING a b Figure 4-5 Types of concrete shrinkage Caption: a.

mineralogical composition). shells.1. drying shrinkage. cement (composition. the mixture of raw materials is fed into the upper end of a tilted rotating. are used to manufacture Portland cement. chalk. a series of chemical reactions cause the materials to fuse and create cement clinker-grayishblack pellets. The grinding and blending operations are then completed with the materials in slurry form. CONCRETE MATERIALS 4. adding water to the properly proportioned raw materials forms slurry.3. Represents the maximum number of freeze-thaw successive cycles that the concrete specimens can go through without decreasing their strength by 25 % in comparison with the laboratory reference specimens. Two different methods. sulfate attack (chemical attack on concrete. roughness. w/c ratio. acoustical properties etc. corrosion of reinforcement. Burning fuel consisting of powdered coal or natural gas is forced into the lower end of the kiln.1. sand. Cooled clinker is combined with gypsum and ground into a fine gray powder named Portland cement. blended together. strength porosity relationship and mixing water. Other properties of hardened concrete include: thermal properties. aluminum. the following items shall be considered: expansion in wet condition.3. and fed to the kiln in a dry state. After blending. alkalisilica reaction20 (chemical reaction between the alkalis contained in the cement paste and certain reactive forms of silica within aggregate. fineness. the materials are proportioned to create cement with a specific chemical composition. air content.3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Portland cement (calcium silicate dry powder cement) is simply a mixture of very fine particles of calcium.2. often not bigger than 25 mm in diameter (Figure 4-7). w/c ratio. ground to a powder. Clinker is discharged redhot from the lower end of the kiln and transferred to various types of coolers to lower the clinker to handling temperatures. 150-200 cycles per year). . Inside the kiln.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING e. dry raw materials are proportioned. At the quarry. At 1480 oC. biological degradation other chemical attack. The mixture passes through the kiln at a rate controlled by the slope and rotational speed of the kiln. electrical conductivity. aggregates (characteristics. G150 (approximately 50 cycles per year. shale. 4. volume stability of aggregates (stiff aggregates with low coefficient of thermal expansion). G100. carbonation. . DURABILITY The main factors that affect concrete durability are as follows: curing conditions (humidity.In the dry process. primary and secondary crushers reduce the raw materials. exposure to high temperature. dry and wet. and seawater). The first step in the Portland cement manufacturing process is obtaining raw materials (e. fire resistance.g.3. f. To ensure the long term service of concrete. iron ore). CEMENTS 4. grading. Major factors that affect resistance to freezing and thawing: air entrainment. raw materials reach temperatures of 1430 oC to 1650 oC.1. silicon.In the wet process. cement content). soil. cylindrical kiln. and iron. freezing and thawing. 55 21 . 4. do to the presents of sulfates in groundwater. erosion. temperature). limestone. clay. Once the raw materials arrive at the cement plant. Freeze-thaw grades: G50. average max. that creates a gel that can swell and cause expansion and cracking of the concrete). Freeze –thaw strength19.

4. Cement low in C3A is sulphate resistant. but does not contribute much to strength of the cement paste.dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO5) known as belite (abbreviated C2S) . field width of 320 microns.this compound hydrates rapidly with great heat and although it assists in the initial setting of cement.this compound hydrates and hardens slowly. In modern technology. control is achieved over its setting and strength. Unhydrated ordinary Portland cement particles.tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO4) known as alite (abbreviated C3S) . Raw material Limestone Chalk Cement rock Clay Slag CaO 52 54 43 1 42 SiO2 3 1 11 57 34 Al2O3 1 0. It hydrates rapidly.3. it has littler strength contribution. Source: Stutzman P.this gels very quickly with great heat determining the initial set and early strength gain of the cement.3 2 1 4 Loss on ignition 42 43 36 14 0 Figure 4-7 a. . . 1993.2. C2S causes increase in strength at the later ages. A sectioned clinker nodule.5 0.tetracalcium alumino ferrite (Ca4Al2Fe2O10) known as ferrite or brownmillerit (abbreviated C4AF) . whereas. It has greater resistance to chemical attack.5 0. shows greater durability and low drying shrinkage. The main compounds23 formed in the clinker are: . 56 .5 3 16 15 Fe2O3 0. The amounts of these compounds that can theoretically be formed can be calculated from the amounts of the four oxides of which they are composed. . .. the calculated amounts of these compounds provide a basis for estimating the properties of the cement. Early strength development is attributed largely to C3S. it could be regarded as a product of the reaction. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION There are four important compounds22 which have been isolated in cement and which have specific properties with regard to their setting and hardening. b.1.this compound prime importance is that is acts as a fluxing agent which reduces the melting temperature of raw materials in the kiln. Potassium Oxide (K2O) (abbreviated K) and Gypsum (CaSO42H2O) (abbreviated CSH2). with continued moist curing.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Table 4-5 Raw Materials Used in the Manufacture of Portland cement.Sodium oxide (Na2O) (abbreviated N). By designing the cement to alter the proportion of these compounds formed.tricalcium aluminate (Ca3A12O6) (abbreviated C3A) . taking space as a filler.2 1 7 1 MgO 0.

3. by raising the iron-oxide content of the mix without increasing the alumina content. Raising the amount of C4AF. IV. and are produced by intimately blending two or more types of cementitious material.Blended cements (Type II26. is one means of reducing the amount of C3A. The C3A and C3S are the compounds that release the most heat when the cement hydrates.Fly ash Cement. The different types of Blended Portland Cements are manufactured to meet different physical and chemical requirements for specific purposes.1. It is used in general construction projects such as buildings.Sulphate Resistant Cements27 (SR) are used where a high sulfate resistance is required. White cement is used whenever architectural considerations specify white or colored concrete or mortar.3. III. bridges. . its selection and proper use are important in obtaining most economically the balance of properties desired for any particular concrete mixture. pavements. floors. light colored cements can be produced. By lowering the iron content. The gray color of Portland cement is due mainly to the presence of iron in the cement. discussed below serve to indicate variations in properties that can be brought about by varying composition and fineness. These types. Table 4-6 Types of cements and brief descriptions of their composition proportions Symbol Name Type Fly ash 6. . Because cement is the most active component of concrete and usually has the greatest unit cost. V33.20 Clinker Granulated furnace slag Composition % Pozzolans Natural Artificial P Q Limestone Normal Cement I Portland I 95-100 - Composite Portland Ce- Slag cement Fly ash cement Natural Pozzolan cement Limestone ce- II/A-S II/B-S II/A-V II/A-P II/B-P II/A-L 80…94 65…79 80…94 80…94 65…79 80…94 6…20 21…35 - 6…20 21…35 - - 6…20 II 57 .Ordinary Portland cement (Type I25) is high-early strength cement causes concrete to set and gain strength rapidly. and other precast concrete products. 4.Pozzolan cement. Different types of Portland cement are manufactured to meet various physical and chemical requirements. it is used for normal general-purpose cement suitable for all uses.Composite cement) are general-purpose suitable for all uses.White and Colored Portland Cements28 are identical to gray Portland cement except in color. STANDARD TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT The properties of concrete depend on the quantities and qualities of its admixtures and additives24. These cements are commonly used in the same manner as Portland cements. . . or hardens.Composite Portland cement (slag cements).Limited hydration cements (H) are used where a low heat of hydration is desired (in massive structures) SR 3011-96. The Romanian standards SR 388/1995 and SR 1500/1996 provides five categories of cements with several subcategories regarding types. . generates less heat at a slower rate and has a moderate resistance to sulfate attack. such as durability and high-early strength. and the content of C3A is related inversely to ability of the concrete to resist disintegration by sulfate-bearing water.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The need for retardation of set is attributed mainly to the C3A.

balanced by the amount and type of sulfate interground with the cement. with C3A (tricalcium aluminate) and C3S (tricalcium silicate) being the comC2S pounds primarily responsible for high heat evolution. 33. Setting time32. Cements are regarded as gels that are mixtures of solids and liquids. 30 influences the rate of hydration. plasticity can be regained by further mixing with no additional 58 C3S C2S C3A C4AF Heat of hydration (J/g) 7 days 28 days 460 485 105 167 661 866 251 377 90 days 519 184 929 414 .3. The two measures of early stiffening are: false set – rapid rigidity without much heat generation. which is the ability of hardened cement paste to retain its volume after setting. Every particle is wrapped in cement and connected to other particles by cement bridge like links. 3. is the heat generated when cement and water react. Fineness of the cement29. Soundness33. Component 3 days 406 21 590 92 Heat of hydration J/g 0 3 7 28 180 days 4. Figure 4-8 Speed of cement components heat hydration Table 4-7 Cement component heat of hydration development. Heat of hydration of cement compoC3A nents31 (loss of ignition). C3A hydrates very rapidly and will influence early bonding characteristics.000 cm2/g (300 to 500 m2/kg). 2. causing greater early strength and more rapid generation of heat. false set. sometimes forming three-dimensional structures from fine tubes that hold together other cement particles and water.early hydration of cement is principally controlled by the amount and activity of C3A. Early stiffening. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENTS 1. slump loss. Time of setting: initial set – paste begins to stiffen (2-4 hours) and final set – ability to withstand loads (5-8 hours).CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING ment Composite ment III II/B-L II/A-M II/B-M III IV V 65…79 6…20 21…35 11…35 18…30 21…35 ce- Slag furnace cement Pozzolan Cement Composite Cement 36…65 18…30 - - - IV - V 4.1. Average fineness of modern cement ranges from 3. Greater fineness increases the surface available for hydration.4. The amount of heat generated is dependent C3S mainly upon the chemical composition of the C4AF cement. and cementadmixture incompatibility. In cement the chemical reaction progresses when water is added and silicate structures form. Abnormal hydration of (C3A) can lead to flash set.000 to 5.

Cement grade Setting time (minutes) Figure 4-10 Schematic view of cement setting Source: NRC. 52.5 R ≥ 45 C 3S C 4A F C 2S C 3A 0 3 7 28 180 days Other properties of Portland cement are: loss on ignition. 4. workability. 42. Cement Property Cement Effects Placeability Strength Drying Shrinkage Permeability Resistance to sulfate Cement amount. 5.5 R ≥ 60 Compressive strength (MPa) Table 4-8 Physical criteria for usual setting times for different types of cement. 32. Figure shows long needle-like crystals and short crystal–like formations of calcium-silicatehydrate gel.is a significant loss of plasticity shortly after mixing with considerable heat generation. fineness C3A content 59 .5. Compressive strength34. The alumina and iron compounds that are present only in lesser amounts make little direct contribution to strength. and water content of a concrete mixture much like the amount of cement used in concrete does. fineness. specific gravity etc. cement composition Cement composition. The C3S is mainly responsible for the strength developed in the first week of hardening and the C2S for the subsequent increase in strength. INFLUENCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES Cement composition and fineness play a major role in controlling concrete properties.5 R. plasticity cannot be regained. 1999. Table 4-9 Effects of cements on concrete properties. 32.1.5.5. The strength developed by Portland cement depends on its composition and the fineness to which it is ground. loss on ignition. air content. C2S and C3A). fineness SO3 content. setting characteristics Cement composition (C3S.5. 42. Figure 4-9 Mechanism of cement setting. Effects of cement on the most important concrete properties are shown in Table 4-9.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING water and flash set .3. Figure 4-11 Compressive strength gain of mineral cement components 52. Fineness of cement affects the placeability.

quality approved pits or other sources. marble etc. Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit. hard.) or metamorphic (originally sedimentary. For a good concrete mix. the more chloride can be tied into chloroaluminate complexes. aggregates need to be clean. However. that are called aggregates) are not. gabbro. The tolerable portion of the elongated particles shall be assessed by sieve method as directed by the Engineer. but generally range between 7 mm to 40 mm in diameter. screening. earth. do to this they are usually added to the mix to form what is called concrete. They shall be clean sand in compliance with STAS 1667-76 or approved equal. gravel. slate. cobbles. opal etc. Beach sand or others from chloride environment shall not be used on any conditions. Ag60 . boulders. e. or decomposed stones. Once processed. or chemically deposited .g. the aggregates are handled and stored in a way that minimizes segregation and degradation and prevents contamination. but under high pressure and heat they converted similar to igneous rocks. or large-size gravel.2. Crushed aggregate is produced by crushing quarry rock. tuff etc. or even boulders. ash. 4.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Alkali Silica Reactivity Alkali content Corrosion of steel Cement Composition (esp. lake. loam. sedimentary rocks (mechanically deposited -consolidated shale. Corrosion of embedded steel has been related to C3A content. They shall comply with the requirements of STAS 1667-76 or approved equivalent.calcareous: limestone. Gravel aggregate shall be free from clay. – cooling of molten rock). stones. C3A content) Cement composition affects the permeability of concrete by controlling the rate of hydration. . or seabed. or other organic or similar materials and shall be hard and dense. . Crushed sand may be added to natural sand in order to achieve required gradation. are divided into two distinct categories . sandstone etc. Aggregate processing consists of crushing. The higher the C3A. 36 in: igneous rocks (granite.3. shaley.Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through 7 mm sieve. Any contamination shall not be allowed. are an essential ingredient in concrete. and thereby be unavailable for catalysis of the corrosion process. Even small quantities of the organic compounds present in topsoil will seriously retard and impair the strength-producing chemical reaction between cement and water. siltstone. basalt. Any dust or fine materials below 5 mm in size resulted in the crushing process shall be removed through screening. the ultimate porosity and permeability are unaffected. and washing the aggregate to obtain proper cleanliness and gradation. strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete. They can be used as either natural gravel or stone crushed to the desired size and shall only be obtained from quarries. Aggregates along with water and Portland cement. The stone obtained and screened shall be thoroughly washed by a method approved by the Engineer.Coarse aggregates (also referred to as gravels) are any particles greater than 7 mm. dolomite or siliceous: chert. Crushed stone shall be from hard durable rock and perfectly clean and shall contain no soft. quartzite. clayey. river. Cement composition has only a minor effect on freeze-thaw resistance. Coarse aggregate containing significant portion of elongated particles shall not be accepted.) Cement is relatively expensive.fine and coarse. strong fillers (sand. AGGREGATES Aggregates are inert granular materials classified35. The coarse cement tends to produce pastes with higher porosity than that produced by finer cement. Aggregates.

surface texture. Grading of Aggregates38. a wide range in grading can be used without a major effect on strength. 4. Harder aggregate can be selected in highly abrasive conditions to minimize wear. absorption/surface moisture and durability. Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate. concrete tends to fracture at lower values than its theoretical strength. and elongated particles require more water to produce workable concrete than smooth. Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements. Figure 4-12 Significance of aggregates grading As stress is applied there is enough displacement of particles so that frictional forces become important. with several coarse aggregates.1. Different minerals in the aggregate. Abrasion and Skid Resistance of an aggregate are essential when the aggregate is to be used in concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in heavy-duty floors or pavements. it then passes through the actual aggregate. such as sand. wear and polish at different rates. there is greater cohesion and resistance to the force with the result that fracture may then occur at a higher stress as the material behaves more plastically. Particle Shape. Generally. the cement content must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio. In practice. There are two main reasons for this. mixture proportions. As a general observation. such as gravel of different sizes. Rough-textured. pumpability. Size and Surface Texture influence the properties of freshly mixed concrete more than the properties of hardened concrete. b. abrasion / skid resistance. angular. If the water-cement ratio is chosen correctly. unit weights. selection of aggregates is an important process. again at a higher stress. Gap-graded aggregates are used to obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete. Inspection of mix proportions is necessary to avoid segregation. When gap-graded aggregate are specified. Alternatively. This is due to a number of micro-defects such as scratches between aggregate and mortar or small holes that act as stress concentrators. Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected. it tends to propagate around aggregate particles and more energy is needed for an increased path length of fracture. size. c. rounded compact aggregate.2. particle shape. If a crack grows. CHARACTERISTICS OF AGGREGATES a. 61 . The strength of concrete can be shown to increase as the size of the aggregate increases. workability. This is possible by mixing fine aggregates.3. and durability of concrete. certain particle sizes of aggregate are omitted from the size continuum. characteristics37 that are considered when selecting aggregate include: grading of aggregates. The concrete becomes both cheaper and stronger if the aggregates are densely packed. Consequently. flat and elongated particles are avoided or are limited to about 15 percent by weight of the total aggregate.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING gregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and hardened properties. and economy. Consequently. as the crack finds difficulty in propagating through the matrix. concrete should be made with the maximum sizes of aggregate available. For a mix to be continuously graded means there is complete range of sizes in the mix.

accelerators and waterproofers). aggregates and cement that are added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing to induce a desired change in properties. Absorption and Surface Moisture are measured when selecting aggregate because the internal structure is made up of solid material and voids that may or may not contain water. air entraining agents. Figure 4-13 Angularity and surface texture d. Moisture conditions in aggregate: damp or wet (pores connected to surface are filled with water + free water on surface). increase strength.3. improve resistance of 62 . Mineral admixtures are added to the cement (between 6-35% of the cement weight) in the scope of making the mixture more economical and to enhancing the properties of concrete (workability of fresh concrete. The void content between particles affects the amount of cement paste required for the mix. Aggregates are classified in terms of their Specific gravity = weight of aggregate in air / weight of equal volume of water. 1. including improved quality. SSD (pores connected to surface are filled with water no free water on surface). Angular aggregates increase the void content. normal aggregates between 2000 kg/m3 and 3000 kg/m3 and heavyweight over 3000 kg/m3. They can be either soluble (plasticizers and pigments) or insoluble (retarders. Larger sizes of well-graded aggregate and improved grading decrease the void content. A proper use of additions offers certain beneficial effects to concrete. Total volume = volume of solid matter + volume of pores Absolute volume = Volume of solid matter only. Figure 4-14 Moisture conditions of aggregate Figure 4-15 Main moisture conditions of aggregate The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted to include the moisture conditions of the aggregate. Specific Gravity. improved workability and compaction they also prevent the segregation of aggregates and consequent bleeding of cement. and generally improve durability. prevent plastic cracking by the control of shrinkage. Aggregates can be classified according to there specific gravity as follows: lightweight aggregates are those below 2000 kg/m3. 4. The basic types of additions are available: mineral and chemical. ADDITIONS Additions are ingredients other than water. reduce permeability. superplasticizers. acceleration or retardation of setting time. Additions vary widely in chemical composition. e. Air dry (dry surface with some water in pores) and Oven dry (no water on surface and in pores). and many perform more than one function.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Unit-weight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the voids between them will occupy in concrete. enhanced frost and sulfate resistance. control of strength development.3.

Ground granulated blast-furnace slag is the granular material formed when molten iron blast furnace slag is rapidly chilled (quenched) by immersion in water. bond strength. or influence other concrete properties). They reduce the required water content for a concrete mixture by about 5 to 10 percent.Retarding Admixtures Retarding water reducing agent. The treated concrete can have a lower water-cement ratio. It is a granular product with very limited crystal formation. inhibits alkali-aggregate reaction. and permeability. They are generally finer than cement and consist mainly of glassy-spherical particles as well as residues of hematite and magnetite. 2. . and ground granulated blast-furnace slag that can be used individually with Portland or blended cement or in different combinations. . This usually indicates that a higher strength concrete can be produced without increasing the amount of cement. reduces permeability.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING concrete to thermal cracking. and some crystalline phases formed during cooling. fly ash. concrete containing a water-reducing admixture needs less water to reach a required slump than untreated concrete. . . by keeping the concrete workable (without affecting the long-term mechanical properties). reduces segregation. in very small amounts.Slags. They reduce bleeding and improve the workability of the concrete.Air-Entraining Admixtures produce air-entrained concrete. In addition it cheapness the final cost of cement. slump. also called condensed silica fume and microsilica. minimizing particle segregation. to modify certain properties of fresh or hardened concrete. protects reinforcing steel against corrosion. Admixtures are classified in several distinct categories: . It is used in concrete to improve its properties: workability. It is used in concrete to improve its properties: compressive strength. They can avoid complications when unavoidable delays between 63 . but may be varied as required by special conditions.Water-Reducing Admixtures.Silica fume. Consequently. Chemical additions. ground to cement fineness. This may be needed for continuous concreting operations. It can be used up to 15 percent by weight of cement. These work by reducing the temperature and rate of reaction at which the concrete will set. reducing the possibility of internal stress and cracking. they are used to incorporate a distribution of fine air-voids in the cement-paste phase to provide spaces for the water to expand on freezing. They delay the setting time normally by one to three hours but can be specified to delay setting for two or three days. is highly cementitious in nature and. Most admixtures are supplied in ready-to-use liquid/powder form and are added to the concrete at the plant or at the jobsite. . The use of air-entraining agents results in concrete that is highly resistant to severe frost action and cycles of wetting and drying or freezing and thawing and has a high degree of workability and durability. and enhances sulfate resistance. and temperatures of the concrete and air. The effectiveness of an additive depends on several factors including: type and amount of cement. water content. although the normal proportion is 7 to 10 percent. It can be substituted for cement on a 1:1 basis. heat evolution. char. are added by to concrete by producers. these reduce the temperature rise in concrete. Successful use of additives depends on the use of appropriate methods of batching and concreting. The amount of entrained air is usually between 2…7 % of the volume of the concrete. known as additives. Their chemical composition resulting from the type of coal burned. mixing time. and abrasion resistance. hydrates like Portland cement. Typical examples are natural pozzolans. silica fume.Fly ash is a fine divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal from thermal power generating stations that is carried from the combustion chamber of the furnace by exhaust gases. bleeding. is a byproduct of silicon or ferro-silicon alloys that is carried from the electric furnace by the exhaust gases.

Water begins the reaction of cement hydration. the grading is specified.e.Superplasticizers.e. also known as plasticizers39 or high-range water reducers (HRWR). acids. The first is to use ordinary prescribed mixes that already have the proportions of cement and aggregates worked out relative to a required strength. corrosion inhibitors. They can be specified by grade that relates numerically to the characteristic strength. workability. . stages 1 and 2 combine to give cement content. There can be special prescribed mixes where an aspect or aspects of the mix control will change rather than the constituents. Accelerators have a negligible effect on long-term strength but can improve early strength by at least 25 % after one day. staining. . maximum free w/c ratio. THEORY OF MIXES There are two ways of specifying a concrete mix prescribed and designed.4.Water serves also as a vehicle or lubricant between the fine and coarse aggregates in order that the concrete may be made more readily placeable in the forms (more workable).4. 4. Must building professionals will use prescribed mixes that have already been worked out and the proportion of constituents already fixed. reduce water content by 12 to 30 percent. 64 . The function of water when incorporated in concrete is as follows: .3. workability and free water content. and corrosion of reinforcement. alkali-silica reactivity reduction. shrinkage reduction. Because of the slump loss.Accelerating Admixtures are added to concrete either to increase the rate of hydration /early strength development or to shorten the time of setting. Excessive impurities in mixing water not only may affect setting time and concrete strength. temperatures and admixtures. Other types of admixtures are: damp-proofing and water-proofing admixtures40. depending on the brand and dosage rate. organic materials. and reduced durability. alkalis. volume instability. bonding. WATER Water shall comply with the requirements of STAS 790-8441 or approved equivalent. i. Seawater shall not be used at any time. 4. or other deleterious substances. Plasticizers can also be used to reduce water demand and accelerate early strength gain of the concrete.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING mixing and placing occur and they compensate for concreting in hot weather and allow for a better junction in poured concrete to be made when large quantities are being placed. and is followed by a rapid loss in workability. The Romanian norm NE 012-99 regarding design of normal/conventional concrete mixes takes users through a process which works in clear stages: strength and w/c ratio. workability enhancement. The second is to use a designed mix. or both (particularly in cold climates). but also may cause efflorescence. Clean fresh potable water shall be used for the mixing of all concrete and mortar and shall be from an approved source. air content. and free from injurious amounts of oils. superplasticizers are usually added to concrete at the jobsite. which is a performance specification staring required strength and minimum cement content but leaving the grading and details of the mix design to be worked out. The effect of superplasticizers lasts only 30 to 60 minutes. The water used in concrete must be clean. . They can be added to concrete with a low-tonormal slump and water-cement ratio to make high-slump flowing concrete. Reacting chemically with the cement to form a cement paste in which the inert aggregates are held in suspension until the cement has hardened. most remaining in the pores and holes thus resulting porosity. Only 1/3 of the water is needed for cement chemical reaction (hydration) the rest is used form workability. total aggregate content and selection of coarse and fine aggregates. i.

Arrange a working platform to facilitate mixing and to minimize the introduction of dirt and loss of mortar. To reach the desired properties of strength. and water ±1. and homogeneity is necessary. Its size depends on the total amount to be mixed and number of laborers engaged. and thorough mixing. Since mixing involves effort.1. . watertightness. HAND MIXING The quality of hand mixing is usually judged by uniformity of color and texture. the top of the gauge box being struck of level each time. Aside from the labor involved. 50 kg) called a “gauge box”. and use for small jobs as sidewalk repairs. Volume batching is usually carried out using an open box (of such dimensions as to make manual handling possible approx.5%.1. 65 . level. it must be clean. durability.Spread the coarse aggregate and sand over the platform to a uniform depth and then spread the cement over them. This increase is called bulking. Concrete homogeneity means the attainment of a condition where the four ingredients are uniformly distributed through the mass. volumetric batching leads to inaccuracies due to variable bulking of the sand from variation in surface moisture. BATCHING AND MIXING CONCRETE 5. 5. Hand mixing is used usually for: concrete grades smaller than C 12/15 and for small or inaccessible jobs that require batches up to 1 m3. This is the best method since it has grater accuracy aggregate ± 2%.5 % for water). or simple farm structures. 5. with a high degree of accuracy (1% for cement. either human or mechanical. the practice has developed of making concrete in separate fixed volumes called batches. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Concrete is one of the few major structural material manufactured at the site.3. Concrete can be batched by two methods: by volume or by weight.2. 5. If the aggregate is damp or wet. it requires close inspection. twice with fine aggregate and four times with coarse aggregate. That is why it is recommended for concrete with grades lower than C12/15. A common procedure for hand mixing is to: . and preferably nonabsorbent. small garage floors. Weight batching involves the use of a scale that is linked to a dial giving the exact mass of the materials as they are placed in the scales. Inadequate mixing will result in concrete with lower strengths and greater batch-to –batch variations. cement ±1%. MIXING CONCRETE Proper mixing is essential to produce homogeneous.3. 2% for aggregates and 1. This requires the maintenance of constant proportions of ingredients. uniform concrete. BATCHING CONCRETE To assure uniformity and simplify the checking of the proportions.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 5. its volume will increase by up to 25% and therefore the amount of fine aggregate should be increased by this amount. watertight. For a 1:2:4 mix gauge box is filled once with cement.

Shovel the components from the edge towards center of the mass. Concrete should be mixed until it is uniform in appearance and consistency. additional water may be sprinkled on and the mass again turned. capable of rapid adjustment to allow for the water content of the aggregates or to correct variations in the slump. produce perfectly homogeneous concrete. A mechanical mixer generally consists of one or more drums with open ends mounted with axis of rotation horizontal or tilted.3. 66 . If too dry. This speed is approximately 200 rpm peripherally. turbulent mixers. which means that the larger drums rotate more slowly.gravity free-fall mixers (tilting drum mixer or horizontal mixer). until a consistency somewhat wetter than the required final concrete texture and consistency is obtained. the additive or admixture used. The time required for mixing depends on the volume and stiffness of the mix. 5.2. the size of the C.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Mix by shoveling the aggregates with the cement. when properly handled. rotated by a gasoline or electric motor. The mixer shall be equipped with a charging hopper and with an adequate water storage container with a device for accurately measuring and automatically controlling the amount of water used in each batch. the weather (cold or hot) and on the type of mixer method being used.A. Each manufacturer will establish the optimum speed for his mixer by tests adjusted according to his particular mixer characteristics. Mound the material and form a crater in the center Add water slowly into the crater and turn the material into the water. Mixing should continue until every piece of aggregate is completely coated with a thoroughly mixed cement paste. 1999. vibrating mixers. using a turning and spreading motion until a uniform color is obtained. It shall also be Source: BHS – Sonthofen.. This device shall be capable of setting to give an amount of water registering to 1 percent of the reFigure 5-1 Twin shaft batch mixer quired volume with uniform delivery. combined mixers. The basic forms are: drum type . The choice of method for mixing the concrete or mortar must be made based on the volume of mixed material required in any given time. forced action mixers (countercurrent -backward flow mixer or forward flow mixer). The rate of rotation will be the most rapid so to avoid any tendency to adherence of concrete to the drum. using the right amount of centrifugal force. MACHINE MIXING Machine mixing is far more economical and can. Most concrete mixers used on building sites are of the batch type.

The tilting type is considered superior because it discharges more quickly. and is easier to keep clean. When increased output is required. For larger projects and central mixing plants. with an increase of at least 15 sec for every 0. Overloading or running either too quickly or too slowly prevents the proper mixing action from taking place. Mixing is accomplished by the action of the blades passing through the fluid concrete. 1984. 3. the mixing drum and wet hopper shall be washed out thoroughly before another class of concrete is mixed in the same drum. including the water. In no case shall the volume of the mixed material exceed the manufacturers rated capacity of the mixer and they should not be operated at speeds other than those for which they were designed. a larger mixer or additional ones should be used. During windy weather. entire drum.. Rotating steel drum. with less segregation.1.2…2. For this type of mixer.01 to 3 m3 capacity.A. When such a phase of work has been completed. when all materials are in the mixer drum. Hand fed tilting drum mixers (T) . types of mixers unload the concrete by tilting the Sliding level of concrete of the blade. mixers of 1. Admixture shall be introduced at specified points in the batching process to provide the intended concrete properties at the actual time of casting. 5.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Mechanical mixers are available in sizes varying from 0.3. The plant and the concreting program shall be so arranged that only one class of concrete be produced in one mixing drum until the pours of that class of concrete have been completed. (see Figure 5-2) consists of a rotating drum with stationary blades fixed on the inside set at an angle to the axis so as to pick up the ingredients as the drum rotates and spill them over one another and move them longitudinally. 2. These Blades. and the same is true for mixes containing fine sand or small C. 4. or also referred to as free-fall or Gravitational mixers.in which the single-compartment drum has an inclinable axis with loading and discharge through the front opening. Teodorescu M. Mixing shall continue for a minimum of two minutes and maximum of 5 minutes after all the materials. Fluid concrete. precautions shall be taken to prevent loss of cement during batching and mixing.5…6 m3 capacity are used. DRUM TYPE CONCRETE MIXERS Drum mixers.75 m3 capacity. but not more than 120 sec. additional time will be required. The mixing time begins Figure 5-2 Single shaft drum mixer Caption: 1.4 m3/hr.5 m3 (or fraction) of additional capacity. Source: Popa R. Batch mixers shall be fitted with timers to record the mixing time for each batch. If mixes are stiff.. Wheels. specifications usually require a minimum of 1 min for mixers of up to 0. with drum speeds of 22 (rev/min) capable of mixing at a rate of 12 batches per hour having the production output rate 1. 5. are passed into the drum before any of the batches is discharged. The mixer shall be washed out with cementitious grout sufficient to coat the inside of the drum before mixing the first batch after any stoppage or alternatively the first mix shall be discarded. This form of mixer is primar67 . The drum mixers are subdivided into three distinct forms: a.2.

The chute should form an angle of not less than 40° with horizontal axis of the drum.2. colors. The complete cycle time for mixing one batch from load to reload is usually specified as max. unloading Source: Popa R. Teodorescu M.may be equipped with a swinging discharge chute. Many mixers are provided with timing devices so that they can be set for a given mixing period and cannot be opened until the designated mixing time is up. Operating features . Teodorescu M. 5. Forced action mixers have optional equipment (besides the blades they can be equipped with paddles or stars) that intensifies the movement of the particles in the mix that bring about rapid homogenization of concretes.3. loading.. Caption: a. b. 2 minutes. and low slump concrete mix. Loading is through a front opening and discharge from a rear opening carried out by reversing the rotating of the drum Figure 5-4 Reversing drum mixer Source: Popa R.50 m3 mixed batch output... c. Such mixers are particularly efficient for mixing additives. in a stationary drum. mixing. Loading is through the front opening and discharge through the rear opening by means of a discharge chute collecting the mixture from the top of the drum. Capacities of this type of mixer range from 0. The mixing of the concrete is achieved.. 68 . The ingredients are fed into one end of the mixer in a steady stream and discharged by a chute so mounted that it may be unloaded steadily at the other end.20…0. Non-tilting drum mixers – Horizontal mixers (NT) .2. The basic forms of forced action mixers are: forward flow mixer and backward flow mixer (countercurrent / counter flow).0 m3. 1984.the single-compartment drum has two openings and rotates on a horizontal axis with output capacities ranging from 0.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING ily intended for small batch outputs ranging from 100…200 liters mixed batch output. Reversing drum mixers (R) – consists of a drum that rotates on a horizontal axis. 1984: Winget. b.20…0. by the relative movements of rotation between the mix and blades or paddles giving a shorter mixing time. 2001. FORCED ACTION MIXERS They are generally used for larger capacity outputs than the drum mixers described above and can be obtained within the range of 0. c.20…2. Figure 5-3 Tilting drum mixer.75 m3. This type of mixer is not justified economically because the height of free fall of materials is smaller do to the tilting of the drum at 20o.

offset from the center of the pan. . Source: Popa R. The pan rotates with the speed of 20 rpm while the paddles with 40 rpm. Teodorescu M. 2. In the interior of the drum a shaft with paddles rotates with pallets (speeds of 500-1000 rpm). 4. Teodorescu M. 2. Source: Popa R. 69 . 6. 1984.2. The drum rotates in a clockwise direction. 1984. Revolving drum. lifting the paddles. tilting the pan for unloading and bringing back to the initial position of the pan. Hopper. while the mixing tools turn counterclockwise. Direction of rotating paddles. Teodorescu M.. Central shaft.3. Drum. lowering the paddles in the pan.2. Eccentric. .4... Both the pan and the mixing tools rotate in a clockwise direction.3. Figure 5-7 Vibrating mixer Caption: 1.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 1. The cycle consists of the following phases: loading of materials. displacing them from there equilibrium condition thus making the mix more fluid and easer to mix.Continuing mixing according to the time specified. this forced action generates a turbulent mix.3. 2. VIBRATING MIXERS Uses the effects of vibration to induce in he concrete a back and forth motion of the particles. vertical three-paddle mixing tools (stars).Blending the ingredients until a uniform color is achieved. . TURBULENT MIXERS They operate in the principal of the forced action mixers with vertical axle. Backward flow mixer consists of a horizontally revolving pan. thus producing a high degree of agitation in the materials being mixed. Concrete mix. 3.Discharging the mixer. Source: Popa R. mixing. Elastic support. into which is suspended one or more. 2. The mixing cycle consists of the following phases: . . 5. Forward flow mixer has the primary current flowing in the same direction with the current of the mixing system employed. 5.. Drum.. ..Adding the coarse aggregate followed by the sand and then the cement. 1984. Figure 5-6 Backward flow mixer Caption: 1. Direction of rotating paddles.Adding the rest of the water slowly and sparingly until a workable mix is achieved. 5. Figure 5-5 Forward flow mixer Caption: 1.Turning on the mixer and priming the drum with approximately 10% of the required mixing water before the dry ingredients are added.

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 5. Figure 5-8 General layout of concrete plant The plant layout will vary greatly according to the space available. technical and environmental considerations. The batching plant consist of storage facilities for water. dry. condition of the mixer. as: . MIXING TIMES The optimum mixing time depends on several factors: type of mixer employed. mixers. and aggregates. In general. . the character and size of the project. 5.Permanent Plants – operate on the same location for a relatively long period. Large quantities of materials of greater variety are stored at the plant. BATCHING AND MIXING PLANTS Central-mixing concrete batch plants (also referred to as concrete mixing plants) come in a variety of styles and configurations designed to accommodate a variety of markets.5.Low profile . 70 . The plant will tend to have larger overhead storage and may have two lanes to permit batching two trucks at the same time. cement. offices. Plants may be also classified. and the equipment available to the contractor. The aggregates are feed by gravity to a weighing device from which in turn the materials drop into a mixer and then after into transit-mixing trucks or batch trucks. Concrete made with angular aggregates required more time than concretes made with more rounded aggregates. or harsh mixes require longer mixing times. Lean. and the nature of the materials. batching and weighing units. cranes for loading the bins. they have a cement silo and an overhead bin for sand or one or two coarse aggregates. . .Portable Plants – operate on the same location for a relatively short period. according to the market demand.4. In general mixing time should be assessed in the field based upon batch – to –batch variations. speed of the mixer. to reach the weighing devices the materials are loaded by cranes.the traditional stack up plant is a tall plant that has aggregate and cement storage bins that feed into batchers or weigh hoppers by gravity. bucket elevators or inclined-belt conveyors into overhead bins. and a paved road to accommodate the heavy truck traffic. the size of the charge. boiler room.High profile .the aggregate weigh hoppers are near the ground with belts to elevate the aggregate to load the mixer. The cement is commonly elevated to a closed compartment in the overhead bin by continuous enclosed bucket elevators or horizontal-screw conveyors from the delivery truck or railroad car. various control systems.

Vibrator. delivery level. Batching plant structure. Cement weighing hopper. Concrete mixers. Chute. economic. 15. 1984. 5.The bottom level is for the transportation of concrete by any of different methods mentioned below. mixer level. Pneumatic pipeline for cement loading. Nm. 2. 19. Ns. Teodorescu M. Chute. 6. . 13. Water reservoir. 20 – 21. 3. 17. accessible from all sides. 11. Concrete transport machinery.5. 16. Air separator. 22. MIXING TOWER The Mixing Tower has an output that ranges from 100…400 m3 concrete/hr. . it is frequently enclosed for comfort. Concrete silo. LINEAR MIXING CENTER The Linear mixing center has an output ranging from 50…200 m³ concrete/hr. 7 – 10. 14.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 5. no scaffolding for service or repair works. Operator and inspector work at this level. Source: Popa R. Aggregate weighting hopper.1. 18. Water pipeline.5. 12. accurate. The material flows by gravity from the bins above into the hoppers and into the mixer or. if dry batches are used.The top level contains bins of aggregates that are loaded by portable crane and dragline bucket from a stockpile within boom reach. easy to service. 5. A common arrangement for moderate-sized plants is its simplicity by level. Cement silo.The next lower level contains weighing hoppers. and 4.. silo level.2. . Aggregate silo. Water weighing tank. Conveyor belt.Batching plant Caption: 1. 71 . batchers and concrete mixers. The most significant advantages are that they are: reliable. and cement bins that are loaded by a vertical endless chain of buckets placed alongside a storage silo that is kept supplied by truck or freight car. Nd. by separate chute into dry-batch trucks.. Figure 5-9 Mixing tower . safe.

Dragline. 1988. 6. Suman R.conveyor. 9. or by means of belt conveyer systems. Boom. 10. via a ramp or ramps piled on one or both sides. Transit mix truck. The loading of the aggregates is achieved by radial dragline. Suman R. Discharge hopper.. 8. 11. After which they are discharged form the weighing belt into the feeding device of the concrete or by front power loaders. Cement screw. Separating sieve walls. Water (flowmeter or weigher). Control center.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 5-10 Linear batching center Caption: 1. 4.. 1984. 2. Cement weigher. 1984. Popa R.. 3. MCI. 1988. 1995. Cement silo. Aggregate sorted in standard sieve size. All the operations required such as scrape. 72 . 7. Teodorescu M. Source: Pestisanu C.. 5. pivot and slewing operations are controlled manually from the highvisibility cabin via clearly arranged operation levers and foot pedals.

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 5.1 and the method of testing shall be in accordance with Romanian Standards STAS 4606-80 or approved equivalent. When storing bagged cement outdoors. WATER AND CEMENT Aggregates for concrete shall be stored on clean platforms with drainage slope. Pneumatic pipeline. While being loaded or unloaded and whether conveyed in vehicles or in mechanical means to the concrete mixers. If a convenient public water-supply system exists. STAS 5296-77 and SR EN 196-3-1995 or ap5. Cement is a moisture-sensitive material.. the cement shall at once be placed in sheds/silos in the order that they arrived on delivery. Bottom discharge outlet. properly sealed lids. 6. Air filter. The tests shall include an analysis of each grade of material and an analysis of the combined material representing the aggregate part of the mix. MCI 1984. it will retain its quality indefinitely.1 and the method of testing shall be in acFigure 5-11 Cement silo Caption: 1. if kept dry. there is no problem unless the pressure is very low. Water . In such cases. Railway. it should be stacked on pallets and covered with a waterproof covering.the source of water must be studied since a considerable quantity may be needed. water for boiler for heating aggregates (small quantity). a pump and elevated tank may be desirable.2 m from the ground level. the usual practice is to build prefabricated partitions between them to prevent intermixing. 4. proved equivalent. When storing bagged cement (25 and 50 kg bags). having each size of aggregate stored separately. All other tests for aggregates required shall be made on the initial source samples. 3. Portland cement will set more slowly and will loose strength in comparison with one that is kept dry. water for keeping stockpiles moist (100 l per m3 of concrete is desirable). STORAGE AND HANDLING OF AGGREGATE. Source: Suman R. DELIVERY. a shaded area or warehouse is preferred with its floor raised at least 0. cement shall be protected from the weather by effective measures. If a well has to be drilled. and shall be repeated whenever there is a change of source. When stored in contact with damp air or moisture. Silo. The frequency of aggregate testing shall comply with the requirements specified in NE 012-99 Cod Annex VI. Upon delivery. 73 . 1988.6. Gradation tests shall be made on each sample. wash water for transit-mix trucks (200 l per load). Cement transportation should be made in vehicles with watertight. 1995. The frequency of cement testing shall comply with the requirements specified in NE 012-99 Cod Annex VI. 2. The storage facility will prevent segregation of aggregates and avoid the inclusion of dirt and other foreign materials. or in bins. the required capacity will have to be computed considering the following: mixing water (200 to 300 l per 1 m3 of concrete). Crossed cordance with Romanian Standards SR EN 196-1braced legs.

permitting the load to be carried by the rubber tire wheels. loss of constituents in the concrete mixture. dump trucks. Figure 6-2 Push chart 74 . reinforcement etc. any means of transportation should protect the building materials from weather. They are used on small jobs (maximum economical distance of transport 70 m). push charts. permitting most of the load to be carried on the wheel.30 m3 capacity. A typical breakdown of percentage costs of building materials transport could be as follows: transport 10%. crane hoisted buckets. to avoid this it is important to provide smooth runways for its travel. avoid segregation. Pushcarts produced in a variety of sizes and capacities ranging from approximately 0. Wheelbarrows are produced in a variety of sizes and capacities ranging from 0.for short distance the following means of transport can be used: wheel barrows. transport and unload properly the materials in the transport means or to transfer them to the storage facility.) from the producer to the site or to the storage facility. chutes. Unless proper care is taken. forklift trucks.10 to 0. Achieving a specific construction means supplying the site with a large quantity of building materials (aggregate. CATEGORIES OF TRANSPORT Building material transport can be classified in two main categories: short distance transport <1 km and long distance transport > 1 km.12 m3. Figure 6-1 Wheelbarrow b. and serious loss of workability. 1.2. a. Short Distance Transport . cement. In general.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 6. labor 10 – 15% = 20%. They are used on small jobs (maximum economical distance of transport 150 m). while the worker is required to balance it during movement. the quality of materials may be destroyed by failure to load. 6. located near the job site. The handling and transport of building materials is very important to ensure the proper quality of delivered on site. belt conveyers.1. Bouncing of the wheelbarrow can cause concrete to segregate. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS There are many different ways to handle and transport concrete. but some of the load must be assumed by the operator to balance it during movement. concrete. the choice depending on many factors. to avoid this it is important to provide smooth runways for its travel. Bouncing of the wheelbarrow can cause concrete to segregate.08 to 0. BUILDING MATERIAL TRANSPORT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 6. pneumatic devices etc.

Source: Chudley R. Suman R. 1999. Figure 6-5 Chute and hopper Source: Morgan.. Forklift trucks are equipped with a forklike mechanism on the front end designed to pick up loads on specially designed platforms (pallets). with rounded bottoms. Front steering wheels. 2. Cabin. 1999. and deposit it at the desired location and height. usually hydraulic. Dump trucks produced in a variety of sizes and capacities ranging from approximately 0. Figure 6-3 Forklift truck Caption: 1. They can be fitted with non-lift platforms is used simply for hauling. d. and of sufficient size to guard against overflow. c. It is generally recom- 75 . 1999. and they should be light enough to be moved by hand. 4.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING c. Steel rail mast. rounded bottom and end sloping front. Chutes are of steel or wood with metal lining (galvanized iron). 6.. They are used to carry concrete directly from mixer to forms or form or hopper. They have a special drum shape. c.1. Rear steering wheels. for lifting loads. elevate the load to the desired height.2. conveniently situated to allow chuting. They should be designed so that concrete will flow without assistance without causing segregation. Engine. 3. Power trucks are powered by batteries and an electric-motor drive or by an internal-combustion engine. transport it. Figure 6-4 Typical types of dump trucks Source: Thwaites. 1988.0 m3 capacity. They are used on small jobs (maximum economical distance of transport 700 m). 5. or with mechanisms.50 to 1. Twin lifting forks.

Usually at the discharge end of the chute a hopper should be attached to prevent the segregation that results from a free discharge and to direct the flow perpendicular on the concreting surface. The belt forms a continuous loop and is supported either on rollers. and it should be supported well enough so it will not vibrate and cause segregation of the concrete. e. or truck. maximum lengths 40 m. Where the loading height of concrete is low. The slope used will vary with the concrete mix and with the type of belt used. Crane-hoisted buckets are metal containers produced in a variety of sizes / capacities (ranging from 0. The concrete load is released by opening a self-closing gate that is located at the bottom of the bucket. It is generally recommended that the slope of conveyors be 30o. It is used where concrete has to be placed at a considerable height above ground level where forms are in otherwise inaccessible locations or when needed to be placed over wide areas. or metal and are driven by a power-operated roll mounted underneath or at one end of the conveyor. Concrete should be fed onto a belt conveyor from a hopper to get an even distribution of material along the belt. they can regulate the flow by closing them so that only a part of the load will be discharged. a special type of "laydown" bucket has been developed which can receive concrete while lying on its long side but turns through 90° when lifted (see Figure 6-6). a b Buckets are lifted and moved about by crane. width of belt 400 mm. Laydown bucket (Lateral discharge into clean out door). or on a metal slider pan when the load is light enough to prevent frictional drag on the belt. 1984.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING mended that the slope of chutes be 30o.capacities (ranging from capacity of concrete transport 60 m3/h. Belt conveyors are used to transfer concrete. 76 . speed 150 m/min. Figure 6-6 Typical concrete buckets Caption: a. b. cable. Laydown bucket (Vertical Discharge Type 1. or better) and types (portable. series or side discharge conveyors). Conveyors should be covered to prevent climatic conditions (sun. plastic. leather.or variable-speed reduction gears usually provide the power. Electric motors operating through constant. railroad car.3 m3). Source: MCI. rain or wind) from affecting the concrete during its transfer. it is important that they be braced sufficiently to prevent serious deformation or actual collapse under the weight of concrete.4 to 6 m3) and types (circular or rectangular in cross section). The crane offers one of the most flexible methods of handling mixed concrete. rubber. depending on site conditions and the consistency of the concrete as well as the smoothness of the chute (those with straight ribs on their surface work best on steep slopes). In setting up chutes. f. they are produced of sizes . for heavy loads. They can be made of fabric. depending on site conditions and the consistency of the concrete as well as the smoothness of the chute.

There capacities range from 3 to 10 m3. working in the opposite direction. the contents are remixed before being discharged. This configuration enables the concrete to mix when the drum spins in one direction and causes it to discharge when the direction is reversed. During transportation to the site. As a result.When the time taken to deliver the mix to the site may be unacceptable. The revolving drum has an axis inclined to the horizontal.5 hours after the introduction of water to cement and aggregate. 1999. Long Distance Transport a. On arrival. The site allowance time for unloading is usually 30 minutes. allowing for the discharge of a full load in 10 minutes leaving 20 minutes of free time to permit for reasonable degree of flexibility in planning and programming to both the supplier and the user. Concrete should be delivered and discharged form the truck mixer within 1. Inside the shell of the mixer drum are a pair of blades (two spirals) that wrap in a helical (spiral) configuration from the head to the opening of the drum. .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 6-7 Belt conveyor Source: Morgan.When long distances are involved. Transit mix trucks consist of a heavy-duty truck chassis and motor on which is mounted a large. the mix is finally mixed by increasing the drum's revolutions to between 10 and 15 revolutions per minute for a few minutes before being discharged. water is added to the dry ingredients that are charged into the truck from a batching plant. except that they do not carry water tanks. According to the distances involved: . the mix is agitated by the drum revolving at 1 to 2 revolutions per minute. 2. . If the distance to be traveled from the batching plant to job site can be covered within the initial setting time of the cement paste. drum-type concrete mixer a water tank and auxiliary engine that operates the mixer (see Figure 6-8).Trucks can be charged with dry or wet ingredients at the batching plant. the mixing can take place on site by loading the truck mixer at the depot with dry batched materials and adding the water upon arrival on site before completing the mixing operation and subsequent discharge. on arrival. The truck simply keeps the concrete agitated until it is delivered. Agitator trucks are similar to a transit truck. provoking a counterflow mixing effect in axial as well as in radial direction resulting in very good homogenization within short mixing times. Each batch of concrete should be mixed not less that 50 to more that 100 revolutions of the drum or blades at the prescribed rate of rotation. the concrete can be fully or partially mixed and loaded into the truck mixer at the plant. b. Any additional mixing should be done at he designated agitating speed. This means that the wet mix is made at the batching plant and charged into the truck drum. the distance that may be traveled is limited to that which can be covered within the initial setting time of the 77 . The concrete is then mixed and agitated en route.

Hinged feed chute. 6. and tower concrete pumps. four. Standard equipment includes motor. Figure 6-8 Transit mix truck Caption: 1 Chassis. MCI. feed hopper. Primary distribution cute. Some are tilted to discharge through side or end gates. 3. and outriggers on which a distributing three-. Figure 6-9 Rail cars Source: Trelea A. This is done to prevent the initial set of concrete from taking place before it can be delivered. d. 1984. whereas others discharge through bottom gates. To load. it should be added all at once. Storage water tank. 7. 4.. It is essential to closely supervise this operation to prevent segregation. Truck mounted concrete pumps. 5. If water is added. Source: Trelea A. or about two minutes. 2. Concrete is normally dumped into a large hopper from which short chutes or downspouts direct it to the forms.and five-fold boom is mounted. 78 . 1997. while the drum of the truck mixer should be turned minimum of 30 revolutions. Motor. or charge.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING paste. After the concrete is loaded and mixed. it may be necessary to use ice to keep the temperature down. chassis. Concrete pumps can be divided into three categories: stationary concrete pumps. In extremely hot weather. the drum must be turned very fast in the charging direction. delivery pipeline. at mixing speed. Rail cars are specially designed for transporting concrete for large projects. c. Pallets for mixing. raw materials from a transit mix plant or centrally mixed concrete into the truck. 1997. and squeeze pump. pneumatic pump. it is normally hauled to the job site with the drum turning at a speed of less than 2 rpm. Drum.. Concrete pumps are used to transport concrete under pressure through some type of piping system that can be: piston pump. truck mounted concrete pumps.

Pumping distances . The boom and climbing system are supported by latches that can lock into the side of the shaft recesses and are partially released during the climbing procedure. With the aid of special climbing and guiding frames. Figure 6-11.1. and a cylinder connected to a hopper on the intake end and to a hose or pipe on the discharge end. The concrete is supplied by pumps via stationary booms. Feed hopper. the column of the boom pulls itself up independently on the wall that will be the lift shaft. The maximum slipping speed of this design is 300 mm an hour. 1984. Figure 6-12 Typical tower pump detail e. a piston. eventually to the form. Tower pumps are used for placing concrete in tall buildings (height of 30 …350m). The stationary boom is fitted with a hydraulic working self-climbing device. 79 . velocity of pumping and characteristics of concrete. 4. 1994. Piston pump consists of an inlet and outlet valve.The distance concrete can be pumped depends on a series of factors: the capacity of the pump. 3. Source: MCI. the complete line including the transfer tubes is designed for concrete pressures up to 200 bar. Boom extensions of pump Source: Elba – Werk. and the piston forces it out into the house and. in line with the progress of the construction. The pump pressures expected. 2. Conveying systems e. A delivery system carries the concrete to the job. Cabin. The cylinder receives concrete from the hopper. the size of the pipeline. Steel placing boom. by continuous action.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 6-10 Truck mounted concrete pump Caption: 1. Delivery pipeline.

The pressure forces the concrete out through a pipe at the bottom and into the delivery system. enters the bottom of the drum. Piston (hydraulic cylinder). 5. 3. 2.3. The vacuum maintains a supply of concrete from the hopper in the hose. gradation... Air filtered tank. Feeding hopper with agitator paddles. (a) There is a limit to the amount of pressure that can be applied to the concrete. however.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 6-13 Pumps for concrete transport Caption: a. One meter of vertical lift is considered to equal 8 m of horizontal run. Concrete. and a 45o bend is equal to 6 m. have their bleed-out point – the pressure point beyond which the cement and water will be forced (bled) out of the concrete at the pump by applied pressure into the concrete ahead it. Squeeze (pressure) pump: 1. the intake valve is closed. Concrete is taken into the pressure vessel. Flexible hose. Source: Popa R. (b) Source: Popa R. and 6. which will vary. Figure 6-14 Pneumatic pipeline Caption: 1. The delivery line may be either rigid pipe or flexible hose. water: cement ratio. b. Airtight tank. e. Pneumatic conveyers (also referred to as pipelines) consists of a pressure vessel (air tight tank) and equipment for supplying compressed air – blower and a tank or hopper connected near the pipeline inlet to feed solid particles into the pipeline and a tank near the pipeline outlet to separate the transported solids from the airstream. Air compressor. Trelea A. Vales. which makes pumping very difficult. All concretes. The concrete that has bled out becomes dry and becomes what is called a slug in the line.. Valve. 2. Rotor. and compressed air is supplied into the top end of the vessel. e. Rollers. A flexible hosed runs from a hopper. Piston pump. 1984.. depending on slump. 4. Pumping will generally be restricted to concrete that has a maximum coarse aggregate size of 40 mm and ultimate strength of 15 MPa or better. force the concrete out at the top. A delivery system carries the concrete to the job.. a 90o bend in rigid pipe is equivalent to 121 m of horizontal run. Teodorescu M. while the rollers. Depending on the equipment. 80 . 1984. Pipeline. and runs around the inside surface and out the top.5 to 70 m3/hr through lines that can range up to 10000 m horizontal and to 90 m vertically (there restriction being high energy consumption and abrasiveness to pipe and materials). inside which hydraulically powered rollers operate. while the exhaust air is filtered to prevent air pollution. Teodorescu M. and size and type of aggregate. rotating on the house inside the drum. 6. 5. a concrete pump will deliver from 7.2. 7. 3. 1997.. Squeeze pump (also referred to as pressure pump) consist of a steel drum maintained under high vacuum. 4.

rigidity. density. chute.Wetting with water the hardened concrete. . etc. . dimensions and quality. charts.The subgrade surfaces against which the fresh concrete is to be placed shall be dampened or covered with wax (Kraft) paper for plain concrete casting. .The forms and reinforcement shall be erected according to project specifications. The same care. The methods used in placing concrete in its final position have an important effect on its fresh and hardened properties. .Temporary openings in formwork "clean out windows" shall be provided to facilitate debris removal and to inspect reinforcing steel. sawdust) shall be removed from the bottom of the formwork before placement.). formwork nails.g. such as: homogeneity. and behavior in service.The transportation of concrete mixture shall be carry out by methods that will prevent the segregation of the concrete materials and the displacement of the reinforcing steel form its proper position in the form. reasonably smooth and straight to prevent concrete bouncing as they travel. Required preparations before concrete placement: .The subgrade shall be properly prepared by excavating it to specific project size (shape. grade. which has been used to secure good concrete. masonry or formwork. .). concrete placement. HANDLING AND PLACING CONCRETE 7. dimensions. ..The forms shall be made of material that will impart the desired texture to the concrete.The forms shall be checked for tightness and clean surfaces before any concrete is placed.Filling up joints or cracks between form panels that were not closed. . type. . and cleanness. .The reinforcement should be checked for accordance with design (size. On the other hand.Building of adequate runways for wheelbarrows or buggies. Main verifications before concrete placement are as follows: .Means of transferring concrete from the wheelbarrow. Precautions regarding good concreting operations: 81 . shall be covered with a 50 mm base leveling concrete for reinforced concrete coverings.The forms shall be examined for correct alignment and adequate rigidity to withstand concrete load and construction impacts without undue deformation. .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 7. is necessary to make certain verifications and preparations before placing so that operations will commence without unpredictable stops and in conditions that will guaranty the required quality. starting with 2 –3 hr.All loose debris (e. bending radius etc. . PREPARATION BEFORE PLACING CONCRETE This chapter provides guidance and specification for the concrete handling and placing work procedures needed to assure the proper execution of different concrete construction members in accordance with its design specified shape. and concrete compaction and finishing of surfaces. . .The forms shall be oiled or treated with some type of form seal that will prevent water absorption form the concrete mix. before concrete placement and immediately before placement. or bucket into the forms must also be provided (hopper. hose). Placing concrete is comprised of the following main works: verifications and preparations before concrete placement.1.

by rotating the drum 5 minutes with the water inside). temperature. Concrete shall be placed to prevent segregation. The receptacles used for the transport and deposition of concrete shall be cleaned and washed out at the end of each day’s work and whenever concreting is interrupted for more than 30 minutes. metal or rubber hoppers. type cement etc. 82 - - - . Concrete shall be placed in maximum 15 minutes after its arrival to the site. when it may not be possible to use chutes inside the formwork.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Assurance of the necessary amount water for wetting of concrete surfaces after placement and for cleaning of concrete trucks (1m3 per truck. the concrete should be discharged against a striking (baffle) board. Concrete shall not be allowed or caused to flow horizontally or on a slope in the forms. When concrete is dumped from a cart or wheelbarrow. Assurance of runways for laborers and equipment. For greater heights. class. chutes etc. If the concrete. These would include canvases. if not the concrete will flow rapidly entering the forms invariably resulting separation and honeycombing. BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR CONCRETE PLACEMENT Concrete placing basic principles are as follows: When arriving to the site the concrete transport certificate must be checked for desired characteristics of ordered concrete (quantity. slump. In some cases. in crane hoisted buckets. boards forming the sloping surfaces may be placed as concreting progresses. and the finishing of placement will take place before the cement starts setting. If necessary. Protection of fresh concrete from heavy downpours of rain. known as cleanout windows. do to transport. without adding water. They provide an outside pocket from which the concrete can flow into the form at a controlled rate. If the pour takes place in cold weather the necessary protective materials and equipment should be immediately available. chutes or flexible hoses must be lowered into the formwork to control the rate of fall of the concrete. As placing begins the consistency of the delivered concrete should be checked with a slump cone for conformance with specifications and the required number of samples must be taken (1 sample = 3 specimens) according to the volume of concrete placed (see NE 012-1999). rather than allowing it to enter directly into the form at a high velocity. Concrete shall be stored / deposited as near as (physically and economically) possible to its final position.5 m. there is a tendency for the heavier particles to separate from the mass. 7. maximum aggregate size. concrete pumps. as in walls or columns. The free fall of concrete should in no case exceed 1. Concrete placing on a slope shall begin at the lower end of the slope and progress upward. It should be mixed again on clean platforms. The concrete shall not be permitted to strike against forms and ricochet on bars and form faces. concrete may be deposited through openings in the side of the form.) and time duration of transport. Concrete shall be delivered to the site and discharged from the truck completely and in the forms ready for vibration within 1-1/2 hours after batching. transport equipment etc. if not possible the batch should be refused. To prevent this.). is segregated. Assurance of electricity necessary for concrete transport and vibration.2. warm-sir blowers etc. Assurance shall be made for standby carpenters and ironworkers to make immediate repairs that can occur during the pour. Assurance of standby equipment to replace any that fails during the pour (vibrators.

Source: Cement & Concrete Association of Australia. The mortar will tend to flow ahead of the coarser materials. or by using a wire brush. When concrete is to be placed on a hardened concrete surface a layer of mortar must be placed on the hard surface first. Placing techniques for flatwork. The hardened concrete shall be level. Any laitance or soft layer of mortar must be removed from the surface. rough. - - - When fresh concrete is to be placed on hardened concrete surface: It is important to secure a good bond and a watertight joint. - - - - - Figure 7-1 a. This provides a cushion on which the new concrete can be placed and stops aggregate from bouncing on the hard surface and forming stone pockets. Concreting should be as continuous as possible to avoid planes of weakness. using precaution to put the full load upon any given area of form as rapidly as possible. and moist. The concrete should be spread and deposited in horizontal uniform thick layers. The rate of delivery of concrete to the work shall be such as to insure continuity of placement. volume of works etc.5 m. No partially completed surface shall be allowed to stand more than 45 minutes before continuing the placing of concrete thereon. Placing of concrete shall be so regulated that the pressures caused by the wet concrete shall not exceed those used in the design of forms. 2000. the direction deposition should be into the face of previously placed concrete and not away from it. The mortar should be approximately 50 mm deep leveling concrete. It should not be placed in large quantities in one position or allowed to flow or be worked over more than 1. When the concrete placement stops do to different reasons a construction joint will be made. Efforts should be made to consolidate the concrete by using different means of vibration (manual or mechanical) according to type of member. according o the type of vibrating equipment used (it should be usually between 200… 400 mm thick). The concrete shall be placed continuously from one side or end of the section to the other. Concrete shall de placed as nearly as possible in its final position. thus causing stone pockets and sloping work planes. site possibilities. 83 . clean.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING When unloading concrete on the surface of a cast member. Some of the aggregate particles must be exposed by cutting away part of the existing surface by sand blasting cleaning with hydrochloric acid.

WALL AND COLUMN CONCRETING To ensure that the wall and columns concreting will provide a long-lasting and serviceable element. This positioning is done to prevent the trapping of water at ends of the sections. 84 . .The integration of each lift with the one below is done with the aid of puddling spades or vibrators. 300 to 500 mm deep. hoppers.The first batches of each lift must be placed at the ends of the form section or in corners. CONCRETING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEMBERS 7. 7. and placing should then proceed toward the center. - Figure 7-1 b. . No layer shall be tapered off. If possible. chutes or flexible hoses must be lowered into the formwork to control the rate of fall of the concrete.Concrete should be placed in wall forms in relatively thin layers or lifts. Concreting of any unit or section of the work shall be carried out in one continuous operation or until an authorized construction joint is reached. .The free fall of concrete should in no case exceed 1. 2000. and are most effective in producing smooth surfaces against the form faces.Concrete in walls shall be deposited in continuous horizontal layers. when the width of the wall is smaller that 15 cm. each layer being placed full length of the form and vibrated before the next lift is begins. . the designer puts forward the following concreting recommendations: .1. if not the concrete will flow rapidly entering the forms invariably resulting separation and honeycombing. while for greater heights. in corners. .Wall and column forms that have small cross sections require the rate of concrete pour to be controlled to avoid large hydrostatic pressures on the lateral side of the form.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The mixing drums of transit-mix trucks shall be thoroughly washed after discharging each load to prevent the accumulation of adherent layers of concrete. clean out windows must be made and positioned at least for 1 m to 1 m on the height of the formwork. .5 m.Internal vibrators shall always be inserted vertically into the concrete (see Figure 7-2) while external vibrators are used against the outside of forms. but shall be stopped against tight forms to produce square ends and shall be so molded by inset formwork that the construction joint will finish square to all exterior surfaces. Concrete placing techniques for columns and walls Source: Cement & Concrete Association of Australia.3.3. and along form faces so that that no pockets or spaces remain unfilled and that the face of the formed concrete will been made as smooth as required by specifications.

Vibrator layout. Source: Popa R. . This time allows the concrete in the walls or columns to settle and thus prevents cracking due to settlement. vibrated before the next lift is begins..3.Concreting of slabs can stop do to unavoidable circumstances. c. Concrete placed in columns and walls shall be allowed to stand for approximately 2 hr before placing the concrete for monolithic girders. the presence. b. the designer puts forward the following concreting recommendations: . in this case the concreting must stop at a 90o angle with the formwork. the w/c ratio. Excessive vibration should be avoided as it causes segregation by forcing the coarse aggregates away from the vibrator resulting in pockets of cement mortar lacking in coarse aggregates. each layer Figure 7-3 Slab concreting being placed on the full length of the form and Source: Elba – Werk. 300 to 500 mm deep.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The placement of each layer shall take place so that each lift is placed in time to integrate easily and completely with the one below. 7. and slabs.Structural concrete floor slabs are usually poured in one concreting operation (they can be poured at the same time monolithic with walls or columns. 1994. This time factor is determined by type of cement used in making the concrete. and successive positions for placing external vibrators. Puddling spade/internal vibrator introduced in the top of column. Vibrator introduced in from pocket (clean out window). unless an interval of a few hours is allowed between completion of the vertical pour and commencement of the slab pour). Teodorescu M. and atmospheric conditions at the time of placing. - Figure 7-2 Compacting columns Caption: a. or absence of accelerators. . beams. 1984. but there is danger of horizontal shrinkage cracks development on the lower surface of the slab. 85 . which would occur if all members were placed at one time. SLAB AND BEAM CONCRETING To ensure that the slab and beam concreting will provide a long-lasting and serviceable element..2.Concrete should be placed in beam forms in layers or lifts.

G . contraction joints. and isolation joints. When the span is bigger that the side (L>G) it is preferably the concrete should be placed continuously in 1.g.span. 7. e. Teodorescu M. and.. They are called also day work joints because they are commonly used when there is discontinuous placement of concrete and successive pours are allowed to harden beyond the initial set. 86 . will be governed by a number of factors.3. make provisions for member movements such as expansion and contraction. If such a stop occurs a construction joint is created. Their location and detailing.g. and placing should then proceed toward the center. requiring special attention because they cause areas of strength reduction and permeability.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The first batches of each lift shall be placed at the ends of the form section or in corners. Concrete shell roofs have constructed formwork adequately supported to bear the loads. Source: Popa R. L – width. limit the stress. for these reasons they should be avoided wherever possible. VAULT AND SHELL CONCRETING When concrete is placed on sloping surfaces: The concreting should begin at the bottom of the slope. or at the end of the working day. Top formwork is not usually required unless the angle of pitch is grater that 45o. CONCRETE JOINTS Concrete joints are included in the design to serve a number of purposes: limit the size of the member. separate castings at different times do to unavoidable stops. The main joint types are: construction joints (day work joints) and control joints that can be expansion joints. in corners. spacing of joints. They may also be necessary if unforeseen events (e. delays in delivery or bad weather)..0 m wide strips commencing at both ends and running from edge beam to edge beam towards the keypiece of the member. Figure 7-4 Typical types of concreting joints for arches/va ults a. 1984. This positioning is done to prevent the trapping of water at ends of the sections. namely member thickness. presence of reinforcement. ARCH. When casting barrel vaults it is necessary to have a movable form consisting of birdcage scaffolding supporting curved steel ribs to carry the curved plywood or steel forms.0 m wide strips perpendicular on the edge beams over the crown of the member. 7. longitudinal joints. The integration of each lift with the one below is done with the aid of puddling spades or vibrators. Construction joints . to improve the compaction of the concrete as placing progresses and to prevent the flowing out of mortar which would occur if pouring had begun at the top of the slope. 1. When the span is smaller that the side (L<G) it is preferably the concrete should be placed continuously in 1. load intensity and the temperature at which the concrete is placed. along form faces.3.3.ideally a structure should be concreted continuously without unavoidable stops so it will have a monolithic bond between the sections of concrete either side of the bond.

Columns are allowed to have joints only at their bottom side. 1984. in special cases they can have another joint at their upper side (30 – 50 mm underneath the beams) (Figure 7-5 a). the joint will be located in the area of (1/5…1/3) x span of girder. taking into account the following rules: . before concreting starts. tanks. . if not. reservoirs.Beams are usually not allowed to have joints. b. d. . If the concreting is made perpendicular on the ribs. ..Arches and vaults are allowed to have joints by dividing the vault or arch in small elements located symmetrically along side the keypiece or if by dividing it in small 1 m elements parallel with the parallel with the generating line (Figure 7-5 f). For special types of structures (e. and e. d and e).. . . and c.. Popa R. large span members and massive constructions) the construction joints location and surface treatment will be indicated in the structural design. the joint will be located at 30-50 mm under the drop panels. but when occurring they will be located only in the areas of minimum bending moment. Source: NE 012-99. 1988.One way ribbed slabs (Figure 7-5 b) in which the concreting is made in the direction of the ribs. Teodorescu M. The joints positioned will be in accordance with the existing execution possibilities (they must not be placed within 3.00 m of another joint and) and they must be located in sections subjected to small loads. the joint will be located in the area of (1/5…1/3) x span of rib. . there location will be decided only by the engineer.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 7-5 Typical types of construction joints Caption: a..g.Suman R. arches.Shells are not allowed to have joints the concreting will be continuous. 87 . for beams.Solid slabs will have the joints located parallel with the main reinforcement in the area of minimum bending moment. .Concreting for plain concrete members will stop in 45o slop joints and reinforced concrete members in 90o slop joints (Figure 7-5.When the beams are concrete separately. girders and arches and vaults. for slabs. position for column joint.

When the bulkhead is removed. placed between expansion joints at 12 to 24 m in reinforced slabs and at 4. It is usually desirable to provide a key between adjoining sections to prevent lateral movement.5 m in non-reinforced slabs to limit the size of the slab. Figure 7-6 Construction joint formed Caption: 1. 5. due to changes in temperature. Longitudinal joints are similar to contraction joints and are required where slab width exceeds 4. Bulkhead form. The strip is bent into a right angle and fastened to the inside face of the bulkhead. 2. removing it after the concrete has set. These are transverse joints. and machine bases by placing a tapered wood strip around the perimeter before concrete is placed. They are usually formed around exterior walls. The metal also acts as a waterstop to prevent passage of water through the joint. 3. Expansion joints are necessary in slab construction to provide space for the slab to expand.. the bent half is straightened and projects into the adjacent pour. One method of doing this is to attach a galvanized iron strip to the inside face of the bulkhead form (Figure 7-6). around columns etc.5m. Galvanized iron. Contraction joints are also called control joints because they control the location of cracking because of the shrinking of the concrete and they allow lateral movement of the concrete on either side of the joint. Isolation joints. and are often used in combination with other types of joints to allow maximum panel movement causing shrinkage.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Special types of equipment foundation that will be subjected to intense vibrations are not allowed to have construction joints. 2. 4. without exerting damaging pressure on the member adjacent to it. They are transverse joints located at 36 to 72 m in reinforced slabs and at 27 to 54 m in non-reinforced slabs. and seasonal variations. columns. they will be concreted continuously. Compressible cellular materials are commonly used to fill these joints. 88 . temperature changes. Allow the free / independent movement of slabs between walls.5 to 7. and filling the void with some type of filling material.. Source: Andres C. 1998.

Capillary-pores of concrete resulted by the water evaporation form the concrete mix (size approx. where 1 Å= 1x10-10 m). Nonuniformity of concrete can be classified according to a number of criteria (Leschinsky A. COMPACTION.Gel pores resulting do to chemical reaction between cement and water < 26 Å ). . 89 . concrete compressive strength). They are caused by entrapping air bubbles against the form and appear to be aggravated by drier mixes and rough forms which resist the tendency of the bubbles to float to the surface during placement of concrete. .Cracks resulted do to thermal contraction of concrete. do to incorrect placement matrix. The great difficulty is that honeycomb is discovered only when too late. or vibration of concrete (size approx. Its appearance is that of exposed coarse aggregate with insufficient mortar to fill the voids. 1991): a. Level location: internal and external. they are: . Therefore. Gel pores 26…500 Å. the only recourse is to cut away the loose stones and fill in the depression with concrete of the same mix in order to achieve a good match.1. > 5 x 104 Å). It can be caused by poor mixing. can be considered defects of molecules and crystalline lattice that are revealed at various levels. External (surface) defects.mechanical properties (i. or leaching out of the mortar at a leak in the form.Honeycomb is concrete's worst surface defect. In this case. Figure 8-1 Typical detail of concrete . greatly reducing the concrete nonuniformities and plastic settlement cracking over deep bearing members and mesh/bar reinforcement. The causes suggest their own methods of prevention.Air bubbles appear as circular depressions varying in size. and the number of joints must be minimized.Spherical pores resulted by air entrapment do to batching. segregation during placement.e. Are inherent weaknesses in monolithical concrete which make its finishing irregular to itself. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Compaction of concrete is the process that expels trapped air from the freshly placed concrete and packs the aggregate particles together to increase the density of concrete.Form marks are considered objectionable. the strength of concrete in structures manufactured in accordance with the same production process and from the same materials varies for different structures. Cement matrix . and casting operations (size Sand Particle approx. Source of origin: random and systematic. Nonuniformity of concrete manifests itself in a variation of physical . the forms must be rigidly supported in true planes. > 500 Å) . . Internal defects.Caverns and cavities in the concrete are the largshowing sand in a cement paste est defects in a structure. of solid bodies.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 8. b. transport. VIBRATION AND CONCRETE FINISHING 8. as: Spherical pores .

Less favorable conditions of upper layers of concrete in the structure. the following types of nonuniformity are considered to be systematic: an increase in the concentration of Ca(OH)2 in the contact zone between aggregate and cement paste. Figure 8-2 Loss of strength through incomplete 0 compaction 0 15 30 Air voids (%) 8. decreases the permeability and helps to minimize its shrinkage-creep characteristics. In simple harmonic motion. Such nonuniformity may be caused by several reasons: variations of properties of materials. devices. commonly resulting when almost any physical system is displaced from its equilibrium condition and allowed to respond to the forces that tend to restore equilibrium.Poor production process. fresh/plastic concrete) or medium. In addition. and these steadily sap the energy of the vibrations.2.Segregation of the concrete mix as a result of vibration. instability of the concrete composition. These kinds of vibrations have a simple harmonic motion (SHM). durability of the concrete. For example. the restoring force is the tension or compression in the spring. causing the amplitude to diminish. The effect of compaction on compressive 50 strength is dramatic. Free vibrations occur when the system is disturbed shortly and then allowed to move without restraint. Thus. Relative strength Properties improved by compaction are: ul100 (%) timate strength of concrete. different values of concrete strength in this direction etc. A simple example is a child's swing that is pushed on each downswing. e. the periodic oscillations are of the mathematical form called sinusoidal. All systems are subject to frictional forces. . 2. and machines that are used in the production of concrete mix or precast elements. bond with reinforcement. A classic example is provided by a weight suspended from a spring. the strength of concrete containing 10% of trapped air may be as little as 50% that of the concrete when fully compacted. Vibrations fall into two categories: free and forced. This occurs whenever the disturbance to the system is countered by a restoring force that is exactly proportional to the degree of disturbance. Systematic nonuniformity of concrete is caused by constantly and directionally acting process and/or service factors. A universal feature of free vibration is damping. usually exponentially. which (according to Hooke's law) is proportional to the displacement of the spring. Of special interest are 90 . and often with specific factories. Causes of such regularities may also lie in various service conditions. The main causes of concrete systematic difference in a structure are: . VIBRATION Vibration is a periodic back-and-forth motion of the particles of an elastic body (e. The motion is therefore never precisely sinusoidal. different contents of water and coarse aggregate in various zones over the structure height (in the top-bottom direction). . abrasion resistance. various degrees of mix consolidation.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Random nonuniformity of concrete is the nonuniformity that varies in a random manner.g. it is manifested at various levels. Forced vibrations occur if a system is continuously driven by an external force.g. 1. different hardness and strength of a mortar above and under a coarse aggregate. different curing conditions etc. In this case.

When a point moves around a circle with uniform speed. Because frequency (f) is the reciprocal of the period--i.2. f = 1/T—this equation may be written f= v/ λ.2 Resonance occurs when the driving frequency approaches the natural frequency of free vibrations. Although the point is moving with constant speed./min Diameter of particle that goes into resonance 10 600 100…280 20 1200 24…69 25 1500 16…44 50 3000 4…11 100 6000 1…2. with an attendant growth of the vibration amplitude. Period (T). Figure 8-4 Types of vibration Caption: a. Amplitude (a) is measured by the maximum displacement of a particle from its position of equilibrium.1. This leads to the important phenomenon of resonance. M – total weight of vibrator. a.8 150 9000 0. the growth in amplitude is limited by the presence of damping. Source: Popa R. or T = λ/v.aω2 sinωt – gravity acceleration Periodic oscillations are called sinusoidal motions Figure 8-3 Sinusoidal motion In simple harmonic motion. The harmonic equations of motion are: y = a sin ωt . Horizontal. the period is the time required to complete one vibration. If the ratio of its displacement distance from the center to the acceleration is denoted by c. Table 8-1 Frequencies for which aggregates of different diameters go into resonance. b. Frequency (Hz) Rot. m – weight of the vibrator eccentric. 91 . 8. When the amplitude of a wave steadily decreases because its energy is being lost. If the wave is propagated with a velocity v and has a wavelength λ. it is said to be damped.. r – radius of the vibrator. then the period T of a simple harmonic motion is equal to 2π -i. its projection on any line taken as the diameter will execute simple harmonic motion. motion repeated in equal intervals of time (repetition. The results in a rapid take-up of energy by the vibrating system.. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS In physics.motion equation v = + a cos ωt – velocity equation g = . ultimately. or 1/frequency (T=1/ν).CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING systems undergoing SHM and driven by sinusoidal forcing. of the motion) is called the period. b.e.. T = 2π. the projection point will accelerate or decelerate according to whether it is moving toward the center of the circle or away from it. 1984.4…1. cycle. a = r x m/M where: a – amplitude. One period therefore equals the reciprocal of the frequency.e. Teodorescu M. Vertical. then the period (T) is equal to wavelength divided by velocity. but the response can be very great.

20 seconds for plastic concrete. When first placed in the form. . MANUAL COMPACTION Hand compacting is used only for small jobs that require compaction of small amounts of concrete. b. In certain situations. Steel rods (puddling spades). concrete after compaction. COMPACTION OF CONCRETE Proper compaction ensures that the formwork is completely filled (there are no pockets of honeycombed material) and the required finish is obtained on vertical surfaces. tend to arch against one another preventing from slumping or consolidating by internal friction. 1986.Tamping with screed board on thin concrete elements.3.Rodding. trapped air is expelled. Wooden hammer. Source: Ionescu I. d.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 8. f. therefore. tamping with wood floats and surface working closes up some types of cracking. and e. and space is limited. concrete after a efficient compaction. The optimal period of compaction is: 5 seconds for fluid concrete. Compaction of concrete is. giving a level top surface. d. First the aggregate particles are set in motion and the slump to fill the from. although coated with mortar. The aggregate particles. Shovel. 8. The procedure of compacting by hand is different according to the workability of concrete: 92 . c.. c. especially where reinforcement is congested. is effective for compacting elements where vibrators cannot be inserted.3.. placed concrete before compaction.. The overall time being suggested by the following effects: appearance of loose air bubbles and excess mix water floating on the concrete surface. conventional concretes will contain between 5-20% by volume-trapped air. 60 seconds for stiff concrete and 120 seconds for very stiff concrete. Mallet. b. a two-stage process.1997. The most common manual compaction methods are: . Figure 8-6 Hand tapping tools Caption: a. Source: Carare T.1. Figure 8-5 Typical aspects of concrete compaction during vibration Caption: a. with special rod tools. In the second stage. over compaction (segregated concrete).

Mass and structural concrete (0-50 mm slump) deposited in large quantities in relatively open forms of heavy construction. The procedure consists of tamping the concrete. columns.external vibrators (clamp vibrators.Fluid concrete will be compacted differently according to type of member: 1. floors.2.1. 8.9 1. beams. every hit has to overlap half of the last hit. Internal Vibrators .3-8 4. Power is supplied by a small petrol. walls. This operation will commence until loose bubbles of air and excess mix water will float on the surface 8. that will compact the concrete between reinforcing bars. The out-of-balance rotating weight causes the casing to vibrate and.g. the compaction will continue using light mallets (5-8 kg) and wooden hammers (2-3 kg). vacuuming or combined methods. rolling. MECHANICAL COMPACTION The most common methods for compacting concrete are: vibration. For beams. Table 8-2 Technical characteristics of internal vibrators.internal (also referred to as poker / spud vibrators) and surface . The concrete member will be cast in layers of maximum 200 mm. thin slabs. Compaction will start from the extremities of the form towards the direction of concrete placement. VIBRATION The most common methods for compacting concrete by vibration are of two types: immersion vibrators . .5 21. when immersed in concrete. 1. which is done by the use of strike-off bars worked against the top edge of screeds previously set to the proper height. and a vibrating head that contains a rotating eccentric weight. the concrete itself. Concrete (less than 80 mm slump) in normal construction (e.2. After using the rods. beams and columns in buildings).3.The common type of internal vibrator is the poker vibrator. Concrete (100-150 mm slump) in thin walls.0 50.02. For slabs. diesel. or electric motor and in some cases by compressed air.0 22. Striking off removes all humps and hollows. columns and walls the concrete will be placed in maximum 300 mm layers that will be compacted with steel rods. 2. applying pressure. the procedure of compaction consists of hitting the concrete surface with shovels or by striking off the level as soon as it has been placed.0 80-150 130250 180360 300500 400600 0. Mass concrete in gravity dams. Average amplitude of vibrations(mm) Radius of action (mm) Rate of concrete placement (m3/h) Vibrating head diameter (mm) Recommended frequency (Hz) Total weight (kg) Application 38 58 71 110 180 150250 140210 130200 120180 90140 0. It consists essentially of a tubular housing. precast pipes. 93 . The distance between two consecutive strikes will be about 5-10 cm.8 0.8 0.8-4 2.6-15 11-31 19-38 16. and along construction joints. large piers.5 1. These bars are operated either by hand or by power the latter acting as vibrators as well as strike-off bars. leaving a true and even surface.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Stiff concrete will be compacted with wooden or steel mallets (G=12-15 kg). vibration tampers and form vibrators – used in precast work).8 37.0 High slump concrete in very thin members and confined places. massive walls etc. This operation will commence until loose bubbles of air and excess mix water will float on the surface.3.

Reinforced rubber hose. Steel cylinder (head).200 and 9.It is necessary to select the correct size of vibrator for particular cases. specifications usually require between 3. D1= 1.radius of vibrator head (see Table 8-2). 1984.4 r. 94 . Rotating eccentric element..000 rotations per minute. To ensure that the concrete element is vibrated correctly. 2000. where r. D2= 1.73 r.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Note: Assumes insertion spacing 1 ½ times radius of action. The rate of vibration influences efficiency. One controlling consideration is that the spacing between reinforcing-steel bars has an effect on the maximum diameter of a vibrator head. 2. Electric motor. 3. Figure 8-8 a. Source: Tremix.The effectiveness of a vibrator (especially its head diameter and eccentric weight) is dependent on its frequency and amplitude. Figure 8-7 Typical internal vibrator. 4. the larger the head the larger the amplitude. the designer puts forward the following recommendations: . Example of working procedures with vibrator Caption: 1. Teodorescu M. Source: Popa R. Internal / poker vibrator. . 2001. and that vibrator operates twothirds of time concrete is being placed. Cement & Concrete Association of Australia..

Generally. and other flat surfaces. on slabs less than 200 mm in depth. The intensity of vibration. the vibrator should not be held against the reinforcement as this may cause its displacement. The distance between two insertions can be shortened in accordance with the member size and reinforcement denseness. - - 2. therefore the poker should be inserted at approximately 700-1000 mm centers (1. on all sides. . and then held stationary until air bubbles cease to raise to the surface. Surface vibrators (also referred to as external vibrators) are applied to the top surface of concrete and act downwards form there. they are useful in compacting slabs. These movements should be repeated in a regular pattern (see Figure 8-8). The vibrating beams and plates combine in-depth action with the capability to produce flat floors. The vibrator should then be slowly withdrawn and reinserted in a fresh position adjacent to the first. The circle of concrete that is set in motion should be observed and these areas should overlap (see Figure 8. Similarly. Never use the vibrator to lead the concrete towards a certain direction because it will segregate the concrete. They are ideal for finishing operations in small areas and for low-slump concrete. 95 .8 c). They are usually left in one place between 30-60 sec. The effective radius of a poker vibrator is about 600-700 mm. 2000. clamp vibrators and vibormoulds and vibrating tables. Use of poker vibrator Source: Cement & Concrete Association of Australia.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING In concrete members that are thin and heavily reinforced. When operating the vibrators. careful vibration will cause the concrete to follow uniformly around the reinforcement and this increased fluidity due to vibration will occur with mixes which in normal circumstances would be considered too dry for reinforced concrete. Figure 8-9 b. a. Vibration plates and tampers consist of small vibrating engines (shaft with eccentric) that are fixed to the top of a plate or a tamping board (steel or aluminum) for consolidating concrete paving and slabs. are: vibration plates and tampers. road pavements. They are most effective. they also aid in leveling and finishing the surface. Surface vibrators can cover al speeds and centrifugal forces.The vibrator should not be allowed to touch the forms as this can cause deterioration of forms. and hence the amount of compaction achieved. penetrating previous layers of freshly placed concrete (about 50-150 mm). usually in about 15-20 seconds. Random insertions are likely to leave areas of the concrete uncompacted. therefore. The basic forms of vibrator used in building works.4 x effective radius) to achieve an overall consolidation of the concrete. the vibrator should be kept about 50 mm clear of the form face. decreases with depth because surface vibrators act form the top down. Two consecutive work positions must overlap on minimum 50 mm. they should be inserted vertically into the concrete as quickly as possible. industrial floors. and can be used independently or with external frequency converters and switch boxes.

Clamp vibrators (also referred to as form vibrators) are devices that are attached to the external sides of formwork to vibrate the whole of the form. 96 . Form panel. Clamp vibrator.. location. 2001 Figure 8-10 c. Whale. Source:Popa R. b. It is generally desirable to supplement vibrating – beam compaction by using immersion vibrators alongside edge forms.. maximum compaction depth 200-350 mm. Vibration plate. they can be attached to only one side (< 150 mm) or on both (≥ 300 mm). Degree of compaction varies across width when surface vibrators are used With centrally mounted vibration units. the latter may tend to damp the vibration at the extremities of the beam. frequency . frequency 80 – 100 Hz. Source: Tremix. 2. operating weight 60-90 kg. b Typical surface vibrator Caption: a.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 8-10 a. w/c. 3. and c. Teodorescu M. When they rest on edge forms. 1984. Technical characteristics of vibration plate: plate width 300 – 600 mm. cement content. average travel speed 18 – 20 m/min.. b. Figure 8-11 Typical positioning of clamp vibrators in formwork Caption: 1. Care must be taken when deciding the clamps number. Vibration tamper. and aggregate grading) and ensuring that the formwork has enough strength to resist the load of the concrete and to withstand the vibrations. the degree of compaction achieved may vary across the width of the beam.according to the concrete mix design (workability. According to the thickness of the wall.

. Vibormould.. b. APPLYING PRESSURE Compacting by applying pressure is a specific procedure for compacting prefabricated concrete elements. 2. the particles will rearrange themselves eliminating at the same time excess mix water through permeable sides of moulds. 3. Teodorescu M. Foundations. Belt conveyor. Concrete. Teodorescu M.. 2. Concrete bucket.3. 1984. 3. Vibrating table. Foundation. thus vibrating the whole concrete. Teodorescu M..3. 8. by applying an external pressure on the topside of the concrete member. Steel rollers. Vibrating table: 1. 4. Popa R. 6. Vibrating moulds and tables are devices used for compacting prefabricated concrete elements. Technical characteristics of vibration plate: frequency 25 – 100 Hz. 1984. Table. By this effect.. Press. Figure 8-12 External vibrators Caption: a. 1984. 4.2. 4. Source: Suman R. Steel brace. 8.3. 3. Compaction rollers.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING c. 6. 97 .. Elastic spring support.. Vibrating beam.2. 5. maximum compaction depth 200-400 mm. 5. Permeable mould. Figure 8-13 Vibropress Caption: 1. they resemble vibration clamps that are attached to the external sides of moulds or beams. Source: Popa R.2. 1988. ROLLING Compaction by rolling is a specific procedure for compacting concrete prefabricates using the conveyor procedure (see chapter 10). Vibormould and vibrating table. The initial pressing force will be located in fresh concrete areas of low strength that will cause there sliding. Figure 8-14 Compacting by rolling Caption: 1. Source: Popa R. Elastic support. Mould. 2. Clamp vibrator. 5.

The vacuum created will compress the concrete slab and force the water to flow out up to a depth of 300 mm. minimizes shrinkage of concrete members. Source: Popa R. The object is to remove the excess water from the flat member immediately after the initial compaction and leveling has taken place. 150 l/h. Connecting tube piece. layer by layer. b. 8. by using a vacuum pump with a flow capacity of approx. and reduces maintenance requirements.5. 1984. It increases the compressive strength. The vacuum should be applied for about three minutes for every 25 mm of concrete depth. In cold weather. Water separator tank. Electric motor.2. The slab is covered with a fine filter sheet and a rigid or flexible suction mat to which is connected to a transparent flexible plastic pipe attached to a vacuum generator. Steel sheet. 2. Vacuum dewatering is a method of reducing the time delay before finishing can take place. which will generally mean that within approximately 20 minutes of casting the mats it can be removed and the initial finishing (power floating) operation commenced. Vacuum pump. With only one pump connected to two or more suction mats. The dewatering process will cause a reduction of about 2% in the slab depth and therefore a surcharge should be provided by means of packing strips on the side forms or at the ends of the tamping boards. d. 3. 5. Teodorescu M.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 8.4. It is possible for a team consisting of six operatives and a supervisor to complete 200 m2 of paving per day using this method. followed by the final trowelling (leveling) operation.. Steel mesh. 6. Steel panel. The filter sheet will ensure that very little of the cement fines of the mix are carried along in suspension by the water being removed. 98 . Flexible plastic tubing.3. Filter material. 4. Vacuum dewatering treatment reduces the total cost of concrete operations.2. Tremix 2001.. 60 m3 of concrete can be treated simultaneously. VACUUM DEWATERING Figure 8-15 Standard set of vacuum dewatering installation Caption: 1. c. Main steel tubing. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Radial compaction by centrifugal force consists of feeding the fresh concrete materials. a. in a cylindrical mould that is accelerated.3. This method enables the laying of long strips of paving in a continuous operation. the dewatering achieved by vacuuming reduces hardening times.

Under-vibration is the most common filing. After the pipe has been extracted. placed on a trolley with a winch. Figure 8-16 Compacting by centrifugal force Source: Popa R. many specifications contain a caution against the over-vibration . 8. the mould is rotated at higher speed and sprayed with hot water at 70 degrees Celsius in order to accelerate the curing process. increase permeability.5. lowers durability. such as dusting and flaking. it can causes serious defects do to incompletely compaction of concrete.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The process times include feeding times and curing times. 1984. when it occurs. the mould is cleaned and sprayed with a special separating agent. and the curing times between 10 and 45 minutes. 40 degrees Celsius. The proper solution is to adjust the mix design. these result from segregation and are characterized by an excessive thickness of mortar on the surface of the concrete. It should not be confused with the double vibration that sometimes occurs with the haphazard use of immersion vibrators or multiple passes of a vibrating-beam screed. the feeding times lie between 6 and 60 minutes. that are used on poorly proportioned mixes or those to which excessive amounts of water have been added.. REVIBRATION Revibration of concrete is the intentional systematic vibration of concrete that has been compacted some time earlier. 99 . Teodorescu M. and increase susceptibility to corrosive elements. Leading to concrete segregation and poor surface finishes. The pipe is pulled then out by a pneumatic device.and even lay down a length of time for vibration that must not be exceeded . lowers concrete strength.. the mould is cooled down again with water to approx. Depending on the diameter. the initial reaction may be to reduce the amount of vibration. The starting curing temperature of the moulds is between 30 and 40 degrees Celsius. The high centrifugal forces generated during the casting process causes high pressures ensuring that the solid materials are thoroughly compacted. Under-vibration is far more common than over-vibration and. The cover is mounted at the end of the mould and the pipe is then released for further processing. When signs of over-vibration are detected. Over-vibration appears do to oversized equipment operated for an excessive length of time. UNDER-VIBRATION AND OVER-VIBRATION Normal-weight concrete’s that are well proportioned are not readily susceptible to defects caused by over-vibration. After curing. After the feeding process.4. pressure class. and sent for finishing.whilst neglecting totally the question of under-vibration. 8. causing the pipe to shrink for easier extraction. and stiffness class. Despite this. it affects structural properties.

Finishing must be done when the concrete is neither too hard to be worked nor so soft that it will fail to retain the desired finish.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING It is generally agreed that revibration of concrete can be beneficial to its strength. improve the surface finish at the tops of columns and walls by expelling the air that tends to congregate there as the concrete settles in the formwork and improve bonding to reinforcement when concrete is placed in layers 8.. 100 . its bond to reinforcement and its surface finish. 1988. close plastic shrinkage and settlement cracks. texture and durability (wearing qualities). Figure 8-17 Trowels (floats) for surface finishing Source: Suman R.6. Re-vibration is used to: bond layers of concrete into those preceding them. Timing is an important factor in this operation. partly due to the difficulty of knowing just how late it can be applied. 2000. Figure 8-18 Power float Source: Cement & Concrete Association of Australia. A good rule of thumb is the revibration may be used as long as the vibrator is capable of liquefying the concrete and sinking into it. under its own weight. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHING Finishing represents the treatment of exposed concrete surfaces to produce the desired appearance (correct minor irregularities of surface). Figure 8-19 Methods of concrete surface finish The procedure to follow depends primarily on whether the surface is horizontal or vertical. the practice is not widely used. Horizontal surfaces are usually exposed and must be finished before the concrete has hardened.

The surface may sometimes be floated a second time-after some hardening has taken place-to impart the final texture to the concrete. it should not begin until all bleed-water has evaporated from the surface and the concrete is hard enough to withstand foot traffic with only minor indentations in the surface. the trowel at too great an angle can create ripples on the surface. 101 . A trowel for hand finishing has a flat. but in general terms. Generally. This increases the pressure at the bottom of the blade and compacts the surface. Bullfloating is useful as an initial floating operation to smooth the concrete surface immediately after screeding.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The main types of finishes are as follows: screeding. removes slight imperfections and produces a surface closer to the true plane and compacts the concrete. a. and remove minor imperfections and cracks. It embeds large aggregate particles beneath the surface. The hand float is held flat on the surface and moved in a sweeping arc to embed the aggregate. which is worked back and forth on the concrete -in a direction parallel to the ridges formed by screeding. that cannot be reached with a power-float should be manually floated before power floating. when the trowel is moved across the surface. Successive trowelling operations should be made with smaller trowels at increasing pitches. Floating. Trowelling is carried out some time after floating. These indentations are removed by the floating operation. Trowelling by hand. the trowel blade should be kept as flat against the surface as possible because tilting. The delay is to allow some stiffening to take place so aggregate particles are not torn out of the surface. Bullfloating. Surfaces near to obstructions. For trowelling to be most effective. and wear resistance of the surface. compact the concrete. The purpose of floating is to make the surface even and open in texture. b. Floating is working the surface of concrete with hand floats. The striking surface of a screed board should always be straight and true. Hand screeding off edge forms involves the use of a screed board (or beam) to strike off the concrete to the required height. broad steel blade and is used in a sweeping arc motion with each pass overlapping the previous one. The surface is struck off by pulling the screed board forward. leaving a matt finish. or in slab corners. A small roll or surcharge of concrete should always be kept ahead of the screed. it should give a ringing sound. c. Floating by hand. The bullfloat is a large float on a long handle. and should be completed before bleed water appears on the surface. The trowelling machine (power trowel) is a common tool for all classes of work and consists of several (generally four) steel trowel blades rotated by a motor and guided by a handle. For the first trowelling (often referred to as 'breaking'). Surface hollows created by aggregate “roll out” or insufficient surcharge in front of the screed should always be filled immediately to prevent variations in floor levels. Trowelling by machine. It is done by hand. It should be done before bleed water rises to the surface. the timing of the operation calls for some experience and judgment. bullfloats or with rotary finishing machines fitted with suitable floats or shoes. preparing it for finishing and closes minor surface cracks. Floating by machine. Screeding is the operation of leveling the concrete after it is placed in the forms and roughly distributed with shovels. Float blades are turned up along the edges to prevent them digging into the surfaces in the flat position. or pitching. while moving it back and forth in a sawing-like motion across the top of the edge forms. More trowelling increases the smoothness. density. The power-float should be operated over the concrete in a regular pattern. ready for finishing. consolidates mortar at the surface. which might appear as the surface dries. which work off the forms or guide rails. or by means of vibrating-beam screeds. floating and trowelling.

3.2. reduce the incidence of drying shrinkage cracking. and the heat generated from the hydration reactions. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS “Curing is the name given to procedures used for promoting the hydration of cement. cement type. Proper curing is essential for the concrete to perform its intended function over the life of the structure. 102 . time. absorption of solar heat. BASIC CURING REQUIREMENTS The basic requirements for proper curing are (ENV 206): 1.the ambient environment. according to a series of factors (e. Maintain adequate water content in the concrete mix by retaining (through different curing methods) a suitable moisture content in the cement paste.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 9. Hydration of cement takes time (hours or even days) while concrete curing can take days. Protect the concrete against vibration and impact that may disrupt it and interfere with its bond to the reinforcement. DURATION OF CURING The following factors influence the duration of curing: Curing sensitivity of the concrete as influenced by its composition (type of cement used. The amount of time needed depends on a number of variables curing temperature. 5. 9. 9. shock. and consequently their resistance to abrasion. 4. 2. or as nearly saturated as possible. influencing the cement rate of hydration causing the formation of shrinkage cracks before the curing has started (high internal thermal gradients.” ACI Committee 308 (1994).. and w/c ratio of mix. Temperature control can be a difficult matter since there are three potential sources of heat . and excessive vibration. improve protection of reinforcement. type of cement. and even weeks. the object of curing is to keep concrete saturated.. mixture proportions. increase the hardness of surfaces.] More specifically. Evaporation can occur do to high temperatures and wind. Maintaining an adequate temperature above freezing at a relatively constant value throughout the period of curing. required strength etc). in the scope of obtaining maximum strength and durability.1. temperature and concrete grade).g. and at the same time protecting it from high temperatures that can at early ages impair long-term properties or that can cause cracking due to temperature gradients. Provide adequate time for sufficient hydration to produce concrete having satisfactory properties for its intended use. water-cement ratio. Proper curing will: improve compressive strength. Provide adequate protection from damaging mechanical disturbances during the early period of curing as the concrete gains strength – such as heavy loads. large stresses. until the originally water-filled space in the fresh cement paste has been filled to the desired extent by the products of hydration of cement. and consists of a control of temperature and of the moisture movement from and into the concrete.3. Protect the concrete against extreme temperatures (low temperature or frost) and environments that can cause rapid cooling during the first few days after placing. CURING CONCRETE 9. [. prematurely drying out the concrete.

5 2 4 4 Rapid 10 15 Strength development of concrete Temperatures of concrete during curing above °C Ambient conditions during curing I . Method of curing.Exposed to medium sunshine or medium wind velocity or relative humidity not lower than 50 % III . Exposure conditions of the structure in service.Exposed to strong sunshine or high wind velocity or relative humidity below 50 % 5 3 6 8 Medium 10 15 5 3 8 10 Slow 10 15 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 4 6 2 3 5 3 5 8 2 4 5 9. METHODS OF CONCRETE CURING The standard methods for the concrete curing are (CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. reducing the severe temperature stresses and early cracking of the concrete surface layers. Size and shape of member. NE 012-1999): 1. inexpensive and effective form of curing concrete.4. Since all desirable properties are improved with curing. the curing period at temperatures above 5°C should be a minimum of 7 days or until 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength is attained. For most concrete structures. If water to cold – possibility of concrete thermal shock. to a depth of 1 to 5 cm. the period should be as long as practical. 103 . while alternate wetting 10-11 and drying of the concrete can cause volume changes and cracking of surface. 9. CURING UNDER TEMPERATURE RANGING FROM 5 OC TO 30 OC Concrete properties and durability improve with age as long as conditions are favorable for continued hydration of the cement. The method consists of ponding or hooding (immersing) the concrete surface. Ambient conditions during and after curing. Coefficient of permeability (m/s) Limitations: include the need for large amounts of 10-17 water and supervision. Figure 9-1 Effect of duration of water curing on the permeability of cement paste 10 -7 03 7 14 28 Curing period (days) As seen.4. not to allow the surfaces to dry out between applications. in water (this method is suited to curing flat surfaces. Table 9-1 Minimum curing times in days according to exposure classes. Ponding – is a quick.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Concrete temperature. such as pavements and floors). The period can be reduced to 3 days if high early strength concrete is used and the temperature is above 10° C (see formwork strike off). extending the period of curing reduces the permeability. relative humidity of surrounding air not lower than 80 % II . Water could also erode the concrete surface if adequate care is not taken.No direct sunshine. Sprinkling with Water (also referred to as Fog Curing) – uses a fine spray or fog of water to bring additional moisture to the concrete surface.1. 2. The necessary conditions required are sufficient moisture and temperatures preferably in the 5° to 30°C range. contributing to cracking.

Where formed surface are cured. the forms shall also be kept continually wet.5) days. used to retard or reduce evaporation of water. generally 4 mm thick. hay or saw dust. 3.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Advantages: preventing loss of moisture by providing a positive excess of water continuously and maintaining a uniform temperature. In place of the mats. they can cause patchy discoloration. saturated straw may be used to 5 retain the mixing water by preventing 03 7 28 90 Age (days) evaporation. cotton. Sheets shall be weighted to prevent displacement or billowing from winds. 4. The mats must be wide enough to drape over the concrete edges. Limitations: Periodic additions of water. Covering shall be lapped not less than 300 mm and securely weighted down or shall be lapped not less than 100 mm and taped to form a continuous cover by completely closed joints. Covering shall be folded down under exposed edges of slabs and secured by appropriate means as approved by the Engineer. If the forms are removed before the end of the specified curing period. 6. Advantages: very efficient for curing horizontal surfaces. especially during hot weather. Advantages: lightweight and effective moisture barrier that can be easily applied to complex as well as simple shapes of concrete members. It is an excellent method where 104 . polyethylene sheathing or with polyethylene coated burlap thoroughly saturated with water before placement of the concrete. more pronounced when film is wrinkled and periodic additions of water may be necessary to prevent discoloration. assures suitable hydration by preventing loss of moisture. Limitations: effectiveness is reduced if they are not secured and wind enters underneath. These In air 14 days are sometimes used as preliminary to In air 7 days the paper curing and sometimes used In air 3 days 25 alone. Advantages: No discoloration. use of polyethylene film over wet covering will eliminate continuous watering.all surfaces shall be thoroughly wetted with a fine spray of water and be completely covered with waterproof paper. oils or resins held in solution by a volatile solvent). it is reusable and tears and holes can easily be repaired with patches. 7. periodic additions of water are not required. Membrane Curing Compounds – are applied by spraying or rolling the member with a liquid membrane-sealing compound (blend of waxes. using suitable materials. Wet Coverings – such as moistureCompressive strength (MPa) In air 28 days 45 retaining fabrics saturated with water.may also provide an effective barrier if they are left in place after casting. 5. They are In air entire time kept wet continuously for the duration of the curing period.e. Limitations: it requires considerable labor and supervision being impractical for big jobs. Impervious Paper (Kraft Paper) . Moist-cured i. Sheets shall be immediately repaired or replaced if tears or holes appear over the curing period. or jute felt mats. Forms Left in Place . and sand. burlap. resistant to rot and fire. The curing duration is Figure 9-2 Variation of concrete strength with curing given as a specified interval such as 7 environment (W/C =0. In this case. Ponding is also commonly used for curing specimens in laboratories. the exposed surface of the concrete has to be kept wet using sprinkler or hoses. Plastic sheets are made of polyethylene films. curing shall be continued on stripped surfaces. entire time rugs.

Insulating Blankets . GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The general loss in output in the construction industry in normal circumstances during the winter and summer period is about 15…20%. layers of dry porous material such as straw may be used to insulate the concrete from the cold. The following precautions should ensure mat no detrimental effects occur when mixing and placing in extreme weather conditions: . 9. and also the failure to cover the surface completely. or other material can also be used and heated by space heaters or steam. In these cases. . . causing under-employment of staff and plant and delay in completing the building.Temperature of concrete when placed ideally should be 10°…30°C. care needs to be taken to ensure that temperatures do not rise excessively.Storage of cement under cover and in perfectly dry conditions to prevent air setting. 2000. due to greater surface area the hydration reaction will be faster providing a high rate of heat evolution helping prevention of frost damage and faster strength gain. Weather factors that can damage the concrete are air temperature. .1.Minimum of delay between mixing and placing. Formwork can also be economically insulated with commercial blanket. Limitations: failure in the field to place them at the correct instant (when surface is watery the spray will collect in globules on the water and no film will form and if it is applied too late the water in the upper concrete layer will evaporate and the harm is done). 8. and from other causes of abrasion and contamination during the curing period.Cooling /defrosting of aggregates.If special cements with extra fineness of particles are used. Warm air can be blown under the tent to create an insulative layer. . they affect the maturity by slowing down the rate at which concrete hardens or increases the rate at which the water evaporates to an unacceptable level.Newly placed concrete to be kept at a temperature of more than 5 °C for at least three days since the rate at which concrete sets below this temperature is almost negligible. Figure 9-3 Spraying on a curing compound Source: Cement & Concrete Association of Australia. relative humidity. It may be necessary to employ the use of covers with heating elements to maintain this minimum temperature or a polythene tent to provide about 500 mm air space underneath. A common requirement is that it shall form a film that shall retain at the end of 3 days at least 85 per cent of the water. Advantages: low cost to apply and easy application on vertical surfaces.when temperatures fall below freezing. prevailing winds and wind intensity.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING temperature is above freezing and humidity is low.5. Framed enclosures of canvas. . 105 .5. CURING CONCRETE IN EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS 9. polyethylene. Surfaces coated with curing compound shall be kept free from foot and vehicular traffic.

g. before unloading. Good practice requires during hot weather to follow details that will reduce the risk of poor concrete quality work: . . at some time or another.5.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 9. to place concrete in extreme temperatures. 9. or work at night. Spraying or misting coarse aggregate with water or shading them is probably the most practical because the cooling takes place by evaporation (as the water evaporates. which in turn minimizes the extent of plastic shrinkage cracking that would otherwise occur under hot windy conditions.3. . . frost action. evaporation retarders . if defined as that period requiring special precautions to prevent damage to constructions.Plan the job to avoid delays once the concrete pour has started. Misting the top of the mixer drum will also allow heat to be pulled off as the water evaporates. it is considered as the interval when the ambient temperature is between +5 oC and –10 oC. . shorter setting times and lower strength causing shrinkage cracks. in these cases (in either hot or cold concreting conditions) adjustments shall be made to the mix and to the placing and finishing practices to avoid problems occurring. freshly placed concrete must be protected to prevent freezing. .Damped the sub base before placement of concrete (but do not leave surface water). for placing the concrete a short time is available in which finishing may be done. PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE IN EXTREME TEMPERATURES Most concrete contractors need.Transportation should be carried out as rapidly as possible. 106 . however. if defined as that period requiring special precautions to prevent damage to constructions. Liquid nitrogen can be injected into the mixer. to prevent them from drying out and taking moisture from the concrete.Adjust the mix to compensate for warm weather. In these conditions. be sure they are parked in the shade. snow and poor daylight levels. In cold conditions prolonged setting times are required. the heat is pulled off). concrete can crack when the water in the concrete mass freezes and expands. Conventionally this period starts on 15 November to 15 March. . High temperatures.Spray concrete with curing compounds (e. . Precise co-ordination between the contractor and the plant is also imperative.5.2. low humidity and high winds accelerate the set of concrete by causing moisture loss .5.Cool the aggregate. . excess precipitation. HOT WEATHER CONCRETING Summer. by hot weather or low humidity. it requires special setup and is extremely expensive.Plan the job earlier in the day. Placing concrete during hot weather presents some special problems.Sprinkle the forms and steel cool water just before concrete is placed.Substitute ice or chilled water for a portion of the mixing water is another method of cooling. heat builds up in the concrete. it is considered as the interval when the exterior temperature is between +5 oC and +30 oC. If trucks are delayed before unloading. and the success of a concreting project under such conditions depends on their solution. and use readers (water reducing retarders).4.reduces the rate of evaporation) that are applied over the surface to trap bleed water. This will cause a stoppage of work unless adequate winter construction equipment is used. by high winds.rapid drying of surfaces. 9. COLD WEATHER CONCRETING Winter.

a. fresh concrete can be placed successfully at temperatures up to 80°C. Good practice requires during cold weather to follow details that will reduce the risk of poor concrete quality work: . For concrete that is to be placed in the field. it will most likely thaw unevenly. Good practice requires during cold weather to follow details that will reduce the risk of poor concrete quality work.Heat the mixing water and the aggregates. Temporary shelters are the most common enclosure material is reinforced polyethylene/plastic sheets because they are the cheapest and simplest form of giving protection to the working areas. such as using: 1. injection of steam into the mixer is used to produce temperatures of 50° to 80°C. adding of accelerator additives and hot water blended to the mix.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Concrete which has attained a strength of 5 MPa is considered past the danger stage. For example. Faster setting and earlier finishing allow the concrete to be covered more quickly. When hotter concrete is required. under the proper conditions. compaction. Water produced in the mix due to the condensation of steam is included in the total amount of water required for strength and slump control. more intensive use can be made of expensive plant facilities. it has been found that. air-supported structures and protective layers of insulating materials. Temperature is controlled by regulating the amount of steam entering the countercurrent mixers mixer.Do not place concrete on a frozen subgrade. 3. If more water is required for slump adjustment. Enclosures and Protective Layers of Insulating Materials. although it is still not capable of withstanding repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. but just before adding cement and water. 107 .Additives added to the mix as an accelerator. Fast hardening cement. the maintenance of such temperatures is necessary to allow time for placing. . 1. retaining heat and reducing the risk of freezing. it has been shown that curing times of 3 hr can produce approximately 60% to 70% of the 28-day design strength. But in situations in which concrete is to be mixed in a central plant for use in producing reinforced precast products. Enclosure and protective layers of insulating materials. Moulds can be used two or sometimes three times in an 8-hr day rather than once. which means it will settle unevenly and have hollow areas under the slab. Steam generators for defrosting plant and materials or heating water. framed enclosures. Such protection can be of one or more of the following types: temporary shelters. speed up setting so the concrete can be finished. steam is injected into the mixer at the same time the aggregates are dumped. Emphasis has been placed on the necessity for keeping fresh concrete temperatures in the range of +5°…+30°C. as is the case with normal temperature concrete. . Therefore. Hot concrete. it should be the same temperature as the concrete. Workers and materials will need protection from adverse winter conditions if an acceptable level of production is to be maintained without interruption under adverse conditions to ensure maximum quality and productivity. 2. Further gain in strength will depend on temperature and humidity conditions. 2. and finishing. but care must be taken to see that temperatures do not rise to a high level. Sometimes the plastic is used only as temporary hoarding for door and window openings or as window strips. to achieve the required temperature range. Normally. The primary reason for using hot concrete is that it sets and gains early strength much more rapidly than concrete placed at conventional temperatures. but often the whole enclosure is covered with polyethylene fixed to the outside of the scaffold to form a windbreak.

Some contractors enclose two levels below and the one on which they are working. 3. 1984.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Enclosures can be heated using numerous types of heaters and fuel sources. Source: Popa R. The frame can be constructed from standard tubular scaffolding. 5. Anchorage to the ground of the entire framed structure is of grate importance. Wall. Two forms are available: internally supported dome and air rib dome. Figure 9-4 Temporary shelter Caption: 1.. Auxiliary structure for protective enclosure. b. Teodorescu M. radiant heaters. Heaters. Figure 9-6 Framed enclosure Source: GP 004-9742 c.. Concrete structure. 3. They consist of a frame covering the whole structure covered by a polythene sheet. Framed enclosures. 2. Vertical enclosure (polyethylene sheets). Insulating blanket. Figure 9-5 Typical heating enclosure Caption: 1. a.. The main types of heater in use are convectors (gas-burning appliances). Teodorescu M. Procedures for casting a structural concrete wall in enclosure. and forced-air heaters (water vapor into the space being heated) using electricity. Slab. Heaters. Form. Internally supported dome. Air-supported structures. 2. At a minimum. The frame must be rigid enough to take the extra loadings of the coverings and any imposed loading such as wind loadings. 4. 2. Heaters. gas. 3. Horizontal enclosure (polyethylene sheets). 108 . These are sometimes called air domes and are being increasingly used on building sites as a protective enclosure for works in progress and for covered material storage areas. Source: Popa R. 1984. Figure 9-7. b. the level below the floor you will be working on should be enclosed.. Air supported structure Caption: 1. or oil as fuel. 4.

One of the easiest ways to protect concrete is to cover it with insulating blankets. Figure 9-9 Typical protection of fresh cast concrete with heating forms Caption: 1. 2. Concrete member. the insulation will be covering a cold slab. 2. re-usable. 3.. Figure 9-8 Heating form Caption: 1. The usual shape for an air-supported structure is semi-cylindrical with rounded ends through which daylight can be introduced by having a translucent membrane over the crown of the structure. 5. Concrete cup-shaped footing. moisture will be trapped. Insulating blanket. Concrete member. Insulating blanket.. Space required for circulation of heating agent. Straw can be used if these are not available. the deck area should be covered the night before pouring to trap the temporary heat that is rising. 2. light in weight. On elevated slabs.. Source: Popa R.. 3. while only a small amount of labor is required to erect and dismantle them and with only a low internal pressure workers inside are not affected. The advantages of air supported structures are the low cost. 4. 6. The steam generator can be connected to steam coils that can be inserted into stockpiles of materials or alternatively the steam generator can be connected to a hand-held lance. 1984. Source: Popa R. Heat must be maintained below the placed slab. Heating steel form. Teodorescu M. 1984. 109 . Insulating blanket for form.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The internally supported dome (referred to as an air-structure) is held up by internal air pressure acting against the covering membrane with access through an air lock or air curtain door. d. Limitations are the need to have at least one fan in continuous operation to maintain the internal air pressure. Figure 9-10 Typical solution of concrete protection using insulating blankets Caption: 1. provision of an air lock or curtain entrance that will impede or restrict the general site circulation and the height limitation that is usually in the region of 45% of the overall span of the structure. Teodorescu M. Heating pipes. Heating steel form. Insulating blanket for free surface of concrete. Insulating blanket. 4. and the top will freeze. whereas in the air rib dome the membrane is supported by air-inflated ribs to which the covering membrane is attached. 3. otherwise. Protective layers of insulating materials. Steam generators for defrosting plant and materials or heating water.

masonry units and prestressed products). high early strengths. Teodorescu M. concrete after 14 days of curing has completed only 40% of its potential..Prevention of loss of moisture from concrete (not less than 80% r.Maintenance of favorable temperature for hydration to occur for a definite period (above freezing and below 80 oC). However.. These effects are of chemical and physical nature. EFFECTS OF ACCELERATED CURING ON CEMENT AND CONCRETE STRUCTURE Heat curing may cause two types of effects that could negatively influence the durability of the precast concrete element.Lowers the costs by optimizing the choice of measures for humidity and temperature control and to improve the planning of the concrete production by optimizing the execution of the concrete work including the time schedule.. b. ACCELERATED CONCRETE CURING 9. In normal circumstances. 9. The scope of accelerated curing practices is the allowance for a rapid and frequent reuse of the casting beds..h.6. precast concrete after 16. 1. 9. Heating aggregates before introduction in mix. lowering the production costs by an efficient control of the hardening of the concrete. so to increase productivity. Accurate design and control of concrete curing: . .). heat source underneath the aggregate pile. Chemical effect is manifested by the increased hydration of the cement due to the high curing temperatures.6. The major concerns regarding of accelerated curing are: potential for increased moisture loss and high temperatures. 1984. which in normal conditions would have been attained after 5-7 days after casting (NE 013-200243). that can have a detrimental effect on long-term concrete properties. occurring during the curing process. pipes. By using accelerated curing practices. the procedures used for accelerating strength gain aim to create a favorable humidity and temperature for hydration to occur.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Figure 9-11 a. the strengths at later ages (from 7 days and beyond) are lower than those of the same concrete cured at the standard laboratory conditions (21±2°C and 95±5% relative hu110 .20 hr reaches 70% of its potential.6. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Although accelerated curing is used more frequently for precast members (structural members. Source: Popa R. Do to these.2. and protection of freshly placed concrete. which lead to a rapid crystal growth and consequently.1. . and after 28 days 70%. The objectives of curing acceleration of concrete are: . it also applies to cast-in-place concrete.Improves the overall quality by maintaining the humidity of the freshly placed concrete to assure satisfactory hydration and preventing early age cracking caused by restrained thermal and shrinkage deformations and damages related to early age frost exposure.

5 4.810 28 Normal 84.can be achieved by two methods: live (low pressure) steam at atmospheric pressure or by high-pressure steam curing in autoclaves. This means that the temperature used will be a compromise between the rate of strength gain and the ultimate strength. air expands the most and.4 6. prestress transfer. the chemical effects are the strength loss at later ages.1 7. shrinkage and creep as compared to normally cured concrete do to the induced microcracks that are preferable paths for ingress of aggressive agents that cause concrete deterioration.1 7. The temperature at which the concrete has to be cured depends upon the strength required at the time of demoulding. air has the highest coefficient of expansion.9 42. non uniform transfer of prestress leading to localized stress concentration. Strength development in concrete is a function of the temperature of concrete. In the precast concrete industry. 9. The enclosing arrangements shall be kept sufficiently airtight during the whole period of steam curing to prevent the entry of cool air at any 111 . as the concrete is still very weak.2 32. aggregates.6 37. which influence negatively the durability. With careful temperature selection.is used for enclosed cast-in-place structures and large precast units.750 2. or cause uneven heating of the members at any point. for such additional time as may be needed to enable the units to meet the strength requirements.756 Steam 84.1 10. Age (days) Curing Compressive Flexural Tensile E Modulus 1 Steam 55.6 36. when necessary. steam-cured concrete has reduced drying. admixtures. the stresses caused by the air expansion may cause microcracks to form. Besides the early strength gain.1 7.600 90 Normal 94. Therefore. CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ACCELERATED CURING PROCEDURES 1.4 4.7 6 45.3 5.8 5. and air. Physical effect of heat curing of concrete is microcracking. water.8 9.2 6. do to the porosity of the concrete that has is increased. Table 9-2 Strengths (MPa) of normal and steam cured concrete specimens.533 Steam 102.3 4.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING midity). Units may be placed in a curing chamber (free from outside drafts) and cured in a moist atmosphere maintained at a maximum temperatures range from 40° to 100°C (with the optimum being in the 65 °to 80 °C). and/or handling. the strength of concrete after 3 days can exceed the 28-day strength of normally cured concrete. The steam inlets shall be placed in such a manner and/or the concrete members shall be protected in such a way that steam will not be blown directly against the concrete.2 40. its age from casting and the type of cement. during the temperature rise phase of heat curing.8 39. rapid cooling after demoulding (thermal shock). High curing temperatures (up to 80 °C) are often used for obtaining high strengths (30 to 55 MPa) at ages ranging from 6 to 16 hours. steam curing allows increased production by a more rapid turnover of moulds and formwork. Of all these materials.571 Normal 67. by the injection of steam for a period of not less than 12 hours or. Therefore. The constituents of concrete are cement.1 9 5. From this it is evident that microcracking is a parameter of concrete deterioration and the causes for microcracking are: high curing temperatures.6.858 Steam 93. further stresses are induced which may widen the existing microcracks and/or create new ones.3. If during the cooling phase. a.3 4. the lower the ultimate strength. The higher the initial temperature of the curing environment. concrete cools very rapidly.3 40. Steam Curing . Atmosphere Pressure Steam Curing .183 7 Normal 74.

The instruments shall be secured against access by unauthorised persons. Temperature within steam enclosure (oC) Steam temperature in enclosure held to 80 C until desired concrete strength is developed 80 Concrete temperature variation Temperature reduced to 40 oC/hr until within 20oC of outside temperature o 40 Steam applied to enclosure at 20oC /hr Outside air at 20oC 0 0 I 4 II 8 III 18 IV Enclosure temperature variation 22 Time after placing (hr) I. Figure 9-12 Typical curing racks in steam. Sufficient instruments shall be provided and so positioned to record variations in temperature between various points within the enclosure. Temperature decrease period 2 hr. Transfer of prestress may be performed when the units have cooled to 60°C. Initial delay prior to steaming 2…5 hr. These instruments shall record graphically the temperature inside the enclosure during the whole of the steaming operation. Constant temperature period 6…12 hr. Steaming shall be continued until at least 7 days strength (under normal curing) is obtained. The cylinders shall be located midway between steam entry points and shall be distant at least half the width of the structural unit from these points. the temperature sensitive part of each thermometer being installed 112 . The cylinders shall not be placed on top of the structural units or on the steam jet lines and shall not be in line with any steam jet. The test cylinders shall be marked to identify them with particular structural units. III. and so that the variation of temperature throughout the steam chamber at any time shall not exceed 5°C. Precast concrete curing acceleration cycle Curing of associated concrete test cylinders shall be achieved by placing the cylinders within the enclosure in a position adjacent to the lower face of the structural units that they represent. Special care shall be exercised to prevent any rain falling on the concrete during the cooling period. The Contractor shall provide accurate instruments for recording and controlling the temperature inside the enclosure. Spacing of recording points shall not exceed 10 m except where the Engineer is satisfied that uniform temperature distribution is achieved. The recording thermometers shall be set in operation immediately upon completion of the casting and screeding. Steam cured sections shall not be lifted within 36 hours after the completion of concreting unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer for pretensioned members. II. and the members shall be allowed to cool gradually and evenly for a period of 8 hours to avoid concrete cracking. Temperature increase period 2…3 hr. After completion of curing the steam supply shall be cut off. IV.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING time.chamber.

and Infrared Curing These methods are used primarily in the precast concrete industry. Infrared rays may also be used to heat concrete under a covering or steel forms.000 hertz (cycles per second). Two methods of radiofrequency heating have been developed. This method is used for small manufactured units. Oil. The following information shall be recorded on the chart: date on which steaming commenced. ambient temperature at time of removal of steam covers. time completion of placing concrete. The manufacturer shall provide automatic temperature recorders to continuously record the curing temperatures. Dielectric curing is a method by which the temperature of an electrically nonconducting (insulating) material can be raised by subjecting the material to a high-frequency electromagnetic field. The maximum temperature of the air space during the application of steam (typically 75 oC). A period for increasing the temperature. time correction (if any). to which a source of high-frequency energy is connected. name of Contractor or Manufacturer and name of Engineer.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING in position at the same time. better sulfate resistance. less creep and shrinkage. shall be recorded using a suitable thermograph. 3. The material to be heated is placed between two metal plates. This environment changes the chemistry of the hydration producing a concrete that has the following modified properties: a 24 hour strength equal to 28-day strength under ambient curing. The nominated temperature shall be maintained within ±3°C and the maximum and minimum temperatures occurring. called electrodes. nor the recording thermometers disturbed or moved in any way until after the removal of the steam covers.: the duration between placing the last concrete and commencement of steam curing) so to facilitate de setting of cement in good conditions. The resultant heating. Recommended stage period Tr = 1…4 hr. units may be placed in an enclosure of canvas and subjected to steam at the temperature and of steam around the entire unit. Electrical. High pressure steam. has proved highly effective for heating metals and other materials that are relatively good electric conductors. b. above 70. The curing is done in autoclaves at temperatures in the 80°C range and pressures of 550 to 1170 kPa.e. Recommended stage period Ti = 4…21 hr. 2. temperature correction (if any).i. Recommended stage period Ta = 3…6 hr. Recommended stage period Tr = 1…4 hr. And a period for cooling. and heated steel forms. 3. 4. temperature of concrete when placed. Charts shall not be removed from any recording thermometers. The interior surfaces of the curing room or canvas jackets and the surfaces of the unit shall be entirely moist at all times.e. description of concrete unit. One of these. An initial delay before steaming named presetting period (i. During curing. the temperature inside the enclosure shall not be increased or decreased at a rate greater than 10…20oC/hr. A period for holding the maximum temperature constant. lower moisture content after curing. using the steel as the conductors. 2. in homogeneous materials. Electrical methods include a variety of techniques such as using the concrete itself as a conductor. occurs throughout the material. the concrete is taken through a curing cycle consisting of the following stages: 1. This period after completion of concreting allows the concrete to gain sufficient tensile strength to resist the expansive forces. Hot oil may also be circulated through steel forms to heat the concrete. When a curing chamber is not available. Radio-frequency curing is a process of heating materials through the application of radio waves of high frequency . 113 . 4. and the variation of temperature with time. induction heating. The units shall then be cured outdoors for a minimum of 3…7 days..

Allowance of strict production controls which in turn make safe and economical use of unusually high quality concrete’s and highly advanced design techniques. Common precast concrete elements would include piles and decks for bridges. 3. Precast construction involves concrete forming. Precast components can be designed and used to serve as dual functions: forms for cast-in-place concrete and as a durable exterior finish. Use of precast concrete construction can result in lower costs by more effective material usage and reduced onsite labor. The precasting process is also sufficiently adaptable so that special shapes can be produced economically. A few firms have predesigned elements. and shell units. joists. The manufacture technology uses an assembly line that massproduces precast building components controlling construction costs by economizing time. 10. beams. the elements for a complete structure are quickly fabricated from detailed standards and shipped to the site. Protection from the unfavorable weather does not interrupt production. Production in permanent factories is characterized by a high degree of mechanization and standardization. Complete buildings even large industrial structures can be erected all year round providing important economies by advancing the date when a new structure begins to give economic returns. Sophisticated design and innovative construction techniques are becoming common practice to minimize project costs while maintaining or improving project quality. Precasting can be done: at the building site or at a mechanized temporary factory that can be established at the site or in permanent factories. finishing.1. wall panels.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING CHAPTER 10. INDUSTRIALIZATION OF FACTORYMANUFACTURED SYSTEMS Large precast units are made in a mechanized central plant and erected on site by cranes. 7. similar to factory production. prefabrication shop/manufacturers yard). catalogued for consumer selection. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Off-site prefabrication is the manufacture and partial assembly of building components (referred to also as Precast units) at a location other than the job site (e. Standardization of units to facilitate economic and repeated use of forms. A precast unit can be defined as a concrete that has been cast into the desired shape prior to placement in a structure. 114 . 2. wages. Such products are often offered for sale in catalogues. rigid frames. 5. 6. placing. 4. Some factories offer a variety of standardized sections made in whatever lengths are needed. improving the quality of the products. durability. With a known building size and loading. 8.2. OFF-SITE PREFABRICATION 10. girders. The most important aspects of precasting are: 1. Precasting is a controlled operation. and operability. including the strength and performance characteristics needed in architectural and engineering design of structure assembled for each specific structure from precast units. floor and roof slabs. and thereby assures better control of quality and a shorter period for building completion.g. and curing operations away from the project site and then erecting the precast components as part of a completed structure. and materials.

. The manufacture of precast unit primarily involves the following main steps: . mould number and lot number . Therefore. .1. b. insert location.Positioning of miscellaneous fittings. The adoptions of a proper cycle of steam curing and subsequent water curing is essential for good their quality. after removal from the mould. . . To break the adherence between the concrete and the face of the mould.Quality control of prefabricates elements according to the specified deviation and tolerances. and erection. with paint. Precast units require adequate curing procedures. required for adequate consolidation of concrete. because their sections are thinner and more highly stressed during handling. combined with the mould number. . or other undesirable trait.4. and simplifies identification of faulty castings from the same mould before delays are encountered in handling or erection. the moisture extraction from the concrete is accelerated due to the change in temperature and humidity.Production. they will be oiled.Cod marking at one face of the unit. This code combination quickly locates an individual mould producing castings with improper dimensions. 115 . . . When precast products are removed from steam curing.Tensioning of prestressed strands. adequate means of curing must be specified and enforced. OFF-SITE PRECAST MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES Off-site assembly line manufacture technologies for prefabricated concrete members have a lot in common according to the type of element produced. placement and vibration of concrete. . 10. .Precompression transfer to concrete.Cleaning and coating of moulds.the casting date indicates the age and relative strength of the casting during all operations.Concrete curing through thermal treatment according to the manufacturing technology used.4. permits correction before further faulty elements are cast. Name or trademark of manufacturer.Strike-off of moulds will be achieved only after the concrete has reached its required strength. .Storage until delivery in the position indicated by the design. the following information: a. so the products must be covered for protection from wind and rapid changes in temperature and moisture. CODE MARKING Each casting is physically coded by marking upon it.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 10. Date of manufacture. contact finish. that conventional cast –in place concrete sections. insulation works. The date. According the specific technology used other work procedures will be followed: . installation works and sandblasting etc.Assembly of mould components according to there design. Steam curing at atmospheric pressure is widely employed in precast manufacture so to accelerate the early-strength gain and permit daily turnover of forms. transportation. It is forbidden to hammer or drop the moulds do to there possible deformation or deterioration. positioned according to the design reinforcement details. .Finishing works. facilitates comparison of the castings with concrete-cylinder test results.Assembly and installation of reinforcing (pre assembled meshes or cages sometimesindividual bars) and prestressing steel reinforcement. with special mechanical machines or manually.

reinforced. and erection. CONCRETE PIPE This product is manufactured for raw water supply mains and discharge lines. Curing is accomplished by steam. or in water. and drainage culverts.Centrifugal concrete pipe is manufactured in forms rotating at high speed so that the concrete is compacted as excess water is forced out by centrifugal force. Similar results are obtained by various other mechanical tamping methods. and can be produced to exhibit characteristics corresponding to intended function. a very dry concrete mixture is packed into the form with such force that the freshly made pipe section can be taken to a curing chamber where the form is removed immediately and the newly compacted pipe stands vertically during the curing and hardening period. reinforcing. Pipes are made of either plain or reinforced concrete. d. The code readily identifies the particular variable element. and the directional notation assures proper orientation and location of variable properties on erection. Structural tests indicate the ability of the pipe to resist the pressure of soils in which it is buried.5. 1. Figure 10-1 Reinforced concrete centrifuged pipe Source: SOMACO SA . Concrete pipe is made by several manufacturing methods: . CONCRETE PRODUCTS PRECASTING METHODS 10.Packerhead pipe. 10. storage. or stored but not on finished surfaces exposed on the completed structure.units of a general shape and/or size may have minor variations in some dimensions. The pipe may be plain.1. water spray. legible. Mark of Quality Control Supervisor . Hydrostatic pressure tests reflect resistance to internal pressure. inserts. opening. Freezing and thawing tests indicate resistance to ice pressures. or prestressed concrete. sanitary and storm sewer. Bar-Wrapped Concrete Cylinder Pipe .The manufacturing procedure for this type of pipe includes the following steps (see Radial compaction by centrifugal force): 116 .Cast pipe is made by placing concrete into forms of the desired sizes. saturated covers.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING c. It is located where it will remain visible when the element is stacked. A letter identifying type of casting (precast unit). e. or finish. Directional mark for orientation during erection – each unit that does not have an integral frame or a design that indicates the top surface shall have the words "INSTALL THIS SIDE UP" placed on its top surface in the scope of correct positioning during transport.5. transported. and of sufficient size to be seen from a distance. . Code marking should be weatherproof.

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Positioning of steel cylinder mould horizontally on the assembly line; Cement-mortar placement or concrete lining by the centrifugal process inside the cylinder. - Curing of lining, after which the mould is removed, with saturated steam at elevated temperatures in a curing kiln; - Reinforcing the pipe by wrapping it with a smooth, hot-rolled steel bar, using a moderate tension in the bar; - Covering the pipe and bar wrapping with a cement slurry and a cement-rich dense mortar coating. 2. Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe has the following two general types of construction: Manufacture of core: - Joint rings are attached to each end, and the steel cylinder assembly. - A concrete core is placed by the centrifugal process, radial compaction, or by vertical casting. - Curing of core after which high-strength wire is wrapped helically to the pipe. - Control of wire spacing to produce a predetermined residual compression in the concrete core. - Coating the wire with a thick cement slurry by gunite covering. - Curing of cover coat usually by the same method as for the cores.

10.5.2. MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES
1. Stand Fabrication Procedure - its main characteristic is the fact that the moulds are stationary (they are fixed to the casting bed) and facilities for concreting, vibrating, and curing are portable. Sand, gravel, and cement are transported to the concrete plant by truck. Certain materials, such as inert aggregates, are typically stored outdoors in stockpiles. Moisture-sensitive materials, such as cement and fly ash, may be stored in high-capacity silos. The transport of materials (reinforcement, concrete etc.) is made by forklift trucks, dump trucks and belt conveyors up to the reach of the crane (traveling crane gantry crane). As the materials are needed, they are transported by conveyor to large storage bins at the top of the block plant. At the start of production, the raw materials are discharged into a weigh batcher, which measures the correct proportion of dry materials for the mix. The dry materials are mixed for several minutes before water and admixtures are added. The proportioning of the mix is carefully controlled by computer. After mixing is complete, the batch is discharged into a hopper and compacted into moulds. Each mould consists of a re-usable, one-piece mould box with replaceable liners. The moulds are compacted using pressure and vibration to assure an even distribution of concrete. The compacted precast unit is pressed out of the mould onto a moving conveyor belt or is compacted using a vibrating table. As the precast element goes down the belt, a rotating brush removes loose particles of aggregate from the top surface of the block. At this stage of the process, the uncured elements as referred to as "green." The "green" units are mechanically loaded onto a curing rack. Fully loaded curing racks are then transported by forklift into an available steamcuring chamber (kiln). Racks of concrete block are placed in the steam-curing kiln at normal temperature for a holding period of 1-3 hours. This "presetting" allows the units to harden slightly.

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CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Steam is then gradually introduced, increasing the chamber, the temperature increasing incrementally, until peak temperature (usually 80oC) is reached. The units are then allowed to cool, before they are extracted.
Figure 10-2 Layout of Stand setting Source: Popa R., Teodorescu M., 1984. Figure 10-3 Typical Multiple Beam Tensioning Stand cross section setting for prestressedconcrete units

1. Concrete casting bed; 2. Anchor; 3. Jack; 4. Tensioning strands; 5. Structural units cast along side one another; 6. Parallel stressing assemblies; 7. Outline of member to be poured and stressed; 8. Anchor; 9. Concrete casting bed. The concrete mix should be designed and so treated (steam curing) to produce a strong concrete with a high bond value in the shortest possible time, giving maximum production for a given casting bed. Storage and transport - pallets of cured block are then removed from the chamber and transported by forklift to outdoor storage yards. Steam-cured block typically reaches 90% of its final strength within 2 to 4 days. Large quantities of standard-sized blocks are stored until ready for transport to the jobsite. Blocks are transported by flatbed truck to the jobsite. Tension Strand At Both Ends: If more than one beam is in the casting bed, the draped strand must be tensioned successively from both ends. At each end, the strand is pulled to the desired load and elongation measured. The load determined from the sum of the two elongation measurements must agree within 5% of the gauge reading. If the casting bed is set up for one beam and the 5% tolerance in elongation is achieved by the cable at one end, tensioning at the subsequent end can be waived. 2. Conveyor Fabrication Procedure - - Its main characteristic is the fact that the moulds are portable and facilities for concreting, vibrating, and curing are stationary.
Source: Popa R., Teodorescu M., 1984.

Figure 10-4 Layout of Conveyor setting

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10.6. QUALITY ASSURANCE, PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
Quality assurance and plant certification44 (STAS 1799-88) are important items in prefabrication. It is based on two levels: in-house quality assurance program with continuous inhouse control and plant certification with quality control supervised by an independent body. Certification of precast concrete production plants means that the capability to produce quality products and the good functioning of the in-house control system is confirmed by an independent inspection body. Confirmed capability means that a plant is well equipped and the people who operate it are competent to produce quality products. They do this through inspection of their production operations, materials, equipment, personnel, and products for conformance to the Plant Certification Program - means that the producer has the capability by virtue of personnel, facilities, experience, and an active quality assurance program to produce quality products. Plant certification evaluates a plant's overall ability to maintain sound production procedures and to maintain an effective in-house quality assurance program. Quality control (the procedure to be followed for the quality control are normally based on ISO 9001 or EN 29001 standards) requires much more than merely achieving concrete strength. Many other factors also enter into the control of quality of precast concrete products. Some of the most important are: completeness of work orders and product drawings, testing and inspection of the materials selected for use, accurate manufacturing equipment, proportioning and adequate mixing of concrete, handling, placing and consolidation of concrete.

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CHAPTER 11. ERECTION OF PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS

11.1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Precast-concrete construction should be based upon good practical planning along with mass-production methods. Weight and strength are primary considerations in precastconcrete construction. A successful design is one that utilizes the least number of assembly elements, possessing the least erection weight and the greatest strength per unit weight of framing. It requires a complete design of connection details and an investigation of stresses involved in the sequence of erection, which will influence the framing and design of the elements. Precasting is a controlled operation, performed under ideal conditions of forming, pouring, vibration, curing, and inspection; the requirements of strength and dimensional restrictions necessary for casting slender sections are generally met with little difficulty. Generally, it is essential that the number of various shapes and sizes of the precast elements be kept to a minimum. This allows maximum reuse of the forms and reduces forming, casting, and handling costs. The layout of the frames and enclosures is controlled somewhat by the available handling and erection equipment. While lifting capacity is always a factor, the maneuverability of the equipment within the building area may be facilitated by changes in column spacing, direction of main framing, or erection sequences. Advantages of precast-concrete construction: speed of construction, optimum use of materials, controlled production conditions, and economy do to the fact that the materials can be better utilized and wastage can be kept to a minimum. Limitations of precast-concrete construction: lack of flexibility and if precast units are small in quantity, the construction cost will be high, while storage and transportation of precast units can also be a problem for construction sites located in congested urban areas.

11.2. JOB PLANNING
The construction of a precast-concrete structure requires considerable planning and development of details. All planning, from working drawings to the completed structure, must be completed in the early stages. The erection planning of structure will consist of methods and details regarding: 1. Preliminary execution of works that will consist of the following steps: - Transport, yard casting and storage of precast units. - Inspection of units after transport and storage. - Unit preparation before erection. - Selection of lifting devices and equipment. - Materials and labor scheduling. - Necessary requirements for work safety and fire assurance. 2. Erection of precast elements, will consist of the following steps: - Erection method. - Sequence, schemes and procedures for unit erection. - Sequence of member erection. - Ground location and position layout of precast units before erection. 120

1989. Preliminary positioning of units. and labor supply. off-site casting yards. or supplied from a combination of these facilities.Shape. Figure 11-1 Typical trailers Source: Suman R. such as: availability of raw materials. 3.2. financial comparison of estimated siteproduced castings and factory-produced and delivered castings. Routs and stops for trailers. a number of factors must be considered. space available on the job site. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PRECAST UNITS Precast-concrete elements are cast or manufactured in: permanent factories. Transport of units is normally provided from these facilities to the site by trucks. 11.1.2. Castings too large or unwieldy for truck or rail transportation must be cast on the site. and weight of prefabricated concrete element. dimensions. Final connections between elements. size. - 11.1. if economically justified. number. transit-mix facilities. PRELIMINARY EXECUTION WORKS The details and planning of erection will materially affect the earlier phases of casting. temporary factories.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Routs and work stations for cranes. and handling. Unit installation detailing sequences. Sometimes temporary factory facilities are located on the job site. and weights of various castings involved.. Inspection of erection execution in provisory position and correction of dimensional tolerances. existing factories. MANUFACTURING. only after a very careful examination of the following: .1. 121 . In determining the location and type of facilities for producing the necessary elements of a structure. storage.

and grease.Straight or articulated trailers (a straight truck is one in which all axles are attached to a single frame while an articulated truck is one that consists of two or more separate frames connected by suitable couplings). so that no accidents could be encountered. The storage yard can be located in the prefabricated manufacturing shop or on the job-site. . it will be as close as possible located near the crane but protected against other construction activities and erection of castings without interference with the erected framework or with the erection equipment. Source: SC SOMACO SA. single axle trailer. and quality roads etc. oil. availability. 2003 Figure 11-2 Typical job-site casting yards Figure 11-3 Typical stack storage of precast stairs units 122 . Storage represents an intermediate faze between the prefabricated production and there transport to the site for assembly.Other types include: full trailer. of 8-20 tones. Correct position for transport of member.Truck tractor that are designed primarily for pulling and carrying part of the weight and load of a semi trailer. lorry trailer. flat bed trailer. low-bed trailer etc. . Precast units will be stored. in such a manner as to avoid contact with dirt. deck trailer. Special devices are used to assure the stability and the integrity of the prefabricate over the whole transport period. to reduce any kind of degradation. heavy duty trailer. If it is located on the job-site. Storage and transportation of precast units can be a problem for construction sites located in congested urban areas. Trucks can be classified in: . raised off the ground.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Type and capacity of transport means. and to identify each type of unit as easy as possible.

lifting. A simple and common device is to embed several steel loops in the concrete. Any significant defect should be reported immediately with the description of its size. what type of repair. the anchorage should bear against the reinforcement.2. particularly when removing from the casting bed or form.1. Lifting Devices for Handling Precast Concrete Units. SELECTION OF LIFTING DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT The planning of erection (lifting) devices and details for their attachment to the elements must be completed. The location of lifting devices in the components should be carefully considered. or when they are placed in temporary or permanent storage.during lifting. and grease. The Engineer will decide if the defect needs further inspection. Precast concrete products need to be lifted and handled a number times during production and installation.g.2. Selection of the lifting device and its location should be based on the manufacturer’s recommendation and an engineering analysis of the proposed installation.1. mud. which is attached to the anchorage to fasten the lifting line to the component. or moving the component. UNIT PREPARATION Unit Preparation Before Erection . ease of attachment to product. lifting into installed position or anchoring to a structural frame or other concrete members (where required). weight.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 11. voids etc. transporting from the casting bed to storage or from storage to point of use. and by wirer brushing. Safe. configuration. and strength of the precast component. columns cast on site) may induce stresses in the concrete that exceed any loading that may be imposed on the panel after it has been installed in a structure. They will be cleaned through washing them with water. and location. leaving the loop exposed for attachment of the crane hook. To provide adequate strength. reinforcement. economical lifting and handling of precast concrete units is essential for producers and users of these products. when the strands are cut. concrete compressive strength at time of initial lift. direction of pull (cable or sling angle). Selection of proper anchors for lifting precast concrete products requires consideration of a number of factors including the type of load. INSPECTION OF UNITS AFTER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE The precast elements shall be visually checked for defects (cracks. or if it is needed 11. number of lifting points and type of rigging to be used.2. It is obvious that changes in methods or details of any phase of the construction may be difficult after actual commencement of that part of the work. oil. Selection of the correct lifting devices depends on a number of factors concerned with the type. compliance with safety requirements and ease of use during final installation and cost. The locations and details of lifting and handling devices should be shown on the shop drawings. concrete shape and weight. A lifting device consists of two main parts: the anchorage element embedded in the precast unit and the attachment element. including an allowance for impact. effective.1.3. the form and the product are moved at the same time with the lifting hook connected directly to the form. type of lift. Precast concrete products should not be moved until the concrete has gained sufficient compressive strength. thickness. type.4. Some forms are made to remain in place 123 .2.) when the forms are removed off the trailer. 11. storage and transport of precast units it is possible that the elements will be exposed to dirt. For example. raising a horizontally cast precast panel to a vertical position (e. In some cases. taking full account of the special loading that will be imposed on the concrete as a result of tilting.

For direct vertical insert loads a double set of spreaders are used. Timber or steel strongbacks are often used to reinforce panels for bending stresses. A continuous cable through sheaves on the spreader and at the center insert may be used to equalize the load at all three inserts. and economy. Larger elements may require three inserts to reduce the individual insert load or bending in the panel. The center insert may be moved higher or lower on the panel to avoid openings. simple devices and inserts are frequently used. In securing a physical attachment to the casting for lifting purposes. A spreader beam is used in transmitting vertical loads from the two surface inserts to a single point at the lifting hook. The panel may be lifted by a connection to the strongbacks or to other points on the panel. temporary stresses developed. The method used in removing a casting from the mould and to position it in the structure is influenced by the characteristics of the casting. two inserts are placed near the panel top and two near the center with cables run through sheaves on the spreader beam to rotate the panel to a vertical position. Lifting devices designed specifically for precasting are available from manufacturers.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING while inserts. practical use of available equipment. loops. pulling irons and lift pins or slings are used to remove the product. a Device for lifting packages b Composite slab lifting device with rolling blocks c Lifting device for spatial elements d Spreader beam for lifting precast beams in two points of pickup e Four-cable lifting device f Six cable slab lifting device with rolling blocks 124 . plates. hooks. lifting eye bolts. To reduce bending in a four-point pickup. Large or heavy panels are often lifted with a four-point pickup with sheaves on the spreader for load equalization.

Trelea A. Cranes . it can be added to a lattice boom or a hydraulic boom. 125 . h. center of rotation to boom foot pin.. boom angle. Teodorescu M. A jib decreases the lifting capacity of the crane and should be used with caution. height from ground to boom foot pin. Crane Selection Criteria: The range of cranes available is very wide and therefore actual choice must be made on a basis of sound reasoning. and control cables for raising and lowering the load and boom. 1998. a boom. Suman R. 1989. individually controlled in both – horizontal and vertical – directions from the frame). namely the folding lattice jib and the telescopic jib. g. 1997.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING g Spreader beam for lifting precast beams with two wire cables in two points of pickup h Spreader beam for lifting precast roof slabs with four wire cables in four points of pickup i Staircase lifting device with rolling blocks Figure 11.. The boom can be a welded steel lattice or a hydraulic boom made of 1 articulated base element and several telescopic sections. Two basic jib formats for this type of crane are available.a crane consists primarily of a power unit mounted on a carrier with a hoist. is used for extending the height to which loads can be lifted. Figure 11-5 Crane clearances Caption: a.. b. overall economics and technical capabilities: of cranes under consideration. maximum radius of tail swing. maximum clearance height of cabin. clearance radius of boom. that are extended and retracted hydraulically (from 5 to 30 m) allowing the crane to be completely self-contained. an extension to the end of the boom. c. Source: Andres C. Outriggers are hydraulic telescoping supports (4-6 suspension cylinders. d. 1984. Characteristics of Cranes .4 Typical lifting devices for precast concrete members Source: Popa R. A jib..a crane may be defined as a machine for lifting loads by means of a cable. prevailing site conditions and the anticipated utilization of other erection equipment. length of boom.. The use of cranes has greatly increased in the construction industry due mainly to the need to raise the large and heavy prefabricated components. e. f. distance from center of boom point sheave to bottom of hook.

a. e. the less load it can lift. Five basic types of cranes are commonly available for use on the construction site. Fall back line. which must be fully extended and positioned firmly on stable ground. 10. The shallower the boom's angle. Traveling clearance for crane (S = min. Clear radius of boom (R). often in the elevator shaft of the building Figure 11-6 Typical tower crane being constructed. Frame. There are several variations of each type. A tower crane comes in several basic variations (e. providing the operator an unobstructed view of the construction site. they must be disassembled and lowered to the ground in relatively small sections by a mobile crane. 500 mm) given by maximum radius of tail swing. 5. either of these can govern the safe lifting load of the crane. width of chassis or length of outriggers. the load capacity of the crane is greatly decreased. To assure the cranes stability.75 lifting capacity of crane ≤ tipping load of crane If not possible then the stability of the footing must be increased by leveling and completely supporting them by their outriggers. Extended / retracted boom length (f).High capacities range radii and (counter jib). track-mounted cranes. the angle of the boom be decreased. 11. Outer tower. Should the load be lifted at a grater radius. it is necessary to respect the following restriction: 0. Drive motor (hoist gear). Source: Andres C.Tower cranes have one advantage over mobile cranes in that the operator's cab is placed at the top of the tower. Trolley line. The longer the boom... 4. 6. 9. 1998. . Loading charts are provided with each crane and must be adhered to religiously. and gantry cranes. lorry-mounted cranes. Limitations: Counterweight.At the completion of the building. terweights. 3. supported static tower cranes. Outer guy line. 2. Cab. Inner guy line. c. d. Lifting capacity (Q). . Caption: 1. b.g.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The criteria by which to chose cranes is based on the following considerations: Maximum hook height (H). Jib. thus providing the contractor with a generous selection of options. 12. traveling tower cranes and climbing cranes). Tail . they can be classified as: tower cranes. Advantages offered by using a tower crane: . Load charts should never be exceeded. heights (30 m and 100 m). 8. the less load it can lift. 7. Tower base with central ballast coun. 14.Low lifting capacities 150 kN. and each is available in a wide range of lifting capacities and boom lengths. 126 . Load line. selfpropelled cranes. Depending on the circumstances under which a load is lifted. Inner tower. self-supporting static tower cranes.Tower cranes are usually set up at a location on the construction site from where all corners of the building can be reached. 13.

. generally with a 360° rotation or slewing circle.It can lift relatively heavy loads (10…900 kN) without the use of outriggers.Mobility on the job site with load on hook. Jib. Boom suspension rope. . 2. Hook. Hoist rope. and jib. 3. Figure 11-7 Track-mounted crane Caption: 1. Characteristics: The jib is of lattice construction with additional sections and fly. Source: Chudley R. Figure 11-8 Lorry mounted crane Caption: 1. The capacity of lorry-mounted cranes ranges up to 2000 kN in the freestanding position but this can be increased by using the jack outriggers. 4. Hoist ropes. but to be fully efficient they need a firm and level surface from which to operate. Pendant rope. a low pivot. Limitations: slow speeds and large bulk. 5. 3. Characteristics: The crane is operated by a separate crane engine and controls. Lorry-mounted cranes come in a wide variety of designs and capacities. height capacities 60 m. Mobile lorry cranes can travel between sites at speeds of up to 48 km/h. To improve the mobility of the crane from one site to another lorrymounted cranes have rubber tires and an additional cab were a driver drives the crane from site to site on public roads. Advantages: . Jib. Hook. . Engine.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The track-mounted cranes (crawler crane) come in a wide variety of designs and capacities. 2. 1999. 127 . jibs to obtain the various lengths and capacities required. 5. Cab. Pendant ropes. the crane cannot move from one site to another without some disassembly and the use of 10 tone trailers to transport it between sites. 4.. which makes them very mobile. 6.Capacities ranges similar to the lorry mounted cranes. Their height capacity range to 100 m. a low pivot. Source: Chudley R. 1999. generally with a 360° rotation or slewing circle. and jib.

gives the driver an excellent all-round view and allows the hook three-way movement of vertical.. with small radii and low lifting capacities 10 t. Characteristics: They are small capacity machines having low lifting capacities 50 kN…320 kN and small lifting height 6…10 m. Outriggers. 4. Hoist ropes.1. horizontal and transverse directions. Characteristics: They are small capacity machines having a fixed boom or jib length. 6. They can be distinguished from other mobile cranes by the fact that the driver has only one cab position for both driving and operating the crane. 128 . Source: Chudley R. Cabin. 1999.the job planning required. and progress on all phases of the work. Although limited in application this special form of mobile crane can be very usefully and economically on repetitive and partially prefabricated blocks of medium rise dwellings. Close control and detailed and accurate records can be obtained on materials.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Self Propelled Cranes (also referred to as a crane truck) is a portable boom crane mounted on an industrial truck. 8. 7. Boom suspension ropes. This is a particularly safe form of crane as it requires no ballast. is a sound investment. 3. costs. Chassis.5.2. They are extremely mobile but to be efficient they usually require a hard level surface from which to work. Hook. Figure 11-10 Typical gantry crane 11. labor. The basic nature of precast-concrete construction provides the contractor with close control over all labor and materials. The daily repetitive use of identical quantities of materials reduces waste. 2. Pendant ropes. The continuous repetitious operations provide ideal opportunities for perfection of labor and equipment allocation and efficiency. SCHEDULING Materials and Labor Scheduling . Figure 11-9 Self propelled crane Caption: 1. Road speeds obtained are in the region of 30 km/h. 5. Boom. Gantry Cranes (also referred to as portal crane) is a rail-mounted crane consisting of a horizontal transverse beam that carries a combined driver's cab and hook supporting saddle. with little effort. however.

hooks. 129 .1. 11. . and adequate maintenance of both track and equipment. effective braking systems. exceptional continuity in the work of those trades can be maintained. Devices that could be fitted include multiple ropes. both at the casting yard and throughout the construction area.0 m. This cleanliness.Measures must be taken to prevent a freely suspended load moving uncontrollably.Adequate support. Chains. eyebolts. and safety devices must be clearly marked to prevent accidental operation or miss-use. .A cabin is required for the crane operator that must provide an unrestricted view for safe use of the equipment. Each area becomes available to the mechanical and other trades immediately upon completion of the precast erection in that area. ropes. stability. and servicing particularly where a person can fall more than 2.If the operator cannot see the whole passage of a lift. If such a clearance cannot be provided. In summary the main points include: . promotes efficiency.6. adequate strength for the intended task. an efficient signaling system must be used. The elapsed time between storage and erection of the elements. HEALTH. slings. . eliminates waste.2.Traveling and slewing cranes require a 500 mm wide minimum clearance provided wherever practicable between the equipment and fixtures such as a building or access scaffold. strength. . retention in good order and inspection regularly at intervals depending on use and exposure as determined by a competent person.Equipment which can be adapted for various operating radii and other configurations must be clearly marked with corresponding safe working loads for these variables. movement between the appliance and fixture should be prevented. and other small components are no less important than grabs and winches. anchoring.Stability of lifting devices on soft ground. . . . A signaler must be capable of giving clear and distinct communications by hand. and discourages accidents. Proper scheduling will permit the installation of foundations and related work during the period that the casting yard is being constructed and put into operation. fixing and erection of lifting appliances to include an appropriate factor of safety against failure. .Examination of all forms of lifting devices to ensure sound construction. materials appropriate for the conditions of use. will be short. controls. shackles. . at any specific portion of the building area.Cranes must be erected under planned conditions and the supervision of a competent person. .CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The application of basic precasting principles creates a neat and clean working area. Therefore.Testing examination and inspections are required for all equipment. uneven surfaces and slopes must be considered.Brakes.Rail mounted cranes to have a track laid and secured on a firm foundation to prevent risk of derailment. rarely obtainable in other methods of construction. repair. All must be tested and thoroughly examined before being put into operation. Cranes must be either anchored to the ground or to a foundation.Safe means of access is to be provided for examination. or suitably counterweighted or stabilized to prevent overturning. SAFETY AND WELFARE REGULATIONS These regulations detail the minimum requirements for lifting devices and equipment. mechanical or electrical means. The cabin must have adequate protection from the weather and harmful substances with a facility for ventilation and heating. . . There must be provision for buffers.

When loads are approaching the safe maximum load.Assurance of complete use of erection equipment time. plant and equipment etc. for other processes that will commence afterwards (e. Erection procedures are planned to approach this objective.consisting of erecting all the members of the same size and type in the structure or in one construction faze. a thorough evaluation should be made in the early stage of design to determine the effects of the erection methods. Lifting equipment not designed for personnel must be clearly marked as such.3. as fast as possible.g. and any delays in this schedule increase the storage area and dunnage required.size and configuration of the precast units. which will be supported by the first. . will be erected.1. 11. fabrication of precast components.).construction procedure adopted. towing system. and development of details completed before commencement of work at the site. SCHEMES AND PROCEDURES FOR UNIT ERECTION The efficiency obtained throughout all sequences of the construction will be determined by the degree of organization. and schedule.). traffic. Delays in completing connections of erected elements either interrupt the 130 .3. After the joints for a group of members of the same type are completed (after the grout concrete has reached the necessary strength) another group. in normal sequence of erection (of all members) on a small area of the warehouse. ERECTION OF PRECAST UNITS Selection of erection method precast units is an important design decision. A check should then be made to establish safety and stability before proceeding to complete the lift. positioning accuracy. the erection method will determine the: . construction schedules. SEQUENCE. The method of erection will take into account the following: . . .Assurance of member stability in the structure. .Complex method . the crane having its own route for every member (columns. In many ways. 11. .consisting of erection organization.volume of works. Jib cranes to be fitted with an automatic safe load indicator such as a warning.Process flow and work procedures must create a working front. and level of risks during construction. scheduling. roof slabs etc. and construction logistics. the next phase being the erection of the next bay. planning. Each erection method has its special implications to project cost. Maximum efficiency in erection is obtained by placing the elements in their final position direct from transporting equipment or building storage in one operation. the safe working load must not be exceeded. light for the operator and a warning bell for persons nearby. beams. Methods of erection for prefabricated concrete elements can be planned after two models: . Except for testing purposes.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING All cranes are clearly marked with their safe maximum working loads relevant lifting radius and maximum operating radius particularly when fitted with a derricking jib. electrical installations etc. the initial lift should be short. construction sequence. In general. All other precasting operations are based upon the estimated erection schedule.Sequence method . most likely a bay (span-bay). during the hole duration of erection execution. because the erection method and equipment to install precast units will affect the structural concept and layout.

. and finally fixed into position by grout.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING erection or increase the quantity of erection devices. . . and clearances required for movement of the equipment and castings without interference with previously erected framing members. rotation of boom pin. capacities and reaches of lifting equipment. Each member is given an erection mark that it carries through the fabrication stage and subsequently is used on the job to identify the member and its position in the frame.3. Along side these we must respect the following conditions: .Routs and stops for cranes for every type and sizes of precast units.Ground positioning of precast units before erection.Order of precast unit erection in accordance with their types and sizes.Height of erection. Figure 11-11 Transfer of prefabricated facade to the working level Figure 11-12 The precast facade is secured with temporary bracing 131 . .Scheme adopted for precast units. height to boom pin. Schemes of precast unit erection must include the following: . The erection mark is usually placed on the left end of horizontal members to eliminate the possibility of trying to place the member end for end or upside down. we must take into consideration the following: . Planning includes a study of casting weights and sizes.Cranes characteristics (regarding the clearance characteristics: height. Using additional erection devices to shorten the schedule is justified only when sufficient cured castings are available to ensure a continual operation. . secured with temporary bracing. A plan detailing the erection procedure for all elements is drawn and checked to ensure conformance with the above limitations and is then rigidly followed. 11. . UNIT ERECTION DETAILING SEQUENCES A grate deal of detailing work is necessary before a member can be erected.Assurance of member stability during erection. welded. .Assurance of complete use of equipment job time. length of boom). clearance radius of boom. job fronts for jobs that will proceed. . the precast unit will be lifted by crane to the designed position.Assurance of safety (guard) lanes.Process flow and erection operations must create. . When delivered to the site. radius of tall swing. When choosing the erection scheme.3.Size of bay and span of warehouse.Sequences and stops for lorries if the mounting takes places from the lorries. in a short period. .Indication of members that will be mounted on every crane stop.

This temporary bracing shall remain in position until all connections have been completed. . are of paramount importance. . level and square (P42-1971 .Qualified personnel for all stages of design and construction.Testing and inspection of the various materials selected for use.Management commitment to a quality control program. Some of the most important are: . additional reinforcing bars. 11. . . . The temporary connection is usually provided until the permanent ones have been completed.Temporary (also referred to as dry connections) are made by weld.Permanent (also referred to as wet connections) by concreting grout keys.Provide temporary erection anchorage for welded anchorage system. posttensioning.3. Both temporary and permanent connections must be designed with careful attention to details and construction procedure to ensure the critical load paths and durability performance. CONNECTIONS Connections may be either: . epoxy resins etc). .Clean field welds with wire brush.Accurate stressing procedures. The keyway is grouted with one of several different grouting materials (concrete. so that units will safely withstand loads to which they may be subjected. INSPECTION OF ERECTION AND CORRECTION OF DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES Many factors enter into the quality control of precast/prestressed concrete products.Norm for execution of constructions made of precast panels) to avoid non-cumulative erection tolerances.).Clean exposed face work by washing and brushing only.Provide and install sufficient temporary bracing to brace precast units adequately.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING The general procedure for installation is as follows: . . plates/pads or angles embedded in the units ends that bear on similar plates embedded in the supporting section.Set precast concrete units. 132 . load transfer between adjacent members is often achieved through a grouted keyway. if required. . and to join precast segments into a monolith. Care must be taken to provide temporary bracing during the erection of beams with these types of connections until the connections are completed. at all stages of construction. and erection of precast/prestressed units. . 11. as precast is erected.Correct positioning of all embedded items. the connections are usually made by welding them together or by overlapping them. straight. The keyway may or may not extend for the full depth of the member. shear anchors. . handling.Apply sealant and joint backing to exterior and interior joints to provide a complete weathertight installation. . until the final concrete casting has been completed. .Proportioning and adequate mixing of concrete.Clear and complete shop drawings (good production drawings translate documents into usable information for manufacture. Connections to tie precast units together.3. Connections usually consist of dowels. inserts. When precast units are placed adjacent to each other.4.Control of dimensions and tolerances. .Fasten units in place by welding or overlapping. . or some combination of these can be used to provide this continuity.

and corrective steps for adjustment should follow immediately. . placing. Thorough documentation. Particularly in large areas of small elements. 133 .there will be inevitably differences between the specified dimensions and the actual dimensions of the components and final building. . is not required or desired where the elements are separated by grout. etc. These deviations must be recognized and allowed for. blockouts. weather. grades. Tolerance – can be defined as the allowable range of deviation from design specifications expressed as a percentage of the nominal value (the allowable variations in the dimensions of members). and curing of concrete. other incorporated materials. transporting.e. of course. openings. Handling. and the preparation of concrete specimens for strength testing. examination. . placing. and acceptance of materials. Particular attention must be paid to dimensional accuracies. Tolerances must be evaluated on each structure and on the various elements in the structure.General observation of plant equipment. Cast in place and precast concrete is generally manufactured with relatively small deviations but designers should take a realistic view of dimensional variability (inaccuracies). .in general. C 156-8946) . mixing. and a slight reduction in theoretical size must be provided in the details for tolerances to provide for these inaccuracies. Once permissible tolerances are established. and to neglect an allowance for tolerances will lead to difficulties during erection.Identification.Inspection of operations of detensioning. product removal from beds. Some inaccuracies are unavoidable. size and positions of tendons. testing. . Deviation . minor variations are accumulative.Observation of test performances for slump. Adequate curing.Checking the dimensions of members. and consolidation of concrete. and other items that may potentially affect the products. . and a slight reduction in theoretical size must be provided in the details for tolerances to provide for these inaccuracies. air content.Regular inspection of batching. considering the nature of the structure. storing. Deviations and Dimensional Tolerances (STAS 6657/3-8945. Some inaccuracies are unavoidable. monitoring dimensions.can be defined as the difference between the measured value and the expected value of a controlled variable. finishing. . they should be stipulated on the detail drawings. or expansion material. and adequate concrete cover and finishes).Final inspection of finished product before shipment (i. working conditions. calking.Inspection and recording of tensioning.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Handling. reinforcing steel.Inspection of beds and forms before concreting. conveying. precast/prestressed concrete plant inspections should include the following: . Frequent checks of the over-all dimensions of the completed castings and checks during erection will reveal variations. Tolerances that are more than rigid than justified will increase the cost of a structure unnecessarily. compacting. and erection of members. and dimensions that the contractor is expected to observe. The tolerances should be realistic. The plans and drawings for structures frequently specify the permissible variations for lines. number. . handling and storing. camber. This reduction. blockouts. Scope of Inspection .

Trelea A. Ingineria proceselor de construcţie. Construction Press. Oxford University Press. 31. 5. Teodorescu M. Division of Materials Frankfort Kentucky. European Committee for Standardization. Editura Tehnica. Chudley R. 1992. 6.G. Otel A. Advanced Construction Technology.. 1981. Stutzman P.. 1988. Asachi Iaşi. in ASTM STP 1215. Ministerul Constructiilor Industriale.E. Leschinsky A. Pestisanu C. Fulletron R. Site engineering. Murphy R.. Part 2. Tehnologia construcţiilor. Department of Highways.. McGraw-Hill. Level 1. Chudley R. 12. Applications of scanning electron microscopy in cement and concrete petrography. Longman Scientific and Technical..State-of-the-Art. Cement & Concrete Association of Australia. Studies and Documentation (CIB). Simmons H. ICB. 1997. 4. Ionescu I.. Swenson E. Astros Printing Limited.. Popa R. 1988. ş.. 2. Curing Concrete . Pearson Education Ltd. Utilajul şi tehnologia structurilor de construcţii. 28... 32. Cofraje glisante. Editura Tehnică Bucureşti. Formwork for concrete structures. First Draft. Editura Tehnică. Editura Didactica si Pedagogica. Editura Institutului Politehnic Cluj-Napoca. Smith R.a.. Editura Tehnică. Radulescu C. Suman R. Gheorghiu N. Teodorescu M. Popa R. May 1992. 29.. ACI Committee Report 308. 1984. Materials and Methods. Cluj-Napoca. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Manual. 19. 1980.25-28. Carare T. USA. Editura Tehnică. Andres C. Mecanizare – Actiuni noi pentru asigurarea calitatii lucrarilor de beton. 16. Concrete Technology. The housing concrete handbook. Editura ICB. Guide of Concrete 309R-96. Construction Principles. Construction Canada 34(3). Suman R.. Tehnologia lucrărilor de construcţii. beton precomprimat si metalice. 40. Ispas T. 5th Draft 10/94. Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. CEB Bulletin d’Information. manifested in control. Tehnologii moderne in constructii.. International Council for Building Research. Cartea fierarului betonist. 1988. Concrete performance. Petrography of Cementitous Materials.. 27.Structural Design of Precast and Prestressed Concrete for Offsite Prefabricated Construction of Hydraulic Structures. 134 . Mitchell’s Building Series. National Research Council. Cofraje modulate de lemn. Canada. 18. Suman R. Bucureşti. Manual of Concrete Practice 1998.L.. Editura Tehnica. Domşa J. W. substructure and plant. 26.a.. 15. Engineering and Design . Suman R. 1988. Finn D.. 1993. Popa R. s. 1988. 1997.. Voiculescu M. Nonconventional Concrete Technologies. Bucuresti. Execuţia lucrărilor de construcţii. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Proprietăţile şi tehnologia betoanelor. 11. Dean Y. Ghent 1991. Building organization and procedures. 1999. 14. 1981.. 2001..: Durability of concrete under winter conditions. 38. Peurifoy R. pp.. Otel A. Oara C. Popa R. Editura ICB. 1984.. Bucureşti. Concrete nonuniformity. Quality Control of Concrete Structures. Vescan V. Editura Tehnica 1986. 1989. 23. 3. Towards Industrialized Construction. Stark. Teodorescu M. EC 1110-2-6052. 1998. Forster G. Materials Technology.a. Principles and Practices of Heavy Construction. ACI Committee Report. Prentice Hall. Tehnologii moderne în construcţii.. Popa R. 1983. Editura Tehnica.Vol. Commonwealth of Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Trends in building construction techniques worldwide. Bucuresti.. 1995. Giuşcă N. Asian Concrete Model Cod. 1989. 8.. CBD-116. Level 1. 39. 34. Building site works. Proceedings of the Second International RILEM/CEB Syposium. 7. Montarea elementelor prefabricate de beton armat. Part II – Materials and Construction. 36. CECW-EI.. Tehnica cofrajelor glisante. Radulescu C. Teodorescu M. 30. Longman Scientific and Technical. 24. 1997. 9. 1999. 1995.. production. S. Editura Dacia. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. Gheorghiu N. Editura Gh. 2000. Moga A. 37.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING REFERENCES 1. Euro-International Committee for Concrete-International Federation for Prestressing (CEB-FIP) The CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. 35. placing and compliance criteria. 10. Ghibu M. 20. 17. 21. Draft of ENV 206. USA.a. Pearson Education Ltd.W. 1997. Tehnologii moderne. Ghibu M. 1970. 13. 25.1. 2001. DeHayes and D.. Special report for CIB '89. ş. Ghibu M. Dinescu T. Oberlender G. 33. Dinescu T. s. 22. England. 41. Sandru A. eds.. 1978. L. Bucureşti. Tehnologia lucrarilor de constructii. Pop S. 2002. Construction Technology. Constructii. 2001.

Vocabulary. Tests on fresh concrete. Methods of testing cement.CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING 42. Tests on fresh concrete. 35 STAS 1667-76. Slump test. consistence fine aggregates content and setting time. Cement concretes. Tests on concrete. Welded fabric. 36 STAS 2386-79. General technical requirements for quality. 11 STAS 1759-88. Cements. Guide for design and execution of temporary membrane structures. Cold drawn wire. 5 C 28-83. Methods of testing cement. Tests on concretes.Concrete. Methods of testing cement. Determination of grinding fineness. III. Methods of testing cement. 40 STAS 8573-78. Natural heavy weight aggregate for concrete and mortars with mineral binding material. Determination of air content. Steel products for reinforcement of concrete. Methods of testing cement. 2001. Determination of axial shrinkage of hardened concrete. Wire fabric. industrial and agricultural constructions. 22 SR EN 196-4/95. Setting time determination. 41 STAS 790-84. 31 SR 227/5. 9 NE 012-99. Technical instruction for steel reinforcement welding. 17 STAS 5479-88. Inspection of waterproofness. 25 SR 388-95. reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements – procedures. 37 STAS 4606-80. instrumentation and devices for characteristic geometry checks. Concrete reinforced and prestressed concrete buildings. Practice code for the execution of prefabricated elements. 4 STAS 10107/0-1990. 2 1 135 . 12 ISO 9812. Determination of grinding fineness. Tests on concretes. instrumentation and devices for characteristic geometry checks. 43 NE 13-2002. Classification. 15 STAS 3519-76. Inspection of the reaction between the alkalis and aggregates. Determination of setting time and soundness. Technical specification for quality control of welded steel joints for civil. Chemical analysis of cement. Determination of apparent density. Mixed plastified additive for concretes. Type and frequency checks of materials and concrete quality used for civil engineering execution. 8 STAS 6605-78. Technical instructions of welding of reinforcing steel for concrete. Cements. Cements. 13 STAS 2414-91. 27 SR 3011-96. 28 SR 7055-96. Natural heavy weight aggregate for concrete and mortars with mineral binding material. 29 SR 227/2-98. reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete works. 24 SR 6232-96. 34 SR EN 196/1-95. Practice code for the execution of concrete. 6 C 150-84.96. USA. IV and V. mineral admixtures and additives. compactness. reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements – procedures. Lightweight mineral aggregates. Tests on concrete watertightness. 42 GP 004-97. 26 SR 1500-96. Reference concrete. Physical tests. 14 STAS 1275-88. Testing method. STAS 438/2 – 91. Determination of strength. Calculul si alcatuirea elementelor structurale din beton. Determination of hydration heat. Limited hydration warmth cements and resistant to water damage with sulphates content. 7 C 28-83. Water for concretes and mortars. 30 SR EN 196/6-94. type II. Heavy aggregates for concrete and mortars with mineral binder. Concrete consistency. Tensile testing of reinforcing steel wire and wire products for prestressed concrete. Cements. Volumetric mixer standards of the volumetric mixer manufacturer bureau. Handbook for the application of STAS 6657/3-89 prescriptions . Quantity determination of constituents 23 EN 196-2. Determination of mechanical strengths. 44 STAS 1799-88. 46 C 156-89. Tests on concretes. 21 STAS 9602-90. Physical tests. beton armat si beton precomprmat. Physical tests. 18 STAS 2833-80. Usual composite cements. 3 SR 438/3-98. Waterproofing additive cement mortars. Determination of density. 20 STAS 5440-70. Concrete. 39 STAS 8625-90. 38 STAS 1667-76. ENDNOTE STAS 438/1-89. White Portland Cement. Portland cement. Tests on concrete. Strength determination at frost-thawing. Specifications for manufacturing and testing. 32 SR EN 196/3-97. Tests of hardened concrete. 10 STAS 3622-86. Part 1 – Concrete and reinforced concrete. Test on concrete. 16 ISO 7031. Tests on concrete. and porosity of hardened concrete. 33 SR 227/4-86. 19 STAS 3518-89. Steel products for reinforcement of concrete. 45 STAS 6657/3-89.