# Topology

Jump to: navigation, search Topology This book contains mathematical formulae that look better rendered as PNG.

General Topology is based solely on set theory and concerns itself with structures of sets. It is at its core a generalization of the concept of distance, though this will not be immediately apparent for the novice student. Topology generalizes many distance-related concepts, such as continuity, compactness, and convergence. For an overview of the subject of topology, please see the Wikipedia entry.

Contents

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1 History 2 Before You Begin 3 Point - Set Topology o 3.1 Some Set Theory o 3.2 Introduction to Topology o 3.3 Properties of Topological Spaces 4 Vector Spaces 5 Algebraic Topology o 5.1 Homotopy o 5.2 Polytopes o 5.3 Homology 6 Differential Topology 7 Help o 7.1 Question & Answer o 7.2 Further Reading 7.2.1 General Topology 7.2.2 Algebraic Topology

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8 References 9 Index

[edit] History

It could be said that mathematics in general owes its credibility to ancient Greece's Euclid. What is probably his most famous work, Elements, revolutionized the concepts of geometry and mathematics as a whole through the presentation of a simple logical method. This method is best summarized by Leonard Mlodinow: First, make terms explicit by forming precise definitions and so ensure mutual understanding of all words and symbols. Next, make concepts explicit by stating specific axioms or postulates so that no unstated understandings or assumptions may be used. Finally, derive the logical consequences of the system employing only accepted rules of logic, applied to the axioms and to previously proved theorems [1]. Throughout its history, many mathematicians have influenced the development of topology. While Johann Benedict Listing is not credited with a memorable discovery in terms of the field of topology, he is still considered one of the founding fathers. This is because he gave topology its name. While he published very little on topology, he is remembered for Vorstudien zur Topologie, which was the first document to use the word topologie (English: topology) to describe the field. He is also often credited with discovering the Möbius strip independently of August Ferdinand Möbius [2]. The origins of topology date back to the eighteenth century and the Königsberg Bridge Problem, a problem of relative position without regard to distance [3]. While this problem is often regarded as the birth of graph theory, it also inspired Euler's development of the topology of networks [4]. Königsberg, now Kalingrad, was founded in 1255 and became a prosperous seaport [5]. The city resides on the banks of the Praegel, now Pregolya, River. Citizens could use seven bridges that crossed the Praegal, but the question of whether or not one could pass through the town and use each bridge exactly once would turn out to be the catalyst in the creation of the mathematical field of topology. Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler would be the one to discover the answer was no. He determined that the graph defined by the location of the bridge was not what is now called a Eulerian graph [6]. This solution entitled The Solution of a Problem Related to the Geometry of Position was submitted to the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg in 1735 [7].

The Königsberg Bridge Problem.

Mobius Strip Euler is also well known for his research in the combinatorial qualities of polyhedra. He considered the edges (e), which he called acies, the faces (f), or hedra, and the vertices (v), called angulus solidus. Euler realized the importance of these three properties claiming that they "completely determine the solid". His research resulted in the well-known Polyhedral Formula: v − e + f = 2. However, Euler's formula applies only to convex solids [8]. In 1813 Antoine-Jean L'Huilier recognized this limitation of the formula and provided a generalization for a solid with g holes: v − e + f = 2 − 2g. This was the first known result of a topological invariant [9]. August Ferdinand Möbius was one of the main contributors of the topological theory of manifolds. In 1865, Möbius presented an article in which he decomposed several orientations of surfaces in polygonal nets. His most famous example was a non-orientable surface, which is now called the Möbius strip[10].

The Russian born mathematician Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor, the father of set theory, is another mathematician to whom we owe credit for topology. Concepts of set theory and cardinality are fundamental for the study of topology. Today, Cantor is a truly celebrated mathematician, especially considering that set theory and the idea of infinity do not seem to have a truss of mathematical ideas from which they could have been developed. Sadly, these ideas were not welcomed by a nineteenth century world, and Cantor spent many years of his adult life struggling with public criticism. A German mathematician by the name of David Hilbert

In fact. Complement. many mathematicians challenged themselves with more abstract problems.
[edit] Before You Begin
In order to make things easier for you as a reader. o Functions: Definition and Properties of Functions o Cardinality: Finite. The idea that a topology possesses a lattice of open subsets had been around almost as long as the idea of topology itself. along with Schoenflies. Countable. but Hausdorff was the first to emphasize the importance of these sets in defining topological concepts [17]. which was based on Cantor's theory of sets [15]. In 1877. as well as for the writers. In fact. He explained that if a distance can be defined between two different mathematical entities. Hausdorff was one of the first to teach set theory. Cantor showed that the points on a 2-dimensional square had a one-to-one correspondence with the points on different line segments.described Cantor's discoveries in the infinite domain as an "astonishing product of mathematical thought" [11]. and Uncountable sets o Zorn's Lemma and the Axiom of Choice
. Intersection. Poincaré is most famous for The Poincaré Conjecture which states the following: A compact smooth n-dimensional manifold that is homotopy equivalent to the n-sphere Sn must in fact be homeomorphic to Sn. Convergence & Divergence Set Theory o Set Operations: Union. German mathematician Felix Hausdorff followed in Cantor's footsteps with regard to set theory. then real and complex number concepts can be applied [13]. you will be expected to be familiar with a few topics before beginning. he had 3 students [16] . One can think of a compact manifold as a manifold that lives in a finite region of for some m and that has no boundary [19]. Hausdorff.
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Real analysis o Continuous Functions o Sequences & Series. helped these mathematicians considerably in 1906. Maurice René Fréchet. Poincaré was the first to study Fuchsian groups. This conjecture would not be proven until 2003 by Grigory Perelman [20]. he took first place in a national mathematics competition while he was still in school. a French mathematician. In the summer 1901. leading to the development of dimension theory [12]. French mathematician and physicist Henri Poincare discovered his talent at an early age. etc. and this caused others to begin asking questions about the idea of dimension. Fréchet developed the theory of metric spaces. Lattices. o Order Relations: Ordered Sets. and others. dealing mainly with their underlying geometry and topology [18]. In the late 1800s and early 1900s. De Morgan's laws. Fréchet. would be one of the first to study "general topology" [14]. Equivalence relations.

6 Subspaces Chapter 2.3 Bases Chapter 2.3.3. One of the goals of this book is to improve your skills in doing proofs.3.2.2 Morphisms Chapter 3.2.4 Compactness Chapter 2.2.5 Sequences Chapter 2.3.12 Perfect map .not a topological property Chapter 2.3.10 Completeness .11 Completion Chapter 2.6 Local Connectedness Chapter 2.optional section which is challenging
[edit] Vector Spaces
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Chapter 3.4 Hyperplanes
.8 Order Topology Chapter 2.3.1 Vector Spaces Chapter 3.1 Metric Spaces Chapter 2. but you will not learn any of the basics here.3.3 Path Connectedness Chapter 2.2 Topological Spaces Chapter 2.2.10 Quotient Spaces Chapter 2.5 Comb Space Chapter 2.3.2.2.Set Topology
[edit] Some Set Theory
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Chapter 2.2.3.8 Countability Chapter 2.•
Mathematical Logic & Proofs o Mathematics is all about proofs.9 Cantor Space Chapter 2.2.2.11 Continuity and Homeomorphisms
[edit] Properties of Topological Spaces
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Chapter 2.2.9 Product Spaces Chapter 2.
[edit] Point .3.1 Separation Axioms Chapter 2.3.7 Order Chapter 2.1 Basic Concepts Set Theory
[edit] Introduction to Topology
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Chapter 2.7 Linear Continuum Chapter 2.3 Null Space Chapter 3.4 Points in Sets Chapter 2.2.2 Connectedness Chapter 2.3.

6 Hahn-Banach Theorem Chapter 3.3 The fundamental group Chapter 4.1 Free group and presentation of a group Chapter 4.10 Topological Vector Spaces
[edit] Algebraic Topology
[edit] Homotopy
• • • •
Chapter 4.• • • • • •
Chapter 3.1 Manifolds
.9 Hilbert Spaces Chapter 3.7 Normed Vector Spaces Chapter 3.8 Euclidean Spaces Chapter 3.5 Convexity Chapter 3.2 Homotopy Chapter 4.1 Simplicial complexes Barycentric Coordinates Geometric Complexes Barycentric Subdivision Simplical Mappings Imbedding Theorem
[edit] Homology
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Relative Homology Exact Sequences Mayer-Vietoris Sequence Eilenburg-Steenrod Excision Theorem Relative Homotopy Cohomology Cohomology Product Cap-Product Relative Cohomology Induced Homeomorphism Singular Homology Vietoris Homology Čech Homology
[edit] Differential Topology
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Chapter 6.4 Induced homomorphism
[edit] Polytopes
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Chapter 5.

2 Tangent Spaces Chapter 6. to name a few. One can. in some sense. such as smooth. as well as treatments of sequences and limits. (etc. in the Field of Complex numbers. rings etc. in fact providing a rigorous foundation under all branches of mathematics dealing with "spaces. Take a second countable topological space for instance (second countable means that the space has a countable base for its topology). and much more. every non constant polynomial has at least one root). open and closed sets. But. it is popularly referred to as "rubber sheet geometry. but not every open cover is a base. Every base is an open cover which is probably the main relation.1." Algebra deals with the structure of sets under various operations with particular properties. Such a space satisfies the property that every open cover has a countable sub-cover.) to families of topological spaces to distinguish topological differences in those families. Algebraic topology attributes algebraic structures (groups. algebra and analysis?
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Topology is a generalization of analysis and geometry.1 Categories of Manifolds Chapter 6. etc. which eventually shows that there is no general solution to quintic polynomial equations by radicals.). What is the difference between topology.• • •
Chapter 6.3 Vector Bundles
[edit] Help
[edit] Question & Answer
Have a question? Why not ask the very textbook that you are learning from? 1. Rings and Field. PL. Commonly studied algebraic objects include Groups.
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2. How are the concepts of base and open cover related? It seems that every base is an open cover. ie surfaces. It comes in many flavors: pointset topology. All topology generalizes concepts from analysis dealing with space such as continuity of functions. Manifold topology works with spaces that are locally the same as Euclidean space. view it as a rigorous treatment of the Calculus. symplectic. why are both concepts needed?
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The terms base and open cover are not evidently related. manifold topology and algebraic topology. Analysis (or specifically real analysis) on the other hand deals with the real numbers and the standard topology and algebraic structure of ." In reality topology does far more than this. As such. Analysis provides rigorous proofs for the definitions of derivatives and integrals. To
. Also important results from Algebra are the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (which says that. Group Classification. One of the major results from Algebra include Galois Theory. A naive description of topology is that it identifies those qualities of a space that do not change under twisting and stretching of that space. Often manifolds are equipped with extra structure. connectedness of a space.

Topology (2000) James. for any open cover. an element of the open cover containing it and hence a basis element contained in that element of open cover. A basis must have "arbitrarily small" sets. From here we can get properties of open covers from properties of the base. Introduction to Set Theory and Topology (1961) Kuratowski. that is. The reason we have both definitions is because these two things have different properties. Topology Expert (talk) 04:17. we can generate a countable open cover from the original cover. Combinatorial Topology (1956) Baker. we can generate a open cover of basis elements that is an 'open refinement' (see Wikipedia for definition).prove this we use the countability of the base. and often draws on the compactness property. Therefore. for any open cover. Introduction to Topology (1991) Dixmier. Topological and Uniform Spaces (1987) Jänich. If the base is countable. What is a homology?
[edit] Further Reading
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Topology Wikipedia has related information at Topology [edit] General Topology Aleksandrov. 8 June 2008 (UTC) 3. The most useful fact about a base is that it determines the topology. any open set contains a basis element. On the other hand. Topology (1984) Kuratowski. Topology (1966) Roseman. we choose for each element of the space. It can be used to build things such as partitions of unity. General Topology (1977) Munkres. General Topology (1984) Engelking. an open cover does not determine the topology at all. Elementary Topology (1999)
. Basically.

General Topology (1970) [edit] Algebraic Topology Marvin Greenberg and John Harper. The Topology of CW Complexes (1969) Joerg Mayer. "Graph Theory".com/EBchecked/topic/321794/Konigsberg-bridge-problem
4. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. David. Ioan Mackenzie.standrews. ↑ Goodwin College of Professional Studies. 503-530 ↑ Richeson. 6. Leonard.britannica. Robin J. Homology Theory (1966) Hu. E. Robert E. Suresh. Sze-tsen. and Legacy. 2007 ↑ O'Connor. Charles Edward. 1831. History of Topology. 1996. 1999. Algebraic Topology (1981) Allen Hatcher. ↑ Königsberg bridge problem. Rotman.. Homotopy Theory (1959) Albert T. Andrews.mcs. and Robertson.html ↑ ``Königsberg". 2011. E.org/isaac/problems/bridges1. Inc. http://mathforum. http://www-history. Drexel 5. Graph Theory. Cohomology Theory (1968) Hu. 7 Pg. 1998. History of Topology. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. Johann Benedikt Listing.
University. James. University of St.uk/HistTopics/Topology\_in\_mathematics. Euclid's Window: The Story of Geometry from Parallel Lines to
Hyperspace.ac. ↑ Mlodinow. ↑ Breitenberger. Algebraic Topology (2002) [1] Hu. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. Sze-tsen. An Introduction to Algebraic Topology (1988) Edwin Spanier. 7. "The Polyhedral Formula". Sze-tsen. 345 ↑ Singh. 1999. Lundell and Stephen Weingram. Leonhard Euler: Life. ``The Beginnings of Topology". Sandifer. 2010 ↑ Wilson. Steen. Algebraic Topology (1972) James Munkres. Bradley. 8. 9. New York: Simon & Schuster.Seebach. Vol. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited. Counterexamples in Topology (1978) Willard. 909-924
3. J. G. Work. Ioan
Mackenzie. Encyclopedia Americana.htm
.
http://www. 2001
2. "A History of Topology". James. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Elements of Algebraic Topology (1984) Joseph J. Algebraic Topology (1966)
[edit] References
1.

Barrow-Green. August Möbius's Mathematical Band in
Mathematics. Jacob M. American Mathematical Society. R. Felix. ↑ Aull. History of Topology. 2001 18. ↑ Stillwell. New York: Walker Publishing Company. Literature. Art. Thunder's Mouth Press. Technology. Handbook of the History of General Topology. Mathematics and its History. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. ↑ Truesdell. 1999. Reliability:
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Topology/Basic Concepts Set Theory
. Plotkin. Lowen.10. and Johnson. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Mathematical Association of America. Chronology of Science. T. 2005 17. Steven G.wikibooks. 1998 16. Leader. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website. ↑ Rezende. Hausdorff on Ordered Sets. 2002 19. John. 1-24 12. "Development of the Concept of Homotopy". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Clifford. ↑ Gowers. 2010
[edit] Index
Index Retrieved from "http://en. San Francisco: Springer-Verlag. New York: Infobase. ↑ Krantz. Clifford A. Ioan Mackenzie. Imre.org/wiki/Topology" Subjects: Topology (book) | Topology | University level mathematics books Hidden categories: Alphabetical/T | Half-finished books What do you think of this page? Please take a moment to rate this page below. 2006 14. Timothy. Springer-Verlag. 1999.. New York: Elsevier BV. ↑ Eynde. and Cosmology. June. D. 2010 13. Vanden. 2007 11. History of Topology. James. ↑ Hausdorff. 65-102 15. Princeton: Princton University Press. The Princeton Companion to Mathematics. Donal. Games. Charles E. ↑ Crilly. The Möbius Strip: Dr.. The Poincare Conjecture: In Search of the Shape of the Universe. ↑ Pickover. "The Emergence of Topological Dimension Theory". Lisa. ↑ O'Shea. 2008 20. An Episodic History of Mathematics: Mathematical Culture Through Problem Solving. Inc. Robert.

< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. We may want to focus on properties of elements that are not in a particular set. In other words. Let X and U be sets such that .
. Let A and B denote two sets. we must first define a few terms. is defined by . It is a bit sloppy but common practice not to distinguish very strictly between a singleton set and its single element . it will list the material that the reader should be familiar with and showcase the notation used. search
This chapter is meant to be a short. Jump to: navigation. is the set of all The symmetric difference of A and B. To do so we introduce the notion of the complement of a set. denoted AΔB. denoted The difference of A and B. as the meaning varies between subset and proper subset in various sources. Rather. Readers desirous of a more in-depth understanding of set theory should read the Set Theory Wikibook. .B. We do not use the notation . as the set of
. A (finite) set consisting of elements is denoted . is equivalent to . A key property of these sets is that A = B if and only if and . is the set of all x that belong to both A and B. denoted all x that belong to either A or B (or both). For a more in depth understanding of how elements of sets relate to each other. such that . is the set of all such that . If and then A is a proper subset of B. The intersection of A and B.
[edit] Basic Definitions
The empty set is denoted by symbol . which we denote . denoted Xc. we say that A is a "subset" of B. concise introduction to the basic set concepts used throughout this book. If every element in A also belongs to B. We say the complement of X. It is not meant to be a comprehensive text book on set theory. denoted or A . Then we define the union of A and B.

. For example. denoted . . and denote it by P(A). Then we define the cardinality of A.Our next definition deals with "sizes" of sets. We define the power set to be the set of all subsets of some set A. Let A be some set. Now n-tuple is defined as follows:
if
We now can use this notion of ordered pairs to discuss the Cartesian Product of two sets.
. denoted . as the number of elements in A. we have X = Y if (compare with the statement above regarding equality of unordered
Ordered sets can be defined in terms of unordered sets. Examples:
1) 2) 3)
Note that
. The Cartesian Product of A and B. the ordered pair was defined by Kazimierz Kuratowski as .
Finite ordered sets (or n-tuples) are denoted For two ordered sets and only if sets). Examples:
1) 2) 3)
Another important concept to note is that of the power set. is the set of all possible ordered pairs where the first element comes from A and the second from B. It is tedious but not difficult to check that and only if and . that is.
and .

denoted domR. then the set of all x which are in relation R with some y is called the domain of R.Now that we have defined Cartesian Products. 2 b) Prove that no finite subcollection of this collection has the property that the union of this finite subcollection equals R. Once you study topology. .
Retrieved from "http://en. 2 a) Consider the set An = (-n. if ranF = B. if F is a function. A function is said to be onto a set B. A function F is said to be one-to-one or injective if implies A function that is both injective and surjective is called bijective.wikibooks. If . Also. you are ready to study topology! Please take the time to solve these problems. There are a few special types of functions we should discuss.org/wiki/Topology/Basic_Concepts_Set_Theory" Category: Topology (book) What do you think of this page?
Please take a moment to rate this page below. or a surjective function from A to B.
[edit] Exercises
If you can successfully answer the following two problems. x is in relation R with y is called the range of R. The set of all y such that. you will see that this constitutes a proof that R is not compact. If R is a relation. Prove that the empty set is a subset of every set. Does the union over all An (for n in the set of natural numbers) equal R (the set of all real numbers)? Justify your answer. the typical notation is F(x) = y instead of xFy. We say a set R is a binary relationfrom A to B if . 1. we can turn to the notions of binary relations and functions. A binary relation F is called a function if every element x in its domain has exactly one element y in its range such that xFy. for some x.n) for each n in the set of natural numbers.
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. it is customary to write xRy. denoted ranR. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website.

there exists a finite subset of that is also an open cover of S.
. In particular.1 Tychonoff's Theorem 3 Relative Compactness 4 Local Compactness 5 Exercises
[edit] Definition
Let X be a topological space and let
A collection
of open sets {Gα} is said to be an Open Cover of S if
S is said to be Compact if and only if every open cover of S has a finite subcover.Topology/Compactness
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. More formally. search The notion of Compactness appears in a wide variety of contexts.
Contents
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1 Definition 2 Important Properties o 2. compactness is a "tameness property" that tells you that the objects you are dealing with are in some sense wellbehaved. Jump to: navigation. S is compact iff for every open cover of S.

As K is compact. then K is the same as the space. every has an open neighbourhood Ux.
[edit] Important Properties
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Every closed subset of a compact set is compact Proof: Let be a compact set. Let . K is bounded.. and hence. Hence. this open cover has a finite subcover . Observe that being open. Then for each . We see
. say that .If the set X itself is compact. and let K be a closed subset of S. . the collection of open sets is an open cover of S. Consider the collection of open balls for some (fixed) . thus closed. covers K. we say that X is a Compact Topological Space. Proof: Let K be compact. Suppose not. As Kc can be represented as the union of open sets Ux. We see that is an open cover of K. Proof: Let X be a metric space and let be compact.. it is a finite subcover of K
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Every compact subset of a Hausdorff space is closed. Every ultrafilter on X converges.. it has a finite subcover. consider the collection . open and such that and . that is.y2.yn in K such that: It then follows that: . If the complement Kc is empty. As S is compact. we can find
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Every compact set in a metric space is bounded. there is a point . Hence. Compactness of topological spaces can also be expressed by one of the following equivalent characterisations:
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Every filter on X containing a filter basis of closed sets has a nonempty intersection. Kc is open and K is closed. Now. This collection is obviously finite and is also a subcover of . Consider any open cover of K. Since K is compact and the collection a finite number of points y1. by the Hausdorff separation axiom we can find Uy and Vy disjoint.

Let U be the union of all members of this subcover. contradicting the definition of c.
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If a set is compact and Hausdorff.b. The union of all such Oa. Then there is a finite cover of sets within for [a. Observe that Ba being
covers A.1 and Oa. It seems that Emile Borel proved the most relevant result. Then is also within S. These inverses are open because f is continuous. Define .
Sources differ as to what exactly should be called the 'Heine-Borel Theorem'. Proof: Let X be compact and Hausdorff. For every and . If is continuous.c].2 such that and . f(A). Therefore. dealing with compact subsets of a Euclidean Space.
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Let X. for reals. and therefore it has a finite subcover . Proof: Let S be the set of all such that [a. c is within a set A within the cover . Consider two closed subsets A and B which are themselves compact by theorem 1 above. which is open.2 for a fixed a is a cover for B. and thus it has a finite subcover. c < b. Let A' denote the set of all elements such that intersection . S is nonempty because a is within the set. say.•
Heine-Borel Theorem: For any interval [a.b]. and let and let O'a.
. . Oa.1 is open. and for any open cover of that interval.b. This covers A. then it is normal. Then the images {f(Bi)} is a finite subcover of f(A).Y be topological spaces. is compact. there exists a finite subcover of . there exists a such that . Assume if possible. and is compact. Thus. we provide the simpler case. Thus. then the image of A. The union . Let finite. Proof: Let be any open cover of f(A). has a finite subcover. However.b. {Bi}. there exist two disjoint sets Oa. Take the
. Consider the inverses {f − 1(B)} where .2
.x] has a finite subcover of . be the union of its members. and thus there is a finite subcover of A.

Unlike the compactness of the product of two spaces. Therefore. it is contained in some "box" of the products of closed intervals of R. their product is also compact. and is therefore also compact. it is equivalent to Axiom of Choice. (In fact. Let Bx be the intersection of π1:(Ay) within {Ayi}.
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In a compact metric space X. Then since S is bounded. {Bxi}.y) for each y in X2. Let x be an element of X1.Then U is an open superset of A.yi} is finite. Lemma 3 . Then the X is also compact. which has a finite subcover. All closed and bounded sets in the Euclidean Space are compact.)
Theorem: Let
. V is an open superset of B. S is a closed set in a compact set. {Bx} forms an open cover. and let each Xi be compact. Thus. Tychonoff's Theorem requires Zorn's Lemma. The corresponding sets {Axi.A net converges to
in .
converges to
if and only if each coordinate
Lemma 2 . X is normal. Proof: If two topological spaces are compact.y within S that contain (x.A topological space X is compact if and only if every net in X has a convergent subnet. Recall the following facts:
Lemma 1 .
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[edit] Tychonoff's Theorem
The more general result on the compactness of product spaces is called Tychonoff's Theorem. Consider the sets Ax. Since those closed intervals are compact. then their product space is also compact. Lemma 4 . π2:(A(x.
. with a finite subcover {Ax.
Proof: The proof is in terms of nets.y)) forms a cover for X2. Let S be a cover of X1×X2. however. a function from X to Y is uniformly continuous if and only if it is continuous.Every net has a universal subnet. Proof: Let S by any bounded closed set in Rn.yi}. in a compact space X is convergent. and forms an open subcover of the set. and they are disjoint. Thus.A universal net We now prove Tychonoff's theorem. Proof: Let X1 and X2 be two compact spaces. which is open.

1) is relatively compact in R with the usual topology.Let
be a net in
. because Xi is compact.
Using Lemma 1 we see that the whole net
converges in
. the open interval (0. by Lemma 2. Note that relative compactness does not carry over to topological subspaces. but not conversely. every element has a neighborhood that is relatively compact.y) = 1 0 if x is not equal to y if x=y
. If. so.
must be
[edit] Relative Compactness
Relative compactness is another property of interest.
[edit] Local Compactness
The idea of local compactness is based on the idea of relative compactness.
has a convergent subnet. It can be shown that all compact sets are locally compact. in a topological space X.
Using Lemma 4 we see that each coordinate net converges. Definition: A subset S of a topological space X is relative compact when the closure Cl(x) is compact. It is not true in general for a metric space that a closed and bounded set is compact. but is not relatively compact in itself.
[edit] Exercises
1.
Using Lemma 3 we can find a universal subnet It is easily seen that each coordinate net
is a universal net in Xi. Take the following metric on a set X:
d(x. For example. then X is locally compact.
We conclude that every net in compact. of .

1 Proof 5 Theorem (Uniform Convergence Theorem)) o 5.1 Proof 8 Theorem (Nested balls theorem) 9 Theorem (Baire Category Theorem)
. Jump to: navigation.
Contents
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1 Definition 2 Theorem o 2. compact sets are always closed and bounded e) Show that with this particular metric. then Y is closed and bounded d) Show that for any metric space. Hence.1 Proof 3 Definition 4 Theorem o 4.1 Proof 6 Tietze Extension o 6.a) Show that this is a metric b) Which subspaces of X are compact c) Show that if Y is a subspace of X and Y is compact. closed and bounded sets need not be compact Retrieved from "http://en. we will be dealing only with metric spaces. search Completeness and related ideas inherently assume the notion of 'distance'.wikibooks.1 Proof 7 Theorem (Cantor's intersection theorem) o 7. throughout this chapter.org/wiki/Topology/Compactness" Category: Topology (book)
Topology/Completeness
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality.

[edit] Proof
. is not. Thus. there is an such that
[edit] Theorem
All convergent sequences are Cauchy sequences [edit] Proof A convergent sequence {xn} will converge to a limit x.1). that .b > N.
[edit] Definition
A metric space is said to be complete when all Cauchy sequences converge to a limit.
[edit] Theorem
A closed subset of a complete space is itself complete.1) being a non-closed subset of .•
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o 9. although is complete while (0. for any a.
• • •
A subset A of a metric space X is dense in an open set O when A subset A of a metric space X is everywhere dense when it is dense in X.1 Proof 10 Theorem (Generalized Heine-Borel Theorem) o 10.1 Proof o 10.2 Proof
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12 Excercises
[edit] Definition
A sequence {xn} is said to be a Cauchy sequence if for any for any a.
. . for a homeomorphism exists between the spaces and (0. . implying that there exists an N such that for any a > N. .b > N.
Completeness is obviously not a Topological property.2 Corollary (Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem) 11 Theorem (Arzelà–Ascoli theorem) o 11.1 Definitions o 11.
A subset A of a metric space X is nowhere dense when it is dense in no open set in X.

1].1] such that f(x)=g(x) for all points in A. [edit] Proof Obviously the sequence of functions converges pointwise since the sequence fn(x) is obviously a Cauchy sequence which converges to a value f(x). [edit] Proof In order to prove this we first establish the following result: For any continuous function from a closed subset A of X to the interval [-r. there exists an open ball Bδ(x) in X such that its image is contained in the open ball . so it has a limit.
There exists an N such that for all n>N. for any x within X. we can now prove the following result: Theorem: Let X be a normal topological space.
[edit] Theorem (Uniform Convergence Theorem))
Let X be a metric space. Then the sequence of functions converges to a continuous function from X to Y. there is a continuous function from X to the interval such that |f(x)-g(x)|< for all . Let f be a continuous function from the subspace A to the interval [0.
[edit] Tietze Extension
Using Urysohn's Lemma and the Uniform Convergence Theorem. and let A be a closed subset.
. Now let n>N. We will now prove that f(x) is continuous. and consider the continuous function fn. C is complete. and so is also within C.
Now consider any open ball Bε(f(x)) around f(x). This limit is a point of contact of this sequence. and let fn be a sequence of continuous functions from X to a complete metric space Y such that for all ε > 0. which is within X. Note that ε must be independent of x. and consequently.Consider a complete space X and let be closed.n2>N. For a function from metric space to a complete metric space have a very important theorem called the uniform convergence theorem. there exists an N such that for all n1. Then there exists a continuous function g from X to the interval [0. and any point x' in the open ball Bδ(x). Consider any Cauchy sequence within C. Thus.r]. Since it is continuous. Then so the function f(x) is continuous. is a point of contact of C. .

Therefore. it is convergent. Define the sequences {an}. Now we prove the main result.
respectively. which are disjoint sets which. As sn is a real-valued Cauchy sequence. . consider the case when so the inequality is also satisfied for this final case. Then consider the function h defined by so that when and and such that g(x)=1
from the set X to the interval such that when
. but sequence xn converges to x implying that X is complete. Finally. Now we use Urysohn's lemma to obtain a function when such that g(x)=0 when . we can see that {xn} is bounded.xn). such that for each n. the
. If . Then . Then consider the case when inequality is also satisfied there. Then . Hence. Then so the so the
inequality |f(x)-h(x)|<
.
[edit] Theorem (Cantor's intersection theorem)
The intersection of every sequence of compact subsets {An} of a metric space X such that is non-empty if and only if the metric space is complete.sn as an = d(xn + 1. Then to see that the function h satisfies the . consider the case when
inequality is satisfied there. since they are closed in the closed set A. we can construct a sequence of compact sets {An} satisfying . are also closed in X. [edit] Proof ( )Let {xn} be a Cauchy sequence in X.Consider the sets and .

The centers cn of the spheres Sn form a Cauchy sequence because when n1. and it is clear that the Cauchy sequence converges to this limit point. [edit] Proof
Let
be a complete metric space where each Ki is nowhere dense. [edit] Proof ( ) Let X be a compact metric space.
[edit] Theorem (Generalized Heine-Borel Theorem)
A metric space is compact if and only if the metric space is complete and totally bounded. and so it is not within A. where n > 1 be an open ball of radius contained in Sn − 1 which does not meet An. As . Note that this is often referred to as the First form of Baire's theorem. then . it converges to a limit c within A.
[edit] Theorem (Baire Category Theorem)
A complete metric space is not a countable union of nowhere dense subsets. because the space A is complete. Therefore. It states that the intersection of a sequence of the closures of balls An such that and such that their sequence of radii rn approaches 0 is non-empty if and only if the metric space is complete. Select a sequence {xn} where . or it is infinite. in which case it clearly converges to an element in X since the sequence eventually stablizes. An important tool in general topology and functional analysis is the Baire Category Theorem which provides the necessary and sufficient condition for a metric space to be complete. then A1 would be dense in Sn − 1. any Cauchy sequence must either be finite. However.
[edit] Theorem (Nested balls theorem)
The Nested interval theorem is quite similar to the Cantor's intersection theorem. ( )
. since it is countably compact. in which case it has a limit point in X. Let Sn. Also. and hence totally bounded. As {xn} is bounded.( )Let An be a sequence of compact sets satisfying . it has a convergent subsequence {yn} with limit x. we have . Then it is countably compact. it is not within any Kn. Let S1 be an open
ball of radius .n2 > N and. a contradiction. which is possible because if it always met An.

we can conclude that X is countably compact. this sequence will have a limit point x.Let {an} be an infinite sequence of points in X. such that it is in order (i. f(x)<M for all x within [a. Note: If X is a complete metric space. The union of these closures of spheres is the closure of the first sphere. and consider the closures of spheres of each point in the -net. [edit] Definitions
•
A set of functions F defined on [a. consider the balls and then for each ball. e. Continuing this process of obtaining a new closure of ball which contains infinitely many elements of the sequence. and only finitely many closures of spheres. then every totally bounded sequence has a convergent subsequence .
. Now consider a finite -net within this closure of a sphere. at least one of these closures of spheres must contain an infinite subsequence {an1}. This x is a limit point of all balls. and denote this to be Cl(B1(x1)). in a way that does not go "backwards" in the sequence). each of radius . we now turn to how to establish relative compactness in the metric space of continuous functions in the closed interval [a. This is because the sequence will be relatively compact. we can use the nested spheres theorem to obtain an element x that is within the intersection of all of the spheres. we have the following definitions. each of radius 1. at least one of closures of balls that meets Cl(B1(x1)) with Cl(B1(x1)) must contain an infinite subsequence {an2}. and any closed subset of a complete metric space is also complete. but only finitely many closures of balls. and consider the set of the closures of the spheres of each point in the 1-net. [edit] Corollary (Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem) In a complete metric space X. For this limit point. at least infinitely many of them are distinct). and since its closure is compact and thus countably compact and thus has a limit point.b].b] is uniformly bounded if there exists an M such that for any function f within F.
[edit] Theorem (Arzelà–Ascoli theorem)
Now that we have a result which proves the equivalence between relative compactness and total boundedness in a complete metric space. Then this is obviously a subsequence that converges to the limit point. choose a point in the sequence within the ball. which in turn contains infinitely many elements of the sequence {an}.b]. and because of completeness. From this. Since there are infinitely many distinct {an}. This is because its closure is obviously totally bounded. and thus is compact. a set S is relatively compact if and only if it is totally bounded. Now consider a finite 1-net. The union of these closures of spheres is X. and thus must also be the limit point of the original sequence {an} since any neighborhood of x must contain some closure of a ball in the aforementioned sequence. e. such that they form an infinite set (i. First. Since there are infinitely many distinct {an1} in Cl(B1(x1)).

b] is relatively compact if and only if it is equicontinuous and uniformly bounded. Prove that the Euclidean space
is complete. . 2. Retrieved from "http://en. Prove that the Hilbert space is complete. Reliability:
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1 Examples 2 Definitions 3 Theorems about connectedness 4 Exercises
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[edit] Motivation
To best describe what is a connected space. Privacy policy About Wikibooks Disclaimers
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Topology/Connectedness
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. search
Contents
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• • •
1 Motivation o 1. we shall describe first what is a disconnected space. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. at 06:37. See Terms of Use for details. or more formally:
. A disconnected space is a space that can be separated into two disjoint groups. Jump to: navigation.• • • • •
Create a collection Download as PDF Printable version This page was last modified on 30 June 2010. additional terms may apply.

Since X does not contain b. is disconnected:
2.1 A subset U of a topological space X is said to be clopen if it is both closed and open. then s is [a.
[edit] Examples
1.b] is connected. A space X that is not disconnected is said to be a connected space. then Y is also connected. To show this. when the space cannot be separated into (at least) two distinct subspaces.A space is said to be disconnected iff a pair of disjoint.b]. s must be within the interval . then within X. Either case implies that s is not the supremum. suppose that it was disconnected.
[edit] Definitions
Definition 1. non-empty open subsets X1.2 A topological space X is said to be totally disconnected if every subset of X having more than one point is disconnected under the subspace topology
[edit] Theorems about connectedness
If X and Y are homeomorphic spaces and if X is connected.b] and thus must be within either X or there is an open set within within
. If s is within X. and there is an open set . the definition of a connected space is quite intuitive. Definition 1. A closed interval [a.X2 exists. The topological space
A picture to illustrate:
As you can see. Then there are two nonempty disjoint open sets A and B whose union is [a. which is also open. Let X be the the set equal to A or B and which does not contain b. Let .
. such that . If s is not within X.

and are thus open.y)}) and π2(B∩{(x. Thus. connected sets.(1). then their product space is also connected. then Y is connected. As f . Prove that if is continuous and surjective (not necessarily homeomorphic). Without loss of generality. . Thus. Proof: Let A and B be two non-disjoint. assume . f(X) is disconnected. Then there exists two nonempty disjoint sets A and B whose union is f(X). Assume.. As . Hence. As Y is non-empty.1 is continuous. and hence .y)} (by the definition of product topology). then their union is connected.
If two connected sets have a nonempty intersection.
Note: this shows that connectedness is a topological property. As f . X1×X2 is connected. If for every x∈X.1 is a bijection.y)}).. Y = f(X) is connected. contradicting the fact that X is connected.
.(2) . and which are are a union of open sets in {(x. Thus. whose union is X1. Then π2(A∩{(x. are nonempty disjoint sets whose union is X2. and are thus disjoint and nonempty.Proof: Let X be connected. is connected. This implies that X2 is disconnected. . if possible. Now. there is an x∈X such that {x}×X2 contains elements of both A and B. a contradiction. such that . Let . As A is connected. Proof: Let X1 and X2 be two connected spaces.. Suppose that there are two nonempty open disjoint sets A and B whose union is X1×X2. then π1(A) and π1(B) are also open. and let f be a homeomorphism. {x}×X2 is either completely within A or within B. they are disjoint sets whose union is X. contradicting the fact that X1 is connected. similarly. From (1) and (2).
If two topological spaces are connected. consider are arbitrary..1(B) are open. LEt X and Y be non-empty open sets such that . f −1 (A) and f .
[edit] Exercises
1. where y is any element of X2. and if X is connected. Show that a topological space X is disconnected if and only if it has clopen sets other than and X (Hint: Why is X1 clopen?) 2.

a)Prove that the discrete topology on a set X is totally disconnected.wikibooks.1 Examples 2 Axioms of countability o 2.1. there exists a such that f(c) = y.
then for any y between f(a) and f(b).org/wiki/Topology/Connectedness" Category: Topology (book)
•
Topology/Countability
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. 5. Prove the Intermediate Value Theorem: if
is continuous. search
Contents
[hide]
• •
1 Bijection o 1.1 First Axiom of Countability 2.1.2 Theorem 2. Jump to: navigation.3 Theorem 2. Prove that an uncounable set given the countable complement topology is connected (this space is what mathematicians call 'hyperconnected') 6. b) Does the converse of a) hold (Hint: Even if the subspace topology on a subset of X is the discrete topology.3.1.2.3.1.1 Definition 2. 4.1 Proof
.1 Proof 2. Prove that is not homeomorphic to (hint: removing a single point from makes it disconnected). this need not imply that the set has the discrete topology) Retrieved from "http://en.1.

1 Proof o 2.4 Theorem 2.2 Corollary (Lindelöf covering theorem) Countable Compactness o 3.2 Theorem 3.2 Definition o 4.3.3 Theorem 2.3.4 Theorem 2.1 Proof 2.4.3.1.2.1.2.1 Proof 2.2 Theorem 2.3. namely .3.1 Proof o 4. where f(n) = 2n.3 Seperable Spaces 2.3.3.2 Corollary 2.2.
[edit] Examples
The Even Integers: There is a simple bijection between the integers and the even integers.1 Definition o 4.4.4.1 Theorem
•
7 Exercise
[edit] Bijection
A set is said to be countable it there exists a one to one correspondence between that set and the set of integers.2 Definition 2.4 Theorem 4.2.1 Proof o 2.
.1 Definition 2.1 Theorem o 5.2.4.2 Proof Hahn-Mazurkiewicz Theorem o 6.3 Theorem 4.1 Definition o 3. Hence the even integers are countable.1 Definition Total Boundedness o 4.3.•
3
•
4
•
5 6
•
2.3.3 Relative Countable Compactness 3.2 Second Axiom of Countability 2.3.1 Definition 2.3.1 Proof o 3.1 Proof Urysohn's Metrizability Theorem o 5.3.

there is an Ai such that . for every there exists a countable collection of neighbourhoods of x. In the case where there are two such points.y) is the lattice point 1 unit from f(n − 1) nearest to the origin. where (x. an arbitrary choice may be made. then for any point x of closure of a set S.) and f(n) = (x.y). Then form a sequence {ai} such that . there exists with .
.A 2 . there is an open ball Br(x) within N. A topological space that satisfies the first axiom of countability is said to be First-Countable. All metric spaces satisfy the first axiom of countability because for any neighborhood N of a point x. then
is
represent the function such that f(0) = (0.
[edit] Proof
Let {Ai} be a countable collection of neighborhoods of x such that for any neighborhood N of x.y) is
not represented by some f(m) for m < n (x. Define . . such that if N is any neighbourhood of x. has the neighborhood B1 / n(x) where .dimensional integer lattice is countable. The 2 . and the countable collection of neighborhoods of x that are B1 / k(x) where [edit] Theorem If a topological space satisfies the first axiom of countability. there is a sequence {ai} of points within S which converges to x.
Because f exists and is a bijection with the integers.Dimensional Lattice: Let countable.
[edit] Axioms of countability
[edit] First Axiom of Countability
[edit] Definition A topological space Xis said to satisfy the First Axiom of Countability if. Proof: let whichever point:
• •
represent the usual two dimensional integer lattice. Then obviously {ai} converges to x.

suppose that all convergent sequences within A converge to an element within A. which is within B. is continuous
[edit] Proof
Let X satisfy the first axiom of countability. {f(xn)} converges to f(x). f is continuous. f(A) is a subset of B which contains f(xn) when n > N. Let B be any open neighborhood of f(x). suppose that whenever {xn} converges to x. Thus.1(B). there exists an open neighbourhood of x. Let be a sequence which converges onto a limit x. Thus. and let be continuous. A is closed. since the countable collection of neighborhoods of a point can be all neighborhoods of the point within the countable base. and let x be any point of contact for A.[edit] Theorem Let X be a topological space satisfying the first axiom of countability. and A must be a subset of N. As f is continuous. Thus. The point x is a limit point of {xn} and thus is a limit point of A. implying that it is closed. Let {xn} be a sequence which converges to x. and so x is within A. x is within f . A topological space satisfies the second axiom of countable is first countable. Thus. Then. a subset A of X is closed if an only if all convergent sequences which converge to an element of X converge to an element of A. Thus. there is a sequence {xn} which converges to x. [edit] Theorem If a topological space X satisfies the first axiom of countability.
[edit] Second Axiom of Countability
[edit] Definition A topological space is said to satisfy the second axiom of countability if it has a countable base. A topological space that satisfies the second axiom of countability is said to be SecondCountable. that {f(xn)} converges to f(x). and since A is closed. Then f(xn) converges onto a limit f(x). Conversely. Let B be a closed subset of Y. Conversely. so that any neighborhood N of that point must contain at least one neighborhood A within the collection. Then by the theorem above. {f(xn)} converges to f(x).
.
[edit] Proof
Suppose that {xn} converges to x within X. Since {xn} to x. then if and only if whenever {xn} converges to x. it is contained within A. then there must exist an such that A must contain xn when n > N.

covers X. [edit] Theorem
. {Bx} forms a countable open cover for X.[edit] Theorem If a topological space X satisfies the second axiom of countability.
[edit] Definition A topological space X is seperable if it has a countable dense subset.
[edit] Proof
Let be an open cover of X. and thus must contain at least one element within the base. Moreover. Example: is separable because is a countable subset and . The resulting set A of the chosen points is countable. second countability implies seperable and first countable.
[edit] Corollary
In any topological space. Cx which contains x. and this is a countable subcover of . Prove of this is left for the reader. select an element of . For each Bx. select an element of which contains Bx.
[edit] Seperable Spaces
[edit] Definition A topological space X is separable if it has a countable proper subset A such that Cl(A) = X. then all open covers of X has a countable subcover. its closure is the whole space X since any neighborhood of any element of X must be a union of the bases. Choose a point from each set within the base. then it is separable. which in turn must contain an element of A because A contains at least one point from each base.
[edit] Proof
Consider a countable base of a space X. Thus it is separable. Bx which contains x and is a subset of Cx (which is possible because is a base). For all points x. [edit] Theorem If a topological space satisfies the second axiom of countability. and an element of the base. Example: The set of real numbers and complex numbers are both seperable. and let be a countable base for X.

and so is a countable cover of the set. and let x be any element of O. Let r' be a number of the form 1 / n that is less than r. and let N be an open ball of x within O with radius r. This directly implies that any cover a set in has a countable subcover. but any finite subcover
. then it satisfies the second axiom of countability...n + 2. (i = 1. there is an element such that . [edit] Theorem A topological space X is countably compact if and only if any infinite subset of that space has at least one limit point. Let Sn = {xi} for (i = n. then .). Let O be any open set.. Example: Since is a separable metric space..3. Thus B is a base for X. Then the ball Br' / 2(x') is within B and is a subset of O because if .) be a set within X without any limit point. and thus any cover of a subset of that metric space can be reduced to a countable cover. A countably compact space is compact if it satisfies the second axiom of countability by the theorem above.n + 1. Consider the countable set B of open balls . Then this sequence is closed. Thus that contains x.
[edit] Corollary (Lindelöf covering theorem)
If a metric space is separable. Because Cl(A) = X..
[edit] Countable Compactness
[edit] Definition A subset A of a topological space X is said to be Countably Compact if and only if all countable covers of A have a finite subcover. then it satisfies the second axiom of countability. The union of all such neighborhoods containing an element of O is O.
[edit] Proof
Let X be a metric space.
[edit] Proof
( )Let {xi}. it satisfies the second axiom of countability.. Clearly all compact spaces are countably compact. and let A be a countable set such that Cl(A) = X. since they are all isolated points within the sequence.2. The are all open sets.If a metric space is separable.

Select xn such that .
[edit] Proof
Any infinite subset of a countably compact metric space X must have at least one limit point. Define:
. there is an
[edit] Definition A metric space X is totally bounded when it has a finite -net for any [edit] Theorem A countably compact metric space is totally bounded. so Sn is not an open cover of X. Since is closed. which must also be a limit point of . and is open.of this cover does not cover X because it does not contain the assumption that X is countably compact. This contradicts
( )Let {Sn} be open subsets of X such that any finite union of those sets does not cover X. Thus. . which does not cover X. Thus. . and thus is not within any Sn. Thus. there is an analogous property called relative countable compactness. X is countably compact.
[edit] Relative Countable Compactness
Since there is relative compactness. one must
. There is a limit point x of this set of points. if for any b within X. selecting where xn is at least apart from any xd where d < n.
[edit] Total Boundedness
[edit] Definition A set element is an -net of a metric space X where such that . [edit] Definition A subset S of a topological space X is relatively countably compact when its closure Cl(S) is countably compact.
.

consider any countable base of the topological space X. meaning that the function value of any point within the open set is less than 1.eventually have formed an -net because this process must be finite. First. we can apply Urysohn's lemma to find a continuous function such that: fn(xn) = 0 fn(X / On) = 1 It is easy to see from the proof of Urysohn's lemma that we have not only constructed a function with such properties. Now define the function from X to the Hilbert cube to be . where n varies over the natural numbers. which is a metric space. and since a point within the open set is also closed. [edit] Theorem A totally bounded set is separable. to prove that the topological space is homeomorphic to a subset of the Hilbert cube. There exists an N such that
. and is thus a metric space. because there is no possible infinite set with all elements more than apart. Since the complement of the open set is closed.
[edit] Proof
We are going to use the Hilbert cube. and any open On set of it. Select a point xn within this open set. let be a sequence that converges to a. all single points are closed sets.
[edit] Theorem
A second countable normal T1 topological space is homeomorphic to a metric space. since all T1 normal spaces are Hausdorff. and that is a countable set such that its closure is the whole space X. To prove that this is continuous.
[edit] Proof
Take the union of all finite 1 / n-nets. Therefore. and since these two closed sets are disjoint. in this proof. but that such that fn(On) < 1.
[edit] Urysohn's Metrizability Theorem
The following theorem establishes a sufficient condition for a topological space to be metrizable. Consider the open ball Bε(f(a)) where ε > 0.

2. Since the space is Hausdorff. a and b. Moreover. and therefore an open set Sn of the base within that neighborhood containing a such that if .1]. let On be an open set within the countable base of X. Since fn(x) < 1. Let n>M. there exists disjoint open sets and .. To prove that the inverse g − 1 is continuous. In addition. then . Let
. To prove that this is one-to-one.. It follows that fn(a) < 1 whereas fn(b) = 1.. since . proving that the function g is one-to-one. and then the distance from g(an) to g(a) is now
This proves that it is continuous.3. and that there exists an inverse g − 1. consider two different points. indicating that there exists an εn > 0 such that when | fn(z) − fn(x) | < 2nεn
.. and select an element of the base On that contains a and is within Ua.M-1) such that when n > Mi. there exists a neighborhood of a. Consider any point x within On. that . then
or
. and let M be the maximum of Mi so that when n>M.. there exists an Mi (i=1. since fn is a continuous function from X to [0.

a space filling curve
The Hahn-Mazurkiewicz theorem is one of the most historically important results of point-set topology.then Suppose that
. is one-to-one. meaning that
Since the function is continuous. a property that is widely considered to be counter-intuitive. . Note that this also proves that the Hilbert cube thus contains any second-countable normal T1 space. we present the theorem without its proof. and has a continuous inverse. Then
Implying that
indicating that
. then . and an . Here.
Now consider any open set O around x.
[edit] Hahn-Mazurkiewicz Theorem
The Hilbert Curve. for it completely solves the problem of "space-filling" curves. it is thus a homeomorphism. [edit] Theorem
. Then there exists a set of the base εn > 0 such that whenever This proves that the inverse is continuous. This theorem provides the necessary and sufficient condition for a space to be 'covered by curve'. . proving that X is metrizable.

local connectedness and connectedness are independent properties.
Contents
[hide]
• •
1 Examples 2 Local path connectedness
. if for each neighbourhood V of x. Jump to: navigation. a space may satisfy one of them without satisfying the other (see the examples below).
[edit] Exercise
1. connected. locally connected and second-countable space. search In topology and other branches of mathematics. Prove that a separable metric space satisfies the second axiom of countability.wikibooks. prove that a countably compact metric space is compact. Suprisingly. Retrieved from "http://en. we call the space locally connected. there is a connected neighbourhood U of x contained in V. then it is compact. 2. or otherwise. Prove the sufficiency condition of the Hahn-Mazurkiewicz theorem: If a Hausdorff space is a continuous image of the unit interval. connected. locally-connected and second countable.org/wiki/Topology/Countability" Category: Topology (book)
•
Topology/Local Connectedness
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. Hence.A Hausdorff space is a continuous image of the unit interval [0. a topological space is said to be locally connected at x (where x is a point of the space to be called X). If a space is locally connected at each of its points.1] if and only if it is a compact.

if for each point x. From example 1. It is locally connected at every other point though. 3. there is a path connected neighbourhood U of x contained in V. The space is not locally connected at any point in the set B = [Closure (S)] – S.1) is locally connected but not connected. there is a basis element B containing x which is connected and contained in V.
. the set A = (-1. The finite union of intervals is locally connected. The same is true for R in the lower limit topology.The topologist's sine curve (if f(x) = sin (1/x). 2. Then B is the desired connected neighbourhood of x contained in V). b) The closure of a connected space is connected. In particular. In other words. then it is locally connected (to see this. Then for each neighbourhood V of x. The set of rational numbers Q is neither locally connected nor connected.• • • • •
3 Weakly Locally Connected 4 Components and path components 5 Quasicomponents 6 Theorems 7 Exercises
[edit] Examples
1.0) ∪ (0. show that path connectedness and local path connectedness are independent properties. In fact. let x be a point of the space. is an example of a connected space which is not locally connected.1] under f). Similar examples to the previous ones.
[edit] Local path connectedness
A topological space. X. then the topologist's sine curve is just the closure of the image of (0. elementary sets (see measure theory) in R are locally connected. we can conclude that the set of real numbers R is locally connected and connected (since it is a linear continuum).1]) is connected since it is the image of a connected space under a continuous map. We will give a few more examples. If a space has a basis consisting entirely of connected sets. The fact that the topologist's sine curve is connected follows from: a) The set S = f((0. a totally disconnected space cannot be locally connected unless it has the discrete topology. is locally path connected. and each neighborhood V of x. 4. 5.

the topological space is said to be weakly locally connected at x. A locally path connected space is always locally connected. 3. 2. The proof uses the fact that every path connected space is connected. Examples 1.1]) ∪ ([0. it is said simply to be weakly locally connected. there is a connected subspace A of V containing a neighbourhood U of x.1]) ∪ ({0} × [0. a totally disconnected space is weakly locally connected if and only if it has the discrete topology). Every locally connected space is trivially weakly locally connected (let A = U in the definition). 4. It is however locally path connected at every other point. If for every neighbourhood V of x. 2.
[edit] Weakly Locally Connected
A more weaker property that a topological space can satisfy at a point is known as ‘weakly locally connected’: Definition Let X be a topological space and x a point of X.
. However.1] × {0}] The comb space is path connected (this is trivial) but locally path connected at no point in the set A = {0} × (0. Note that neither the comb space nor the topologist’s sine curve is weakly locally connected.Examples 1. We will give a few examples and there will be one important theorem on this concept later. the proof of this fact requires another notion related to local connectedness which is to be discussed in the next section.1]. A totally disconnected space cannot be weakly locally connected unless it has the discrete topology (in other words. then it is locally connected at every point. then the comb space is defined by: C = (K × [0. An example of a path connected space that is not locally path connected is the comb space: if K = {1/n |n is a natural number}. We will prove shortly that if a topological space is weakly locally connected (that is weakly locally connected at EVERY point). If the space is weakly locally connected at each of its points. It is easy to see that these two spaces are not weakly locally connected at each of the points that they aren’t locally connected. An example is R in the lower limit topology which doesn’t have the discrete topology and hence cannot be weakly locally connected at any point.

Properties 1. and let x belong to A. and every connected subset of X is the subset of exactly one component. if a space is weakly locally connected at just one point. Therefore. A similar proof shows that every path connected subset of X is a subset of a path component of X. Define another equivalence relation ~2 (different from the first) to set x~2y if there is a path from x to y. An example of such a space is the broom space. let Ay be a connected subset of X containing both y and x (since y~x). the components are disjoint. let A be connected (and nonempty or else the proof is trivial). Therefore. so that we declare x~y if there is a connected subspace A of X containing both x and y. 2.
[edit] Components and path components
Define an equivalence relation ~ on a topological space X. However. then why call a space ‘weakly’ locally connected? It doesn’t seem to be a weaker condition. 4. The components are always closed. The previous property may seem strange. it needs to be weakly locally connected in a NEIGHBOURHOOD of that point. C is always a subset of the closure of C so that it is sufficient to verify that the closure of C is a subset of C. Since this is the union of connected spaces having the point x in common. then it need not be locally connected at that point. The collection of all equivalence classes are called the components of X (this is indeed an equivalence relation as the reader can check). Then C is nonempty since x~x. we have shown that A is a subset of the component containing x. C = Closure(C) and C is closed. this union is connected. To see this we note that if C is a component. The collection of all equivalence classes with this equivalence relation are called the path components of the space (this is indeed an equivalence relation as the reader can check). C is connected). 3. A similar argument shows that the path components are always path connected and hence connected. The same is true for the path components. Equivalently. Take the union of all such Ay for y in C.5. The components are always connected (to see this let C be a component (the equivalence class containing a certain point x of the space). Being equivalence classes. But we know that the closure of C is connected. nonempty subsets of the topological space X. the components are the largest possible connected subsets of X and the path components are the largest possible path connected subsets of X. Now. This union is C. Since y was arbitrary. If every weakly locally connected space is locally connected. To see this. Then if y belongs to A. A is a connected subset of X containing both y and x so that y~x. For each y in C. This proof fails for the path components since the
. Every connected subset of X lies in a component of X. x~2y if and only if there is a path connected subspace of X containing x and y. This justifies property 1. so that the closure of C is connected. For this space to be locally connected at that point. then C is connected. whose union is X. Intuitively. Hence the definition of a weakly locally connected space does indeed make sense.

are the constant maps. C is open. 3. the image of R under f must be connected.0)∪(0.1]) where f is the function defined by f(x) = sin(1/x) Notice that A is closed. Since R is connected. the path components are subsets of the components. the whole space. then the components are also open. for any totally disconnected space. Note how these are the largest possible connected subsets of this space.1]) in the dictionary order topology has exactly one component (because it is connected) but has uncountably many path components. Therefore. Also. In fact. the same thing does not hold for the path components. However. the image of R under f must be a subset of a component of Rℓ.2 and 3 are exactly the same as the components. they are not the same in general. Indeed. the topologist's sine curve). as the set of rational numbers show.
. Since connected subsets of X lie in a component of X. 2. The set: A = (-∞. The set I × I (where I = [0. This shows that even though the components are always closed. Let f be a continuous map from R to Rℓ (R in the lower limit topology). If C is a component. An example of this is the topologist's sine curve which has one component (since it is connected). We will prove later that the path components and components are equal provided that X is locally path connected. In general. The set of rational numbers has countably many components. +∞). 5. 6. Since this image is nonempty. but not closed. 7.1] B = f((0. and the image of a connected space under a continuous map must be connected. This proof fails for infinitely many components. B is open. the one point sets are the components of the space. If there are only finitely many components. but has two path components: A = {0} × [-1. Each one point set is a component. but not open. The set of all real numbers has precisely one component. the only continuous maps from R to Rℓ. 5.+∞) has precisely two components. any set of the form {a} × I is a path component for each a belonging to I. Examples 1. (-∞. then its complement is the finite union of components and hence closed. To see this we note that the path components of a topological space are path connected and hence connected. In fact every connected space has only one component. 0) and (0. the result follows. 4. Therefore.closure of a path connected space need not be path connected (for example. The path components of the spaces in examples 1.

the space itself. Therefore. Examples 1. There is only one quasicomponent of a connected space. We first make a definition: Definition Let X be a topological space. In the next section. it follows that the quasicomponents. If x~1y. The components are always contained in the quasicomponents of X. This follows from property 1. the components of X and the path components of X are equal (which we shall prove in the next section). Properties 1. then C would intersect both A and B. then there is a connected subset. C. we may conclude that the path components of a space always lie in the quasicomponents of a space (since the path components always lie in the components). This is because a weakly locally connected space is always locally connected (which we shall prove imminently). it is locally connected (as mentioned earlier) so that the components of X are equal to the quasicomponents of X. If X is locally path connected.
. Before proving this we will let x~1y if there is a connected subset of X containing both x and y (which is the equivalence relation used in defining components). This implies in particular that ‘C intersection A’ and ‘C intersection B’ would form a separation on C contradicting the connectedness of C. 4. 3. and components are all equal if X is a locally path connected space. 2. and x~2y if x~y as in the definition given in this section. From the previous property. we will prove that if X is a locally connected topological space. weakly locally connected at each of its points). of X containing x and y. Define an equivalence relation on X to declare x~y if there is no separation of X into sets A and B such that x is an element of A and y is an element of B.[edit] Quasicomponents
The concept of a quasicomponent is similar to that of a component and only brief attention will be given to it. then the quasicomponents of X are equal to the components of X. We note that the relation given in the definition is indeed an equivalence relation as the reader can readily check. If there was a separation of X into sets A and B such that x is an element of A and y is an element of B. 2. path components. Since if X is locally path connected. we must have that x~2y. Property 2 still holds if X is weakly locally connected (that is.

nonempty (P is nonempty since x is in P. Theorem 2 A topological space is locally path connected if the path components of open sets are open. Proof The proof is similar to theorem 1 and is omitted. Take the union of all those path components of X disjoint from P and intersect them with C. It follows that C is the union of open sets and is thus open. For each x in C. Conversely. Suppose P is a proper subset of C. since they are disjoint. Proof Let P be a path component of X containing x and let C be a component of X containing x. Since U is connected. We know that P is a subset of C by example 5 in the previous section. Then. Theorem 1 A topological space is locally connected if and only if the components of open sets are open. suppose that the components of open sets in a topological space. P is open in X by theorem 2. Let V be open in X and let C be a component of V. Proof Suppose X is locally connected (where X is the topological space in question).[edit] Theorems
In this section. Let x belong to X and let V be a neigbourhood of x. because we are assuming that P is a proper subset of X). are open. Therefore. P and Q form a separation on C. C is a connected neigbourhood of X contained in V so that X is locally connected at x. Theorem 4
. Theorem 3 The components and path components of a topological space. call the union of all the resulting sets Q. Let C be a component of V containing x. are equal if X is locally path connected. This contradicts the connectedness of C. Then C is open by hypothesis. choose a connected neigbourhood U of x contained in V (by the local connectedness of X). X. X is locally connected. we will prove theorems relevant to the material in this article. Since X is open. Q is nonempty. X. and open in C (Q is open in C by theorem 2 and the definition of the subspace topology). Since x was arbitary. U is a subset of C.

Since there is a path from x to y (because y belongs to A). Let A be the set of all points in U that can be joined by a path to X. the component containing x
. If y is in A. Then every open. This shows that C is open relative to U. we have shown that each x in C has a neighbourhood V contained in C. This cannot be since y is in U−A. Then X is locally connected. Therefore. z is in A. there is no path from z to x and z is in U−A. then the component containing x is both open and closed (components are always closed. then there would be a path from x to y since there is already a path from z to y. Therefore. Now if y is in U−A. We know already that A is nonempty (x is in A). Theorem 5 Let X be a weakly locally connected space. If z is in V. It suffices to show that the quasicomponents always lie in the components if the space is locally connected. Since x was arbitrary. and if there is a path from z to x. Therefore. connected subset of X is path connected. Then x is an element of U so that there is a connected subspace A of X contained in U and containing a neighbourhood V of x. It follows that V is a subset of U−A and U−A is open. Theorem 6 Let X be a topological space. Let x be an element of C. it follows that the components of X are open (since X is locally connected). if x~1y doesn’t hold (x is not equivalent to y under the equivalence relation defining components). If X is locally connected. Then A is open. Therefore. From theorem 1. it is sufficient to show that the components of open sets is open. Since A is connected and A contains x. Proof From theorem 1. Proof Let U be an open connected subset of X and let x belong to U. Therefore. we can ‘paste’ these paths together to form a path from x to z. then A and U−A will form a separation on U contradicting the connectedness of U. V is a subset of A and A is open. If U−A is nonempty. If V is a path connected neigbourhood of y contained in U. then there is no path from y to x. the neighbourhood V of x is a subset of C.Let X be a locally path connected space. every point in U can be joined by a path to x. then there is a path connected subset V of U containing y (by the local path connectedness of the space). Proof We noted earlier in the section on quasicomponents that each component of the space is contained in a quasicomponent of the space. A must be a subset of C (the component containing x). Let U be open in X and let C be a component of U. If z is in V. then V is a subset of U−A. From this it follows that U is path connected. Therefore. the quasicomponents of X are equal to the components of X. Therefore. then there is a path from z to y. X is locally connected. Then we assert that V is a subset of A.

0. 2. See also the section (in this article) on ‘weakly locally connected space’. y cannot be in the quasicomponent containing x. Therefore. The reader is directed to Wolfram MathWorld for a definition of the broom space. What is this component? 3.
[edit] Exercises
Easy Questions 1. If f is a continuous. The intersection of this neighbourhood with T is homeomorphic with the countable union of open intervals in R (this we leave you to check in the exercises on homeomorphisms (see next section))and therefore cannot be connected. 2. we can conclude that every open connected subset of R is path connected (since R is locally path connected). so that there is a separation of X into sets A and B such that A contains x and B contains y (A is the component containing x. Prove that X has precisely one component if and only if X is connected. Therefore. the quasicomponents of X are equal to the components of X. The components and path components of an elementary subset of R are the same. does it follow that Y is locally connected if X is locally connected? What conditions can you impose for
. it must be in the component containing x. Let T be the union of all such Tx. 3. connected subset of R2 is path connected. T cannot be weakly locally connected by theorem 5. choose a neighbourhood of x (open in R^2) disjoint from p which doesn’t intersect the x-axis. Then T is locally connected only at p. Some applications of the theorems 1. p = (0. Prove that if X is locally path connected. this implies that if y is in the quasicomponent containing x. no neighbourhood smaller than this neighbourhood can be connected). Also. For each rational x in R. See the infinite broom (or the broom space). The set of rational numbers Q is not locally connected since the components of Q are not open in Q (see theorem 1). Therefore. Therefore. the elementary subsets of R are the finite union of intervals. then X is locally connected. From elementary set theory. 4.is open because X is a locally connected topological space). This is an example of a space which is weakly locally connected at a particular point. However. and B = X-A). Therefore. From theorem 4. since every elementary set is locally path connected. but not locally connected at that point. every open. we have proved that if y is not in the component containing x.5.5) in the plane. Take the point. x cannot be equivalent to y under the equivalence relation defining quasicomponents.0). Also. it isn’t locally connected at any other point (if x is distinct from p and belongs to T. surjective map from a topological space X to a topological space Y. 5. let Tx denote the line segment joining p to (x.

0) is connected) b) Apply a theorem to show that the path components of this space are equal to the components of this space. See question 7 and think before reading question 8: 9. The reader is expected to be familiar with the product topology. call this new space Y. 5. assume that (0. a) Consider the set X = (-1. Prove that this set is locally connected.this statement to be true. We leave the reader to have a think about this before he reads question 8. to determine whether or not the space I X I is locally path connected. if your answer is yes you must prove it)? 4. what if we take the infinite product of X with itself given the product topology. 6. 7. Then contruct a homeomorphism from (0.e. We will check whether Y is locally connected or not in question 8. Suppose we take the finite product of X with itself. prove that E is locally connected by assuming that each interval is connected. c) Let E be an elementary subset of R (this term is derived from measure theory where E is said to be an elementary subset of R. the continuous image of a locally connected space is locally connected (if your answer was yes to the first question.1) which is clearly not connected.1) is connected. if it is the finite union of intervals (not necessarily open). Prove theorem 2 Normal Questions In these questions. therefore the projection of a connected space is always connected)
. ignore the second.1) to (-1. Prove any assumptions that you make.1] is connected) c) Use your answer to b).0) to show that (-1.0) U (0. a) Are basis elements for the product topology on Y connected? (Hint: The projection map is continuous. Also find the components of this space (Hint: When proving that this space is locally connected. Now. we will verify whether local connectedness is preserved under products and other such operations. a) Prove that the set I X I in the dictionary order topology is locally connected (Hint: What familiar connected subspace of R are basis elements for the topology on I X I homeomorphic to?) b*) Find the path components of this space (Hint: First show that this space is not path connected by obtaining a contradiction and using the intermediate value theorem (assume [0. however. i. Is this new space locally connected? (Hint: Use the fact that the product of connected spaces is always connected) 8.

you should be able to answer question 9. Note that the projection map is continuous so that the image of U under each projection should be connected. find at least one connected neighbourhood of a point (note that a neighborhood of a point need NOT BE a basis element). Like components of a topological space are always closed. Obtain a contradiction) c) Is Y weakly locally connected? Justify your answer (Hint: The idea is similar to part b)) Research Questions You will be asked to formulate hypothesis based on your knowledge: 10. a) Prove that homeomorphisms preserve path connectedness. suppose U is a connected neighborhood of x contained in V. Are path components of a topological space necessarily locally path connected? (Hint: This question is a little trickier than 7. do you think path components satisfy a similar property? We will analyse this question (see now question 9 and think before answering 10) 11. c) From 10. Assuming this determine its path components and analyze the properties these path components satisfy (determine whether they are closed or open or neither).b). The following question is a research type question:
. Then U contains a basis element about X. Are components of a topological space necessarily locally connected? 13. proceed by contradiction: If x is a point of Y and V is a neighborhood of x. a) Is it possible to determine the path components of a connected space (without knowing what the space is)? Is it possible to determine the path components of a path connected space without knowing what the space is? b) The topologist’s sine curve is not path connected. If you answer to a) was no.b) Possibly a) gives us a conjecture whether Y is locally connected or not. (Hint: If your answer to a) was yes. b) Deduce that the topologist’s sine curve and the comb space are not homeomorphic. As a question which we will leave the reader to think about: 12. Depending on your answer to a). prove or disprove that Y is locally connected. you might have to construct your own space (a subspace of R^2)) 14.

characterize weakly locally connected spaces in terms of components (Hint: Remember theorem 5) Questions on Homeomorphisms 22. Example Type Questions 16. If X is locally homeomorphic with Y and X is locally connected. 18*. b) Prove that if Y is connected so is X c) If X is locally connected. Give an example where the path components of a space and the components of a space are not equal. closed surjective map such that p^(-1) {y} is compact in X for each element y of Y (p: X->Y) (the reader who is not familiar with compactness is referred to Wikipedia). Prove that if Y is locally connected. In the section on ‘applications of the theorems’. a) Suppose p is a continuous. 17. Give an example where f is a continuous surjective map from X to Y. 23. a) Prove that every weakly locally path connected space is locally path connected b) Give an example of a weakly locally path connected space that isn’t locally path connected (at a particular point). Give a different example where the path components and quasicomponents of a space are not equal. Formulate a new notion called weak local path connectedness that uses the same idea as the definition of a weakly locally connected space. These ‘local components’ should be the largest locally connected subsets of the space.15*. As in theorem 2. Questions on weakly locally connected spaces 20. Prove that if X has ‘n’ components. Like there are the components of a space. 21. need Y be locally connected? Justify your answer. Give an example where the quasicomponents of a space and the components of the space are not equal. and Y is homeomorphic to X. need Y be locally connected?
. check the details of 4. and X has ‘n’ components but Y doesn’t. Y has ‘n’ components. can you invent a similar equivalence relation that determines the ‘local components’ of a space. so is X. Find an example of a locally connected space that is not locally path connected. 19. 24.

2 Examples o 2. paracompact etc… whereas Hausdorff spaces aren’t)? Retrieved from "http://en.1 Motivation o 3. Remember that metric spaces are always first countable.4 Theorem
.4 Example 5 An Open Set o 5.wikibooks. search
Contents
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•
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1 Before we begin 2 Metric Space o 2.2 Definition o 3.1 Definition o 5.3 Theorem o 5.3 Examples 4 Interior of a Set o 4. See what difficulty arises with this proof when one considers a Hausdorff space.2 Properties o 4.2 Examples o 5. Is every connected Hausdorff space with more than one point uncountable (Hint: Every connected metric space with more than one point in uncountable.3 Note 3 Open Ball o 3. prove this assertion.3 Reminder o 4.Difficult question 25.1 Definition o 2.org/wiki/Topology/Local_Connectedness" Category: Topology (book)
Topology/Metric Spaces
< Topology Jump to: navigation.1 Definitions o 4. normal.

o 7.2 The plot continues. 2. is a function which is called the metric which satisfies the :
if and only if a = b (symmetry) (triangle inequality)
.d) where X is a non-empty set and requirement that for all
1.•
•
•
• •
6 Convergence o 6.7 Exercises 8 Continuity o 8.4 Open vs Closed 7.1 Examples o 7.5 On o 7.4 Uniform Convergence 7 Closed Sets o 7.1 Complementary set 7. Also.4. we will first turn our attention to a special type of topological space. 3. a metric space.
.1 Closure 7. This abstraction has a huge and useful family of special cases.3 Examples o 6..6 Examples of closed sets o 7.4 Uniform Continuity 9 Isometry 10 Exercises
[edit] Before we begin
Before we discuss topological spaces in their full generality.2 Examples o 8.
[edit] Metric Space
[edit] Definition
A metric space is a Cartesian pair (X.2 Closed set o 7.1 Definition o 8.3 Properties o 7..1 Definition o 6. and it therefore deserves special attention.4.1.2 Properties o 6. it will subsequently lead us to the full abstraction of a topological space. the abstraction is picturesque and accessible.3 Exercise o 8.

Interesting cases of p are:
o
.
•
We can generalize the two preceding examples.Note that some authors do not require metric spaces to be non-empty. We define the p-norm:
and
. We annotate (X. we must show that d is really a metric.d) when we talk of a metric space X with the metric d. .
[edit] Examples
•
An important example is the discrete metric.
o o
•
On the plane
as the space. Let V be a normed vector space (over or ). To begin with. For each p-norm there is a metric based on it. We can define the metric to be: space is a metric space. Thus every normed vector
•
For the vector space
we have an interesting norm.
• o
. for any
real numbers x and y.y2)). It may be defined any non-empty set X as follows
•
On the set of real numbers . Let two vectors of . To prove that this is indeed a metric space. define (The absolute distance between x and y).y1) and (x2. The metric is
. and let
This is the euclidean distance between (x1.

is the euclidean
. The metric is good-old Euclid metric
o
. For
[edit] Note
Throughout this chapter we will be referring to metric spaces. which is the same thing). if x = y = Stanisław Ulam. The Hilbert space is a metric space on the space of infinite sequences {ak} such that
converges..y}).a2}. and define d(x. {bi})=
•
. This metric is easily generalized to any reflexive relation (or undirected graph. y) = 2. the "natural" metric for metric d2. y) as 0 if x and y are the same person. is of length n. Take x and y to be two mathematicians. n if the shortest sequence ({x. The space has a "natural" metric.. This is a bit surprising:
As an exercise.{a1..{an − 1. We don't have anything special to say about it. then d would not be a metric.a1}. Because of this.g. There are several reasons:
• • •
We don't want to make the text too blurry. the metric function might not be mentioned explicitly.. 1 if x and y have co-authored a paper. then d(x.
• •
thus justifying
The great-circle distance between two points on a sphere is a metric. or ∞ if x ≠ y and no such sequence exists.o
. you can prove that the definition of . y) as the sum of the Erdős numbers of x and y.
The concept of the Erdős number suggests a metric on the set of all mathematicians. E. Every metric space comes with a metric function. where each step pairs two people who have co-authored a paper. Note that if we instead defined d(x. with a metric d({ai}. as it would not satisfy example. .

that are less than r distance from a certain point p. The Unit ball is a ball of radius 1. the unit ball is: | x | + | y | < 1
.As this is a wiki.
[edit] Definition
Given a metric space (X. of radius r.0)) is exactly . and convert (again.
[edit] Examples
Why is this called a ball? Let's look at the case of : . In R3 the ball is called open. you can alter the text if it seems unclear (if you are sure you know what you are doing) or report it in the talk page. if for some reason you think the metric is worth mentioning. Then we can instantly transform the definitions to topological definitions.The ball with (0.0) at center.0. We shall define intuitive topological definitions through it (that will later be converted to the real topological definition). We shall try to show how many of the definitions of metric spaces can be written also in the "language of open balls". intuitively) calculus definitions of properties (like convergence and continuity) to their topological definition. because it does not contain the sphere ( ). Lets view some examples of the B1((0.d) an open ball with radius r around p is defined as the set .0.
[edit] Open Ball
[edit] Motivation
The open ball is the building block of metric space topology. Therefore Br((0. The unit ball of with the norm = = is: with
•
The metric induced by
in that case. Intuitively it is all the points in the space.0)) unit ball of different p-norm induced metrics.

•
The metric induced by
in that case. | y | } < 1
. the unit ball is:
•
The metric induced by
in that case. the unit ball is: max{ | x | .

(x.0). the unit ball does not have to look like a real ball. that x is really 'inside' A . In fact sometimes the unit ball can be one dot:
•
The discrete metric.(x. Illustration: Interior Point Not Interior Points
.0)) = d{((0.it is not near the boundary of A.y)) = 0} = {(0. The unit ball is B1((0. This intuitively means.y)) < 1} = {d((0.0)}
[edit] Interior of a Set
[edit] Definitions
Definition: We say that x is an interior point of A iff there is an ε > 0 such that: .because it is contained in a ball inside A .0).As we have just seen.

The interior of a set A is marked int(A). . Now. we have that
If then there is a ball . we get The " " direction: let .
. because there is a ball around it.B):
• • • • •
Proof of the first: We need to show that: and therefore Proof of the second: In order to show that and The " " direction is already proved: if for any set A. . every point y. Useful notations: .Definition: The interior of a set A is the set of all the interior points of A. we need to show that . in the ball internal point to A (inside int(A)). then by taking int(A) as . We need to show that . and
[edit] Properties
Some basic properties of int (For any sets A. an the set in question. But that's easy! by definition. inside A: . .

b) contains all the internal points of [a.b) int((a.
(because every point in it is inside int(A)) and by . However. Now what about the points a. but because
that is a contradiction.b) (that is: a < x < b) we'll show and
Let's prove the first example (int([a. b] : all the points x. we have:
int([a.
Hint: To understand better. Properties:
. We show similarly that b is not an internal point.b) is an internal point.b − x}.b]) = (a.b]) = (a. Let ε = min{x − a.We have that definition .b]. b) : all the points x.b].b)). And we can mark int([a. draw to yourself Proof of the rest is left to the reader. such that a < x < b
[edit] Example
For the metric space
• • • •
(the line). we will generalize this definition of open. When we encounter topological spaces.b) int([a.b)) = (a. that the point is inside [a.b]) = (a. To conclude. Therefore . the set (a.b ? let's show that they are not internal points. Let that x is an internal point. If a was an internal point of [a. there would be a ball . such that (a. We have shown now that every point x in (a.b)) = (a. this definition of open in metric spaces is the same as that as if we regard our metric space as a topological space. Note that
. But that would mean.b]) = (a.b].b) int((a.b)
[edit] An Open Set
[edit] Definition
A set is said to be open in a metric space if it equals its interior (A = Int(A)).
[edit] Reminder
• •
[a.

ε2}. Proof: Let A be an open set.y) and the brown line is r − d(x. this property does not hold necessarily for an infinite union of open sets. We know also.B are open. We have found
a ball to contain y inside Br(x).
2. if then compose A: because . that . if and only if it is a union of open-balls. The same ball that made a point an internal point in Ai will
Proposition: A set is open. . 4. there there a ball . we need to prove that a ball make it internal in . For any set B. By the
Interestingly.1 / n)}. is rather trivial: let I) be a set of open sets. Then . we need to prove that int. If (for any set if indexes I) are open. We can . In the following drawing. Proof of 4: A. we have that definition of an internal point we have that . The empty-set is an open set (by definition:
). Proof of 5: Proving that the union of open sets is open.1. the green line is d(x.y). let An = {( − 1 / n. An open ball is an open set. B are open. Because of the proprieties of . Proof of 2: Let Br(x) be an open ball. by definition. we only need to show that Let ε = min{ε1. The equality is true because: in each ball we have the element x and
. Hence finite intersections of open sets are open. then is open. To see an example on the real line. That means that there are balls: (Bε(x) is the required ball). Let . This is easy to see because: int(int(B))=int(B). If A. int(B) is an open set. 5. which is
(for any set if indexes : If then it has
. . 3. We then see that closed. let . then their union is open.

We have is an internal point. that if around x with radius . The proof of that is similar to the proof that int([a. we need to show.b).U2. 2) The union of a finite number of closed sets is closed. Lets use the ball .2. that we have already seen..b) is an open set. Then there exists a such that So there exists an ε > 0 such that
.. the following three statements hold: 1) The union of any number of open sets is open.. the following statements hold: 1) The intersection of any number of closed sets is closed. Every open segment (a.
[edit] Theorem
In any metric space X.
•
The space with the regular metric. On the other hand. For every space X with the discrete metric.. Therefore x
Proof: Let U be a set.. there exists an such that . a union of open balls is and open set. Let {εi}. where C is a finite collection of open sets. then x is an internal point. So for each .we unite balls of all the elements of A.
.. every set is open. Therefore and . every open ball is an open set. 3) The empty set and X are both open.. because every union of open sets is open.
[edit] Convergence
[edit] Definition
.
[edit] Theorem
In any metric space X.3.n. Proof: Let .b]) = (a. 2) The intersection of a finite number of open sets is open. and let . For each i = 1.Un. Let C = U1.. Proof: Let C be a collection of open sets. Therefore
.
[edit] Examples
• •
As we have seen.

First, Lets translate the calculus definition of convergence, to the "language" of metric spaces: We say that a sequence xn converges to x if for every ε > 0 exists N that for each n * > N the following holds: . Equivalently, we can define converges using Open-balls: A sequence xn converges to x If for every ε > 0 exists N that for each n * > N the following holds: .

The latter definition uses the "language" of open-balls, But we can do better - We can remove the ε from the definition of convergence, thus making the definition more topological. Let's define that xn converges to x (and mark ) , if for every ball B around x , exists NB that for each n * > NB the following holds: . x is called the limit of the sequence.

The definitions are all the same, but the latter uses topological terms, and can be easily converted to a topological definition later.

[edit] Properties

•

If a sequence has a limit, it has only one limit. Proof Let a sequence xn have two limits, and

. If they are not the same, we must have

. Let ε be smaller than this distance. Now for some N, for all n > N, it must be the case that both and by virtue of the fact and are limits. But this is impossible; the two balls are separate. Therefore the limits are coincident, that is, the sequence has only one limit.

•

If , then almost by definition we get that sequence of distances).

. (d(xn,x) Is the

[edit] Examples

•

In

with the natural metric, The series

converges to 0. And we note it as

• •

follows: Any space, with the discrete metric. A series xn converges, only if it is eventually constant. In other words: If and only if, We can find N that for each n * > N, An example you might already know: For any p-norm induced metric, when . and let If and only if . Let . .

The space Then,

[edit] Uniform Convergence

A sequence of functions {fn} is said to be uniformly convergent on a set S if for any ε>0, there exists an N such that when a and b are both greater than N, then p(fa(x),fb(x))<ε for any x∈S.

**[edit] Closed Sets
**

[edit] Closure

Definition: The point p is called point of closure of a set A if there exists a sequence , such that A equivalent definition using balls: The point p is called point of closure of a set A if for every open ball , we have The proof is left as an exercise. .

Intuitively, a point of closure is arbitrarily "close" to the set A. It is so close, that we can find a sequence in the set that converges to any point of closure of the set. Example: Let A be the segment closure: Let (that's because ). (X,d), is the set of all points of closure. The closure of a . , The point p = 1 is not in A, but it is a point of (n > 0, and therefore ) and

Definition: The closure of a set set A is marked or Cl(A). Note that [edit] Examples For the metric space

• • • •

. a quick proof: For every

, Let

.

(the line), and let

we have:

Cl([a,b]) = [a,b] Cl((a,b]) = [a,b] Cl([a,b)) = [a,b] Cl((a,b)) = [a,b]

**[edit] Closed set
**

Definition: A set is closed in if A = Cl(A). Meaning: A set is closed, if it contains all its point of closure.

An equivalent definition is: A set

is closed in

If for every point

, and for ever

Ball , then . The proof of this definition is comes directly from the former definition and the definition of convergence.

[edit] Properties

Some basic properties of Cl (For any sets A,B):

• • • • •

Cl(Cl(A)) = Cl(A) A is closed iff A = Cl(A) While the above implies that the union of finitely many closed sets is also a closed set, the same does not necessarily hold true for the union of infinitely many closed sets. To see an example on the real line, let fails to contain its points of closure, . We see that

This union can therefore not be a closed subset of the real numbers. The proofs are left to the reader as exercises. Hint for number 5: recall that .

**[edit] Open vs Closed
**

That is, an open set approaches its boundary but does not include it; whereas a closed set includes every point it approaches. These two properties may seem mutually exclusive, but they are not:

• • •

In any metric space (X,d), the set X is both open and closed. In any space with a discrete metric, every set is both open and closed. In , under the regular metric, the only sets that are both open and closed are and . However, some sets are neither open nor closed. For example, a half-open range like [0,1) is neither open nor closed. As another example, the set of rationals is not open because an open ball around a rational number contains irrationals; and it is not closed because there are sequences of rational numbers that converge to irrational numbers (such as the various infinite series that converge to π).

[edit] Complementary set

Similarly if y>b. then a would not be the supremum of {t|t∉O. That means that
. ( ) On the other hand.b) since if a number is greater than a. we assume that A is an open set. there is a rational number within each open interval. t<x}. t>x}. then inf{t|t∉O. The union of all such open intervals constructed from an element x is thus O. Thus.b). a≤x-ε and b≥x+ε. A is open and therefore. by definition that (*) . and so O is a union of disjoint open intervals. contradicting (*). If y<a. If y≠x and y∈(a. If p is not in int(A) then for every ball . all possible open intervals constructed from the above process are disjoint. Then.
. as mentioned earlier. Ac is closed.
for every ball we have. And by definition of closure point p is a
closure point of A so we can say that
That contradicts the assumption that Note that.
Proof: Let .x+ε) ⊆ O because O is open. Ac to be . t<y} would also be greater than b because there is a number between y and b which is not within O. t>y} would also be less than a because there is a number between y and a which is not within O.
. Let and let . The set O contains all elements of (a. Thus.x+ε) such that (x-ε. that means that .b) and so O contains (a.
A Quick example: let [edit] The plot continues.b). There exists an open ball (x-ε. then sup{t|t∉O. It is enough to show that (we will show that because of the properties of closure. Because the rational numbers is dense in R. but is not within O. and show that A is open. x ∈(a. such that: . Thus. Similarily. If the point is not in Ac then . Let p be a point in A (we will show that have that
c
).A Reminder\Definition: Let A be a set in the space X. O also contains (a. .b). Proof: ( ) For the first part. We define the complement of A.d). there is a ball B. then b would not be the infimum of {t|t∉O. and therefore
we
. Lets a assume that Ac is closed. if there is a number is less than b and greater than x. and less than x but is not within O. Thus. A is open iff Ac is closed. We shall show that Ac = Cl(Ac). then the interval constructed from this element as above would be the same. a set can still be both open and closed!
[edit] On
The following is an important theorem characterizing open and closed sets on Theorem: An open set O in R1 is a countable union of disjoint open intervals.x) and (x.. the open intervals themselves are also countable. Let ).
A very important Proposition: Let A be a set in the space (X.. and since the rational numbers is countable. Then
.

. } and let dn =
. Let An+1 be equal to the set An∪{x|x=a+2dn.[edit] Examples of closed sets
1. Let A1 be equal {0. To see why.e) be spaces. Let A be a set in the space x. a∈An}. {x}c. 2. that you can draw a function on a paper. Continuity means..
which is the finite union of closed sets. In the only sets that are both open and closed are the empty set.
Let . and hence {x} is closed. Cl(A) = Int(Ac)c 2. A function is continuous at a point x if for all εx > 0 there exists a such that: for all x1 such that . and is thus closed. Prove the following: 1. Prove that a point x has a sequence of points within X converging to x if and only if all balls containing x contain at least one element within X. and the entire set. without lifting your pen from it. intuitively.x2. So {x}c is open. But let's start in the beginning: The classic delta-epsilon definition: Let (X.1] and call it C0. Give an example of a set which is both open and closed in . 2.a+dn]}.(Y. observe that is open..
[edit] Exercises
1. This is not the case when you look at .x) > 0. In any metric space. so T is closed. Let . a singleton {x} is closed. Let Cn be
{[a. Continuity is important in topology.f(x1)) < εx. consider the open set.b] are closed. every finite set T = {x1. Then . 3.
4. Closed intervals [a. Int(A) = Cl(Ac)c
[edit] Continuity
[edit] Definition
Let's recall the idea of continuity of functions. we have that e(f(x)..xn} is closed. To see why. so d(y. Then . Cantor Set Consider the interval [0. Then the intersection is called the Cantor set and is closed. In any metric space. 3. Or more simply:
.d). Let's rephrase the definition to use balls: A function is continuous at a point x if for all εx > 0 there exists such that the following holds: for every x1 such that we have that .

f is continuous: The source of every open set is itself. so we now have two equivalent definitions which we can use for continuity.1 simply means . we can find a
and εx.1(U) are internal points. direction).1(U) is open. The notation f . A function is continuous if it is continuous in its entire domain. Definitions:
• •
A function is continuous in a set S if it is continuous at every point in S. for that εx. ( )On the other hand. were d is the discrete metric. that means that . Note that f does not have to be surjective or bijective for f . x is an internal point. Note that such that .
[edit] Examples
•
Let f be any function from any space (X. because every set is open in a space with the discrete metric.Looks better already! But we can do more. is open in X.1(U) is
is open in Y. Because f is continuous. we can find . the set f . We need to show that f is continuous. Let
. let's assume that a function f is continuous by definition (The need to show that for every open set U. and we have that .
Proposition: A function is continuous. to any space (Y. The set is open in X. f (U). Let The identity function. such that
such that .d). that means that we . f .
•
[edit] Exercise
. by the definition above for every open -1 set U in Y. Because V is open. f . let's assume that for a function f for every open set open in X. f . This is true for every x . and there for can be applied to spaces without a metric. Why? For every open set U. Then f is continuous. Let be an open set. and therefore open. f(x) is in U and because U is open.1(U) is open. Therefore the set .meaning that all the points in f . and therefore. We
Proof: First.1 to be well defined.e).
The last proof gave us an additional definition we will use for continuity for the rest of this book. The inverse image of U.1(U) is open. The beauty of this new definition is that it only uses open-sets. and by definition. For every can find a and for every εx > 0.

function from X to a metric space Y is uniformly continuous if for all ε.f(x2)) < ε. Note that the injectivity of f follows from the property of preserving distance: f(a) = f(b)
So an isometry is necessarily bijective.x2) < δ implies that d(f(x1). is closed in X.
Topology/Path Connectedness
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality.
for every closed set U in Y.b) = ρ(f(a).
[edit] Exercises
1.
[edit] Isometry
An isometry is a surjective mapping for all .δ) and (Y.1(U). δ(a. Prove that a function
is continuous inverse image of U. search
Contents
[hide]
. f . (X. Show that the discrete metric is in fact a metric. The
[edit] Uniform Continuity
In a metric space X. Show that a set is a metric open set iff it is a (possibly infinite) union of open balls.ρ) are metric spaces and
In this case.1. d(x1. where (X.δ) and (Y. Jump to: navigation. .
2.ρ) are said to be isometric. there exists a δ such that for all .f(b)).

The unit square defined by the vertices [0. a path from a to b and a path from b to c can be adjoined together to form a path from a to c.e.[0. Given two points the points are .
[edit] Adjoining Paths
Let X be a topological space and let . Let and . Then there is a path f from a to b. This can be seen as follows: Assume that X is not connected.[1. connected by the function f(t) = [(1 − t)a0 + ta1. Then the function defined by
Is a continuous path from a to c.1].[1.• • • •
1 Definition 2 Example 3 Adjoining Paths 4 Relation to Connectedness 5 Exercises
•
[edit] Definition
A topological space X is said to be path connected if for any two points exists a continuous function such that f(0) = x0 and f(1) = x1 there
[edit] Example
1. i. Consider two continuous functions such that f1(0) = a. All convex sets in a vector space are connected because one could just use the segment connecting them. Thus.
[edit] Relation to Connectedness
Each path connected space X is also connected. f1(1) = b = f2(0) and f2(1) = c.. is a continuous
. which is .1] is path connected. 2.0].0].(1 − t)b0 + tb1] for The preceding example works in any convex space (it is in fact almost the definition of a convex space). Then X is the disjoint union of two open sets A and B.

where
is connected but not path connected. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website.
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Please take a moment to rate this page below.wikibooks. This contradicts the fact that the unit interval is connected. But then f − 1(A) and f . covering the unit interval.
[edit] Exercises
1.

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6 Isolated Points o 1. Jump to: navigation.5 Limit Points o 1.
Topology/Points in Sets
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. Each neighborhood (nbd) of every point in the closure intersects A. The closure has the nice property of being the smallest closed set containing A.1 Closure o 1.
[edit] Closure
• •
A point x is called a point of closure of a set A if for every neighbourhood U of x. Define the closure of A to be the intersection of all closed sets containing A.
[edit] Interior
.2 Interior o 1. denoted Cl(A) (some authors use ). search
Contents
[hide]
•
• • •
1 Some Important Constructions o 1. at 14:16.1 Perfect Spaces 3 Some Basic Results 4 Exercises
[edit] Some Important Constructions
Let A be an arbitrary subset of X.7 Density 2 Types of Spaces o 2.4 Boundary o 1.•
This page was last modified on 7 July 2009.3 Exterior o 1.

Every point in the exterior has a nbd contained inside
[edit] Boundary
•
Define the boundary of A to be . is in A. or if
Example: The set of rational numbers is dense in the set of real numbers.
[edit] Density
Definition: A subset A of a topological space X is called dense if any point the point x is a limit point of A. It is the largest open set inside . All limit points of a set A are obviously points of closure of the set A. All boundary points of a set A are
[edit] Limit Points
•
A point x is called a limit point of a set A if for every neighborhood U of x. denoted . It is always closed since it is the intersection of the closed set Cl(A) and the closed set . It can be proved that A is closed if it contains all its boundary. Every nbd of every point in the boundary intersects both A and obviously points of contact of A. then x is called an isolated point. and is open if it contains none of its boundary.• •
We say that x is an internal point of A iff There is an open set U. denoted Int(A) (some authors use ). The boundary is also called the frontier.
[edit] Isolated Points
•
If a neighborhood N of a point
can be found such that
. is dense if Cl(A) = X. Definition: In a topological space X. The interior has the nice property of being the largest open set contained inside A. . Every point in the interior has a nbd contained inside A.
.
and
Define the interior of A to be the union of all open sets contained inside A.
Note that a set A is Open iff A = Int(A)
[edit] Exterior
•
Define the exterior of A to be the union of all open sets contained inside the complement of A. . denoted Bd(A) (some authors prefer ). .

int(A) = A.
is nowhere dense if Cl(A) has no nonempty
Example: The set of natural numbers is nowhere dense in the set of real numbers.
The interior of the closure of the boundary of A is equal to the interior of the boundary of A. A is nowhere dense in X if and
Definition: A Gσ set is a subset of a topological space that is a countable intersection of open sets. the boundary of an open set is closed and nowhere dense. let B1x be a neighbourhood base for x in topology r1 and B2x be a neighbourhood base for x in topology r2. Then for Definition: Suppose X is a topological space. Note that . Then for only if .
. The complement of an open set is closed. a set open sets.
Definition: Suppose X is a topological space. the interior of the closure of the boundary of A = . Thus.
. A is dense in X if
. the boundary of A is nowhere dense. So. σA ( or the boundary of A) = . . is an intersection of closed sets and is itself closed. Thus.
if and only if at each
. Proof: Let A be an open set in a topological space X.
. A subset of a topological space is nowhere dense if and only if the interior of its closure is empty. and the closure of any set is closed. it is equal to Which is also equal to . r1 and r2. Definition: An Fσ set is a countable union of closed sets. Since A is open.
.. proceeding in consideration of the boundary of A. if
And. and as such. For each . Theorem (Hausdorff Criterion) Suppose X has 2 topologies. So. Theorem In any topological space.Definition: In a topological space X. Then. Thus.

But we know that and hence Int(A) = A ( ) As Int(A) is a union of open sets. Hence A = Int(A) is also open. we have for open U. Proof: Observe that the complement of Cl(A) satisfies Hence. we have Let we have
being arbitrary. Proof: Let . the required result is equivalent to the statement " and only if ". Thus.
and
. being arbitrary.
•
A set A is closed if and only if Cl(A) = A. Hence.[edit] Types of Spaces
We can also categorize spaces based on what kinds of points they have.
•
A set A is open if and only if Int(A) = A. As
for closed
α. . be open. As . then
. A is closed implies that and hence we can use the previous property. is open if
•
The closure Cl(A) of a set A is closed Proof:
.
[edit] Some Basic Results
•
For every set A. . it is open (from definition of open set). then the space is a perfect space.
[edit] Perfect Spaces
•
If a space contains no isolated points. is open. Proof: ( ) A is open and . . If a closed set .

and hence Cl(A) is closed. Prove the following identities for subsets A. Now. Show that the following identities need not hold (i.
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2. We know that the intersection of any collection of closed sets is closed. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website.wikibooks.
[edit] Exercises
1. give an exaple of a topological space and sets A and B for which they fail):
o o
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Create a collection Download as PDF Printable version This page was last modified on 2 May 2011. Jump to: navigation.3
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Topology/Separation Axioms
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. See Terms of Use for details.1 Theorem 3.2 Theorem 3. search
Contents
[hide]
• • • •
1 Separation Axioms for Topological Spaces 2 Relations among the Separation Properties 3 Exercises 4 Some Important Theorems o 4.1.

completely regular
. there exist disjoint open sets O1 and O2. T2 spaces are also called Hausdorff spaces. there exists an open set O that contains one point of the pair. and let x. such that O1 contains x but not y and O2 contains y but not x. there exist disjoint open sets O1 and O2. such that O1 contains x and O2 contains y. y. and z is a point not in C. there exist disjoint closed neighborhoods O1 and O2 of x and y respectively. the answer is obviously yes. It turns out that many properties of continous maps one could take for granted depend. y. A topological space that is both regular and T1 is called T3. such that O1 contains C and O2 contains z.4 4. y. in fact.y be any two distinct points in that space.3 Theorem 3. We can then ask questions such as "can we separate any two distinct points in the space by enclosing them in two disjoint open sets?" For the real line with its usual topology.o o •
4. y. T2 For every x. regular If C is a closed set. happen to hold.4 Urysohn's Lemma
5 Exercises
[edit] Separation Axioms for Topological Spaces
A topology on a space is a collection of subsets called open. T1 For every x. on one of the conditions stated below holding. but there are spaces for which this is not so. T2½ For every x. are ones we may wish to place on :
T0 For every x. The following conditions. Topological spaces are classified according to which such conditions. but not the other. called separation axioms. Let be a topological space. ordered from least to most restrictive.1. there exist open sets O1 and O2.

which in turn implies Ti. T0 alone suffices to make a regular space T3. then property Ti implies property Tj. such that if i>j. such that O1 contains C1 and O2 contains C2.1({0}) = C1 and f .e. . A topological space is completely normal if and only if every subspace is normal. perfectly normal If C1 and C2 are disjoint closed sets.
NOTE: Many authors treat regular. completely normal. there exist disjoint open sets O1 and O2. Tx is designated Ti½. A topological space that is both completely regular and T1 is called T3½. which in turn implies normality.If C is a closed set. A topological space that is both completely normal and T1 is called T5. such that O1 contains C1 and O2 contains C2. Then there exist disjoint open sets O1 and O2. there exists a continuous function such that f(z)=0 and for any . even without assuming T1. normal. there exists a continuous function such that f . completely regular.
[edit] Exercises
1. normal If C1 and C2 are disjoint closed sets. The full T1 property is unnecessary. f(C)={1}). and z is a point not in C. and perfectly normal spaces as synonyms for the corresponding Ti property. A topological space that is both normal and T1 is called T4. show that is
. Other implications of these properties include:
• • • •
Complete regularity always implies regularity.1({1}) = C2. A topological space that is both perfectly normal and T1 is called T6.
[edit] Relations among the Separation Properties
The Ti separation properties (axioms) form a hierarchy. and Tx was proposed after Ti and Ti+1. meaning that . Perfect normality implies complete normality. Suppose that a topological space X is T1. completely normal Let C1 and C2 be separated sets. Given open to conclude that X is closed. we have f(w)=1 (i. When property Ti+1 implies Tx.

[edit] Theorem 3. and any point .1. -1 on B. and given that for all that X is T1. {x} is closed. then X is normal. since for any . Since X is T2. Observe that Fix closed.1) elsewhere. that is) and therefore open.B of X.2.
Take an integer K that is greater than both M and N. and define is continuous. Given a topological space X.1].3
If X is a metric space. and in the open interval ( − 1. Proof Assume that sn converges to two distinct values x and y. we have d(x.A) from x to A by . d(x. f continuous by the continuity of .1. show
[edit] Some Important Theorems
[edit] Theorem 3. there are disjoint open sets U and V such that Now by definition of convergence. where d(x.4
If X is a metric space.S) = 0 iff x in the closure of S. Then sn either does not converge in X or it converges to a unique limit.a) is the distance function supplied by definition of a metric space. Proof Given any .
[edit] Theorem 3. define the distance. implies . disjoint subsets A. Therefore sn cannot converge to both x and y. and are the preimages of open sets (open in [ − 1.1. then X is Hausdorff. there is an integer M such that Similarly there is an integer N such that implies . Also.) Observe f is 1 on A.2
Let X be a T2 space and let sn be a sequence in X. contradicting the fact that the two sets are disjoint. and . and they're disjoint as the preimages of disjoint sets.
. Proof
. Therefore. so that sK is in both U and V. by
(Note f well--defined.

If V is X. there is a set S1 containing U whose closure is within the complement of V. e. then . we first prove the following result: Let X be a topological space. X is normal if and only if for every closed set U. and whose closure does not meet B. Then S1 and the complement of S2 are open sets which respectively contain U and V. and set U1 to be X. the complement of V is a nonempty closed set. then X is a set containing U whose closure is within V.1] expressible in the form where a and n are whole numbers. This defines Up where p is a rational number in the interval [0. Therefore. the set A is a set containing U.Let x and y be two distinct points. there is a set S containing U whose closure is within V. Thus. Now we prove Urysohn's Lemma. which is the same thing as being disjoint from V. Then Bd(x) and Bd(y) are open sets which are disjoint since if there is a point z within both open balls. The closure of A does not meet B because all points in B have a neighborhood that is entirely within B and thus does not meet A (since they are disjoint). there exists a continuous function such that f(C1) = {0} and f(C2) = {1}. where A contains U and B contains the complement of V. and therefore is entirely contained in V.
[edit] Urysohn's Lemma
A topological space X is normal if and only if for any disjoint closed sets C1 and C2. there is a set S2 containing S1 such that Cl(S2) is within the complement of V i. and let . Let X be a normal space. Otherwise. inductively define for all natural numbers n and for all natural numbers a < 2n − 1 to be a set containing whose closure is contained within the complement of
. and let U and V be two closed sets. a contradiction. there are two disjoint open sets A and B. Conversely. and therefore does not meet the complement of V. Now define the function [0. Proof In order to prove Urysohn's Lemma. which are disjoint. so all points in B are not within the closure of A. which is disjoint from U. is disjoint from V. Then the complement of V is an open set containing the closed set Cl(S1). take any two disjoint closed sets U and V. In general. by the normality of X.
. Suppose that X is normal. Therefore. and open set V containing U. Set U0 to be U. Let be a set containing U_0 whose closure is contained in U1. Thus. The complement of V is an open set containing the closed set U.1] to be f(p)=inf{x| }.

Consider an arbitrary infinite set X. If X is the unit interval [0. Then the intersection of the complement of the set Uc and the set Ud is an open neighborhood of f(x) with an image within (a.5. and call the open sets Ω.1.. proving that the function is continuous. the inverses f − 1([0. but not the next. If c<0. There exists rational numbers c and d in that open interval expressible in the form where p and n are whole numbers. are also open and disjoint. and that f(x)=1 when x is an element of V.Consider any element x within the normal space X.
[edit] Exercises
It is instructive to build up a series of spaces. non-empty sets.wikibooks.org/wiki/Topology/Separation_Axioms" Category: Topology (book) What do you think of this page?
Please take a moment to rate this page below.1]).
Verify that
• • •
T1 implies T0 T2 implies T1 T3 implies T2 (hint: use theorem 3. then replace it with 1.5)). and f − 1((. Then since the disjoint sets [0.b).
Reliability: þÿ Presentation: þÿ Completeness: þÿ
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Neutrality: þÿ
þÿ
. such that c<f(x)<d. then replace it with 0.. which contains X. Hint: Consider the intersection of any two open.
• • •
The indiscrete topology is not T0. and if d>1. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website. suppose that for any two disjoint closed sets. which contains Y. and .5.1] such that f(x)=0 when x is an element of U.1)
Retrieved from "http://en. is a topological space which is T1 but not T2.b) around f(x). and and consider any open interval (a.Ω). such that each member belongs to one class. then this space is T0 but not T1.5) and (. Let X and every finite subset be closed sets. there is a continuous function f from X to [0. Conversely.1].1] are open and under the subspace topology. Determine whether (X.

Give a rigorous description of the following sequences of natural numbers: (i) (ii) 2. For example. consider the sequence in given by f(n) = 1 / n. repeated over and over. Let X be a set and let be a topology over X. the first element of the sequence is f(1). Jump to: navigation.Topology/Sequences
< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. This is simply the points 1. there exists and n > N together imply This is written as such that
[edit] Exercises
1. etc.. Also. The sequence itself. the next is f(2).
[edit] Convergence
Let X be a set and let be a topology on X Let be a sequence in X and let We say that " converges to x" if for any neighborhood U of x. The members of the domain of the sequence are and are denoted by f(n) = an.1 / 4. The idea is that you have an infinite list of elements from the space...1 / 3.1 / 2. You can think of this as the number 1. consider the constant sequence f(n) = 1. Let and let U be a neighbourhood of x. or more specifically its domain are often denoted by . that is . search
A sequence in a space X is defined as a function from the set of natural numbers into that space.
.

Let

and . Let

. Similarly construct neighbourhoods be a sequence such that each .

with

Prove that Retrieved from "http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Topology/Sequences" Category: Topology (book) What do you think of this page?

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Topology/Subspaces

< Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. Jump to: navigation, search Put simply, a subspace is analogous to a subset of a topological space. Subspaces have powerful applications in topology.

[edit] Definition

Let A set be a topological space, and let X1 be a subset of X. Define the open sets as follows: is open in X1 if there exists a a set such that

An important idea to note from the above definitions is that a set not being open or closed does not prevent it from being open or closed within a subspace. For example, (0,1) as a subspace of itself is both open and closed. Retrieved from "http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Topology/Subspaces" Category: Topology (book)

**Topology/Topological Spaces
**

< Topology Jump to: navigation, search In this section, we will define what a topology is and give some examples and basic constructions.

Contents

[hide]

• • •

•

1 Motivation 2 Definition of a topological space 3 Examples of topological spaces o 3.1 Metric Topology o 3.2 The usual topology on the real numbers o 3.3 The cofinite topology on any set o 3.4 The cocountable topology on any set 4 Sets in topological spaces o 4.1 Definition o 4.2 Theorem o 4.3 Theorem o 4.4 Theorem 5 Exercises

•

[edit] Motivation

In Abstract Algebra, a field generalizes the concept of operations on the real number line. This general definition allows concepts about quite different mathematical objects to be grasped intuitively by comparison with the real numbers. Likewise, the concept of a topological space is concerned with generalizing the structure of sets in Euclidean spaces. Of course, for many topological spaces the similarities are remote, but nevertheless aid in judgment and guide proofs. Interesting differences in the structure of sets in Euclidean space, which have analogies in topological spaces, are connectedness, compactness, dimensionality, and the presence of "holes". If we begin with an arbitrary set, it may not be immediately obvious what is needed to imbue it with an interesting structure. One possibility might be to define a metric on the set, but as it turns out, requiring a metric is overly restrictive. In fact, there are many equivalent ways to define what we will call a topological space just by defining families of subsets of a given set. The properties of the topological space depend on the number of subsets and the ways in which these sets overlap. Topological spaces can be fine or coarse, connected or disconnected, have few or many dimensions.

The most popular way to define a topological space is in terms of open sets, analogous to those of Euclidean Space. (In Euclidean space, an open set is intuitively seen as a set that does not contain its "boundary").

**[edit] Definition of a topological space
**

Given a set X, a topology following properties:

• • •

on X is a collection of subsets of X (called open sets) with the

The empty set and X are both in . The union of any collection of open sets is an open set. That is, . The intersection of any finite collection of open sets is an open set. That is, .

The pair is called a topological space. If the topology is evident or does not need an explicit name (since we can just refer to sets in the topology as open sets), then we just say that X is a topological space.

**[edit] Examples of topological spaces
**

For any set X, there are two topologies we can always define on X:

• •

The Discrete topology - the topology consisting of all subsets of a set X. The Indiscrete topology (also known as the trivial topology) - the topology consisting of just X and the empty set, .

**[edit] Metric Topology
**

Given a metric space , its metric topology is the topology induced by using the set of all open balls as the base. One can also define the topology induced by the metric, as the set of all open subsets defined by the metric. We denote the topology induced from the metric d with

This forms a topological space from a metric space. If for a topological space , we can find a metric d, such that topological space is called metrizable. , then the

[edit] The usual topology on the real numbers

there
.
Then is a topology on X called the cofinite topology (or "finite complement topology") on X. is an open set.
• • •
•
The complement of a set A in X. so its complement. this topology turns out to be discrete if and only if X is countable. this topology turns out to be discrete if and only if X is finite. We call this topology the standard topology. Define following:
1. Or
to be the collection of all subsets G of X satisfying the
is finite. Or
to be the collection of all subsets G of X satisfying the
is countable. is open. if there is an open set U such that
We now investigate some commonly occurring sets in the study of Topology. each of which is both closed and open. Either 2. A set N is called a neighborhood of a point . Either 2. denoted by AC. A subset C is called closed if the set CC is open.
[edit] The cocountable topology on any set
Let X be a non-empty set.
Then is a topology on X called the cocountable topology (or "countable complement topology") on X. is closed. Define following:
1. The trivial examples are the empty set and the entire set X.
[edit] Sets in topological spaces
Let X be a topological space. Further. X. There are many types of sets we can define on X. or
[edit] The cofinite topology on any set
Let X be a non-empty set. the entire space except for A). is (that is. But X.
on
by defining
to be in
if for every point
. Notice that the intersection of any nonzero number of closed sets is closed and the union of finitely many closed sets is closed. Further.
. so X is both open and closed.We can define a topology is an such that usual topology on . by definition. By definition. Note also that a set can be both closed and open.

Then . which implies
such that . so we have a
The entirely similar proof of the other implication is left to the reader. : Let
.
[edit] Theorem
In any metric space. A Fσ set is a countable union of closed sets.
[edit] Theorem
. Hence Ac is Gδ. such that An
is closed for all n. Since An is closed.
[edit] Theorem
The complement of a Fσ set is Gδ. and vice versa. Then β1 / n(x) intersects A at some x0 which implies .
. Now our goal is to show that intersection of countably many open sets. Then . So . Observe that On is open for any n.[edit] Definition
In a topological space. Thus
. Proof: Let A be a Fσ set and let . countable intersection of open sets. a closed set is a Gδ set. and hence the to show that a closed set is the
union is open.
is open. a Gδ set is a countable intersection of open sets. Proof: Let X be a metric space and let Define . . This is
true for any n so : Let such that Therefore and
.
in A
and is therefore a Gδ set. Then A is a countable union of closed sets.

cocountable) topology on a set X equals the discrete topology if and only if X is finite (respectively. Prove the following are topologies: o The discrete topology on any set. 4. It is usually denoted by S′. 3. and hence is a Fσ set. every singleton such that Thus. is closed.
Proof: Since with the usual topology is a metric space. o The cofinite topology on any set.In usual
. The concept was first introduced by Georg Cantor in 1872 and he developed set theory in large part to study derived sets on the real line. the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. Show that the discrete topology is the topology induced by the discrete metric.
[edit] Exercises
1. search
In mathematics. countable).
is a Fσ set. we have a countable union of closed sets. Prove that a set is open if and only if for every element within the set.org/wiki/Topology/Topological_Spaces" Category: Topology (book)
Derived set (mathematics)
From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.wikibooks. o The indiscrete topology on any set. there is a neighborhood contained within the set. 2. 31 March 2008 (UTC))
Retrieved from "http://en. more specifically in point-set topology.
Contents
[hide]
• •
1 Properties 2 Topology in terms of derived sets
. o The cocountable topology on any set. (This is also a splendid way of remembering which is the discrete and the indiscrete topology)
(16:28. Show that the cofinite (respectively.

such that for any set S and any point a:
. derived sets have been used as the primitive notion in topology. The set S is defined to be a perfect set if S = S′. Because any Gδ subset of a Polish space is again a Polish space. a perfect set is a closed set with no isolated points. Perfect sets are particularly important in applications of the Baire category theorem.
[edit] Topology in terms of derived sets
Because homeomorphisms can be described entirely in terms of derived sets. Equivalently. A set of points X can be equipped with an operator * mapping subsets of X to subsets of X.
A subset S of a topological space is closed precisely when .• • •
3 Cantor–Bendixson rank 4 External links 5 References
[edit] Properties
The zero set of a Wiener process path is a perfect set. The Cantor–Bendixson theorem states that any Polish space can be written as the union of a countable set and a perfect set. Two subsets S and T are separated precisely when they are disjoint and each is disjoint from the other's derived set (though the derived sets don't need to be disjoint from each other). the theorem also shows that any Gδ subset of a Polish space is the union of a countable set and a set that is perfect with respect to the induced topology. Two topological spaces are homeomorphic if and only if there is a bijection from one to the other such that the derived set of the image of any subset is the image of the derived set of that subset.

2. Wacław F. Springer. that is. . translated by Krieger. The smallest ordinal α such that Xα+1 = Xα is called the Cantor–Bendixson rank of X.. 4. 5. Cecilia (1952). If we also require that the derived set of a set consisting of a single element be empty. 3. so we have the following equivalent axioms:
1. (1995). A. 2. 4'. this will define a topology on the space in which * is the derived set operator. C. Classical Descriptive Set Theory (Graduate Texts in Mathematics 156 ed.).
If we call a set S closed if . the α-th Cantor–Bendixson derivative of a topological space is defined by transfinite induction as follows:
• • •
X0 = X Xα+1 = (Xα)' Xλ = Xα for limit ordinals λ. the resulting space will be a T1 space.
. General Topology.
Note that given 5.
[edit] External links
•
PlanetMath's article on the Cantor–Bendixson derivative
[edit] References
• •
Kechris. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-387-94374-9 ISBN 3-540-94374-9. Sierpiński.
The transfinite sequence of Cantor–Bendixson derivatives of X must eventually be constant.
• •
3'.
[edit] Cantor–Bendixson rank
For ordinal numbers α.1. 3 is equivalent to 3' below. and that 4 and 5 together are equivalent to 4' below.

org/wiki/Derived_set_(mathematics)" Categories: General topology
.Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.