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A lunar eclipse is an eclipse which occurs whenever the moon passes behind the earth such that the earth blocks the sun¹s rays from striking the moon. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, there is always a full moon the night of a lunar eclipse. The type and length of an eclipse depend upon the Moon¹s location relative to its orbital nodes. The shadow of the Earth can be divided into two distinctive parts: the umbra and penumbra. Within the umbra, there is no direct solar radiation. However, as a result of the Sun¹s large angular size, solar illumination is only partially blocked in the outer portion of the Earth¹s shadow, which is given the name penumbra. A penumbral eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through the Earth¹s penumbra. The penumbra causes a subtle darkening of the Moon's surface. A special type of penumbral eclipse is a total penumbral eclipse, during which the Moon lies exclusively within the Earth¹s penumbra. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, that portion of the Moon which is closest to the umbra can appear somewhat darker than the rest of the Moon. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only a portion of the Moon enters the umbra. When the Moon travels completely into the Earth¹s umbra, one observes a total lunar eclipse. The Moon¹s speed through the shadow is about one kilometer per second (2,300 mph), and totality may last up to nearly 107 minutes. Nevertheless, the total time between the Moon¹s first and last contact with the shadow is much longer, and could last up to 3.8 hours. The relative distance of the Moon from the Earth at the time of an eclipse can affect the eclipse¹s duration. In particular, when the Moon is near its apogee, the farthest point from the Earth in its orbit, its orbital speed is the slowest. The diameter of the umbra does not decrease much with distance. Thus, a totally-eclipsed Moon occurring near apogee will lengthen the duration of totality.
Solar Eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and obscures it totally or partially. . Moon and Earth are on a single line with the Moon in the middle. This configuration can only exist at New Moon. when Sun.
Safe Solar Viewing The Sun can be viewed using appropriate filtration to block the harmful part of the Sun's radiation. or looking through a compact disk. This is similar to a penumbral eclipse.is extremely dangerous. This is true at any time. or even a camera's viewfinder. other locations. An "occultation" of the Sun is therefore also a partial "eclipse" of Earth. and these must be in perfect condition. a telescope. or occults. A total eclipse is seen from places on the Earth's surface that lie along the path of the eclipse and are physically closer to the Moon. A hybrid eclipse occurs when the curvature of Earth's surface causes a single solar eclipse to be observed as annular from some locations but total from other locations. Viewing the Sun through any kind of optical aid. including during solar eclipses. . Note that sunglasses are of little use. further from the Moon. since an eclipse offers an unusually high temptation to look at the Sun. the Moon also casts a small shadow on Earth. other improvised methods. since they don't block the harmful and invisible infra-red radiation which causes retinal damage. The Moon's angular diameter is then smaller than that of the Sun so that a ring of the Sun can still be seen around the Moon. The term "solar eclipse" is a misnomer: the phenomenon is actually an occultation.There are four types of solar eclipses: A partial solar eclipse occurs when the Sun is only partially overlapped by the Moon. and so intersect the Moon's umbra. Only properly designed and certified solar filters should ever be used for direct viewing of the Sun. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon completely obscures the Sun. binoculars. An "occultation' occurs when one body passes in front of another. fall in the Moon's antumbra and the eclipse is annular. as even a small defect could cause damage. as seen from Earth. An "eclipse" occurs when one celestial object passes into the shadow cast by another (as with an eclipse of the Moon). Observing a solar eclipse Looking at the Sun is dangerous at any time when any part of the brilliant visible disk of the Sun (its photosphere) is visible. When at its new phase the Moon passes in front of. An annular (ring-formed) eclipse occurs when the Moon's center passes in front of Sun's center while the Moon is near apogee. such as using a reflection in water. the Sun. are equally dangerous. This happens when the Moon is near perigee and its angular diameter as seen from Earth is identical to or slightly larger than that of the Sun. A total solar eclipse is the only opportunity to observe the Sun's corona without specialised equipment. to do so can cause permanent eye damage. there is a high incidence of eye damage caused during solar eclipses.
as this will cause severe eye damage. when the Sun's photosphere is completely covered by the Moon. and possibly even a solar flare may be visible. The projected image of the sun can then be safely viewed. this technique can be used to observe sunspots. It is one of the most remarkable coincidences of nature that the Sun lies approximately 400 times as far away from Earth as does the Moon. care must be taken to ensure that no-one looks through the projector (telescope. The danger here is of being caught out by the end of the total phase.The safest way to view the Sun is by indirect projection. however. but since the Moon's orbit is not perfectly circular it is sometimes farther away from Earth and doesn't always cover the entire solar disc from an Earthly vantage point. as well as eclipses. However. the Sun and the Moon appear to be nearly the same apparent size. because all parts of the Sun's disk are of similar intensity. The Sun's faint corona will be visible. this is a very beautiful sight. and the return of the "exposed" Sun. and the Sun is also approximately 400 times as large in diameter as the Moon. and even the chromosphere. particular care should be taken if children are present. viewing the total phase of a solar eclipse through binoculars or a telescope should not be recommended. even a tiny sliver of the Sun could cause permanent eye damage. solar prominences. As a result. indeed. a telescope. The Moon orbits Earth in an elliptical. etc. or elongated orbit. and not in a circular orbit. or another piece of cardboard with a small hole in it (about 1 mm diameter). This can be done by projecting an image of the sun onto a white piece of paper or card using a pair of binoculars (with one of the lenses covered). as seen from Earth.It is safe to directly observe the total phase of a total solar eclipse. often called a pinhole camera. Eclipse frequency and cause Diagram of solar eclipse Total and annular eclipses both occur when the Moon lines up with the Sun exactly. . For this reason. pinhole.) directly.
When a solar eclipse occurs near apogee. during which the brilliant and blinding uncovered ring of the Sun makes the solar corona invisible. This produces an "annular" eclipse. however. During the remaining portion of its orbit. in which case the eclipse path alone can reach 270 km in width. The full band is generally around 100 km in width. A solar eclipse can only be seen in a band across Earth as the Moon's shadow moves across its surface. at which time the ghostly white solar corona appears. it is closer to Earth ("perigee") and large enough in apparent size to cover the Sun completely. while a total or annular eclipse is actually total or ring-formed in only a small band within this band (the eclipse path). When a solar eclipse occurs near perigee. there is therefore a small ring or annulus of Sun that remains uncovered even at the moment of maximum eclipse. and partial elsewhere (total eclipse takes place where the umbra of the Moon's shadow falls. whereas a partial eclipse is visible where the penumbra falls). the Moon is close enough to Earth and large enough in the sky that it can cover the entire bright surface (the photosphere) of the Sun completely. The eclipse path will be widest if the Moon happens to be at perigee. . and the observer sees a total eclipse.Thus during about 55-60% of its orbit the Moon is far enough from Earth ("apogee") that it is too small to cover the Sun's surface completely.
2186. Normally this is not visible because the photosphere is much brighter than the corona. The longest total solar eclipse during the 8. as the Moon's umbra moves eastward at over 1700 km/h. The last time this happened was June 30. Those alive today probably won't live to see it happen again. (eclipse predictions by Fred Espenak. 1973. And after waiting so long. it has been estimated that they recur at any given spot only every 300 to 400 years. .000-year period from 3000 BC to 5000 AD will occur on July 16.Total Solar Eclipse Total solar eclipses are rare events. on June 25. the total solar eclipse only lasts for a few minutes. when totality will last 7 min 29 s. Totality can never last more than 7 min 40 seconds. During each millennium there are typically fewer than 10 total solar eclipses exceeding 7 minutes. NASA/GSFC. Although they occur somewhere on Earth approximately every 18 months.) For astronomers. 2150. a total solar eclipse forms a rare opportunity to observe the corona (the outer layer of the Sun's atmosphere). and is usually a good deal shorter.
The Saros cycle is probably the most well known. eclipse cycles. and one of the best. you can predict other eclipses using eclipse cycles. . a new Saros cycle begins 1 Inex later (hence its name: in-ex). Two well-known eclipse cycles are the Saros cycle and the Inex cycle.Calculating the date of a solar eclipse If you know the date and time of a solar eclipse. The Inex cycle is itself a poor cycle. but it is very convenient in the classification of eclipse cycles. After a Saros cycle finishes.
Bailey's Beads Near the beginning and end of total solar eclipse. the thin slice of the Sun visible appears broken up into beads of light. These lights are called Baily's Beads after the British astronomer Francis Baily who discovered them. . They occur because the edge of the Moon is not smooth but jagged with mountain peaks.
. the effect is often likened to a diamond ring.When just one bead is visible.
12.53 days. One of the first things civilizations must do to ensure a coherent society is to establish an accurate calendar to organize planting and harvesting of crops. Most early calendars were lunar calendars.Ancient Astronomy Ancient civilizations used the movement of the heavens as celestial calendars. All Seeing Eye! Ancient observations of solar eclipses from many different cultures and civilizations date back to at least 2500 BC in the writings that have survived from ancient China and Babylon. To establish an accurate luni-solar calendar.2 days relative to the seasonal "planting" year. because the monthly duration of the lunar cycle is 29. They created great stone monuments called astronomical observatories to this end. an eclipse often represented the Eye of God. In many ways. they also uncovered some of the factors that lead to lunar and solar eclipses which also require specific timings of the solar and lunar positions across the sky and over the years. the lunar "synodic" calendar of 29. the ability to predict eclipses was an outgrowth of the pre-existing need to keep track of lunar and solar calendar relationships. Every year.37 months during a solar seasonal year. Lunar eclipses were the first major celestial events that astrologers learned how to predict based on local historical observation records. At the same time that ancient people kept track of how the lunar and solar calendars meshed with each other.53 days slips by 0. people in ancient civilizations observed the moon regularly.38 of a month or 11. To the ancients. .
the translations give the Roman calendar dating of the event. It was the astronomer's role to keep track of the solar. . were important enough to be recorded in chronicles and on "oracle" bones. infrequent and dramatic. and astrologers were left with the onerous task of trying to anticipate when these events might occur. already had sophisticated observatory buildings. surviving documents show that Chinese astrologers understood what caused eclipses. and planetary motions as well as divine what astronomical phenomena may mean for the ruling emperor. The person using the planetarium would sit in a chair that was hanging from the top of the enclosed dome. Ancient Chinese astronomy was primarily a government activity. and the observation. Following in parentheses is the record in which the observation is noted. which was actually made by an emperor. lunar. By 2300 BC. Because the pattern of total solar eclipses is erratic in any specific geographic location. Solar eclipses. the Chinese dating. many astrologers no doubt lost their heads. A solar eclipse of 16 June 763 BC mentioned in an Assyrian text is important for the Chronology of the Ancient Orient. The planetarium was a big enclosed place with stars and constellations on the inside. and by 8 BC some predictions of total solar eclipse were made using the 135-month recurrence period. and as early as 2650 BC.Ancient China To the ancient Chinese. solar eclipses meant that dragons were devouring the sun. in at least one recorded case in 2300 BC resulted in the beheading of two astrologers. Failure to get the prediction right. Observing total solar eclipses was a major element of forecasting the future health and successes of the Emperor. Unless otherwise noted. The Chinese produced the first planetarium. Below are a few translated eclipse records found in the documents of ancient China from various dynasties. By about 20 BC. By AD 206 Chinese astrologers could predict solar eclipses by analyzing the Moon's motion. Richard Stephenson. the translations below can be found in the book Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation by F. More translated records can be found in the references given below. Li Shu was writing about astronomy. ancient Chinese astrologers. In general.
After one (double-)hour it became light." (local history of Tung-hsiang county. 1050-221 BC). and it appears that some astronomers recognized eclipses as naturally occurring phenomena. Aug 20. 1050 BC) and make many references to solar eclipses. Oracle bones hail from the Shang dynasty (c. are not of total solar eclipses. The Piao and the Shih-chi documents refer to nine solar eclipses from the Warring States period. solar eclipse timings can be found from the periods between 600 and 800 AD. The domestic animals were alarmed and people were terrified. 206 BC). 1600. it was total. Eclipse observations from the Chou dynasty and Warring States period (c. have been reliably dated. During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 AD). Stars were seen and it was dark. These solar eclipse timings are accurate to about 0. Chiang-his province) Accurate eclipse timings can be used to determine the rate of the Earth's rotation. . and a brief period during the Ming dynasty. 36 solar eclipse observations are recorded in the Ch'un-ch'iu beginning around 720 BC.4 hours. 220 AD) are found primarily in two official histories: the Han-shu and the Hou-hanshu. however. The eclipse records are often incomplete. From the Chou dynasty. Objects could not be discerned at arm's length."Oracle" bones are pieces of animal bones and tortoise shells inscribed with astronomical observations. that were probably used for divinations. 1000 and 1300 AD. eclipse records can be found in the Imperial Annals. According to Steele and Stephenson. Prior to 1500 AD. however. Records of solar eclipses from the Han dynasty (206 BC. total solar eclipse observations are found in the histories of Ming provinces after 1500 AD. These observations. There are no records of eclipses from the Ch-in dynasty which came just prior to the Han dynasty (221 BC. 1514 AD: "At the hour of wu suddenly the Sun was eclipsed. and the dating of the bones is not reliable. and onward.
Indian astronomy at that time was taking much of its lead from cyclic Hindu cosmology in which nature operated in cycles. The Aryabhatiya. 24. A double (solar and lunar) eclipse took place 23 years after the ascension of king Shulgi of Babylon. . 1375 BC." Krati Jain. born in AD 476 is noteworthy. 2138 BC. lie in bed and chant prayer/Crystalinks/Astronomy html/Eclipse/eclipse. Aryabhata of Kusumapura. Venus. who is expecting her first child. said in New Delhi. and the Moon on tablets dating from 1700 to 1681 BC. This identification is however much less commonly accepted than the eclipse of 763 BC.htmls. the Sun. Babylon and Sumer Babylonian clay tablets that have survived since dawn of civilization in the Mesopotamian region record the earliest total solar eclipse seen in Ugarit on May 3. His book. while another myth is that sun rays during an eclipse can harm unborn children. but one individual. 763 BC. setting the stage for searching for numerical patterns in the expected time frames for eclipses. In Hindu mythology. Later records identified a total solar eclipse on July 31.Ancient India Hindu astronomy is largely wrapped up in the Vedic religious treatises. Babylonian astronomers are credited with having discovered the 223-month period for lunar eclipses. 1063 BC. an eclipse is caused when a dragon-demon swallows the sun. Babylonian astrologers kept careful records about celestial happenings including the motions of Mercury. Like the Chinese. He is the first known astronomer on that continent to have used a continuous system of counting solar days. published in 498 AD described numerical and geometric rules for eclipse calculations. This has been identified with eclipses that occurred on 9 May (solar eclipse) and 24 May (lunar eclipse)." and the famous eclipse of June 15. "My mother and aunts have called and told me stay in a darkened room with the curtains closed. that "turned day into night. recorded by Assyrian observers in Nineveh. click link above for more.
One can only guess what Egyptian knowledge of astronomy was lost. Ptolemy knew. Unfortunately. and a handful of papyrus documents such as the Rhind Papyrus. In 1100 BC Amenhope wrote "Catalog of the Universe" in which he identified the major known constellations. He also knew that the Sun must be within 20 degrees 41' of the node point. The shadow of the Moon on Earth is less than 100 kilometers wide. Sirius.Nearly all we know about ancient Egyptian civilization's knowledge of astronomy comes to us from tomb paintings. and Saturn. the same lunar phase would be recorded at the same time of the solar calendar year. The fabulous astrological ceiling of Senmut painted around 1460 BC. includes celestial objects such as Orion. and astronomy. . This period also gives a rough guide to when a lunar eclipse will recur at the same geographic location. mathematics. Solar eclipses however required much greater knowledge. and the planets Mercury. Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt -. Records such as the Almagest show he had a sophisticated scheme for predicting both lunar and solar eclipses. Lunar eclipses were especially easy to calculate because of the vast area covered by Earth's shadow on the Moon. The burnings were classified as one of the greatest intellectual catastrophies in human history. All that survives is fragments that some scholars see as merely the faded ghosts of Egyptian intellectual legacy.000 books on Egyptian secular literature. Ptolemy (ca 150 AD) represents the epitome of knowledge of Grecian astronomy. The oldest known copies of an almanac date from 1220 BC at the time of Ramses the Great. The oldest example of a sundial is Egyptian from about 1500 BC. medicine. the details of the orbit of the Moon including its nodal points. Jupiter. Venus. the Great Library in Alexandria was burned during the time of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar. Later burnings in AD 390 and AD 640 destroyed an estimated 400. and that up to two solar eclipses could occur within seven months in the same part of the world. for example. various temple inscriptions. and its track across the daytime hemisphere is the result of many complex factors that cannot be anticipated without a nearly complete understanding of the lunar orbit and speed.At this time.
Curiously..C.C. the most important astronomical text until the Middle Ages. However. the catalog does not mention either Sirius or any of the planets previously known to the Egyptians. though others. and not protected over the ages as a body of knowledge. Clement of Alexandria (2nd century A. the building of Alexandria.C. author of Stromateis described 49 books of Thoth preserved by the priests of ancient Egypt. Plutarch related that the ancient Egyptians explained solar eclipses by the passage of the Moon between the Sun and the earth in daylight hours. several of the Alexandrian astronomers considered Greek were actually Egyptians who had adopted or been given Greek names.). claim that Thales actually predicted an eclipse in 584 B.D. e. The golden age of Greek science commences with the Ptolemaic dynasty (330 B. admittedly disputed by some writers. that an actual solar eclipse was reported in Egypt in the 9th century B. Solar Eclipses in the Ancient Nile Valley A full discussion of the presumed knowledge of solar eclipses by the ancient Egyptians is beyond the scope of these brief comments. without exception. or records of astrological observations.C. no similar astronomy documents survive. and again in 610 B. Diodorus Siculus (200 A.g. whose knowledge of solar eclipses is well-documented. there has not yet come to light an Egyptian document specifically mentioning solar eclipses. The major Greek astronomers studied there.) in Egypt. author of the Almagest. and presents knowledge of astronomy that is regarded as Babylonian in nature.). There is evidence. there are no surviving inscriptions or documents to indicate that Eqyptian knowledge of astronomy was more than tomb decoration.D.). Moreover. The report of this latter eclipse has been attributed to Thales. Herodotus. Still. Greek commentators attribute Thale's mathematical and astronomical knowledge to this apprenticeship in Egypt. gave priority to Egypt in astronomical knowledge. The Vienna papyrus which described lunar and solar eclipses and their portent was probably copied by a scribe in the late second century AD.D. One book dealt with the "constitution of the Sun and Moon" and another "the conjunctions and . One such person was Ptolemy (150 A. Thales. was actually of Phoenician birth and spent seven years studying in Egypt. However. stated categorically that the ancient Egyptian astronomers possessed the ability to predict solar eclipses. Greece's first "philosopher". Numerous temple and pyramid alignments and several papyrus codices suggest a sophisticated knowledge of trigonometry and algebra. it is pertinent to note that Greek writers. At least outwardly. that the Egyptians possessed accurate knowledge of eclipses is evident from external sources. and the founding of the city's Library. at least four of them treating astronomical subjects.
The God Aten of the Amarna Revolution is the shadow bands phenomenon. Information detailing Egyptian priesthood repeatedly confirm the remarkable ability of that priesthood to predict solar eclipses. Horus . Annual Flooding of the Nile Month of Thoth . The Great Sphinx was the Egyptian 'Lord of Solar Eclipses'. The Scarab Khepri was a representation of the dark New Moon. Hathor was the Egyptian goddess of solar eclipses. Theories about an Eclipse The Sun god Atum is the eclipsed Sun passing the second contact of a total eclipse. The Hawk Horakhty." That the ancient astronomer-priests of Egypt could and did predict eclipses was considered axiomatic.is the Sun through totality. Ra/Re is the eclipsed Sun shining past the third contact as the Diamond Ring effect.variations of the light of the Sun and Moon.
needed to create a physical reality and the illusion of linear time.Pyramid Texts: "The eclipse represents the breaking of the Egg and Splitting the Iron.html by electromagnetic energy. . The Two 'Diamond Ring Effects' crowned the eclipsed shadow on the head of Re. the magnetic poles. duality of experience createdeclipse. north/south. the aura." The iron is the rod.
more precise astronomical tables. observations by Ibn Yunus of lunar and solar eclipses were recorded in Cairo ca 1000 AD. . in fact. The pace of Islamic science and scholarship eventually slowed down in the 11th and 12th centuries. Al-Khwarazmi's calculations were good to five places. Al-Khwarazmi was known to the west as "Algorizm" and this is. amplified upon and spread throughout the Muslim world. Many great books and great ideas of the Islamic Age lay fallow for hundreds of years until they were finally translated into Latin and fueled the European revolution in thinking and the birth of science as we know it today. Plato. the origin of the term 'algorithm'. Following a steady series of advances in Islamic trigonometry. Ibn Yunus is regarded as one of the greatest observational astronomers of his time. and produced new. allowing for unprecedented precision in astronomy and other sciences. The works by Ptolemy. and Aristotle were translated. At Antioch. while the Dark Ages engulfed much of the rest of the western world. Muhammad al-Batani (ca 850 AD) began with Ptolemy's works and recalculated the precession of the equinoxes.Islam Islamic astronomy became the western world's powerhouse of scientific research during the 9th and 10th centuries AD. Al-Khwarazmi developed the first tables. trigonometric functions (ca 825 AD) which remained the standard reference well into the modern era.
Thales is said to have visited Egypt. 10. 1178 BC. One likely candidate took place on May 28. and take vengeance on the suitors of Penelope. The eclipse occurred in either 610 BC or 585 BC. 37 recorded ([Hind and Chambers. 478 BC. Soldiers on both sides put down their weapons and declared peace as a result of the eclipse. An annular eclipse of the Sun occurred at Sardis on February 17. 1) reports that another solar eclipse was observed in Sparta during the next year. 1889: 323] considered this absolute date more than a century ago). while Xerxes was departing for his expedition against Greece. as Herodotus. Before 450 BC. during the celebration of the new moon. The historian Herodotus (ca 460 BC) mentions that Thales was able to predict the year when a total solar eclipse would occur. Homer adds that the Sun vanished out of heaven and an evil gloom covered all things about the hour of the midday meal. on August 1. 131. after the return of Cleombrotus to Sparta. and from the empirical rules in use there for land surveying. Herodotus (book IX. Exactly which eclipse was involved has remained uncertain. seasonal calendar. and book IX. Apparently the method used worked only once because what is known of Greek scientific history does not suggest that the method was ever reliably used again. . although the issue has been studied by hundreds of ancient and modern authorities. Greek Mythology -. the Greek civilization was in its ascendancy. as traditionally dated (1184 BC). By 450 BC. This would be six years after the end of the Trojan War. though within the Odyssey narrative it's supposed to be ten years after it. Later in the Odyssey (XX. Homer states that Odysseus will return to his home. at the failing of the old moon and the coming of the new. probably near the Halys river in the middle of modern Turkey. 151. 356-357 and 390). XIV.Ancient Greece Greek astronomy reflects that Herodotus wrote Thales of Milete predicted an eclipse which occurred during a war between the Medians and the Lydians. well after the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. The sky suddenly darkened in the middle of the sky. brought back to Greece the ideas of deductive geometry later codified by Euclid. VII. 477 BC. Meton realized that a single period of 235 lunar months (19 years) would cause the popular lunar calendar to return to synchrony with the solar. 585 BC. Details of how this prediction was made do not survive. book VIII.In the Odyssey. A total eclipse of the Sun was visible from the Greek island of Ithaca on April 16. after the departure of Mardonius to Thessaly at the beginning of the spring of (477 BC) and his second attack on Athens.
3%. It took place shortly before an eclipse of the Sun that was observed at Rome on June 25. Most of these have been recorded by Plutarch (Lives of Romulus.7%. about the time Romulus started to build the city. beginning at 5:04 and ending at 6:57. Romulus vanished in the 54th year of his life. Its correctness has not been proved scientifically but it is used worldwide. at 19:20. on "Caprotine Nones". . The day turned into night. at the time of a total eclipse of the Sun. Aurel Ponori-Thewrewk. according to Velleius Paterculus (VIII. 763 BC. 21) also states that Romulus ruled for 37 years. The Romans add that. Its beginning occurred at 16:38.c. then called Quintilis. retired director of the Planetarium of Budapest. Rome was founded on the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi. on the fifth of our month July. Florus (Book I. The first day of Thoth fell on 2 March in that year. Its beginning took place at 6:49. 2).6% at Teos. Dio (Dion) Cassius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (L. 22: Scipio's Dream). Plutarch placed it in the 37th year from the foundation of Rome. 709 BC. calling the year of the first consuls "245 ab urbe condita" (a. This eclipse data haa been calculated by Prof. which was April 21. an eclipse of the Sun was observed by Antimachus. the Teian poet. This eclipse occurred on June 15. He was born on the 21st day of the month of Thoth. A new study claims that the Varronian date has been superseded. on the Nones of Quintilis (July). three eclipse records prove that Romulus reigned from 746 BC to 709 BC. which sudden darkness was believed to be an eclipse of the Sun. That implies that Rhea Silvia's pregnancy lasted for 281 days. I). Varro may have used the consular list with its mistakes. Dio in his Roman History (Book I) confirms these data by telling that Romulus was in his 18th year of age when he founded Rome. on the 30th day of the lunar month. Livy (I.u. Romulus was conceived in the womb on the 23rd day of the Egyptian month Choiac. 5). with a magnitude of 93. Asia Minor. He was slain by the Senate or disappeared in the 38th year of his reign. 745 BC and had a magnitude of 50. According to Lucius Tarrutius of Firmum. its middle at 7:47 and its end at 8:51. This eclipse had a magnitude of 54. its middle at 17:28.Ancient Rome The foundation of Rome took place 437 years after the capture of Troy (1182 BC). on a day when the Sun was darkened. Numa Pompilius and Camillus). and its end at 18:16. It started at 17:49 and was still eclipsed at sunset. It occurred on July 17. as universally agreed.).5% at Rome. Therefore. with a magnitude of 62. Cicero (The Republic VI.
at least to us. and this certainly cannot be ruled out. The hypothesis that lunar data were actually used seems much simpler. or more rarely. It must have taken all of a century or more. it was a time cycle derived from the observation of eclipsed and uneclipsed moons of the past. Both lunar and solar observational eclipse data can be utilized to construct a semblance of the Dresden Table. for specialists in skywatching to work through to a conclusion that their Chinese and Babylonian counterparts also had arrived at. Of the long-range Moon cycle in the Dresden Codex this much is certain: First. that once a lunar or solar eclipse occurs. and Greek astronomers dominated the knowledge of old world astronomy half way across the globe. Mayan observers were working on calendars and recording celestial observations. Of course. Their codex seems to have been a mechanism for predicting not when the first crescent moons of the future could be sighted. The omens in the table look ominous enough. As in previous civilizations in other parts of the world. it is not possible to have another (of the same kind) until six. If we assume that solar eclipses alone were used. if so. Babylonian.Maya While Chinese. . Though scholars are not in agreement over which particular set of eclipses (lunar or solar) was being observed. but which full moons would be eclipsed and which new moons would eclipse the sun. or Aztecs achieved a deeper understanding of solar eclipses and their forecasting. we must extrapolate the base of observations backward many centuries in order to derive the relevant intervals. came the missionaries in the 1600s who intentionally destroyed nearly all native written record. Maya astronomers were so accurate that one has to imagine how their calendars could be so accurate into the future. The Dresden Codex records several tables thought to be lunar eclipse tables. Little survives to tell us whether the Mayas. it was used to gain control of astronomical time. Is the Dresden Codex a record of eclipses in part intended to warn of possible future eclipses? And. There is no mention of recorded total solar eclipses. the number of such eclipses observable in Yucatan would have been significant enough to enable a single priest to draw up the table. which means several generations of perceptive astronomical observing. the Mayas used records of historical lunar eclipses to calculate how often they occurred over a 405-month period. After the Spanish Conquistadores. i. predictions must be based upon recorded observations of actual eclipses that occurred in Yucatan when the Mayan priests did their work. which could be used as data to generate a model for anticipating the occurrence of future lunar eclipses powerful knowledge in the hands of the rulership. or discussions in the Codex for how to predict these events. Incas. and second. five months pass. there is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that the Dresden Eclipse Table was devised for warning of the possible occurrence of such phenomena. In the course of the thirty-three years spanned by the table. what kind of eclipses? There seems little doubt that the Mayas sought to predict eclipses because of the disaster that they believed threatened them on such occasions. They were well aware that small cycles lead inevitably to bigger ones.e.
most of which had been gathered or written by scientists during the Islamic Renaissance that peaked some 600 years before Europe's! Islamic rulers sponsored the systematic collection and translation of scholarly books from every culture they came across. This period was called the "Renaissance" (ca1500 AD) signifying the rapid growth of fresh perspectives and ideas. . science. technical. European translations of the volumes of Islamic theology. The answer is that Mayan astronomers were attempting. There are clumpings of six lunar synodic months (178 days) followed by one set of five (148 days). The decline of Islamic learning had begun by the 11th century. apparently quite successfully. but extending from Spain and North Africa to India and the Far East) amplified. A close look at all of the pictures together gives very strong clues about what the Mayas would do. elaborated. They made great advances in math and science. symbol of the Sun ( kin means sun and day as well as time in the Mayan language). and mathematical works. Many of these books were scientific. Each bunch of five moons is followed by a picture. half-dark disks with lunar crescents opposing the kin glyph. By the 13th and 14th centuries. and technology had laid a rich foundation for the birth of modern science. and extended the libraries of scientific knowledge that they had collected. to predict eclipses. Europe The European appetite for books was no doubt stimulated by the cutting edge technology of that time: the printing press. Much of the library of Islamic sciences remains in Arabic to this day. parcel out a chain of 405 full moons over more than three decades. Some of these illustrations depict half-light. a diverse group Islamic thinkers (concentrating in Iran and the Middle East. observed nature and human society. For nearly two centuries.The eight pages of the Moon table of the Dresden Codex are a chain of numbers across the bottom line of each page translates into a time packet of lunar synodic intervals. A serpent devouring the Sun and a dead lunar goddess hanging by her hair from a segmented serpent who represents the sky also appear in the pictorial portion of the table. amassed discoveries and inventions during the flowering of Islamic culture.
. Solar Eclipse of July 22.. 2009 NASA .Eclipses In The News .
Solar Eclipse July 22. 2009 Wikipedia .
2009 .Total Solar Eclipse Today Was Record Blackout at 6 minutes and 39 seconds National Geographic .July 22.
Asia watches long solar eclipse BBC .July 22. 2009 .
2008 .An Antarctic Total Solar Eclipse NASA .May 4.
2008 .Twelve Lunar Eclipses NASA .February 29.
September 7.Bailey's Beads NASA . 2007 .
Solar Eclipse from the Moon NASA . 2007 .March 2.
Spain.Valladolid. October 2005 annular eclipse Wikipedia Solar Eclipse March 29. 2006 Gulf Times .
and moved into scientific understanding. stop energy. In the days before humanity became enlightened. and hold astrological significance in our natal charts. dating to ancient times and civilizations. a temporary lack of input from the Sun or Moon that serves to bring our awareness closer to the energy of the Solar or Lunar season. nothingness. as well as the charts of nations and businesses. An eclipse seems to stop time. We have learned to see beyond myth and dark magic that controls through illusion. the grids. but also affect the collective unconscious. though many still hold onto old beliefs linked to fear.Metaphysics Lunar and Solar eclipses have always been markers of change and evolution. and stop movement. . Eclipses not only have gravitational affect on our bodies and planet Earth. Where once there was light filtering through the elemental forces of the zodiac into the Earth's aura. the solar eclipse represented a time of fear and darkness. and thus intensify it. there is suddenly darkness.
enhances dreams. .Sacred Geometry Eclipse of consciousness . and other out of bodies experiences.
or matrixes. part of sacred geometry. mathematical patterns that create the grids. of our reality.The diamond shape of an eclipse symbolizes the star tetrahedron. .
Emerald Tabets of Thoth As is above.Star of David. So is below. Qabbalah and Merkabah.Star Tetrahedron . Flower of Life. Hermes Trismegistus .
the female. The result is a new dawn (beginning). . Beads are a metaphor for DNA. 2001 . This parallels Egyptian mythology of the synthesis of Isis and Osiris to create Horus the Star Child. 2001: A Space Odyssey refers to the heart of the Isis Osiris mythology. the generative force . egg). The monolith represents the male.Thus Spake Zarathustra Kubrick's masterpiece film.The Merge of Matter and Antimatter at Zero Point.the dome (rising sun.
36 around 1 360 degrees.Eye of God in Total Solar Eclipse Eye of Horus. Freemasons .
Pupil. Iris. Masonic Symbolism ShareThis ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS ASTRONOMY INDEX ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF ALL FILES . Rods and Cones.All Seeing Eye Isis.
CRYSTALINKS HOME PAGE PSYCHIC READING WITH ELLIE 2012 THE ALCHEMY OF TIME .
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