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Table of Contents

Adjectives (1): Normal Position .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Adjectives (2): After Nouns and Pronouns....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Adjectives (3): Position after as, how, so, too ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

Adjectives (4): Order before Nouns ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Adjectives (5): With and................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Adjectives (6): Without Nouns ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Adjectives (7): Pronunciation of aged, naked, etc..10 Adjectives (8): What can follow an adjective?...........................................................................................................................................................10

Adjectives (1): Normal Position


Two Positions 1. Attributive Position Adjective + Noun (Adjective usually comes before noun) Eg The beautiful girl doesnt like me because I am very ugly.

2. Predicative Position Verb (linking verb) + Adjective (Adjective usually comes after verb) E.g. She looks beautiful, doesnt she? (linking verbs are seem, feel, look, be, etc) Adjectives used only before nouns Some adjectives are used only or mostly before nouns. After verbs, other words must be used. Adjective + Noun E.g. My elder sister is a pilot. Verb + Adjective E.g. He is three years older than me.

Intensifying (emphasizing) adjective + Noun


E.g. Hes a mere child. Adjectives used only after verbs

A Adjective linking verb ( be) . noun . (Adjective Adjective) Linking verb + A.. (Adjective) E.g. The baby is asleep sleep. (A sleeping baby)

Ill and well (Adjective) verb . Verb + ill/well E.g. He is very well well. A health/fit man (attributive) Verb + object + adjective E.g. - I will get the car ready ready. - You look ill ill. Nurses take care of sick people. (Predicative)

Aw. We must put adjectives after nouns and pronouns. I didnt know it before.

Adjective (2): After Nouns and Pronouns


Fixed Phrases Noun + Adjective E.g. Court martial (=military court) Available, Possible etc. Noun + Adjective = relative clauses E.g. Send all the tickets available. Send all the available tickets. (= .. tickets which are available.) Adverbs can be used like this way.

E.g. the woman upstairs. Present, Proper Some adjectives can be put before a noun or after a verb but the meanings are different. E.g. present members ( .) Members present ( . ) E.g. a proper mountain (a real mountain) The mountain proper (the central mountain) Expressions of measurement Adjective measurement noun
E.g. two meters high worth measurement E.g. worth 100 euros Adjectives with complements Noun + Adjective + Complement

Adjective complement noun


E.g. We are looking for people skilled in design design. Relative clauses Eg We are looking for people who are skilled in design. Different, similar, next, last, best, etc + Noun + Complement Eg Mother Teresa is the best mother in the world world.

Something, everything, etc. Something, everything, etc. (pronoun) + Adjective E.g. Lets go somewhere quiet.

Adjectives (3): Position after as, how, so, too


As/how/so/too/this/that + Adjective + a/an + Noun (formal style) As/how/so/too/this/that a/an E.g. I have as good a voice as you. A/An structure E.g. I like your country its so beautiful.

Adjectives (4): Order before Nouns


Adjective Adjective order 1. Noun (noun position) E.g. red exercise book

2. Adjective Noun E.g. fat old lady 1. Description before classification: an old political idea Description = Classification = description An old classification political noun idea Wow!! There are many kinds of Adjectives.

2. Opinion before description: a wonderful house Opinion = Opinion A lovely description cool noun drink

words 3. Order of descriptive words Size A big 4. Numbers Number + Adjective + Noun E.g. six large eggs age old shape round color brown origin Scott material wooden noun chair

Ordinal number + Number + Adjective + Noun E.g. the first three wonderful days 5. Noun modifiers after adjectives Noun noun noun modifier E.g. a big new car factory Noun 6. Commas Comma can be put in three ways. 1. long sequences E.g. a little, young, brown Negro information 2. similar kinds of information E.g. an expensive, ill-planned, wasteful project ill3. physical description E.g. a tall, dark, handsome cowboy But commas can be dropped short common adjectives E.g. a tall (,) dark (,) handsome cowboy

Adjectives (5): with and


() Adjective Adjective and and

After a verb Verb + Adjective (predicative position) E.g. He was tall, dark and handsome handsome ndsome. style, and. But, in a literacy style we dont use and E.g. My soul is exotic, mysterious, incomprehensible incomprehensible.

Before a noun Adjective + Noun (attributive position) E.g. an angry young man Similar kinds of information and E.g. a cruel (and) vicious tyrant We use and when adjectives are more than two which are different types of things things. E.g. a concrete and glass factory We also use and when we say different classes classes. E.g. - She is a musical and artistic genius. Nice and

Nice and + another adjective/adverb (= pleasantly or suitably) E.g. - It is nice and warm in front of the fire.

Adjectives (6): Without Nouns


Adjective noun E.g. - The most important thing is to be happy. (NOT the most important is to be happy.) WellWell-known groups The + Adjective (well-known groups of people) E.g. - the blind the rich Possessive E.g. The problems of the poor OR poor peoples problems NOT the poors problems These adjectives cannot be used without determiner like many or more. E.g. - This government doesnt care about the poor. (NOT .about poor.) poor The Adjectives can be used both .and, neither..nor, etc. instead of determiner. E.g. - Opportunities for both poor and rich. Adjectives of Nationality Adjectives of nationality which are ending with _sh or _ch can be used without nouns These adjectives are plural nouns. plural. particular physical or social condition. the deaf the unemployed

E.g. - English Irish Dutch, French etc. sh, sh sh, ch, sh ch Sometimes, if you want to use them as singular adjectives you can use like this. adjectives, E.g. - an Irishwoman a Frenchman etc. Irishwoman, Frenchman, with Adjectives of nationality except ending with _sh or _ch can be used as nouns. E.g. - the Danes the Turks the Thais etc. Danes, Turks, Thais, Singular example It is a formal phrase and has only singular meaning. (The undersigned, the former, the latter, the accused, and the deceased.) The deceased The + Adjective E.g. - The accused was released on bail. Abstract ideas (The beautiful, the supernatural, the unreal The unreal) E.g. - She is interested in supernatural. supernatural Choices There are three main points to leave out a noun. 1. If a noun has already been mentioned, we leave out the noun. 2. If a noun doesnt need to be mentioned, we leave out the noun.

3. When thinking about a choice between two or more different kinds of things, we leave out the noun. E.g. - Have you got any bread bread? Do you want white or brown? Sometimes, we can use color adjectives as a plural plural. E.g. - Many girls want to wear whites and pinks (=white and pink shoes pinks. white shoes)

Superlatives superlative We can leave out the nouns when we use superlative adjectives. E.g. - I am the most genius in the world.

(7): naked, Adjectives (7): pronunciation of aged, naked, etc.


ED. We must pronounce the last syllable of adjectives as RD which is ending with ED. E.g. - aged/ erd3rd/ (=very old) aged/ erd3rd/ When we mean aged as years old and it is a verb, we must pronounce it erd3d.

Adjectives (8): what can follow an adjective?


Preposition + Noun or Garand Adjective complements Adjective complements cookery. E.g. I am interested in cookery Adjective + to infinitive E.g. - You dont look happy to see me. For + adjective + to infinitive E.g. - I am anxious for her to get a good education. Some adjectives can be followed by clauses clauses. E.g. - I am glad that you were able to come able come. Some adjectives can have more than one kind of complement. E.g. - I am pleased about the promotion. pleased Adjective + Noun + Complement E.g. - He is a difficult person to understand understand.