INTRODUCTION

The landing gear of the very first airplanes was not very complex. Specially designed landing gear and wheels that absorbed the extreme loads imparted during takeoffs and landings. In addition, braking systems were installed to provide safer and more efficient control for solving an airplane after landing. In later years, as aircraft designs improved to flight to reduce aerodynamic loads, or drag. With continued improvements in technology, landing gear systems on modern aircraft are highly reliable and capable of handling extreme conditions, enabling safe transitions between flight and ground mobility. Landing gear designs for aircraft vary from simple, fixed arrangements to very complex retractable systems involving many hundreds of parts.

LANDING GEAR MECHANISM

LANDING GEAR METHODOLOGY
One type of retractable main landing gear is illustrated in the figure. The assembly consists principally of the shock strut; the wheel; the brake assembly, the trunnion, and side brace; the torque link, or “scissors”; the actuating cylinder, the down-and-up locks; and the bungee system. To retract the gear, the actuating cylinder is extended by hydraulic pressure. Since the actuating cylinder can provide greater force during extension of the cylinder than it can during retraction because of the greater piston area exposed to fluid pressure, the extension movement of the actuating cylinder is used to retract the gear. Retraction of the gear requires greater force because of gravity. Extension of the actuating cylinder causes the gear to rotate on the trunnion pin until the gear is approximately in a horizontal position. When the gear reaches the full UP position, a pin on the strut engages the UP latch and locks the gear in the UP position. When the gear is extended, the first movement of the actuating cylinder releases the UP lock. This permits the gear to fall of its own weight, and the actuating cylinder acts to snub the rate of fall. Usually there is an orifice check valve in the Up line of the landing-gear hydraulic system; this restricts the fluid flow from the actuating cylinder to the return line, thus slowing the rate of gear

descent. As the gear approaches the DOWN position, the actuating cylinder moves it to the full DOWN position. In the DOWN position, a blade engages the DOWN-LOCK track and slides into the DOWN lock latch as shown in the figure. The DOWN lock prevents the gear from retracting after it has been lowered. The landing gear shown in the figure is equipped with pneumatic bungee system for emergency operation. The purpose of the system is to provide air or gas pressure to lower the gear in the event of hydraulic power failure. The bungee tank is charged with air or gas at a high pressure, and when it becomes necessary to lower the gear in an emergency, the air or gas is released from the tank by means of a valve and is carried through tubing to a special bungee cylinder. This cylinder provides enough force to lock the gear in the DOWN position. In many systems, the air or gas I directed to a shuttle valve, which blocks off the hydraulic system and opens the DOWN line to the mainlanding gear actuating cylinder, which then lowers and locks the gear. In any case, the landing-gear control handle must be placed in the DOWN position.

LITERATURE SURVEY OF THE LANDING GEAR
The landing gear of an airplane serves a number of very important functions and is classified by a number of different characteristics. It supports the airplane during ground operations, dampens vibrations when the airplane is being taxied or towed, and cushions the landing impact. The landing of an airplane often involves stresses far in excess of what may be considered normal; therefore, the landing gear must be constructed and maintained in a manner that provides the strength and reliability needed to meet all probable landing gear. The landing gear of an airplane consists of main and auxiliary units, either of which may be fixed or retractable. The main landing gear provides the main support of the airplane on land or water. It may include a combination of wheels, floats, skis, shock-absorbing equipment, brakes, retracting mechanism, controls, warning devices, cowling, fairing, and structural members needed for attachment to the primary structure of the airplane. The auxiliary landing gear consists of tail or nose landing-wheel installations, skids, outboard pontoons, etc., with the necessary cowling and reinforcements.

Large Aircraft Retraction Systems

The actual system for retracting and extending the landing gear on large aircraft is similar to that just described. However, there are several additional features and component used because of the size and complexity of the system. Normally, large aircraft have wheel-well doors that are closed at all times the landing gear is not actually moving up or down. Sequence values are used in the system to ensure the doors are opened before the landing. Most large aircraft use mechanical locks to hold the landing gear in it’s UP or DOWN position. There must be a provision in those systems for the hydraulic pressure to release the locks before fluid is directed into the actuating cylinders. Most of the large aircraft landing-gear systems use an orifice check valve in the fluid lines to the actuators. The weight of the landing gear dropping out of the wheel well could cause it to fall so fast that damage to the structure is a possibility. Therefore, the return flow from the actuator is restricted which prevents uncontrolled free fall. Unrestricted flow, however, is allowed into and of the actuator when the gear is being retracted.

FISIBILITY STUDY

DC GEARED MOTOR

DESIGN OF LANDING GEAR MOTOR
Power of motor = ¼ H.P = 746 x .25 = 186.5 N- m /s Rpm of motor = 1800 rpm Out put rpm required = 24rpm Load of system = 100 kg = 100 x 9.81 = 981 N Max load at landing = 120kg = 120x 9.81 = 1177 N Number of stage in gear box = 2 Ratio of gearing =1: 74.8

CALCULATION FO FINAL SPEED & TORQUE OF JACK

Power of motor

=

P

=

186.5 watt.

2π N T P = ----------------60 Where, N→ Rpm of motor T = torque transmitted = 1800

2π x 1800 x T 186.5 = ---------------------60 T T T = 0.989N-m = 989.9 N-mm = 990 N-mm

CALCULATION OF TORQUE OBTAIN BY GEAR BOX
In put torque of gear box = 990 N- mm In put rpm of gear box = 1800 rpm Torque & rpm obtain at gearing 81 rpm Worm wheel out put N = 44 teeth 1800 rpm Main motor shaft N=8 spiral

D = 46 mm

As reduction ratio is 1:22 So, Out put rpm of gearbox is

N 2 = N 1 / 22 1800 22 N2 = 81.8 rpm

N2

=

N 2 = 82 rpm

TORQUE AT GEAR BOX OUT PUT
N1 = N2 T1 T2

1800 82

=

X 990

X

= 1800* 990 82 X = 21731 N-mm

T2 = 21731N-mm Load of system = 100 kg = 100 x 9.81 = 981 N Max load at landing = 120kg = 120x 9.81 = 1177 N TOTAL LOAD = 981 + 1177 = 2158 N We know T = F x R So 21731 = F x 46 / 2 F = 21731 x 2 \ 46 F = 944.8 N F = 945 / 9.81 = 96 kg As out put of gearing system is insufficient to lift the total load of 300 kg so further more speed reduction is required to increase the torque value.

We use spur gearing having reduction ratio = 1: 3.4 So torque at out put speed of spur gearing As reduction ratio is 1:3.4 D=60 mm D=16m N = 34 N = 10

N 2 = N 1 / 3.4 82 3. 4 N2= N2 24.1 rpm

N2

=

= 24 rpm

TORQUE AT GEAR BOX OUT PUT
N1 = N2 T1 T2

82 24

=

X 21731

X = 82 x 21731 24 X = 74247.58 N-mm T2 = 74248 N-mm Torque = force x distance Torque = force x radius of out put gear 74248 = F x 60 /2 F = 74248 x 2 / 60 F = 2474.59 N F = 2475 N F = 2475 / 9.81 = 252.2 kg F = 252 kg This Force Value Is Sufficient To Lift construction Body So Transmission Is Safe.

FORCE REQUIRED FOR LANDING MECHANISM Fr = 220 kg SO OUTPUT FORCE OF SYSTEM Fs= 252 kg Fr < Fs
As out put force is more than required force value so design of transmission system is safe.

OBJECTIVE LANDING GEAR SYSTEM

One of four methods is used to extent the landing gear if hydraulic power is lost, preventing hydraulic extension of the landing gear. 1. Some aircraft make use of an air bottle to “blow” the gear down, substituting air pressure for hydraulic pressure. This pneumatic extension has the disadvantages that the system must be bled of all air before being returned to service. 2. Some aircraft make use of mechanical system, where the operation of a hand crank or ratchet performs the extension operation. 3. Other aircraft have a separate hydraulic system, powered by various methods, including a hand pump, to extension the gear. 4. The fourth method of emergency extension that appears to be becoming very popular for aircraft is the use of a mechanical system to release the UP locks, allowing the gear to free fall into the down-and-locked position.

Here we use simple and reliable landing gearing mechanism using lead screw mechanism in which the action of hydraulic cylinder is done by dc powered motor and lead screw mechanism. As if any where in system leakage is done causes presser drop in system that pressure drop is in put signal to motorize mechanism and it operate the landing wheel out as and when required.

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