ACKWNOWLEDGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
Anger is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage. The physical effects of anger include increased heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Some view anger as part of the fight or flight brain response to the perceived threat of pain. Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force. The English term originally comes from the term angr of Old Norse language. Anger is usually derived from sadness. The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression. Animals and humans for example make loud sounds, attempt to look physically larger, bare their teeth, and stare. Anger is a behavioral pattern designed to warn aggressors to stop their threatening behavior. Rarely does a physical altercation occur without the prior expression of anger by at least one of the participants. While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them," psychologists point out that an angry person $

. there has been disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger. Modern psychologists. Anger can mobilize psychological resources for corrective action. Uncontrolled anger can however negatively affect personal or social well-being. and mature emotion experienced by all humans at times.a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability can be very well mistaken because anger causes. While many philosophers and writers have warned against the spontaneous and uncontrolled fits of anger. have also pointed out the possible harmful effects of suppression of anger. Dealing with anger has been addressed in the writings of earliest philosophers up to modern times. Displays of anger can be used as a manipulation strategy for social influence. Modern psychologists view anger as a primary. and as something that has functional value for survival. in contrast to the earlier writers. natural.

2 Aggressive anger 6.2 Middle ages 4.1 Ancient philosophers 4.1 Passive anger 6.3.1 Physiology 1.2 Causes 2 Philosophical perspectives 2.3 Methods of anger management .3 Modern times 4.2 Medieval era 2.1 Antiquity 2.1 Of God or gods 4 Coping strategies 4. As a strategy 6.1 Suppression 5.CONTENTS 1 Psychology 1.3 Modern times 3 Religious perspectives 3. SYMPTOMS OF ANGER 6.

1. sullenness and churlishness postures are examples of the last form of anger. Psychology Anger is viewed as a reaction and healthy response that has evolved to enable us to deal with threats. anger can be destructive when it does not find its appropriate outlet in . It can also facilitate patience. Irritability. The third type of anger is however dispositional and is related more to character traits than to instincts or cognitions. On the other hand. Three types of anger are recognized by psychologists: The first form of anger. communication of negative sentiment and redress of grievances. an 18th century English bishop. It is shared between humans and animals and occurs when tormented or trapped. named "hasty and sudden anger" by Joseph Butler. promotion of social justice. The second type of anger is named "settled and deliberate" anger and is a reaction to perceived deliberate harm or unfair treatment by others. Anger can potentially mobilize psychological resources and boost determination toward correction of wrong behaviors. These two forms of anger are episodic. is connected to the impulse for self-preservation.

prudence or thoughtfulness and may cause harm to others. Anger. empathy. An angry person may lose his/her objectivity. The face becomes flushed.1 Physiology Two people arguing during a political protest. it is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for aggression. as evidenced by their body language and facial expressions. To hear the angry exchange. and the brow muscles move inward and . Audio file of an angry exchange at a protest. impairs one's ability to process information and to exert cognitive control over his behavior. The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions. 1. body language. While anger can activate aggression or increase its probability or intensity. The facial expression and body language are as follows: The facial and skeletal musculature are strongly affected by anger. and at times in public acts of aggression. physiological responses. Both protesters became angry and aggressive. listen to the audio below.expression. There is a sharp distinction between anger and aggression (verbal or physical. direct or indirect) even though they mutually influence each other. in its strong form.

stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen). The nostrils flare. preparing the person to move. and increase of the blood flow to the hands.downward. In anger. Physiological responses to anger include an increase in the heart rate. epinephrine. The adrenocortical effects. Tension in the skeletal musculature. fixing a hard stare on the target. According to Novaco.g. An impulse to strike out accompanies this subjective feeling of potency. Perspiration increases (particularly when the anger is intense). the release of glucose. including raising of the arms and adopting a squaredoff stance. preparing them to strike. the catecholamine activation is more strongly norepinephrine than epinephrine (the reverse being the case for fear). "Autonomic arousal is primarily engaged through adrenomedullary and adrenocortical hormonal activity. This is an innate pattern of facial expression that can be observed in toddlers. are preparatory actions for attack and defense. and norepinephrine. A common metaphor for the physiological aspect of anger is that of a hot fluid in a container. and the jaw tends toward clenching. The secretion by the andrenal medulla of the catecholamines. and by the andrenal cortex of glucocorticoids provides a sympathetic system effect that mobilizes the body for immediate action (e. which have longer duration than the . The muscle tension provides a sense of strength and self-assurance.

and evaluative processing of the emotional significance of the sensory data is done when the data passes through the amygdala in its travel from the sensory organs along certain neural pathways towards the limbic forebrain. Such explanations confirm the illusion that anger has a .adrenomedullary ones. which also influences testosterone levels. The rapid. The pituitaryadrenocortical and pituitary-gonadal systems are thought to affect readiness or potentiation for anger responding. 1. Based on some statistical analysis. thoughts. some scholars have suggested that the tendency for anger may be genetic." Neuroscience has shown that emotions are generated by multiple structures in the brain. minimal.2 Causes Most commonly. Emotion caused by discrimination of stimulus features. or memories however occurs when its information is relayed from the thalamus to the neocortex. those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them" and in most cases the described provocations occur immediately before the anger experience. Distinguishing between genetic and environmental factors however requires further research and actual measurement of specific genes and environments. are modiated by secretions of the pituitary gland.

describing and commenting on the uncontrolled anger. According to Novaco. Anger can be of multicausal origin. personal. Galen and Seneca regarded anger as a kind of madness. some of which may be remote events. There were however disagreements regarding the value of anger. but people rarely find more than one cause for their anger.1 Antiquity Ancient Greek philosophers. They all rejected the spontaneous. an internal infection can cause pain which in turn can activate anger. in their society generally showed a hostile attitude towards anger. "anger experiences are embedded or nested within an environmental-temporal context. particularly toward slaves." According to Britannica Encyclopedia. uncontrolled fits of anger and agreed on both the possibility and value of controlling anger.discrete external cause. The angry person usually finds the cause of his anger in an intentional. For Seneca. Disturbances that may not have involved anger at the outset leave residues that are not readily recognized but that operate as a lingering backdrop for focal provocations (of anger). This explanation is however based on the intuitions of the angry person who experiences a loss in selfmonitoring capacity and objective observability as a result of their emotion. anger was . and controllable aspect of another person's behavior. Philosophical perspectives 2. 2.

2 Medieval era During the period of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages. it is a mistake to become angry". ascribed some value to anger that has arisen from perceived injustice because it is useful for preventing injustice. who were known for their fury.." Ancient philosophers rarely refer to women’s anger at all." Seneca believed that the disciplined Roman army was regularly able to beat the Germans. who often disagreed with Aristotle and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on many issues. Some of them that discuss it. 2. On the other hand. many of whom did not make major contributions to the concept."worthless even for war. al-Ghazali (also known as "Algazel" in Europe). Seneca held that "red-haired and red-faced people are hot-tempered because of excessive hot and dry humors. philosophers elaborated on the existing conception of anger. Furthermore. according to Simon Kemp and K. Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas agreed with ancient philosophers that animals cannot become angry. He also argued that animal will is "conditioned by anger and appetite" in contrast to human will which is "conditioned by the intellect. Aristotle on the other hand.in sporting contests.. For example. This belief was related to Seneca's belief that "red- . who considered women to be more prone to anger than men. Aristotle stated. argued that animals do possess anger as one of the three "powers" in their Qalb ("heart"). such as Seneca. the opposite of anger is a kind of insensibility. He argued that "." A common medieval belief was that those prone to anger had an excess of yellow bile or choler (hence the word "choleric"). many medieval philosophers such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna). the other two being appetite and impulse. Strongman perhaps because their works were not intended for women. T. The difference in people's temperaments was generally viewed as a result the different mix of qualities or humors people contained.

The other is that a recent study of anger takes the issue of gender differences into account. or the intention to cause harm to the object. . The American psychologist Albert Ellis has suggested that anger. the spiritual Guru of Tibetan monks. David Hume had argued that since "anger and hatred are passions inherent in our very frame and constitution. Religious perspectives Anger in Buddhism is defined here as: "being unable to bear the object. According to Ellis. the lack of them is sometimes evidence of weakness and imbecility. The Buddhist spiritual saints." 2. This does not seem to have been of much concern for the earlier philosophers. Immanuel Kant rejected vengeance as vicious because it goes beyond defense of one's dignity. sometimes get angry. rage and fury has partly roots in the philosophical meanings and assumptions humans interpret transgression through.3 Modern times The modern understanding of anger is not much more advanced than that of Aristotle. Kemp and Strongman state: One is that early philosophers were not concerned with possible harmful effects of the suppression of anger. and at the same time rejected insensitiveness to social injustice as a sign of lacking "manhood." Two main differences between the modern understanding and ancient understanding of anger can be detected." Regarding the latter. such as Dalai Lama." Anger is seen as aversion with a stronger exaggeration. these emotions are often associated and related to the leaning humans have to absolutistic ally depreciating and damning other people’s humanity when their personal rules and domain are transgressed.haired and red-faced people are hot-tempered because of excessive hot and dry humors. 3. and is listed as one of the five hindrances.

. nor is He conceived as a being indifferent to the doings of man. and canst not look on iniquity. and His pure and lofty nature resents most energetically anything wrong and impure in the moral world: "O Lord. and delusion--also translatable as attachment. Primitive people held that gods were subject to anger and revenge in anthropomorphic fashion. This anger. The Hebrew Bible says that opposition to God's Will results in God's anger. Thou art of eyes too pure to behold evil. anger is frequently attributed to God or gods.. Thus. illusion) and the vicious cycle of rebirth. The Gautama Buddha has taught that there are three basic kleshas at the root of samsara (bondage. most often a spiritual person is aware of the emotion and the way it can be handled. and ignorance. they hold is not inconsistent with God's love. They also believe that the wrath of God comes to those who reject Jesus. mine Holy One. The Hebrew Bible explains that: God is not an intellectual abstraction. It is in our own self-interest to purify and transform them. happiness.1 Of God or gods In many religions. . These are greed. They bring us confusion and misery rather than peace." 3. I do not accept that anger of any kind as a virtuous emotion nor aggression as constructive behavior." Christians also subscribe to the God's holiness and his anger in the sight of evil.However. in response to the question: "Is any anger acceptable in Buddhism?' the Dalai Lama answered: "Buddhism in general teaches that anger is a destructive emotion and although anger might have some positive effects in terms of survival or moral outrage. anger. my God. there is a difference. and fulfillment. hatred.

Seneca suggests. deny his signs. The characteristics of those upon whom God's wrath will fall is as follows: Those who reject God. Seneca suggests "one to check speech and impulses and be aware of particular sources of personal irritation.. a madman or a poet. such as withdrawing or stonewalling. or working to better understand and constructively resolve the issue 4. one should not be too inquisitive: It is not always soothing to hear and see everything. do not look after the poor (notably the orphans). including overt violence. . are impudent.1 Ancient philosophers Seneca addresses the question of mastering anger in three parts: 1. harboring resentment. 4. or they can respond with hostile inaction. In dealing with other people. how to cease being angry and 3. that the many faults of anger should be repeatedly remembered. Coping strategies According to Leland R. each instance of anger demands making a choice. God's mercy outweighs his wrath or takes precedence of it.. Other options include initiating a dominance contest. A person can respond with hostile action. and should wait to hear the full story. When someone appears to slight you.. how to deal with anger in others. live in luxury or heap up fortunes. Beaumont. call Muhammad a sorcerer. To cease being angry. in order to avoid becoming angry in the first place. you should be at first reluctant to believe this. how to avoid becoming angry in the first place 2. persecute the believers or prevent them from praying. doubt the resurrection and the reality of the day of judgment.In Islam. do mischief. One should avoid being too busy or deal with anger-provoking people. Unnecessary hunger or thirst should be avoided and soothing music be listened to.

such as age or illness. Seneca suggests that the best reaction is to simply keep calm. At the same time. while al-Ghazali (Algazel) argued that . Seneca says." Seneca further advises daily self-inquisition about one's bad habit. Many medieval writers discuss at length the evils of anger and the virtues of temperance. A certain kind of deception. trying to understand his motives and any extenuating factors. To deal with anger in others. Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi classified anger (along with aggression) as a type of neurosis. On the other hand." In The Canon of Medicine.2 Middle ages Maimonides considered being given to uncontrollable passions as a kind of illness. Galen also gives some hints for finding a good teacher. Seneca says. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) modified the theory of temperaments and argued that anger heralded the transition of melancholia to mania. Roger Bacon elaborates Seneca's advices. Children. Seneca warns that this education should not blunt the spirit of the children nor should they be humiliated or treated severely. should learn not to beat their playmates and not to become angry with them. Galen repeats Seneca's points but adds a new one: finding a guide and teacher can help the person in controlling their passions. Like Galen. John Mirk asks men to "consider how angels flee before them and fiends run toward him to burn him with hellfire. Maimonides suggested seeking out a philosopher for curing this illness just as one seeks out a physician for curing bodily illnesses. they should not be pampered. Seneca also advises that children's requests should not be granted when they are angry. is necessary in dealing with angry people. 4. and explained that humidity inside the head can contribute to such mood disorders. Both Seneca and Galen (and later philosophers) agree that the process of controlling anger should start in childhood on grounds of malleability.You should also put yourself in the place of the other person.

anger takes form in rage. The suppressed anger may find another outlet. modern psychologists point out that suppression of anger may have harmful effects. explosive release of suppressed anger. or become more extreme. and that "the powers of the soul become balanced if it keeps anger under control. and feelings. They are taught to see the provocation and the anger itself as occurring in a series of stages. assumptions and evaluations in specific situations. Research shows that people who suffer from excessive anger often harbor and act on dysfunctional attributions. John W. indignation and revenge. Another . The person is then tried to be imagery-based relieved of his or her recent angry experiences.3.1 Suppression While the early philosophers were not concerned with possible harmful effects of the suppression of anger." 4. somatic-affective (tension and agitations) and behavioral (withdrawal and antagonism). Novaco recognized three modalities of anger: cognitive (appraisals). In order to manage anger the problems involved in the anger should be discussed Novaco suggests. The anger was then displaced as violence against those who had nothing to do with the matter. The therapy is followed by the so-called "stress inoculation" in which the clients are taught "relaxation skills to control their arousal and various cognitive controls to exercise on their attention. such as a physical symptom. each of which can be dealt with. It has been shown that with therapy by a trained professional. images. Fiero cites Los Angeles riots of 1992 as an example of sudden. R. anger is an emotional response to provocation. There are a multitude of steps that were researched in attempting to deal with this emotion. Modern therapies for anger involve restructuring thoughts and beliefs in order to bring about a causal reduction in anger. thoughts. The situations leading to anger should be explored by the person. individuals can bring their anger to more manageable levels. These therapies often comes within the schools of CBT (or Cognitive Behavioural Therapies) like modern systems such as REBT (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy)." 4. Novaco.3 Modern times According to R.

using sexual provocation. poison pen letters. forgiveness. Fiero says. putting people down. withholding money or resources. sabotaging relationships. false tearfulness. was the blaming of Jews for the economic ills of Germany by the Nazis. gossiping. • Self-blame. inviting criticism.example of widespread deflection of anger from its actual cause toward a scapegoat. giving the silent treatment or under the breath mutterings. anonymous complaints. • Manipulation. such as apologizing too often. being overly critical. stealing.1 Passive anger Passive anger can be expressed in the following ways: • Secretive behavior. 6. Symptoms of anger Anger can be of one of two main types: Passive anger and Aggressive anger. emotional blackmail. . provoking aggression but staying on the sidelines. avoiding eye contact. feigning illness. such as provoking people to aggression and then patronizing them. and conning. These two types of anger have some characteristic symptoms: 6. using a third party to convey negative feelings. such as stockpiling resentments that are expressed behind people’s backs.

objects or intellectual pursuits. sitting on the fence while others sort things out. such as being overly helpful. • Dispassion. expressing frustration at insignificant things but ignoring serious ones. underachieving. 6. talking of frustrations but showing no feeling. indulging in sexual practices that depress spontaneity and make objects of participants. demanding that all jobs be done perfectly. sexual impotence. oversleeping. over-dieting or overeating. making a habit of constantly checking things. such as setting yourself and others up for failure. such as giving the cold shoulder or phony smiles. or lapping up gratefulness. not responding to another’s anger. looking cool. choosing unreliable people to depend on. such as needing to be clean and tidy. giving inordinate amounts of time to machines. becoming phobic.• Self-sacrifice. • Obsessive behavior. dampening feelings with substance abuse. quietly making long suffering signs but refusing help. overeating. not arguing back. such as turning your back in a crisis.3 Aggressive anger The symptoms of aggressive anger are: . • Ineffectualness. avoiding conflict. • Evasiveness. frigidity. being accident prone. making do with second best.

excessively blowing a car horn. such as frightening people by saying how you could harm them. ignoring people’s feelings. reckless driving. willfully discriminating. expressing mistrust. tailgating. such as speaking too fast. using a car to force someone off the road. substance abuse. being a sore loser. destroying a relationship between two people. blaming. • Grandiosity. wanting center stage all the time. labeling others. • Destructiveness. their property or their prospects. such as destroying objects. using foul language. harming animals. • Unjust blaming. verbal abuse. such as threatening people directly. not . reckless spending. driving too fast. finger pointing. working too much and expecting others to fit in. persecuting. wearing clothes or symbols associated with violent behaviour. pushing or shoving. such as accusing other people for your own mistakes. punishing people for unwarranted deeds. walking too fast. • Hurtfulness. blaming people for your own feelings. • Bullying. such as physical violence. making general accusations. shouting. using power to oppress. such as showing off. breaking a confidence. fist shaking.• Threats. not delegating. slamming doors. biased or vulgar jokes. playing on people’s weaknesses. • Manic behavior.

inflicting harm on others for the sake of it. • Vengeance. using alcohol and drugs[8]. expecting kiss and make-up sessions to solve problems. illogical arguments. which both controls the emotion and allows the emotion to express itself in a healthy way. not responding to requests for help. attacking indiscriminately. refusing to forgive and forget. dispensing unjust punishment. bringing up hurtful memories from the past. talking over people’s heads. . It should be stated that anyone displaying any of these behaviours does not always have an anger management problem. using body language to indicate feelings clearly and honestly. anger directed at persons concerned. Methods of anger management Psychologists recommend a balanced approach to anger. such as being over-punitive. Some descriptions of actions of anger management are: • Direct. making behaviour visible and conspicuous. • Unpredictability. such as explosive rages over minor frustrations. such as not beating around the bush.listening. such as ignoring other’s needs. queue jumping. • Selfishness.

such as taking calculated risks. such as sticking to the issue of concern.• Honorable. not bringing up irrelevant material. . such as demonstrating a willingness to hear other people’s anger and grievances. spontaneously coming up with new ideas and new views on subject • Forgive. such as making it apparent that there is some clear moral basis for the anger. enthusing others. • Creative. showing an ability to wipe the slate clean once anger has been expressed. • Courageous. enduring short term discomfort for long term gain. never abusing another person’s basic human rights. being prepared to argue your case. being fiercely protective. such as repeating the expression of feeling in the argument over and over again. Anger creates a hostility filter. being excited and motivated. • Persistent. not showing fear of other’s anger. initiating change. and often all you can hear is negatively toned. acting dynamically and energetically. taking responsibility for actions. self defense. • Listen to what is being said to you. • Focused. standing your ground. such as using full power of the body to show intensity of feeling. such as thinking quickly. taking the lead. risking displeasure of some people some of the time. using selfprotective skills. never using manipulation or emotional blackmail. using more wit. • Passionate. showing fervent caring. standing outside the crowd and owning up to differences. never unfairly hurting the weak or defenseless.

” With regard to interpersonal anger. Buddhists. It is typically started with the use of “I” statements followed by a need statement.A common skill used in most anger management programs is learning assertive communication techniques. so that wisdom and insight can ultimately correct the mind and eliminate anger completely How can u overcome anger?? . They believe that there are several antidotes for handling anger. The main issue of anger management is that anger is regarded as an incorrect projection of the mind. Empathy is very difficult when one is angry but it can make all the difference in the world. to see if they can understand where the alleged perpetrator is coming from. equanimity and realization of emptiness (the sum of which can be achieved through daily Concentration Meditation and Insight Meditation. Feindler recommends that people try. The chief amongst them are patience. in the heat of an angry moment. on the other hand. or Samatha and Vipassana). Assertive communication is the appropriate use of expressing feelings and needs without offending or taking away the rights of others. understanding karma. “I feel upset when you don't take my feelings into consideration when you talk about your past relationships. I hope you can be more thoughtful and know what you should and should not say the next time. Eva L. but with practice it can become second nature. recommend a slightly different approach. For example. Dr. Taking the other person's point of view can be excruciating when in the throes of anger.

so i want some freedom of spending money on myself.this may get the lazy men of their bottoms to realise you cant support them. they at the least will help you manage your situation. you could talk to your father and brother about deducting a small amount of spending money and Inshallah they will allow you to do this. I was going to say go to anger managementbut sounds like you have reason to be upset.. There could be a way for you to put aside some or half your money in another account only you know about..i am the only person thst is earning.... otherwise you can borrow and swap with friends or make something at home by yourself You need to go to a Church or government free councillor on anger and your tribulations.every time i have to give money to my papa and brother that makes me angry. and remember getting angry with someone is like hammering a nail into a piece of wood. People thinking about how to overcome the anger Take deep breaths and count to ten everytime you feel yourself getting angry. .actually at this age of 25 . at least..I am getting angry every time in a small small things.. Allah will bless you greatly for this so do it for His pleasure and give to your parents willlingly I as a female also know that sometimes the heart desires for something beautiful that is all our own..i dont want to give the money because i can't fullfil my require ment in this age... you can remove the nail again after but there is always a small mark left on the wood and that mark cannot be taken back You should be proud that you are able to honour your parents and provide for them. At 25 -you shouldn't have to be supporting the family! Get out -get your'e own place and make your'e own life-it is the only way you will be happy and get ahead. and show that you only have a small left over amount to give.. because you can never give them quite enough. Then buy what you like or need.

Then you need to show this to your brother and father as evidence of your financial problems..In the meantime. Don't get angry. The first time is tough and you get all anxious and sweaty. . results and money left over.. Failing that.. it's a breeze. You must tell your father that you can not give him and your brother any more money cause you need to to spend money on your self. If they still don't believe you.until you feel calmer.. I would start to tell them you have no money right now for them. Don't get upset with them.since it's obvious they have been taking advantage of you for some time. and then negotiations can be opened between them. not very much. Don't hate yourself for giving in in the past.* You need to stick to your guns and do this for a while for this to sink in.you can give only just a small amount of money to them. you will need to have reciepts and statements (but aviod showing them the account number unless you trust them enough).And it would be true you need the money you have earned ! When angry take a walk. in time hopefully enough for you to take off.. Just calmly tell them you don't have money the next time they ask. deep breaths at the time of anger will loosen you down drugs are a start . i know many of us would in your situation. Eliminate what is causing you anger. Once you have done this it should demostrate what your state is financially. the money in your other account will accumulate .. Just start living differently today and be ready to say no as gently but firmly as possible. The second time is a little easier... Take a deep breath and count to 10.. You can do it.you know it takes a while to teach a dog a new trick! You should create a list of your spending and income showing all calculations. enroll in an anger management course. and that . It sounds like an unfair situation. After that...

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and in the right way .Anger Management Anyone can become angry . at the right time. start off small with a 24 hour Anger Free contract. for the right purpose. But to become angry with the right person.that is so easy.that is not so easy. Make your 24 hour contract look like this one: I _______________________ between _____________ & ________________ on (date) ___________________ promise to attempt to remain calm. to the right degree. Aristotle The Anger Contract By Kathy Garber If managing your anger for a life time seems like too much to handle in the beginning or the very thought of a life time commitment to anger management seems overwhelming. ______________________________________ Your signature . manage my anger and to act in a non-aggressive manner.

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