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Main objective: To study and increase total cutting room efficiency Sub-objectives: a) “Time & Motion Study” of different operations in spreading & cutting leading to: 1) Determination of efficiency of the worker: The purpose is to optimize on manpower utilization. Put the best person to best use and avoid multitude of workforce wherever not required. 2) Identification of bottleneck operations: Bottlenecks increase the throughput time, which is a significant loss on the critical time. Bottlenecks should be identified and taken care of immediately to save on cost and time. 3) Reduction of idle times whenever possible: Huge expenditure is incurred on machinery. The interest of that investment should always be kept in mind. As such, machine idle time is a disguised expenditure in form of loss of interest on investment. Continuously running machine is an investment justified.
b) Study of the existing layout with reference to material flow & explore scope of improvement:
Layout affects production flow. It should be conducive to material movement, and at the same time technically correct. Haphazard layout may obstruct movement thus costing on time and fatigue, and in turn resulting in loss of time and energy. c) To utilize the variable resources manpower efficiently in the cutting section:
It will help in target setting and work monitoring for the activities of cutting room. Our project, thus attempts to strike at a balance in the production activity- cutting department. And the balance is of the most critical components - Man, Machine and Material…
Cutting is the very first process in garment manufacturing. The cutting department receives the fabric from the fabric department after inspection. Objectives of the department • • • Cutting according to the master patterns with 100% accuracy. Ensuring 100% quality in cutting. 100% issue of all the parts to sewing section.
The cutting floor is a combined unit for spreading, cutting, ticketing and bundling. The
Hierarchy of the cutting department . sleeves etc. placket. Band knife is used to cut small components like moon patch. Spreading is done manually here. The CAD department prepares the marker using the patterns prepared by the Sampling Department. The results are then communicated to merchandiser. It also prepares the CADConsumption Worksheet and makes estimation for the consumption of the fabric for that particular order.. Cutting department has straight knife and band knife. . The cutting department at B L International is an advanced cutting unit. The capacity of the cutting department is 13000-16000 pieces per day.work of cutting department starts right from the point of order being received from the buyer by the merchandising department. .
Cutting head Head supervisor Cutting supervisor Preparatory supervisor Operator Operator MATERIAL FLOW .
Issue of fabric from knits store Relaxation Spreading Laying of patterns (manual spreading) Cutting R Sorting & stickering Bundling CPI (cut panel inspection) Issue to the sewing department Total number of lights:41 Total number of ventilators:24 .
8 3 3 5 2 2 2 3 2 2 5 Actual 7 3 3 5 3 3 1 3 2 2 4 Total 21 9 9 15 9 9 3 8 6 6 11 11 4 40 16 Excess/ short -3 0 0 0 3 3 -3 -1 0 0 -4 -1 1 Manual cut. 8 3 3 5 2 2 2 3 2 2 5 6 5 48 Actual 7 3 3 5 3 3 1 3 2 2 4 6 6 48 5 42 3rd Shift Req. recut 5 Total 48 . 8 3 3 5 2 2 2 3 2 2 5 6 Actual 7 3 3 5 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 5 6 45 2nd Shift Req. Working procedure .Shift wise manpower of cutting department for Gerber: 1st Shift Process Spreader Gerber Ticketing Bundling Collar lay Cuff lay Band knife Cuff overlock Parts mix Heat parts mix Fusing RBK parts mix Req.
style number. The fabric is kept in shelves according to lot wise. As fabric is taken from some other units so 10% random inspection is done . roll wise and a report of the fabric received is generated which contains information like lot number . is determined by the PPC..if three roles simultaneously is found to be defective then the whole lot is rejected. In B L International extra fabric is ordered . Various Stages in Cutting Room : . The information is kept with the store in charge. which is required for the order.• • • • • • • • Issue of fabric Easing process.generally 5-10% extra is ordered. Spreading of lay Marker laying (in case of manual cutting) Cutting of cakes Sorting & stickering Bundling Issue to sewing room For a particular order the amount of fabric.
All the information related to fabric like GSM. and quantity etc. shade. PPC sends batch order in fabric store for the fabric according to buyer’s demand. A batch of fabric store is complete order requirement that consists of everything such as fabric. Process flow of solids cutting: Manual Spreading Cutting Ticketing Bundling Work on Cut parts (optional) Inspection Cut parts send to warehouse The cut parts before inspection are also sent to embroidery.When a particular order is approved from the buyer planning is made by PPC department to execute the job. dia. is given in “batch order” form. heat transfer printing. trims (collar. cuff). Process flow of stripes cutting: Opening of fabric roll Cutting of blocks . Fabric department completes the order and sends fabric rolls to the stores in cutting room. fusing .
There is no further segregation in the warehouse area.. Shears are used for cutting of panels. so batch for that particular buyer is stored in that rack. Every buyer is allocated a specific rack in storeroom. . process.Making of pattern on block Cutting 3 straight knifes are used for cutting of laid blocks. It is ensured that all fabric rolls are loaded uniformly. is stored according to the buyer’s name. Storing of fabric: Fabric. of fabric with other data to the store incharge. One trolley carries a max of 15 rolls. Issuing of Fabric: Cut plan department sends the required k&p no. Easing Of The Fabric (Relaxation) • • • After the issue of fabric if fabric is single jersey it is taken for relaxation Here fabric is simply unrolled by the machine. A piece of stripes is on the pattern given for matching by the Sampling department. Fabric rolls are received in trolley. In this section handling of fabric is done manually bare handed. Required fabric is then allocated to cutting room from the stores. Fabric Stores: Receiving of fabrics: Fabric comes to stores directly from different vendors.
New marker is then uploaded in the cam machine. Lay planning: Lay planning is done in data-entry department according to the marker plan and the order of the customer. it is first blocked. then two persons lay fabric according to the length of marker. After the fabric is issued from fabric store. In this unit. . just arrangement of marker is done according to the width of the fabric and gsm of the fabric. Spreading The main objective of spreading is to spread the fabric lay accurately as per the length of the maker with minimum waste at end of a lay.Marker planning and marker making: Marker planning is done in other unit. Type of laying method Manual Spreading: Manual spreading is done for the fabric and the fabrict has to be sent for washing.
Bundle card is specifically the information about that certain bundle viz.. The lay is cut in cakes of required Numbering & Bundling: After the layer is cut the cut pieces are sorted out according to the different rolls. roll no. In manual cutting machine lay is cut by straight knife fabric. and placket pieces of one roll are kept together and the sticker which was used during the laying of the layers is sticked on the cut pieces accordingly and the pieces are bundled. A separate room is allotted to stripe spreading. pieces in that bundle. it consists of speed of blade. Cutting: Cutting is done by automatic CAM machine for all the fabrics except yarn dyed fabric.. back. area for movement etc. The sleeves. . A layer of 65-100 pieces is made according to the cut plan. front. Trims are cut in accordance to the main body material of required piece. k&p no. size etc. Trims are cut on the band knife machine in a separate area according to the cut plan. A job card is attached to every bundle. First required cut program is selected form the CAD machine Particular parameter is set on Gerber cutting machine according to requirement. Cutting on Automatic Machine : • • • • First the lay is transferred from spreading table to cutting area. cutting and bundling the fabrics which were yarn dyed.Generally lay is of length of one full piece of t-shirt. During spreading all the plies are matched stripe to stripe on both the sides by workers. this bundle card is made on the basis of the lay data. This job card contains all the information about the bundle and plays an important role till the packing of the garment is done. For the yarn dyed fabric manual cutting process is used. Bundle checklist & Bundle card generation: Bundle card is generated after the spreading of the lay is done.
8 cm Ready width of the slit = 1 cm Machine name HASHIMA HPM – 600B Parameters for fusing machine (slit making) Temperature Pressure 140 0C 2kg/cm2 Maximum pressure that can be used is 5kg/cm2 Pressure gauge starts from • • • • 1kg/cm2 2kg/cm2 3kg/cm2 4kg/cm2 . cuff. collar of the shirts. Bone width = 2. Heat sealed machine Parameters required for the M&S Time 8 to 10 seconds Temperature185 0C Pressure – 6 bar Parameters required for Reebok international And Reebok Domestic Time 8 seconds Temperature 180 0C Pressure 6 bar Slit making fusing machine In slit making fusing machine folders are attached. Canvas and bone both are passed together through the folder. Different companies/ brands have different requirement for fusing and heat sealing.4 cm Canvas width = 0.Fusing/Heat seal: Fusing is done for the placket.
Check list is made here. collar etc. shade. In cut parts inspection pieces are checked for the sizes fabric fault and cutting fault. of pieces is done. 5 seconds 150 0C 5 kg Observations & Suggestions Fabric inspection department: . 10% visual audit is done. Tally of the bundle with information on the job card regarding k&p no. Parameters are Time Temperature Pressure Cut parts inspection: After all the parts are introduced in a bundle with the bundle card the bundle is checked randomly..• 5kg/cm2 Fusing machine for placket . size and no. Nearly 10% of the bundles are checked.
defected fabric is passed and for the same reason less defected fabric is bundled under defected category. GSM of fabric is taken without drying it. • • • • • • But it was observed that every bundle was not being checked for the width. Samples of defected fabrics or photographs of them should be made available to operator. Suggestion: • • • • • • • • Each and every fabric roll must be checked for width at least two times. No instruction is given to rolling operator about the dimension of fabric to be cut for GSM measurement. Due to moisture contamination observed GSM of fabric may vary from actual one. Due to excess humidity and temperature. It must be tried to check the GSM of each roll of fabric.Fabric inspection is done for each and every roll from a batch. GSM of roll is taken from very localized fabric area. • • Many time GSM of the fabric changes from roll to roll and also in the same roll. Due to unspecified dimension of cut part which is utilized for GSM measurement leads to fabric wastage. at start of roll and at middle of it. Sometimes due to lack of knowledge . . Inspection is done for the fabric faults and to check the width of each roll of fabric. Same thing happens with the width of the fabric.there is more relaxation allowances for worker which decreases overall on standard time. No humidity and temperature measuring instruments are available. Employee education is very necessary here. Fabric audit department: In fabric audit department 3-4 rolls are checked for width and gsm of the fabric along with the fabric fault. Correct information regarding roll must be fed in slip.
Tray should be used in which fabric is collected and loaded to spreading machine along with the tray. Spreading: . Fabric is not segregated according to width or gsm of fabric. Relaxation of the fabric: • • • • No proper relaxation machine. Suggestion: • • Spiral rollers should be used instead of plain rollers. Width of the fabric should be taken from different phases of fabric roll ie 1st check when 15 mts are roll is finish. Fabric handle is done manually. This causes fabric disturbance and relaxed fabric is gets ruffled. No accountability in this department. 2nd measurement should be taken at middle of rolling process and third at last. • Fabric Warehouse: • • There is no check of fabric prior to storage in the warehouse.• But as each bundle is not checked these faults pass unnoticed to cutting room Suggestion: • Cut part which is choosen for GSM measurement should be taken from different location of fabric roll and avg of different measurement should be marked as GSM of fabric. Machine that is used does not have proper attachments.
Spreading operator have no data about width of roll which causes spreading of rolls with different widths .this will help in faster and precise lay.this will create loss of fabric as marker is made according to roll of minimum width. Replace hand shears with end cutters. .and will also increase efficiency of lay.Before shifting of lay make sure that air flotation is on and running at highest level.Manual Spreading: • • Excessive manpower allocated in this department. Variation in the width of the fabric. Suggestion: • • Keep length of spread between 7-8 m.this will decrease labour requirement from 4 to 2. Hand shears is used instead of end cutters leading to increase of manpower need.this will decrease tension in lay due to pulling and also distortion in lay. . which form an arc shape during spreading is said to be bowing effect. • • Problems faced in the cutting department Bowing This is a major problem faced in the cutting department while spreading. . Shifting of the lay to cutting table: • While shifting of lay from spreading table to the cutting table air floatation table is not used properly.
In leaning the top ply of the fabric will be slightly inside the previous ply. On every spread there is a plus/minus variation of the edge of the fabric from the below lay of the fabric. Edging It is also a problem faced in the cutting room. . This occurred due to improper laying of fabric lays. After complete laying of one fabric Taka. Uneven tension It is a spreading defect that arisen only when the layers lay fabric under improper tension and creases are formed on spread surface. Displacement of side seams to the back and front of the body Garment distortion.Leaning Leaning is occurred during manual spreading. Now comes last but not the least: Spirality: Spirality of knitted fabric is obtained when wales is not perpendicular to course. End bits Here in the cutting room we are getting end bits almost for all fabric Takas.forming an angle of spirality with vertical direction of the fabric. Sewing difficulty. Problems occur due to Spirality are: Mismatched patterns. Misalignment of plies It is a spreading defect that arises when all the plies of the lays are of different length and not lay exactly of same length as per table marker. It is occurred due to improper laying. End loss The fabric that extends beyond the marker patterns end is called as end loss.it affects generally single jersey knits and produce serious problem during garment confection and use. at the end we get a small piece of fabric that cannot be used for laying which is said to be end bits.
How to measure spirality???. Right side Back side Figure 1. Digital photographs were taken by a digital optical microscope using a software (Motic images plus 2. contrast) ..0 software. These images were taken from the back side of the plain knitted fabric because stitch edges from this side were easier to distinguish than those from right side (Figure 1). For the measurement of spirality angle.. The image processing consists to improve the image quality (brightness. Aspect of right and back side of plain knitted fabric. plain knitted fabric samples having 10x10 cm dimensions were prepared.0) permitting to acquire and save images with 10 to 40 times magnifying. The images were then treated by Microsoft Visual Basic VB 6.
total number of feeders = 74). Seven specimen of each sample were tested and the mean spirality angle and the corresponding CV% were calculated. fabric structure and machine were studied. Feeder density corresponds to the number of feeders per inch of machine’s diameter. The influence of four parameters linked to yarn. All measurements were performed under standard textile testing conditions of 21°C ± 1°C. When studying one parameter the three other ones were kept constant. No tension was applied to samples under microscope. gauge = 24. we performed specific machine setting by using interchangeable miss cams in order to be able to cancel some feeders and to vary progressively the number of working feeders on the single jersey machine. Microsoft Visual Basic programme for spirality angle measurement. Yarn tension was measured by using an electronic tensiometer and loop length was obtained by using a yarn debimeter. loop’s length and feeders density. The knitted specimen covered a large range of yarn twists. The same procedure is applied to a fabric course. (Diameter = 23 inch. yarn tension. For the variation of this parameter. The two mean straight lines equations allow the determination of the spirality angle ?.and to draw two lines by clicking on four points belonging to a wale edges and calculate the mean straight line equation . and 65% ± 2% relative humidity. We produced a series of 16 cotton plain knitted fabric (100% combed cotton yarn) commonly used in the clothing industry by using an industrial single jersey circular knitting machine. . .
.Results Average spirality angles obtained in the different knitting conditions are summarised in Table below.
shows plot of averages spirality angle versus stitch length. Linear correlation cannot be tested in this case since the number of feeders is not a continuous variable. First. We can easily observe that finishing reduces fabric spirality. The fabric shrank and stitch wales were straightened.Variation of spirality angle with Yarn twist. shows the influence of the number of feeders and fabric spirality. . Variation of spirality angle with yarn tension. Variation of spirality angle with number of feeders.98). the fabric was stabilised and ironed by using a tubular compactor. After squeezing.97). typically used for fine gauge cotton knitted structures was applied to the fabric presented in the first line of Table 1. Corresponding average spirality angle are presented in Table . the plain knitted fabric was washed and dyed. A very common finishing process. The relationship between fabric spirality and stitch length is again strong (correlation coefficient R = 0. but spirality increases strongly when increasing the number of working feeders on the machine. the fabric was dried and relaxed by using a tumbler drier. Finally. Variation of spirality angle with stitch length. Relationship between fabric spirality and yarn tension during knitting is shown Fabric spirality decreases linearly with yarn tension with a quite strong (correlation coefficient R = 0. The degree of fabric spirality increases linearly with stitch length.
Spirality angle Mean (degree) 11. When a twisted yarn is knitted into a loop.13 Various causes of Spirality Yarn twist: The strong linear dependence obtained between fabric spirality and yarn twist show that the main source of spirality is yarn twist.Fabric aspect before and after finishing.5 Before Finishing After Finishing 3. .82 7.18 CV% 7. it will have a tendency to rotate inside the fabric in order to release its torsional strain during relaxation.
the movement of a knitted loop is restricted. slack fabrics have higher stitch length and then the yarn composing the loop has a higher tendency to rotate inside the fabric after relaxation in knitted fabric construction.Stitch length Stitch length expresses the tightness of knitting construction. In a more tightly knitted fabric. The fabric is as tight as stitch length is low. Yarn tension . and thus spirality is reduced. The observed proportionality between fabric spirality and stitch length can be explained by the fact that compared to tight fabrics.
A fabric course knitted in a given feeder has to be inclined with a certain angle in order to permit the knock over of the row of stitches knitted in the following feeder. .0 which has 4 feeders per inch of machine diameter . Mayer & Cie holds the record in this matter with the single jersey machine Relanit 4. The increase of the feeder density in circular knitting machines is the subject of high competition between machines manufacturers because of its impact on machines productivity. This slippage straightens fibres and reduce yarn twist and then yarn tendency to rotate inside the fabric after relaxation. These technological advances will certainly increase the importance of fabric quality problems linked to spirality. This angle depends on the number of feeders per machine diameter. the fabric spirality is reduced. This explains why at high yarn tensions. the viscoelastic nature of the yarn causes yarn fibres to slip inside the structure. The observed linear dependence between these two parameters is linked to yarn deformation. Number of knitting feeders: The observed increase of fabric spirality with the number of knitting feeders at a constant machine diameter is due to the nature of weft circular knitting. During knitting.The influence of yarn tension during knitting on fabric spirality has not been studied in literature. yarn undergoes an important tension. At high tensions.
During wet treatments (ie. Finishing reduces fabric spirality but a residual spirality angle always remains. but during squeezing. Following are the factors causing delay in cutting department • • • • • • • Spreader stoppage because of nap direction Defect marks Splicing Utilizing end bits Paper work Measure length and width of ply Roll change Conclusion The project has been very useful in giving a practical knowledge of the cutting room and particularly knits in the garment industry.Effect of the number of feeders on fabric spirality The observed reduction of fabric spirality after a typical cotton finishing process is due two main obligatory operations: Squeezing and compacting. It is then important to reduce fabric spirality from knitting process in order to make spirality correction during finishing possible. . Fabric compacting contribute also to the reduction of spirality by correcting mechanically wale direction and fixing this correction with a thermal treatment. stitch wales are straightened thanks to the air injection device equipping the squeezing machine. washing and dyeing) fabric is relaxed and fabric spirality increases. The project has given us a detailed knowledge about the process flow and procedures followed in industry. Generally a spirality angle under 4° is tolerated before garment confection.