# A.

Stats Starts Here (all page references from Intro Stats text)

1. what is statistics? a. b. c. d. e. art of distilling meaning from data a way of reasoning tools and methods an aid to understanding the world making sense of variation

2. what is data? a. b. c. d. e. f. who? what? when? where? why? how?

marginal distributions (p. 24) a.27) c. 23) relative frequency bar chart (p. graphic displays of categorical data a. rank in a traditional college. What is a Categorical Variable? Variable (sometimes referred to as a qualitative variable) that describes an element of a population such as eye color. etc (Refer to Titanic Example from Chapter 3) 1. political affiliation. d.25) b.23) segmented bar chart (p.31) 2. f. frequency table (p. b. 21) bar charts (p. e. conditional distribution (p.29) . gender. contingency table (p.B. 23) pie chart (p. 21) relative frequency table (p. c. independent variables (p.

C. f. shape (p. 53. 52) center (p. g. describing the distribution a. e. 56) spread (p. 49) relative frequency histogram (p. 1. h. 57) mode (p. d. i. b. weights.49) frequency histogram (p. Quantitative variables have measurement units. 50) stem and leaf display (p. b. graphic displays of quantitative data a. d. 50) gap (p. 53) uniform (p. e.53) tails (p.50) dotplot (p. c. 53. 54) outliers (p.52) 2. 54) skewed (p. What is a Quantitative Variable? Variables recorded in numbers that we use as numbers – incomes. heights. f. distribution (p. c. and counts. 53) unimodal (p. 54) . ages. Units tell how a quantitative value has been measured.

64) c. e. range (p. measures of dispersion a. quartiles (p. b.91) boxplot (p. f. mean (p.58) five number summary (p. c.58) interquartile range (IQR) (p. d. variance (p.57) b. measures of centrality a.62) b. measures of centrality 2.90) . standard deviation (p.56) 2.60) upper and lower fence (p. measures of position a. Summarizing Quantitative Data via Three Measures 1. measures of position 1.64) 3. measures of variability 3.D. median (p. 90) outlier (p.

FIND THE MEASURES OF: 1 CENTRALITY FOR THE FOLLOWING AGES OF A GROUP OF EXTENSION SCHOOL STUDENTS: 19 24 28 28 34 36 38 57 a) What is the mean age of these students? b) What is the median age of these students? c) what is the mode of this data set? .

FIND THE MEASURES OF: 2 DISPERSION OR VARIABILITY FOR THE FOLLOWING AGES OF A GROUP OF EXTENSION SCHOOL STUDENTS: 19 24 28 28 34 36 38 57 a) What is the range of these ages? b) What is the variance of these ages? c) What is the standard deviation of these ages? .

FIND THE MEASURES OF: 3 POSITION FOR THE FOLLOWING AGES OF A GROUP OF EXTENSION SCHOOL STUDENTS: 19 24 28 28 34 36 38 57 a) what are the quartiles of this set of ages? b) what is the interquartile range of this set of ages? c) show the five number summary of this set of ages d) construct a boxplot (see hand-written boxplot below) e) find the upper and lower fences for this set of ages f) Are there any outliers in this set of data? .

Answers: FOR THE FOLLOWING AGES OF A GROUP OF EXTENSION SCHOOL STUDENTS.5 lower fence = 9.57 . 19 24 28 28 34 36 38 57 FIND THE MEASURES OF: 1 CENTRALITY a) What is the mean age of these students? b) What is the median age of these students? c) what is the mode of this data set? 33 31 28 2 DISPERSION OR VARIABILITY a) What is the range of these ages? b) What is the variance of these ages? c) What is the standard deviation of these ages? 38 134 11.5758 3 POSITION a) what are the quartiles of this set of ages? b) what is the interquartile range of this set of ages? c) show the five number summary of this set of ages H = 57 Q3 = 37 Q2 = 31 Q1 =26 L = 19 d) construct a boxplot (see hand drawn boxplot below) e) find the upper and lower fences for this set of ages upper fence = 53.5 Q1 = 26 Q2 = 31 Q3 =37 11 f) Are there any outliers in this set of data yes -.

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68-95-99.7% of the values fall within three standard deviations of the mean . normal model -. and about 99.E. The Standard Deviation as a Ruler and the Normal Model 1. about 95% of the values fall within two standard deviations of the mean.7 Rule -----------------99. about 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean.7%-------------------------95%----------68%-- μ-3σ μ-2σ μ-1σ μ μ+σ μ+2σ μ+3σ In a Normal model.

8133 0.7642 0.09 0.8186 0.2.5948 0.6103 0.08 0..6700 0.0 0.8289 0.7580 0.7054 0.6480 0.3 0.7967 0.5596 0.7704 0.5478 0.5793 0.5753 0.8 0.5636 0. 3.5359 0.7823 0.7852 0.5080 0.6331 0.5239 0.03 0.5160 0.6141 0.6368 0.6064 0.6217 0.6 0.6844 0.4 0.7 0.7939 0.7422 0.5319 0.7257 0. the z-score table (example of partial table) Positive z-scores: Z 0.5000 0. μ is the mean of the population.6554 0.5832 0.6255 0.5398 0.9 0.8159 0.7291 0.7389 0.8051 0.2 0.5714 0.8078 0.5279 0.7454 0.8212 0.7673 0.8389 .8023 0.μ)/σ where: y is a raw score to be standardized.6179 0.5 0.6736 0.6628 0.05 0.06 0.5438 0.7517 0.5987 0.7157 0.7549 0.6026 0.7881 0.7019 0.6664 0.7764 0.6772 0.07 0.5199 0.5040 0.6517 0.02 0.7123 0. σ is the standard deviation of the population.8238 0.7794 0.8264 0.6293 0. calculating the z-score Formula  The standard score is Z = (y .8315 0.6915 0.7995 0.5910 0.7190 0.8106 0.6879 0.7554 0.6406 0.6950 0.5120 0.04 0.1 0.7088 0.7734 0.7357 0.7486 0.6985 0.5675 0.7910 0.6591 0.7611 0.6808 0.6443 0.5871 0.5517 0.01 0.0 0.7324 0.8340 0.8365 0.5557 0.

finding a point if the percentages are provided 6. d. which indicates that the normal distribution is a good model for this data set. finding percentages using z-scores DRAW A PICTURE a. above a point below a point between two points beyond two points 5. . normal probability plot Sample Plot The points on this plot form a nearly linear pattern. e.4. c.

e. c. d. what can go wrong? a. don’t use a normal model if distribution is not unimodal/symmetric don’t use mean and standard deviation if outliers are present don’t round off too soon don’t round your results in the middle of a calculation don’t worry about minor differences in results .7. b.

a. What is the probability that this person will have a systolic blood pressure higher than 150. the distribution of systolic blood pressure is approximately normal with a mean of 125 and a standard deviation of 15.e. b. Would you expect this person to have a systolic blood pressure below 80%? Explain fully and show calculations to justify your answer. Find the probability that this person will have a systolic blood pressure or 110 or less. adults aged 20-40 who spend less than 5 hours per week in active exercise).Normal Model Question In a particular population of sedentary adults (i. What value would be the cutoff for high blood pressure in this population of sedentary young adults? . Assume that high blood pressure is defined as a systolic blood pressure in the highest 10% of the population. c. Suppose that a sedentary young adult is randomly selected from this population. c.