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The science of unitary human beings is a grand nursing theory developed by Martha E. Rogers. The details of the theory are included in her book, An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing.

[edit]Overview According to Rogers, Nursing is both a science and an art. The uniqueness of nursing, like that of any other science, lies in the phenomenon central to its focus. Rogers theorized that nurse's long established concern with the people and the world they live is in a natural forerunner of an organized abstract system encompassing people and their environments. She described the irreducible nature of individuals as being different from the sum of their parts. She theorized that the identity of nursing as a science arises from the integrality of people and the environment that coordinates with a multidimensional universe of open systems. The purpose of nurses, then, is to promote health and wellbeing for all persons. Rogers' model provides the way of viewing the unitary human being. Humans are viewed as integral with the universe: the unitary human being and the environment are one, not dichotomous. Nursing, therefore, focuses on people and the manifestations that emerge from the mutual human/environmental field process. Change of pattern and organization of the human field and the environmental field is propagated by waves, and the manifestations of the field patterning that emerge are observable events. The identification of the pattern provides knowledge and understanding of human experience. The basic characteristics that describe the life process of human include energy field, openness, pattern, and pan-dimensionality. The basic concepts of the theory include unitary human being, environment, and homeodynamic principles. [edit]Concepts of Rogers' model [edit]Energy field The energy field is the fundamental unit of both the living and nonliving. This energy field "provides a way to perceive people and environment as irreducible wholes". The energy fields continuously varies in intensity, density, and extent. [edit]Openness The human field and the environmental field are constantly exchanging their energy back and forth. There are no boundaries or barriers that inhibit energy flow between the fields. [edit]Pattern Pattern is defined as the distinguishing characteristic of an energy field. "Pattern is an abstraction and it gives identity to the field". [edit]Pan-dimensionality Pan-dimensionality is defined as "non linear domain without spatial or temporal attributes". The parameters that humans use in language to describe events are arbitrary. The present is relative; there is no temporal ordering of lives. [edit]Unitary Human Being (person) A unitary human being is an "irreducible, indivisible, pan-dimensional (four-dimensional) energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and which cannot be predicted from knowledge of the parts" and "a unified whole having its own distinctive characteristics which cannot be perceived by looking at, describing, or summarizing the parts". The person has the capacity to participate knowingly and probabilistically in the process of change. [edit]Environment
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The environment is an "irreducible, pan-dimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with the human field". The two fields coexist and are integral. Manifestations emerge from this field and are perceived by the person. [edit]Health Rogers defined health as an expression of the life process; they are the "characteristics and behavior emerging out of the mutual, simultaneous interaction of the human and environmental fields". Health and illness are the part of the same continuum. The multiple events taking place along life's axis denote the extent to which man is achieving his maximum health potential and vary in their expressions from greatest health to those conditions which are incompatible with maintaining life processes. [edit]Nursing [edit]Nursing as a science The theory asserts the independent science of nursing because an organized body of knowledge which is specific to nursing is arrived at by scientific research and logical analysis. [edit]Nursing as an art Rogers claimed that the creative use of science for the betterment of humans and the creative use of its knowledge is the art of its nursing. [edit]Assumptions about people and nursing Nursing exists to serve people. It is the direct and overriding responsibility to the society. The safe practice of nursing depends on the nature and amount of scientific nursing knowledge the individual brings to practice. People need knowledgeable nursing.

[edit]Homeodynamic principles The principles of homeodynamic postulates the way unitary human beings are perceived. The fundamental unit of the living system is an energy field. [edit]Resonancy Resonancy is an ordered arrangement of rhythm characterizing both human field and environmental field that undergoes continuous dynamic metamorphosis in the human environmental process. [edit]Helicy Helicy describes the unpredictable, but continuous, nonlinear evolution of energy fields as evidenced by non repeating rhythmicties The principle of helicy postulates an ordering of humans' evolutionary emergence. [edit]Integrality Integrality is the mutual, continuous relationship of the human energy field and the environmental field. Changes occur by the continuous repatterning of the human and environmental fields by resonance waves. The fields are one and integrated, but unique from each other. [edit]Rogerian theories from the Science of Unitary Human Beings [edit]Theory of paranormal phenomena This theory focus on the explanations for precognition, dj vu, clairvoyance, telepathy, and therapeutic touch. Clairvoyance is rational in a four dimensional human field in continuous mutual, simultaneous interaction with a four dimensional world; there is no linear time nor any separation of human and the environmental fields. [edit]The theory of accelerating evolution

This theory postulates that evolutionary change is speeding up, and that the range of diversity of life process is widening. Rogers explained that higher wave frequencies are associated with accelerating human development. [edit]Theory of Rhythmicity This theory focus on the human field rhythms (these rhythms are different from the biological, psychological rhythm). This theory deals with the manifestations of the whole unitary human as changes in human sleep wake patterns, indices of human field motion, perception of time passing, and other rhythmic development.

Explanation I'll take a stab at the difference it implies...in most theories of contemporary nursing there is an awareness of the holistic nature of the interaction between service provider and patient/client. However, the implications of Rogerian theory is that there are very subtle aspects of energy interchange that need to be attended to. So let's take a pretty standard example - what is the difference between giving an injection in and out of Rogerian theory. Outside the context of the theory we imbue the ingredients in the syringe as the major ingredient in the interaction. How the contents of the syringe are delivered is of little relevance. Within the context of Rogerian science from the moment that the "intent" to deliver the contents of the syringe to the pt/client enters our consciousness we are "connected" to the "energy field" of the client. How we fill it, how we approach the client's room, how we enter the room, how we move toward the client, how we respect the intermingling of our energy field with that of the client, how we reach out to touch the client, the manner in which we initiate the actual contact, the manner in which we perturb/perceive the client's energy field, the way we introduce the needle to the client's IV's or body, the way we push the contents, the manner in which we withdraw the needle, the way we touch, stroke or do not touch or stroke the client, the manner in which we withdraw from the client's energy field, leave the room and then refocus on our next engagement with another client and consciously disentangle our own energy field from that of the last client are all significant variables that affect the manner in which the client responds to the interaction and to the delivery of the contents of the syringe. Now, you might be thinking, yeah but I do this the same for all my patients and I am a caring, sensitive, compassionate nurse/student...but what about your/my energy field - is it distorted from being out all night partying or did you/I spend the evening before clinicals engaged in deep meditation. did you/I arrive at your/my patient's bedside weak and "disturbed" from emotional baggage that you/me are carrying around with you/me or did you/I arrive bright eyed and bushy tailed and focused on your/my own health and well being as well as the health and well being of your/my patient... Many practicing nurses simply seem to believe that their/our own lives can be completely screwed up, their/our own health placed at risk from a variety of unhealthy behaviors (and from what I gather Martha had a few herself) and this will not affect the manner in which they render care to their/our patients... SUHB, more than any other theory of nursing, implies that the "state" of the deliverer of service is a critical component of the "quality" of the interaction and the quality of the care rendered. Now, let's be real. It is hard, especially considering the impact of managed care, cost-containment, increased acuity of in-patient populations, excessive paperwork and confusion about what services are covered and what are not - for any of us to show up for work/clinicals in an optimal "state". But, how far are we going to deviate from optimal? How long might we continue to think that the turmoil we introduce into our own lives is somehow divorced from the effect we are having on our patients/clients and what should we do if we want to practice wholly in accordance with the broadest implications of the theory. My own sense - and only weakly adhered to I must admit, is that I have to learn to live more healthily if I want to encourage others to live more healthily and that encouragement includes how I give that injection even if unaccompanied by any other communication than the subtle intermingling of our energy fields. If you do not believe that such energy fields exist, intertwine, extend beyond the actual physical dimensions of the two physical/ego bodies then you have no responsibility for your energy field's approach/impact on the other party and that may make your practice a lot easier or not...hopefully, my admittedly simplistic explanation will not offend too many people and will prove useful to you as you prepare for patient contact.... one thing I like to do when I am not feeling totally frazzled is "center" myself before I approach a client - in a perfect world I would always be centered before such interaction...I'd also hazard an addenda that Martha was distinctly Einsteinian rather than Newtonian in her sense of energy, motion, time... and that most other nursing theorists are far more Newtonian...at the same time, it is hard, when riding down the street, to apply Einstein's work in a

practical way that helps us avoid collisions with other cars...anyone who would like to embellish or replace this shot at an explanation has my blessings... MARTHA ROGERS Dr. Martha Elizabeth Rogers 1914 1994 I. Biography o Martha Elizabeth Rogerswas born in Dallas, Texason May 12, 1914, theoldest of four children ina family which stronglyvalued education. o The family moved to Knoxville, TN where sheattended the Universityof Tennessee in l93ltaking undergraduatescience courses for 2years. o But then she entered nursing school at Knoxville General Hospital, received her nursing diploma in 1936. o She completed a BSN in Public Health Nursing from George Peabody College (Nashville) in l937. MARTHA ROGERS o She worked as a public health nurse, first in Michigan, then in Connecticut. o In 1945 she earned her master's degree in public healthnursing supervision from Teacher's College ColumbiaUniversity. o She was director of the Visiting Nurses Association in Phoenix, AZ. o She returned East in 1951 earning a M.P.H. from theJohns Hopkins University while teaching at CatholicUniversity. o She continued on at Johns Hopkins and completed a Sc.D in 1954. o She then began her long tenure with the Division ofNursing Education at New York University. Her strongbackground in sciences guided NYU to develop thenursing program as a distinct body of scientificknowledge. o In 1961 she published Educational Revolution in Nursing. o In 1963 Martha edited a journal called Nursing Science. o 1964 she published Reveille in Nursing. o She first published her model of human interaction and the nursing process in 1970 when she publishedAn Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing. This view presented a drastic but attractive way of viewinghuman interaction and the nursing process. Furtherinformation on her theory can be found in publicationsand on the Internet. o Rogers officially retired as Professor and Head of the Division of Nursing in 1975 after 21 years of service. o In 1979 she became Professor Emeritus and continuedto have an active role in the development of nursinguntil the time of her death on March 13, 1994. She was80 years of age. II. The Creation of the SUHB Martha E. Rogers' creation of the Science of Unitary HumanBeings (SUHB) theory allowed nursing to be considered one of thescientific disciplines. Rogers provided a framework for nursing studyand research that improved nursing education, practice andresearch in the United States. She was born in 1914, attended theUniversity of Tennessee until 1933 and then entered the KnoxvilleGeneral Hospital School of Nursing. In 1936, she finished nursingschool and earned a BSN degree from

George Peabody College thefollowing year. Rogers decided to work for several years as a publichealth nurse before pursuing a graduate degree. She actuallyearned two master's degrees, one in teaching and one in public MARTHA ROGERS health. However, Rogers did not stop at a master's level but insteadcontinued her education by obtaining a doctor of science degree. In1954, she became a professor of nursing at New York University(NYU) where she remained for 21 years (Nursing World). While atNYU, Rogers revised curriculums, theory based learning andestablished a five year BSN degree program. During her years atNYU, she also developed the conceptual framework for the SUHB,which presented a new way of viewing human interaction and thenursing process (American Association for the History of nursing). Martha Rogers' SUHB theory offers a new look at nursing,providing a framework for practice, education and research thatmoves away from the traditional medical model approach to thedelivery of nursing care (Barrett, 2000). Rogers' framework allowsfor an alternative to traditional nursing, which can be construed asreductionistic, mechanistic and analytic. This framework includes anopen system world view, and thus, has challenged many traditionalideas about nursing. Five basic assumptions underlay Rogers' conceptualframework: wholeness, openness, Unidirectionality, pattern andorganization, and sentience and thought (Barrett, 2000). First, thehuman being is considered a unified whole which is more than thesum of its parts. Second, the person and the environment arecontinuously exchanging matter and energy with each other. Third,the life process exists along an irreversible space time continuum.Fourth, pattern and organization are used to identify individuals andmirror their wholeness. Fifth, human beings are the only organismsable to think abstractly, have language, sensation and emotion. There are four main topics that are addressed by nursingtheorists: people, the environment, health and nursing. Rogers'conceptual framework can be analyzed using these four topics. Theway that these subjects are viewed affects the nature of nursingthat the SUHB theory describes (Barrett, 2000). A Person is definedby Rogers as a being and energy field in constant interaction withthe environment. A person is an open system, more than the sum ofits parts. The environment is an energy field including everythingthat is not the person. Next, health is viewed in terms of choosingactions that lead to the fulfillment of a person's potential, and lastly,nursing tries to direct the interaction of the person and theenvironment in order to maximize health potential. Martha Rogers' theory has three principles of homeodynarnic.First, Integrality a human energy and environmental energy areintegrated, one affects the other. Second, Helicy is all energypatterns are continuous and unpredictable providing increasingdiversity. Lastly, Resonance is a continuous change in energy fields
, this is a form of energy. Even while the baby is in the womb there is constant exchange of energy, not just with the mother,but also with the environment around the mother. Her theory even focuses that talking to family memebers or friends long distance, there is a continuous exchange of energy. Just by talking over the phone, we can feel whether they are doing well or something is not okay on the other side; we can feel this because of the continuous exchange of energy between human beings and the environment. Let me explain to you, the energy in Rogers theory with an example. If a patient is experiencing pain, the pain is energy consuming and constricting. The nurse explains to the patient, the purpose of therapeutic touch, to ease pain and promote relaxation. During the therapeutic touch, the energy is directed from the nurse to the patient by the motion of her hands. The patient is sensing the change in energy flow. The patient is focusing more on the relaxing energy flowing throughout his (patient) body. According to Roger, human and environment are energy fields, which cannot be separated. They are always in mutual process and that energy is going to flow continuously through each other. Energy fields exist throughout the human body and are responsible for maintaining balance or equilibrium. In the case of the novice nurse, if she portrays her incompetency, the patient is surely going to feel uncomfortable. Sometimes it may not be the incompetency of the novice nurse, it may be the patients feelings or concern. Many patients dont want new nurses or student nurses to take care of them, as they afraid that they may not be in safe hands. According to Rogers theory, Nursing is concerned with people, all types of people, well and sick, young and old, rich and poor, good and bad. Her theory is applied to all areas where there are people; at home, school, work, play; in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, spas, rehab, or wellness programs. Nursing is both art and humanistic science dedicated to maintaining and promoting health, preventing illness, caring, and rehabilitating the sick and the disabled.

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Rogerss Science of Unitary Human Beings Martha Rogers first presented her theory of unitary human beings in 1970. She views the person as an irreducible whole, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Whole is differentiated from holistic, the latter often being used to mean only the sum of all parts. She states that humans are dynamic energy fields in continuous exchange with environmental fields, both of which are infinite. Both human and environmental fields are characterized by pattern, a universe of open systems, and fourdimensionality. According to Rogers, unitary man Is an irreducible, four-dimensional energy field, identified by pattern. Manifests characteristics different from the sum of the parts. Interacts continuously and creatively with the environment. Behaves as a totality. As a sentient being, participates creatively in change. The key concepts Rogers uses to describe the individual and the environment are:

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Energy fields are the fundamental level of humans and the environment(all that is outside a given human field). It is dynamic, constantly exchanging energy from one to the other. Openness holds that the energy fields of humans and the environment are open systems, that is infinite, integral with one another, and in continuous process. Pattern - refers to the unique identifying behaviors, qualities, and characteristics of the energy fields that change continuously and innovatively. Four-dimensionality is a nonlinear domain without temporal or spiritual attributes. All reality is considered to be fourdimensional. Three Principles of Homeodynamics that offers a way of perceiving how unitary human beings develop: 1. Integrality the human and environmental fields interact mutually and simultaneously. 2. Resonancy means the wave pattern in the fields change continuously and from lower-to higher-frequency patterns. 3. Helicy postulates that the field changes are innovative, probabilistic, and characterized by increasing diversity of field patterns and repeating rhythmicities.

A Reaction on Martha Roger's Theory


Posted by Igmedio Damian "Unitary man" evolves along life process. Client continuously changes and coexists with environment.

The goal of nursing according to this theorist is to maintain and promote health, prevent illness, and care for and
rehabilitate ill and disabled client through "humanistic science of nursing". As a basis of nursing research, I definitely agree on the view that nursing as a science as it is previously being introduced in our class. Nursing incorporates the disciplines of sciences and physiology, as well as nursing knowledge because these are essentials in the application of the nursing profession effectively. In the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspect therefore, science in nursing is used in order to facilitate the needs of the client. According to nursing books that I have consulted, "The science of nursing aims to provide a body of abstract knowledge growing out of scientific research and logical analysis and capable of being translated into nursing practice. Nursing's body of scientific knowledge is a new product specific to nursing nursing is a humanistic science." As I have mentioned earlier, it is a science because these body of logically arranged disciplines are the bases for the nursing practice. Man as an adaptive organism is viewed in sociology as a social animal and therefore has the highest form and capability of adapting himself in different conditions of the environment. Even there are sociological discrepancies such as culture shocks and future shock (conceptualized by Alvin Toffler), man is still competent enough to undergo adaptation and has a strong coping mechanism in a fast changing environment. Further, Martha Rogers considers man as an energy field coexisting within the universe. In the Classical-Philosophical Theory of Learning, it viewed man as a dualistic individual. I agree on this context because as dualistic individual containing the corporeal and spiritual components, it involves energy. In the biblical approach, the book of Genesis even mentioned that the life of Adam came absolutely from God when, "He gave him the breath of life in his nostrils." Therefore, life itself in man is an energy considered divine. Man is in continuous interaction with the environment. In addition, man is a unified whole, possessing personal integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than the sum of all the parts. With this, I agree as supported by the view that man in a holistic approach is composed of several aspects, systems and the ability to cope with environmental change. Unitary man is a "four dimensional energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and which cannot be predicted from the knowledge of parts" (Marriner-Tomey, 1989). This further allow me to relate the structural theory of Learning in which it views man's ability to learn through the ability to understand the relationship of the structure of the subject. With this, further enhanced my understanding that Roger's theory - energy fields, openness, pattern and organization, four-dimensionality- used to derive principles about how human beings develop is actually an interrelationship with the learning process through the theories that I have mentioned. As a conclusion, this theory as a basis of nursing research is flexible and infinite and therefore, the discipline on nursing research should also be focused and stressed in the nursing profession because this will help solve problems and questions concerning human development. This theory also convinces me to consider Psychology as indeed a strong allied force in the nursing profession.

MARTHA ROGERS The Science of Unitary Human Beings Brief History Martha Elizabeth Rogers was born in Dallas, Texas May 12, 1914; sharing her birthday with Florence Nightingale. She grew up in a family, where learning was fostered and reading was a favorite pastime. Received Nursing diploma from Knoxville General Hospital in 1936. She completed her BSN in Public Health Nursing in 1937 from George Peabody College Nashville in 1937 and worked as a public health nurse. Earned her master's degree in public health nursing from Teacher's College Columbia University. Original Source Immediately after receiving her doctoral degree, Dr. Rogers got the position of a professor and head of Division of Nursing. It was there that her career as an educator and a leader in theory development came to realization. Rogers early grounding in the liberal arts and sciences is apparent in the origin of her theory. Her original work are the basic assumptions about human beings. Using these assumptions, she identified concepts on which, she based her Principles of Homeodynamics Her major work entitled "An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing" was published in 1970. Rogers model was known throughout the world as the Science of Unitary Human Beings focuses on the human being as a whole in constant interaction with the environment. Roger's theory on the Science of Unitary Human Beings

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Roger's Assumptions and Concepts Assumptions Five basic assumptions that helped describe man and the life process were 1. First The Human being is unified whole possessing an individual integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different from the sum of their parts. (In other words, the characteristics of an individual is what gives him his identity as a human being. Human beings are just not characterized by body parts, but by mass, structure, function and feelings.) 2. The individual and the environment are constantly exchanging energy with each other and the human being is visible only when particulars disappear from view. (In other words, everyday life experiences illustrate how an individual affects or is being affected by the world around him/her. People are connected to the natural world.) 3. The life process of human beings evolves irreversibly and unidirectionally along a space time continuum. (In other words, conception, ,birth, infancy ,childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age and death follow one another through sequential stages of development.) 4. Identifying individuals and reflecting their wholeness is life's patterns. (In other words, mans ability to selfregulate himself in spite of the continuous change or new patterns in his life and the environment.) 5. Finally The human being is characterized by the capacity for abstraction and imagery, language, thought, sensation and emotion. (In other words, man is different and unique from other living form because he has the power to think himself.) Roger's theory on the Science of Unitary Human Beings.cont.

Concepts

Energy Field is the fundamental unit of both living and non living, they have no boundaries, extend to infinity, and are dynamic. Universe of Open Systems The energy fields are open and are allowing continuous exchange with other fields. Pattern identifies energy fields. It is perceived as a single wave; these patterns are not fixed but change as situations require. Pandimensionality a nonlinear domain that is not bounded by space or time. it is a infinite domain without limit. Unitary humans (human field) Human being is a unified being integral with the environment the human field is in continuous mutual process with the environmental field. Environment (environment field) "An irreducible, pan-dimensional energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics different from, yet integral with the human field". Principle of Homeodynamics

Principle of Homeodynamics Due to the inseparability of human beings and their environment, sequential life process are continuous revisions, occurring from the interactions between human beings and their environment. Rogers chose Homeodynamics, instead of homoeostasis which means maintaining balance or equilibrium to convey the dynamic ever-changing nature of life and the world. The Principle of Homeodynamics are composed of three separate principles Principle of Integrality. It is the continuous, mutual, simultaneous interaction process between humans and fields. Principle of Resonancy environmental

The change in the pattern of human beings and environments is propagated by waves that move from longer waves of lower frequency to shorter waves of higher frequency. Principle of Helicy

Deals with the nature and the direction of change in the human -environment field. The human environmental field is dynamic, open system in which change is continuous due to constant interchange between the human and environment. The direction of change is toward ever increasing diversity and complexity. Research with this theory

1986: Ferences Field Motion Test Barretts Human Field Power Test Newmans Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness 1992: Rogers principles change to: Integrality, Helicy, and Resonancy 1997: Carbonis Rogerian Process of Inquiry Bultemeiers Photo Disclosure Method 1998: Parses Human Becoming Theory Barretts Health Patterning 2005: Butchers Unitary Field Pattern Portrait

Cowlings Unitary Appreciation Inquiry Theory Applied to Nursing Practice

Nursing practice should be noninvasive modalities, such as therapeutic touch, humor, guided imagery, use of color, light music, meditation focusing on health potential of the person. Emphasis should be on pain management, supportive psychotherapy motivation for rehabilitation. Nursing practice is knowing rather than doing and as human service based on knowing rather than isolated functional activities. Nursing practice challenged to understand and care for human beings in the wholeness and mutuality of the personenvironment process rather than as isolated actions and responses in a limited cause and effect manner. Patterning- the active dynamic or active process of the life of the human being. People are helped to become aware of feelings, thoughts and attitudes within a gentle life-affirming environmental context that involves meaningful use of theory and associated health patterning modalities. School Health Pattern: Involve the student in their knowing participation in change; focusing sometimes on lifestyle change, through sharing knowledge so as to empower the adolescent. Engage in meaningful dialogue; encourage self reflection. Appraisal of multiple lifestyle rhythm such as nutrition, exercise, sleep/wake cycles, relationships and work/leisure activities. Use of therapeutic imagery, music, art or humor in developing self confidence. Theory Applied to Our Practice Theory Applied to Our Practice

Long term and Rehabilitation Environment: Create a restful and relaxing environment for patients Energy fields: Use therapeutic touch to ease pain and promote relaxation. Open systems: Use non pharmacological methods like turning on the radio to the patients favorite music channel, the sound of the tunes may allow memories of happy events to replace the anxiety and pain. Pattern: Identify changes in vital signs, or pain. For example; Is the patient's blood pressure elevated in the morning, or in the evenings, what alleviates or aggravates patient's pain. Unitary Human being: If a patient has come in with a neurological problem, there could be no understanding of him if only his neurological system is viewed, therefore, assess the patient as a unified whole.

Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings I. Background Diploma in nursing, 1936 Bachelor of Science degree, 1937 MSN from Teachers College, 1945 Doctorate degree in science at John Hopkins University, 1954 Public Health Nurse Visiting Nurse Head of Nursing, NYU II. Origins 1. Evolutionary theory 2. General systems theory 3. Physics 4. Adaptation 5. More specifically, her love of science fiction and 6. Music Central Questions 1. What is the focus of nursing? 2. What knowledge gives nursing an identity? 3. Who is the nursing client? 4. What is the relationship between man and environment? 5. What are the phenomena of concern in nursing? 6. What knowledge is needed to develop the science of nursing? Four Basic Concepts 1. Energy fields 2. Openness 3. Pattern 4. Four-dimensionality Energy Fields Fundamental unit of living and non-living. Energy refers to dynamic nature, i.e., continuous motion or change. Infinite.

Humans and environment do not HAVE energy fields. THEY ARE ENERGY FIELDS.

Openness Openness is a characteristic of both humans and environment. Transcend time and space. The energy fields of man and environment are integral with one another.

Pattern Characteristics of an energy field perceived as a single wave Refers only to an energy field (man and environment). Changes continuously. Four-Dimensionality Energy fields (man and environment) are not bound by time or space. Also referred to as pandimensionality

Important Definitions Unitary: Her theory is called the science of Unitary Human Beings. Unitary refers to being a whole which cannot be broken down into parts, or irreducible. Nursing: While the energy fields of man and environment are outside of time, nursing takes place along a spacetime continuum Essence of Theory The energy field of the human being interacts with the energy field environment. (The human being and the environment cannot be understood in isolation of each other). Nursing Client: Human beings-environment energy fields relationship. Nursing therapeutics: Repatterning of man and environment for more effective fulfillment of lifes capabilities Clinical Applications Others have expanded on Rogers theory. Use of an assessment framework Living in the Relative Present Experiencing comfort from past/present Shared Communication Sense of Rhythm Connection to Environment Sense of Self-Identity Clinical Applications Creation of Nursing Diagnoses Disturbed Energy Field Nursing Interventions

Therapeutic Touch Meditation/Imagery Light, Color and Music Therapy Marthas You Tube Video Evolution of Science of Unitary Human Beings 1970: Rogers describes principles of homeodynamics as: reciprocity, synchrony, helicy, and resonancy.

Rogers identifies people as the central phenomenon of interest Rogers describes characteristics of humans to be unified environment.

to nursing. wholes, continually exchanging energy

with the

1986: Ferences Field Motion Test (Research) Barretts Human Field Power Test (Research) Newmans Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (Theory)

1992: Rogers principles change to: integrality, helicy, and resonancy. Rogers modifies characteristics to be human and pandimensionality. environmental energy fields, openness,

pattern, and

Scope of the Science of Unitary Human Beings Relatable to ADLs and daily human needs Inspiration for environment-patient interactionist theories and practice methods. Therapeutic touch Barrets theory of power as knowing participation in change (Malinski, 2006) Zahoureks theory of intentionality (Malinski, 2006) Increasing Popularity of Rogers Theory Nursing focus on holism Empowers the patient and the professional nurse as agents for change Conceptual Problems Conceptual Problems (cont.)

Central Concepts (i.e. energy fields) have limited practical application.

Contraindications in the theory occur. Example: delineating the boundary of the human field with instruments but also states that the human field extends to infinity without boundaries.

Criticized as a closed system in which most studies are conducted and/or published within Rogerian scholar circles and publications. The Science of Rogerian Nursing

Not only is nursing theory an articulation of phenomena and their relationships, but such articulation has to be communicated to colleagues in ways that make it possible to test, evaluate, interpret and use these articulations. Rogers labeled her work as a science, or conceptual model. She reinforced the idea that nursing is based on a science. However, she was openly critical of evidence-based practice. References to quantum physics are apparent attempts to legitimize the concepts. Existing scientific methodology fails to capture the immeasurable components of the theory. Research Studiesor Lack Thereof Nursing theorists also tend to avoid crucial experiments which could jeopardize the theory in the rare cases where the theory is coherent enough to permit testing; or, as noted for therapeutic touch, reinterpret the theory to make it possible to test. (Raskin) The research studies conducted tend to be qualitative and/or anecdotal in nature, with poorly defined or irreproducible outcomes. Two meta-analyses and a systematic review relating to TT concluded that any conclusion of effects are qualified by a methodological concern Final Resolution (?) Perhaps it is becoming clear that there are no answers, in the sense of last word or final resolutions, within the system. The world view underlying the Science of Unitary Human Beings, one of total openness and continuous change fosters ongoing inquiry (Malinski, 1986).