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Malayalam first appeared in writing in the vazhappalli inscription which dates from about 830 AD. In the early thirteenth century the Malayalam script began to develop from a script known as vattezhuthu (round writing), a descendant of the Brahmi script. As a result of the difficulties of printing Malayalam, a simplified or reformed version of the script was introduced during the 1970s and 1980s. The main change involved writing consonants and diacritics separately rather than as complex characters. These changes are not applied consistently applied so the modern script is often mixture of traditional and simplified characteres Malayalam is also regularly written with a version of the Arabic script by Muslims in Singapore and Malaysia, and occasionally by Muslims in Kerala.

Notable features

This is a syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to, are used to change the inherent vowel. When they appear the the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. When certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used which combine the essential parts of each letter.

Used to write:
Malayalam, a Dravidian language with about 35 million speakers. It is spoken mainly in the south west of India, particularly in Kerala, the Laccadive Islands and neighboring states, and also in Bahrain, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, UAE and the UK.

Malayalam alphabet
Vowels (svaram)

Vowel diacritics with ka

When combined with vowel diacritics some consonants change shape. This doesn't happen in the simplified version of the script (in blue)

Consonants (vyanjanam)

A selection of conjunct consonants


The simplified versions are shown in blue.

Phrase list
[edit] Basics
The basic difference in structure of sentences isthat in English the pattern is Subject-VerbObject, but it, in Malayalam, is Subject-Verb-Object

( Hello. (informal)

) namaskaaram. (very formal, so the below informal form is common)

Aay or "a'ye", You can use English "Hello" or "Hi". How are you? ( ?) sughamaano? (Literal meaning: Are you fine/comfortable?)

or, Enthokkeyundu / Enth okke undu? (Literaly, What all are there?) I am not fine Enik ottum sugam alla Yes, thank you. ( I am fine. ( What is your name? ( ?) Ningalude peru enthaanu? / Peru entha? / Pay-ray-ntha? / )Enikku sukhamaanu. / , ) Ssherri/Athe, Nanni.

Thangalude peru enthaanu? (with respect) My name is ______ . Ente peru ______ aanu. Nice to meet you. Kandathil santhosham. Parichayappettathil valare santhosham. (Literal meaning: Extremely delighted for you acquaintance) Please. Dayavu cheythu / Dayavayi, or use English word "Please" Thank you. Nanni (pronounced: naan-n), or use English word "Thank you" or "Thanks" Thank you very much orupadu nanni or Valare upakaram, or you can say in English, or repeat "Thank you" two times.

You're welcome. (formal) Swaagatham; (informal) varu varu / varanam varanam. Yes. Athey/ Ssherri (Literal Meaning: Correct) No. Illa Not Alla Excuse me. (getting attention) kshamiku / kshamikkanam / or in English "Excuse me". Excuse me. (begging pardon) Kshamikkoo or in English "Sorry" / "I am sorry". I'm sorry. Ennodu Kshamikkoo. (say this if it was your fault, or if you are informing a bad news) I'm sorry. Kashttamayi Pooyi / Kashttamundu. (say this if you are comforting sombody) Goodbye Pinneedu kannanam (Vidah) / Pinne kaanam / Veendum kaanaam (Literal meaning: I will see you again later), or say in English "Goodbye" / "Bye" / "Bye Bye"/ "Tata" / "Tata Bye Bye". Goodbye (informal) see above." I can't speak Malayalam. Enikku 'Malayalam' samsaarikkan ariyilla / Malayalam ariyilla. Do you speak English? Ningal English Samsaarikkumo ? / English arriyamo?

Is there someone here who speaks English? Ivide English samsaarikkan ariyunnavar aarenkilum undo ? / English ariyunnavar aarenkilum undo? Help! Sahaayikkoo! Help (Save) Rakshikoo Look out! Nokkoo! / Sradhikku ! Good morning. Suprabhaatham (way formal), say in English "Good morning". Good evening. Shubha Sandhya (not used), say in English "Good evening". Good night. Rathri Yatra illa (Literal meaning: No travel in night- an idiom ), or say in English "Good night" / "Goodbye" / "Bye". Good night (to sleep) Subha Rathiri (not used), say in English "Good night" / "Good night, sweet dreams". I did not understand. Kshamikkanam Enikku manassilaayilla / manassilaayilla. I like sweets Eniku mettayi shtamaanu (I like sweet stuff) Eniku madhuram ishtamaanu Flower Poovu Elephant Aana

Dog Naaya/Patti Cat Poocha(POO in poor) Spicy (hot) Erivu Spicy food Erivulla bhakshanam Where are you going? Ningal evideya pokunnathu? Where is the toilet? Kakkoos Evideyaanu? (Kakkoos means toilet) Where is the Bathroom? Kulimuri Evideyaanu? (Kuli = bath, muri = room) Get lost Dayavu cheythu Maari Pooku (polite / as a request), Maari Pooku (less polite / an an order), Pooda (very impolite) Wake up Eneekku (slang)(the first 'e' pronounced as 'A' in English) / Ezhunelku (informal)/ Dayavu cheythu Ezhunelku (as a request) Do you like me? Enne ishtamaano? I love you enniku ninne ishtam annu / enniku ninne ishtamaayi (I like you); I love you (as a lover): Njan ninne premikkunnu ( Njan means 'I'); I hate you : Njan ninne verukkunnu. OR enniku ninne verripu annu Can you show me the way?

Enikku vazhi kaanichu taraamo? ( vazhi means 'way') How old are you? Ninaketra vayassayi? I am hungry Enikku vishakunnu Where can I get some water? Enikku alpam vellam evide kittum? (alpam corresponds to some, little etc) OR kurachu vellam tharumo? (literal: Can you give me a little water?) Hospital Aashupatri Can we go for a movie? Namukku oru cinemekku pokaamo? Girl is looking good Pennu Kaanaan Kollam / Pennu Adi poli (informal) What is the matter? Entha karyam? I forgot Njan Marannu I don't know Enikku ariyilla (r as in Rough) Later Pinneedu After Kazhinjittu Before Mumbu /Munpu / Moombuh

Please Wait Onnu Nilku One question Oru choodyam

Days Monday: Thingal-aazhicha (can be pronounced as Thingle Aaycha) Tuesday: Chovvaazhicha Wednesday: Budhana-azhicha Thursday: Vyaazha-azhicha / alternate spelling Vyaaraazhicha (r as in rha) Friday: Velli-aazhicha Saturday: Shani-aazhicha Sunday: Njaayar-aazhicha letters "zh" sounds like "r" in "purse", or like a mixture of "r", "ya", "la"

[edit] Problems
Leave me alone. Enne veruthe vidoo. Don't touch me! Enne thodaruthu. I'll call the police. Njaan policine vilikkum. Police! Police! (Police) Stop! Thief! Nirthoo! Kallan! I need your help. Enikku ningalude sahaayam venam. It's an emergency. Ithu athhyaavashyamaanu I'm lost. Enikku vazhithetti. I lost my bag.

Ente sanchi nashtappettu. I lost my wallet. Ente purse nashtappettu. I'm sick. Enikku sukhamilla. I've been injured. Enikku murivu patti. I need a doctor. Enikku doctorude sahaayam venam. Can I use your phone? Njaan ningalude phone upayogichotte. Can you give me your phone number? Enikku ningalude phone number tharamo? I'll kill you Njan ninne kollum Why are you fighting with me? Ningal enthina ennodu vazhakkidunnathu? Don't you understand what I am saying? Ningalkku njan paranjathu manasilakunnille? Tie him up Avane kettiyidu. (Avane means 'Him')

[edit] Numbers
1 one (onnu) 2

two (randu) 3 three (moonnu MOO in moon) 4 four (naalu) 5 five (anchu) 6 six (aaru) 7 seven (eezhu) 8 eight (ettu E of eight) 9 nine (onpathu) 10 ten (pathu) 11 eleven (pathinonnuh' ) 12 twelve (panthranduh') 13 thirteen (pathimoonnuh) 14 fourteen (pathinaaluh)

15 fifteen (pathinanchuh) 16 sixteen (pathinaaruh) 17 seventeen (pathinezhuh) 18 eighteen (pathinettuh) 19 nineteen (pathombathuh) 20 twenty (irupathuh) 21 twenty one (irupathonnuh) 22 twenty two (irupathiranduh) 23 twenty three (irupathimoonuh) 30 thirty (muppathuh) 40 forty (nalpathuh) 50 : fifty (anpathuh) 60

sixty (arupathuh) 70 seventy (ezhupathuh) 80 eighty (enpathuh) 90 ninety (thonnooru) 100 one hundred (nooru) 200 two hundred (Irunnooru) 300 three hundred (Munnooru) 1000 one thousand (aayiram) 2000 two thousand (randayiram) 1,000,000 one million (pathu-laksham) 1,000,000,000 one thousand million in UK, one billion in USA (nooru kodi) 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion in USA, formerly one billion in UK (laksham kodi) number _____ (train, bus, etc.) number _____ ( Number)eg:-#10 ( Pathh-am Number)

half half (arai or paadhi or pakuthi) less less (kurachu or kuranja) more more (kooduthal or koodiya)

[edit] Time
now Ippol later Pinne before Munpey. morning , afternoon (...) Uchha. evening Vyikunneram. night , [edit] Clock time one o'clock oru mani two o'clock Raathri. Prabhatham, Raavile.

randu mani

Use Ravile for AM, Rathri for PM and Ucha for noon
midnight paathi rathri [edit] Duration _____ minute(s) ______ nimisham _____ hour(s) _____ mani (manikoor) _____ day(s) _____ naal, divasam _____ week(s) _____ vaaram, azhcha _____ month(s) _____ maasam _____ year(s) _____ varsham [edit] Days today (innu) yesterday (innale) tomorrow naale this week eyazhcha

last week kazhinhayazhcha next week adutha azhcha Sunday (njhayarazcha) Monday (thingalazhcha) Tuesday (chovvazhcha) Wednesday (budhanazhcha) Thursday (vyazhazhcha) Friday (velliyazhcha) Saturday (shaniyazhcha)

[edit] Colors
black Karuppu white Vella gray

chara niram red chumappu blue neela yellow Manja green pacha orange orange purple purple brown brown dark kadum light ilam

[edit] Transportation
[edit] Bus and train How much is a ticket to Bhopal? Ethra rupayanu Bhopalathekku ticket One ticket to Bhopal, please. Bhopalathekku oru ticket venam Where does this train/bus go?

Engottanu ee bus/train pokunnathu? Where is the train/bus to Kottayam ? Evide anne Kottayathekkula bus? Does this train/bus stop in Kottayam? Ee bus/train kottayathu nirutthumo? When does the train/bus for Kottayam leave? Eppolaanu Kottayathekkulla ee bus/train povuka? When will this train/bus arrive in Kottayam ? Eppolaanu ee bus/train Kottayathu etthuka? [edit] Directions How do I get to _____ ? Engene enikku _________ ethum? ...the train station? Engene enikku rail* way stationanil ettham? ...the bus station? Engene enikku bus-standil ettham? ...the airport? Engene enikku vimanathaavalathil ettham? ...downtown? Engene enikku nagarathil ettham? ...the youth hostel? Engene enikku youth hostelil ettham? ...the _____ hotel? Engene enikku _______ hotlil ettham? ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? Engene enikku American/Canadian/Australian/British nyathantrakaryalathil enttham?

Where are there a lot of... Evideyaanu dhaaralam ............. Evideyaanu dhaaralam hotelukal ullathu? ...restaurants? Evideyaanu dhaaralam bhojanashalakal ullathu? ...bars? Evideyanu dhaaralam BARukal ullathu? ...sites to see? Evideyaanu dhaaralam sthalangal kaanuvan ullathu? Can you show me on the map? Enikku mappil onnu kaanichu tharaamo? lane Veedhi, mudukku street Theruvu road Vazhi crossroad/junction Mukku National/State highway Deshiya/Samasthana Padha Turn left. Idatthekku thiriyuka Turn right.

Valatthekku thiriyuka left Idathu right Valathu straight ahead Nere povuka towards the bridge Palathinu aduthekku past the _____ Aa _____ kazhinhu before the _____ Aa ______ munpu Watch for the _____. Aa _________ nokkuka / sradhikkanam intersection Koodicherunna sthalatham north Vadakku south Thekku east Kizhakku west Padinjaru

uphill Kayattathil downhill Erakkathil [edit] Taxi Taxi! Taxi! Take me to _____, please. Enne _____ vare kondu pokoo. / ______ vare pokaam. How much does it cost to get to _____? _________ vare pokaan ethra roopa(money) aavum ? Take me there, please. Dayavaayi enne ______ vare kondu pokoo

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[edit] Lodging
Do you have any rooms available? Ivide muri ozhivindo? How much is a room for one person/two people? Onno/rendo perkkulla muri vaadeka ethra aanu? Does the room come with... Ee muriyil ... kittumo? ...bedsheets? virippe ...a bathroom? kuli muri

...a telephone? telephone ...a TV? TV May I see the room first? Aathyam muri kandote? Do you have anything quieter? Kuruchum Koode shanthamaya muri undo? ...bigger? valiyathu ...cleaner? vrithiyullathu ...cheaper? vila koranjathu OK, I'll take it. Sheri, Njan Edukam That's enough. Ithu madthi I will stay for _____ night(s). Njan_____raatri thamassikkam Can you suggest another hotel? Vere oru hotel parayamo? Do you have a safe? Ningalkku safe undo? ...lockers?

Puttukul Is breakfast/supper included? Prabhatha/rathri bhakshanam ulpedumo? What time is breakfast/supper? Prabhatha/rathri bhakshanam eppozhanu? Please clean my room. Ente muri onu vrithiyakkanam Can you wake me at _____? Enne _______ manikku ezhunnelpikkamo? I want to check out. Enikku check-out cheyyanam

[edit] Money
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? Ningal american dollars edukumo?) do u accept my request Ningal british pound swekarikumo) Do you accept credit cards? Credit card swekarikumo) Can you change money for me? Eniku panam matti tharumo? Where can I get money changed? Evide ninnu eniku panam matti kittum? Can you change a traveler's check for me? Enikku oru traveller's check matti tharamo? Where can I get a traveler's check changed? Evideyanu enikku traveller's check matti kittuka?)

What is the exchange rate? Ennathe vinimaya nerrekku enthannu? Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? ATM evideyanu?

[edit] Eating
A table for one person/two people, please. Enniku/Njakkal oru table vennam Can I look at the menu, please? Enikku menu kanamo? Can I look in the kitchen? Enikku adukala kanamo? OR Adukkala Onnu kandotte..? Is there a house specialty? Innathe special entha? Is there a local specialty? Nadan Bhakshanam vallathum undo I'm a vegetarian. Njan Sasyabhojiyaa I don't eat pork. Njan panni kazhikilla I don't eat beef. Njan pothirachi thinnilla/kazhikkilla I only eat kosher food. Njan juda bhakshanam matramme kazhikkullu Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard) Eenna/Neyyi/Kuzhuppu kurucha pakka peduttamo?

fixed-price meal Meals undo? la carte Menu undo? breakfast Prathal / Prabhatha Bhakshanam lunch Ooonu tea chaaya coffee kappi snacks Leggu Bhakshanam or Kurrukkaku supper Athazham I want _____. Enikk oru......venam I want a dish containing _____. ____________Kondundakkiya enthengilum mathi chicken kozhi beef Pothirachi fish

Meen ham Panni sausage hot dogs / Eerachi cheese Palkkatty / Paneer eggs Motta salad Raitha (fresh) vegetables Pachakkary (fresh) fruit Pazha vargamkel bread roti, appam, bread toast morrikkuka noodles noodles rice Ari beans Payar

May I have a glass of _____? Oru glass ___________ tharamo May I have a cup of _____? Oru kappu______________tharamo May I have a bottle of _____? Oru ________ koopi tharamo juice pazhachar/ neer (bubbly) water Soda cool drinks Sheethalapaniyam water Vellam beer Beer red/white wine Chuvanna/Velutha Veenjhu May I have some _____? Kurachu....Tharamo? salt Uppu black pepper Kurumulaku butter

Venna Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server) Athhe Chetta I'm finished. Njan Mathiyakkuvaa It was delicious. Gambeeram Please clear the plates. Paathrangal Edutholooo The cheque, please. Cheque thannalum

[edit] Bars
Do you serve alcohol? Ningal madhyam vilambumo? Is there table service? Evide table service undo? A beer/two beers, please. Randu beer tharoo A glass of red/white wine, please Oru glass chuvanna/Velutha veenjhu tharaamo A pint, please. Oru paynnt tharamo A bottle, please. Oru Kuppy tharamo water

Vellam Do you have any bar snacks? Thottu-koottan enthengilum undo One more, please. Onnum koodi please Another round, please. Orennam koodi When is closing time? Eppozha adakkunnathu

[edit] Shopping
Do you have this in my size? Do you have this in my size? (ethu ente pakathil undo) How much is this? How much is this? (ithinu entha villa) That's too expensive. That's too expensive. (athu orupadu kooduthalaanu) Would you take _____? Would you take _____? (ningal edukkumo?) expensive expensive (vila kooduthal aanu) cheap cheap (vila kuranjathu) I can't afford it. I can't afford it. (ennikku ethu thangillya) I don't want it.

I don't want it. (enikku athu venda) You're cheating me. You're cheating me. (ningal enne chadikukkayanu) I'm not interested. I'm not interested. (enikyu thalpariyam illa) OK, I'll take it. OK, I'll take it. (sari. njan itheduthollam) Can I have a bag? Can I have a bag? (Oru sanchi/cover kittumo) Do you ship (overseas)? Do you ship (overseas)? (Ningal videsathekku ayachu tharumo) I need... I need... (Enikku oru.......venam) ...toothpaste. ...toothpaste. (paste) ...a toothbrush. ...a toothbrush. (brush) ...tampons. ...tampons. (tampon) ...soap. ...soap. (soap) ...shampoo. ...shampoo. (shampoo) ...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen) ...pain reliever. (pain killer,veedana samhari)

...cold medicine. ...cold medicine. (jala dooshathinulla marunnu) ...stomach medicine. ...stomach medicine. (vayaru veedanakkulla marunnu) ...a razor. ...a razor. (shaving razor) umbrella. umbrella. (kuda) ...sunblock lotion. ...sunblock lotion. (sunscreen lotion) ...a postcard. ...a postcard. (post card) ...postage stamps. ...postage stamps. (stamp) ...batteries. ...batteries. (battery) ...writing paper. ...writing paper. (ezhuthanulla kadalasu) ...a pen. ...a pen. (peena) ...English-language books. ...English-language books. (english pusthakangal) ...English-language magazines. ...English-language magazines. (english varikakal/mazikakal) English-language newspaper. English-language newspaper. (english pathram) English-English dictionary. English-English dictionary. (english nighandu)

[edit] Driving
I want to rent a car. I want to rent a car. (Eniku oru CAR vadakakku edukkanam) Can I get insurance? Can I get insurance? (Enikku oru insurance policy edukkanam) stop (on a street sign) stop (Nirthoo) one way one way (...) yield yield (...) no parking no parking (evide niruthan paadilla) speed limit speed limit (vega paridhi) gas (petrol) station gas station (petrol bunk) petrol petrol (petrol) diesel diesel (diesel)

[edit] Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. I haven't done anything wrong. (Njan thettonnum cheythittilla) It was a misunderstanding. It was a misunderstanding. (Athoru thetti-dharana ayirunnu) Where are you taking me? Where are you taking me? (Ningal enne engottanu kondu-pokunnathu) Am I under arrest? Am I under arrest? (Njan arrestil ano) I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (Njan oru.....Powran aanu) I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (Enikku .....Embassyyil bandhappedanam) I want to talk to a lawyer. I want to talk to a lawyer. (Enikku Oru vakkeeline kananam) Can I just pay a fine now? Can I just pay a fine now? (Oru pizha/Fine adachal mathiyo ?)

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