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[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems


Fill in blank the block diagram of the information processing cycle






Fill in the blank diagram of the Machine Cycle and state the functions.




Executing FECTH Decoding Executing Storing A program instructions or data item from memory
the process of translating a program instruction into signals that the computer can execute the process of implementing the instructions in a program the process of writing the result to the storage or memory.

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 3 The central processing unit consist of two parts:-

a) Control Unit (CU) b) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).

EXERCISE 4 State the relationship of data representation : TERM BIT BYTE CHARACTER DEFINITION Bit is a short for binary digit. A bit is represented by the numbers 1 and 0. Byte is a unit of information built from bits. One byte is equals to 8 bits. One byte represents one character such as A, 7, 9 and +. Eight bits that are grouped together as a unit.

1. 8 BIT = 1 byte 2. 3 Character code :i. ii.



EXERCISE 5 State the units of data measurement: Byte Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB)

1 Byte = 8 bits 1 KB = 210 byte 1 MB= 220 byte 1 GB =230 byte 1 TB=240 byte

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 6 State the units Clock Speed Measurement a. The clock speed unit is measured in

1 Hz 1 Mhz 1 GHz

1 cycle/ 1 second 1,000,000 cycle/ 1 second 1,000,000,000 cycle/ 1 second

EXERCISE 7 State the meaning of :a. Input Devices Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instruction into a computer.

Input Input is any data or instruction that you enter into the memory of a computer.

b. TYPES OF INPUT Text Graphics Audio Video EXAMPLE INPUT DEVICES Keyboard, barcode reader Digital camera, scanner, graphic tablet Microphone, MIDI keyboard, digital voice recorder pen Digital video camera, webcam, CCTV

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 8 State the meaning of :1. Output Devices Any hardware that is capable of delivering or showing information to one or more user. An output device shows, prints and presents the result of a computers work. 2. Output Output is the result of data processing activity when it is presented external to the system. TYPES OF OUTPUT Text Graphics Audio Video EXAMPLE OUTPUT DEVICES Screen (monitor), printer, plotter Screen (monitor),printer, plotter Speaker, headphone LCD projector, screen (monitor)

EXERCISE 9 State component of a motherboard and function. COMPONENT Central Processing Unit FUNCTION The Central Processing Unit (CPU) controls the operation of the computer. It interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer In computers, a slot or expansion slot, is an engineered technique for adding capability to a computer in the form of connection pinholes An expansion card is a circuitry designed to provide expanded capability to a computer. The slot where the computer memory, also called as RAM is placed on the computers motherboard. A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. A connector joins a cable to a peripheral The Central Processing Unit (CPU) controls the operation of the computer. It interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

Expansion Slot

Expansion Card RAM Slot Port and Connector

Central Processing Unit

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems

EXERCISE 10 Fill in the blank diagram of the storage

RAM Primary Storage ROM Strorage Secondary Storage Magnetic Medium Optical Medium Flash Memory

EXERCISE 11 State the function RAM and ROM PRIMARY STORAGE RAM FUNCTIONS o RAM is volatile, which means the program and data will be lost when the computer is turned off. o Data from RAM can be read or retrieved and written or stored during processing o ROM is non-volatile which means is holds the programs and data event when computer is turned off. o data from ROM can just be read only.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 12 State the diffences between RAM and ROM CRITERIA Data and program Content Processing time Volatility EXERCISE 13 State the differences between PRIMARY STORAGE and SECONDARY STORAGE CRITERIA Holding Data Cost/ Price Storage Capacity Need Access Time Portability PRIMARY STORAGE Volatile hold data only temporarily More Expensive Limited Compulsory Faster Fixed SECONDARY STORAGE Non-volatile hold data permanently Cheaper Unlimited Alternative Slower Portable (easy to bring) RAM Stores during and after Processing Stores information Temporarily Very fast, but uses a lot of power Volatile- data will lose if the computer shuts down ROM Stored by manufacturer Stores instructions (Information) permanently Fast, but uses very little power Non-volatile - data will not lose if the computer shuts down

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 14 Fill in the blank diagram the category of software. SOFTWARE

System Software

Applicatio n software

operating system

utility program

Word Processing




EXERCISE 15 State the differences between system software and application software. System Software Enable the computer to function properly Compulsory-each computer must have a system software to function Each computer only needs one system software Independent-system software can function without an application software Provide the environment in which the application run Criteria Usage Application software Enables users to work efficiently with documentation Optional- depends on usage and needs Each computer can have more than one application software Dependent-application software cannot work without system software Provides the environment to enable users to accomplish specific tasks


Number of Software



[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 16 State the definition and example of the system software:System Software Operating System Definition An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all the activities among the computer hardware devices. Known as service programs Allow users to perform maintenance-type task related to managing a computer, its device, or its program 1. 2. 3. 4.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Example Windows XP Mac OS Unix Linux Antivirus Diagnostic Utility File Manager Screen Saver

Utility Program

EXERCISE 17 State the function of operating system?

1. Starting the computer Load and initialize the operating system on a computer machine.

2. Providing a user interface Controls how the user enters data and instruction and how information is displayed.

3. Managing resources Coordinate all the computers resources including memory, processing, storage and devices.

4. Configuring devices Handle input and output as well as enabling communicating with input and output devices

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 18

State the differences between operations system and utility program? Operating System Utility Program

A utility program performs An operating system contains instruction that maintenance-type tasks, usually related coordinate all the activities among computer to managing a computer, its devices or hardware resources. its programs. An operating system is very important; A utility program helps managing a computers cannot be used or started without computers easier; computers can still be used or started without it. an operating system. Antivirus, diagnostic utility, file manager, screen saver, image viewer, personal firewall, uninstaller, disk scanner, disk defragmenter and ackup utility

Linus, Mac OSX, Unix, Windows XP

EXERCISE 19 State the platform operating system and example ? PLATFORM PC Platform Apple Platform EXAMPLE Disk Operating System (Dos) Microsoft Windows Xp 1. Mac Os 2. Mac Os X Unix Linux



[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 21

State the different interfaces of operating system? Command Line Interface Criteria (Dos)
type commands or press special keys A user need to

Graphical User Interface (Windows/Linux)

click the icons and graphics

It has to be typed one line at a time. It requires exact spelling, syntax or a set of rules of entering commands and punctuation. Difficult -must specify exactly the command syntax User needs to memories all the keywords and syntax. helps the user to operate the computer quickly after memorizing the keywords and syntax.


menus and visual images such as buttons, icons and other graphical objects to issue commands.



Memorisation Enables the user to avoid memorizing keywords such as copy, paste and syntax. Advantage Operating system and programs easier to use, which is also called user-friendly.

EXERCISE 22 State the types and function of application software? TYPE OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Word Processing Spreadsheet

Allows user to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. Allows users to perform calculations. They simulate paper worksheets by displaying multiple cells that make up a grid. To display information in the form of a slide show. The software perform three functions: o Editing o Inserting o formatting allows users to work with drawing, photos and pictures. Provide the users the ability of creating, manipulating and printing graphics.




[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 23 State the differences between word processing and spreadsheet. CRITERIA WORD PROCESSING SPREADSHEET

Main Usage

Document Type

Produce documents such as letters, memos, reports, fax cover sheets, Allows users to organise and mailing labels, newsletters, and web manipulate data in rows and columns pages budgeting, maintaining a grade book, accounts, tracking letters, memos, reports, fax cover balancing sheets, mailing labels, newsletters, investment, calculating loan and web pages payments, estimating project costs and preparing financial statements. Allows user to create manipulate documents and Allows users to perform calculations


EXERCISE 24 State the type and functions of utility program. TYPES UTILITY PROGRAM File management Diagnostic Utility FUNCTIONS Perform functions related to files and disk management Ex: copy, move, rename or delete files Diagnostic or troubleshooting utility compiles technical information about a computers hardware and certain system software programs prepares a report outlining any identified problems System software used to shrink the size of files A program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in a memory , storage media or incoming files. Utility program that reorganises files and unused space on a computer hard disk Perform functions related to files and disk management Ex: copy, move, rename or delete files

File Compression Antivirus

Defragmenter File management


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 25

State the meaning of :a. Proprietary Software Company that developed that software owns the software No one may duplicate or distribute without the companies permission Users have to purchase the software b. Open Source Software Software that is free to use Provide the original source code so that advanced users can modify it


State the advantages and disadvantages of using proprietary software? ADVANTANGES The software offers a stable system support if it fails or malfunction. The software is safe and guaranteed to be safe from dubious threats like programming bugs and viruses thus providing ease of mind for the user. The software is easier to install and used as the production is planned and extensive research is carried out to ensure users purchase only the best. Furthermore, free updates and latest information on the software are usually provided to the user DISADVANTANGES users need to spend a long time downloading and installing security patches to fix bugs announced by the manufacturer. Any improvements would usually require fees, which is often expensive.

users are not allowed to describe and share the software as that are licenced.

Customising the software is nearly impossible because when users buy proprietary software will receive binary version of the program, not the code as the code is the maufacturers trade secret.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems EXERCISE 26

State the advantages and disadvantages of using Open Source Software? ADVANTANGES The source code are available to users and they have the rights to modify them. DISADVANTANGES

Since nobody in particular is responsible for the codes, there is no exact knowledge and assurance on when the codes are going to be fixed if there a bugs in it This will allow improvements to the The codes are too complicated for novice software without having to invest large sum users to understand. of money in research and development. The modified and improved source codes can be freely redistributed. There is no particular official monitoring the works of a programmer improving the codes. This is because anyone is free to use, modify or even distribute the codes.

EXERCISE 27 State the differences between proprietary and open source software? PROPRIETARY Purchased with its source code OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE Purchased without its source code

User can get open software for free of User must pay to get the proprietary charge software Users can modify the software Users cannot modify the software

Users can install software freely into any User must have a license form vendor computer before install into computer No one is responsible to the software Full support from vendor if anything happened to the software


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems

NO Answer

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 B A A C A C A D C C B


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems



ii. Y is RAM iii. Z is EXPANSION SLOT i. Word Processor Spreadsheet i. Scanner


ii. Digital camera i. ii.


B C A D C A A : Presentation/Presentation Software B : Word Processing Software/Word Processor Disk Defragmenter Image Viewer Q S R

iii. iv. i.

ii. i.

ii. i.

ii. i.

ii. iii.

a) Bit

b) Byte a) B

b) C i.


ii. iii.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems




Output Gigahertz,


Firewall Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit


American Standard Code For International Interchange


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems



Application software are all programs designed to make users become more productive; while assisting users with personal tasks.

State two types of application software and give an example of each.

Types of application software



Types of application software Word Processing Spread Sheets

Example Microsoft Word, Corel Word Perfect, Sun Staroffice Writer Microsoft Excel, Corel QuatroPro, Sun Star Office Calc Microsoft Powerpoint, Corel Presentation, Sun Star Office Images Toolbook Assistant 2004, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Macromedia Freehand, The GIMP


Graphic Editing


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 2

Based on Figure 1, answer the following question: a) Name the application software shown in Figure 1. [1 mark] b) Give TWO features of application software mentioned in 1(a). [2 marks] c) The application software mentioned in 1(a) has advanced features to allow you to work more productively. Name ONE of the advanced features. [1 mark]

(a) Spreadsheet

(b) o o o creating, editing and formatting worksheet in rows and columns containing formulas which can perform calculations on the data in the worksheet making charts, which depicts the data graphically such as column charts or pie charts what-if analysis, the ability of recalculating the rest of the worksheet when data in a worksheet changes.


macro lookup protection pivot table

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 3 a) What is Operating System? (2 marks)

b) State two function of Operating System. (2 marks)

a) OS is a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.

b) State two function of OS. Starting a computer. Provider a user interface. Managing programs Managing memory Configuring devices. (choose any two answer)


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 4 Figure 2 shows the information processing cycle.



Figure 2 a. Component B contains the control unit and arithmetic and logic unit. State one function for each of the component. [2 marks] b. Component D can be classified into two categories. State two the differences between two of categories. [2 marks]

a) Component B contains the control unit and arithmetic and logic unit. State one function for each of the component. Control Unit : - control all activities within the computer system. (1m) Arithmetic Logic Unit :b) Component D can be classified into two categories. State two the differences between two of categories. D is a storage

Primary storage
Volatile Non portable Faster to access compare secondary storage in system

Secondary storge
Non volatile Portable (easy to bring) Slow to access compare primary storage in system


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 5 Figure 6 shows four operations of a machine cycle.



Based on Figure 6, answer the following questions. a) The processor consists of two parts. Name X and Y. b) Name R and state its function. [2 marks] [2 marks]

(a) X Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Y Control Unit (b) R Storing Function- Return/Write the result of instructions to the memory. Note: Any relevant answers for the function of R are accepted


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 6 Table 9 shows the types and usage of utility program. Types of utility Usage is used to restore the data that has been physically damaged or corrupted.

Q is a utility program that performs functions related to files and disk management. For example we can copy, move, delete, rename files using this utility program. Table 9 Based on table 9, (a) State the type of program utility P and R. [ 2 marks] (b) Q is Virus protection. Explain the usage of Q [ 2 marks]

a) P = Backup utility R. = File manager

b) It is essential that you install antivirus software. Antivirus software is a utility program that scan the hard disks, floppy disks and memory to detect viruses.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 7 Based on the diagram 2, answers the question below: System Software

Operating System

Utility Program

Diagram 2 a. State two functions of system software. [2 Marks] b. Graphical user interface (GUI) and command line are examples of user interfaces in operating system. Give two differences between graphical user interface and command line. [2 Marks]

a. b. Graphical user interface (GUI) User friendly Graphic based / icon based Anyone can use as it is icon based Command line interface Not user friendly Text based Must have computer skill to communicate with the computer Controls / maintains the operations of a computer and devices. Interface between user, application software and computers hardware.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems


Figure 5

The combination of components above are designed to process data and store files which are a) Keyboard is an example of input device and monitor is an example of output device. State another example of input and output device. [2 marks] b) State two functions of RAM? [2 marks]


(Any other suitable input and output device.) b) RAM AS A PRIMARY STORAGE i. It stores data and programs that can be acceassed directly by the processor. ii. Ram holds temporary instructions and data needed to complete tasks. (Any other answers tells the function of RAM) 24

[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 9

Primary Storage X

Secondary Storage Y


State two differences between X and Y. [2 marks]


Give another example of X and state a function. [2 marks]

Primary storages Capacity Small Secondary storage Large

Access speed



Cost per MB









II.ROM Read Only Memory Functions :

i) ii) iii)

ROM in its strictest sense can only be read from all ROMs allow data to be written into them at least once, either during initial manufacturing or during a step called "programming" Some ROMs can be erased and re-programmed multiple times


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems

QUESTION 1 (a) What does activities Ahmad do? Apakah aktiviti-aktiviti telah dilakukan oleh Ahmad ? [ 3 marks ] Activities does Ahmad do are : Ahmad take action procedure scanning virus with Antivirus software. The activities Ahmad does are : If an antivirus program identifies an infected file, it attempts to remove its virus, worm or Trojan horse. If the antivirus program cannot remove the infection, it often quarantines the infected file. Quarantine is a separate area of a hard disk that holds the infected file until the infection can be removed. This step ensures other files will not become infected.


Explain two impact of threaten that mention above. Terangkan dua kesan ancaman yang telah disebut di atas. [ 4 marks ] [ 4 marks ] File or confidential document already saved will be damage. Virus will destruction all the system computer. Computer software will be slow causes infected virus. Distraction emotion of computer user.


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 2 a) Name one example of X [1 mark]

CD, CD-ROM, and DVD CD-R: CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM Memory card, Flash drive

b) Give two characteristics of Y. [2 marks] CRITERIA Data and program Content Processing time Volatility RAM Stores during and after Processing Stores information Temporarily Very fast, but uses a lot of power Volatile- data will lose if the computer shuts down

c) Explain two differences of W and X. CRITERIA Holding Data Cost/ Price Storage Capacity Need Access Time Portability
Expensive Small Compulsory Cheap Large Alternative



Faster to access compare secondary storage in system Non portable

Slow to access compare primary storage in system Portable (easy to bring)


[ICT EXERCISE] Computer Systems QUESTION 3

i. Proprietary OS User must have license from vendor before install into computer. User get full support from vendor if anything happened to the software. User cannot modify the software. User must pay to get the proprietary software User purchased without its source code.

Open source OS : User purchased with its source code. User can get open software for free of charge. User can modify the software User can install software freely into any computer. No one is responsible to the software.


Microsoft Access or Base because it is suitable for a small scale businesses. Benefits : Improved data integrity. When a user modifies data in one of the files in database, the same data will change automatically in all the files. Avoid data redundancy. Repetition of data is avoided. Data can be shared over a network, by a whole organization. Information can be accessed easily. Everyone can be access and manage data in a database. Data security. Data are not accessible to unauthorized user.