ENGLISH LANGUAGE

TEACHING
(METHODS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES)
Dr. M.F. Patel
Praveen M. Jain
PUBUSHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
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SUNRISE PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
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First Published - 2008
©Reserved
ISBN: 978-81-906067-4-5
Printed at : Jaipur
All rights reserved. No pa.i of this book may be reproduced in any form or
by any mean without permission in writing from the publisher.
Dedicated to
Shrj M.N. Patel
Honourable President, Rajpur
Kelvani MandaI, Rajpur,
Vijayanagar, Gujrat
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
•••••
PREFACE
----------------------
Teaching of English as a second language in India
has assured an important place. Now, English is one of the
most widely used International language. The book
introduces some of the main areas that students and
teachers of English in India understand in order to follow
a scientific approach. The book covers many topics that
find place in the syllabi of universities of India. There is no
doubt that' this book will prove useful to students, teachers
and scholar in Indian Universities.
We express our sense of gratitude to Dr. V.S. Patel,
Principal, Sflri oc 3mt. P.K. Kotawala Arts College, Patan;
Dr. J.H. Pancholi, Principal, B.Ed. College, 'Patan; Dr. B.S.
Patel, Principal, B.Ed. College, Daramali and Dr. S.S. Jain,
Principal, B.Ed. College, Vijaynagar for their constant
encouragement to complete our work.
We are thankful to the Trustee Shri M.N. Patel and
Honourable Secretary, Shri H.M. Patel of Rajpur Kelavani
MandaI, Rajpur for their positive attitude and conducive
atmosphere for our work.
We are thankful to our colleagues Shri J.M. Purohit,
Department of English; Shri B.N. Patel, Department of
Physical Education, Art College, Vijaynagar and Shri
JitendrakumaT J. Patel, Shri Deepak Pandya, Shri Akhilesh
JO,shi, Department of Education, REd. College, Vijaynagar
for their inspiration and encouragement to produce a book
of such a literary calibre.
We are thankful to the librarian, Shri A.P. Palat,
Vijaynagar Arts College for helping us in providing the
books that we needed for our work.
We also take this opportunity to express our thanks
to Shri Jitendra Gupta, Sunrise Publishers and Distributors,
Jaipur, India for his promptness in bringing out this book
in a very short time.
Authors
• ••••
CONTENTS
----------------------

Preface v
1. The Place of English In Indian Education 1
2. Foreign Language Learning 25
3. Instructional Material and Text Book 57
4. Methods 71
5. Approaches 89
6. Oral Work 102
7. Reading 113
8. Writing and Composition 125
9. Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 133
10. Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 145
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1
.....
THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN INDIAN
EDUCATION
----------------------
PIIIIElI ... ,. .......
I 1
It is not taught as
It is taught on:]
compulsory subject
English
It is not atl--
It is taught at upper
Examination
English Level
It is taught as
It is not compulsory I Second Language
for Eng lis h I
2 The Place of English in Indian Education
Introduction:
English plays a key role in our educational system
and national life. The British introduced English in our
educational system in order to produce cheap clerks for
their colonial administration and to produce, what Lord
Macaulay called: U a class of people, Indian in blood and
colour, but English in t a s t e ~ in opinions, in morals and in
intellect." So long as the British ruled over India, English
could not be displaced from the position of predominance
given it by Lord Macaulay. British came here as traders
and their first,attention was on trade. At first they did not
concentrate their attention on teaching of English. English
helped the growth of nationalism which ultimately freed
India from foreign fetters.
English is rich in literature and culture. English served
as a great unifying force in India's freedom struggle. English
is a link language. It has greatly contributed to the
advancement of learning. It reflects in our ways and views.
After independence, the English spread like water in India
and it became very essential for India to have a national
language. The teaching of English should be made more
practical and language-oriented. English is to be taught as
language of comprehension rather than as literary
language. The role of English within a nation's daily life is
influenced by geographical, cultural and political factors.
The role of English at a given point in time must affect
both the way it is taught and the resultant impact on the
daily life and growth of the individual.
Position of English:
English is the language that is found in all comers of
India. English is the language of the global village. It is a
language of trade and industry. English is full of knowledge
and information. English is the language that is used for
The Place of English in Indian Education 3
IMPORTANCE OF SECOND AND
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
~
1
INTERNATIONAL LANGUGE
I
"'
J
LmERARY IMPORTANCE
I
.,
.1
NATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I l
.1
RECREATIONAL IMPORT ANCI!:
I
"'
.I
EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I
J
CULTURAL IMPORTANCE
I I
,
VOCATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I 1
4 The Place of English in Indian Education
connecting peoples having different tongues. Champion
has said:
In considering the position of English
language in India, the outstanding
consideration in the English is the
language of the government public
administration, the legislature and
law courts. It is the language of
commerce and business. It is the
medium of communication between
two persons and between various
language areas.
When India became independent then a controversy
began about the place, importance and study of the English.
People like Rajgopal Chari favoured its importance and
place. But who were nationalist, they did not support the
view of Rajgopal Chari and said that British should leave
this place early with English. They declared that students
can express their ideas and thought in their mother tongue
language. Other causes responsible for revolt against
English were lack of use of English in every day life,
defective method of teaching of English and British policy
of preserve clerks.
But we can ignore that by learning and speaking for
the last 150 years, English has become the language of
Indians to a great extent. This language has taught them
to love freedom and democratic way of life. It has knit them
into one unit. It has made them capable to take an
advantage of western scientific researches and inventions.
We should give the Hindi place of national language. But
we should not forget that English is too important for us so
it should not be completely removed from the Indian
curriculum.
The Place of English in Indian Education 5
(1) Place of English in Curriculum of State:
It is misfortune of Gujarat people that Gujarat
Government has not decided its language teaching policy
and in clear terms. It runs without visualizing the benefits
and advantage of English language from students' point
of view, from national point of view and the state
development point of view.
The place and position of English can be summarized
as under:
• English is not being taught as a compulsory
subject at lower primary level. It is taught only
in some private school.
• English is taught as a compulsory subject at
upper primary level in class V, VI and VII. But
there are no enough qualified teachers of
English.
• It is being taught as a compulsory subject at
secondary level in class VIII, IX and X. It is not
compulsory at H.5.C. Examination.
• In higher secondary level, it is being taught as
compulsory subject in class- XI.
• It is also being taught as compulsory subject at
college level. Students passed H.S.C. Exam
without English are allowed offering English at
college level in some universities and they have
to study English compulsory.
Thus indefinite English language teaching policy of
Gujarat state has become the main reason for low education
standard and poor performance of Gujarati students at
national and international level.
6 The Place of English in Indian Education
(2) Importance of Second and Foreign Language
Teaching:
English is the language of the world and the
knowledge of the language makes a person, a citizen of
the world. Pandit Nehru has said "English is a big key on
the modern world." Its importance as international
language can be denied by none. For this ours reasons are
as follows:
1. International Language :
English is the international language. International
English is the concept of the English language as a global
means of communication in numerous dialects, and also
the movement towards an international standard for the
language. It is spoken all over the world. This language is
mother tongue of nearly 320 million people and another
200 million people use it as second language. So it is vary
useful to establish international relation for communication
purpose and for the exchange of views with different
qmntries of the world. It is also referred to as Global English,
World English, Common English, or General English.
Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties
of English spoken throughout the world.
The English language evolved from a set of West
Germanic dialects spoken by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes,
who arrived from the Continent in the 5th Century. Thus
English is more closely related to West Frisian than to any
other modern language, although less than a quarter of
the vocabulary of Modern English is shared with West
Frisian or other West Germanic languages because of
extensive borrowings from Norse, Norman French, Latin,
and other languages.
The establishment of the first permanent English-
speaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major
The Place of English in Indian Education 7
step towards the globalization of the language. British
English was only partially standardized when the
American colonies were established. Isolated from each
other by the Atlantic Ocean, the dialects in England and
the colonies began evolving independently. In the 19th
century, the standardization of British English was more
settled than it had been in the previous century, and this
relatively well-established English was brought to Africa,
Asia and Oceania. It developed both as the language of
English-speaking settlers from Britain and Ireland, and as
the administrative language imposed on speakers of other
languages in the various parts of the British Empire. The
first form can be seen in New Zealand English, and the
latter in Indian English. In Europe English received a more
central role particularly since 1919, when the Treaty of
Versailles was composed not only in French, the common
language of diplomacy at the time, but also in English.
English as an additional language (EAL) usually is
based on the standards of either American English or
British English. English as an international language (ElL)
is EAL with emphasis on learning different major dialect
forms; in particular, it aims to equip students with the
linguistic tools to communicate internationally. Roger Nunn
considers different types of competence in relation to the
teaching of English as an International Language, arguing
that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately
addressed in recent considerations of ElL.
International English sometimes refers to English as
it is actually being used and developed in the world; as a
language owned not just by native speakers, but by all those
who come to use it.
It especially means English words and phrases
generally understood throughout the English-speaking
world as opposed to localisms. The importance of non-
8
The Place of English in Indian Education
native English language skills can be recognized behind
the long-standing joke that the international language of
science and technology is broken English. International
English reaches towards cultural neutrality. This has a
practical use:
What could be better than a type of
English that saves you from having
to re-edit publications for individual
regional markets! Teachers and
learners of English as a second
language also find. it an attractive
idea - both often concerned that
their English should be neutral,
without American or British or
Canadian or Australian coloring.
Any regional variety of English has
a set of political, social and cultural
connotations attached to it, even the
so-called 'standard' forms.- Peters
(2004, International English)
According to this viewpoint, International English is
a concept of English that minimizes the aspects defined by
either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the
so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United
States. While British colonialism laid the foundation for
English over much of the world, International English is a
product of an emerging world culture, very much
attributable to the influence of the United States as well,
but conceptually based on a far greater degree of cross-
talk and linguistic transculturation, which tends to mitigate
both U.S. influence and British colonial influence.
The development of International English often
centers around academic and scientific communities, where
The Place of English in Indian Education 9
formal English usage is prevalent, and creative use of the
language is at a minimum. This formal International English
allows entry into Western culture as whole and Western
cultural values in general.
2. Library Importance :
The Kothari Commission suggested that English be
studied as a library language with the aim of getting the
knowledge of science and technology, commerce and trade
by reading standard books in English. The Commission said
that no student be deemed qualified for a Master's Degree
unless he has acquired a reasonable proficiency in English
or in some other library language. In view of the fact that
the medium of instruction even at the Post Graduate stage
is the regional language in many Universities (only the
Professional courses are taught through English medium),
the Commission's recommendation would imply that
teachers at Post Graduate level should be essentially
bilingual, that is they should be able to teach in the regional
language as well as English.
English is a key to the store house of the knowledge.
The books on all branches of knowledge are written into
English language. The importance of English as a library
language nicely described by the Radha- Krishnan
commission in the following words:
English however must continue to be
studied. It is a language which is rich
in literature, humanistic, scientific
and technical. If under sentimental
we give up English, we could cut
ourselves from the living stream of
ever growing knowledge.
The use of English as a library language also implif's
that among the language skills of speaking, reading and
10 The Place of English in Indian Education
writing, the reading skill is the most important and it should
be developed in the students to a high degree so that they
will be able to read all reference material, general and
technical, which is in the English, make notes and use it
for their purposes. Students develop the ability to read fast
and with understanding. The skill of getting the summery
of books and periodicals in English quickly and properly is
the most useful in modern life. This is the essence of using
as a library language. Even with the growth of Indian
languages English continues to be the link language
between the States and the Centre and also between the
multilingual Indian communities, apart from its being a
valuable link with the world organizations and with the
growing knowledge in science and technology and trade.
English is a window on the world, opening up a vast vista
of knowledge and scholarship, literature and art.
3. National Importance:
The English language is the window which opens up
the vast prospect of human achievement. The more effective
grasp of English in all its diversities of speech, vocabulary,
structure and meaning, the more will be benefit personally
and contribute to the growth of our country as a modern
nation of the 21
st
century.
The chairman of the University Education
Commission Dr. Radhakrishnan's (1948) words on the
importance of English to India needs repetition:
It (English) is a language, which is
rich in literature - humanistic,
scientific and technical. If, under
sentimental urges we give up
English, we would cut ourselves off
from the living stream of ever
growing knowledge.
The Place of English in Indian Education 11
In India, English is the link language, serving to
connect people of various regions and diverse backgrounds.
English is the lingua franca of the people from the South,
North, East and West of India. English is the official
language, being the language used for communication
among the Central and State Governments.
English has also its national importance because it is
used as inter state communication language and in centre
also. In India it is used as link language so that people could
express their ideas easily. It is useful for both official and
private communication between many parts of the country
and thus it serves as a link language in the nation itself.
Pandit Nehru's words bear repetition about the invaluable
linking role of English in the country and across the world:
The language link is a greater link
between Us and the English speaking
people than any political link or
Commonwealth link or anything
else ... If you push out English, does
Hindi fully take its place? I hope it
will. I am sure it will. But I wish to
avoid the danger of one unifying
factor being pushed out without
another unifying factor fully taking
its place. In that event there will be a
gap, a hiatus. The creation of any
such hiatus or gap must be avoided
at all costs. It is very vital to do so in
the interest of the unity of the
country. It is this that leads me to the
conclusion that English is likely to
have an important place in the
foreseeable future.
12 The Place of English in Indian Education
IMPORTANCE OF MOTHER
TONGUE
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION I
LEARNING BY IMITATION 1
MAXIMUM OPPORTUNITIES I
LEARNING BY SITUATION I
The Place of English in Indian Education 13
Thus English helps us to keep pace with the explosion
of knowledge and scientific and technological
advancement. English has one of the richest literatures in
the world. India has gained immensely from its contact
with English linguistically, scientifically, politically,
administratively and in all spheres of modern activity.
English is the world's widely used language. It is useful to
distinguish three primary categories of use:
1. As a native language,
2. As a second language and
3. As a foreign language
4. Recreational Importance:-
English is one of the five languages of the United
States. It is the first language in UK, USA, Canada and
Australia. English is a source of recreation and useful
employment of leisure. Person who knows English can take
enjoy the best stories, dramas, novels etc. written in English
language. It is also the language of world sports, radio ard
television, telecommunication and internet, fashion and
glamour.
5. Educational Importance :
Education systems around the world give special
attention to teaching of English. The main aims of teaching
English are language development and library
development. It enables students to understand spoken
English, speak English, read English and write perfect. The
English system of education was introduced in India in
1835 by the British. It was the language used by the British
administrators. The English was politically imposed on the
Indian education system. The University Education
Commission (1948) headed by Dr. Radhakrishnan
recommended:
14 The Place of English in Indian Education
English is studied in high schools and
universities in order that we may
keep in touch with the living stream
of ever growing knowledge. This
would prevent our isolation from the
world, and help us take advantage
of wider reach of the English

English is a direct medium of acquiring knowledge of
modem arts, science, technology and Humanities. It is also
important for politician, scientist, doctors, engineers,
educationists, businessmen and research workers. They
increase their knowledge and experience by reading books
available only in English language. Almost all our great
leaders, well-known scientists, renowned philosophers and
famous writers are the product of English education.
6. Cultural Importance:
English widens one's cultural and intellectual horizon.
It develops commercial, scientific, technological relation
with other countries. English enriches knowledge of foreign
culture.
7. Vocational Importance :
English offers opportunities many and varied
vocational like diplomatic and foreign services, business,
commerce, medicine, teaching law etc. all over the world.
(3) Importance of the Mother Tongue Language and
Habit:
According to Mahatma Gandhi: "The mother tongue
is as natural for the development of the man's mind as
mother's milk is for the development of the infant's body."
It helps child in all kinds thinking. As Ryburn remarks in
his book- The teaching of English:
The Place of English in Indian Education
Mother tongue is the basis of the all
works. Mother tongue learning
begins from infancy. Child learns
mother tongue naturally. When he
comes at the age of youth,
unconsciously he has learnt the
mother tongue and he can express
his ideas, feelings, and thoughts and
he can understands their. It is quite
right that mother tongue is not
taught but it is caught and foreign
language is first taught and after
caught.
15
The teaching of English through mother tongue is not
new. In earlier the third language Sanskrit was learnt
through mother tongue. English was also learnt with the
help of mother tongue language in the later half of the 19
th
century. Justifying the use of mother tongue in the teaching
of English language, Ryburn remarked:
If sufficient attention of teaching of
mother tongue and if it is well taught,
habit may be formed in the class
room which will be of greatest value
in connection with the learning
English.
Importance of Mother Tongue in Teaching of English :
1. Importance of Motivation :
Teacher should try always to motivate students to
learning the foreign language because motivation provides
the necessary encouragement for learning. In beginning
the child is motivated by his parents to use mother tongue
to express his thought, ideas and feelings and in same way
16 The Place of English in Indian Education
if a child is motivated by his teacher to learn English with
the help of mother tongue, he can easily learn English. A
students of correctly motivated to learn foreign language
can himself manage to learn the language.
2. Learning by Imitation :
Traditionally basic emphasis in learning has been
placed on seeing, doing, hearing, and saying. Language is
still largely learned by imitation, and good language is
largely judged by its sound. A child learns his mother
tongue by imitation. When family member pronounce any
word the child imitate that word and learn to speak by
mother tongue. On the same principle the English can be
learnt by imitation in class. Teacher should pronounce the
word or sentence and ask students to pronounce it. Thus
student can learn English easily by imitation.
3. Maximum Opportunities :
In class room the teacher should use mother tongue
language in teaching learning process. Because we know
that in India many people can not understand and learn
English directly so teacher should use mother tongue most
so that students could understand it easily. Teacher should
give opportunities to students to learn foreign language
with the help of mother tongue.
4. Learning by Situation :
While learning his mother tongue, the child forms a
concept and grasps the situation. He tries to associate
certain symbols with the objects. While teaching new words
and structure of the foreign language should create
appropriate situation, for teaching them, in the class room.
So that the students may exchange with each other their
ideas and concepts already learnt by them in the process
of learning their own mother tongue. In this context
Dodson has rightly remarked:
The Place of English in Indian Education 17
The best and perhaps the only way in which a human
being learns a second language is for him to have the
maximum numbers of meaningful and purposeful contact
with this language in useful environments and situations.
How the Mother Tongue helps in Teaching of English:
1. The Teaching of Grammar :
Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts,
principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure
of language. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and
understandings that help to make language intelligible, to
give some insight into its structure, to supply some help in
the use of language forms and in the correction of errors.
We know that student use grammar unconsciously
in his talking. The learnt by a child of his mother tongue
forms the back ground of the English language. If the
students has a good knowledge of grammar, he will very
easily learnt English. Thomas and Wyatt remarks:
If the grammar of the mother tongue
is well known, it forms a back
ground of knowledge to which new
grammar may be liked either by
similarity or by difference.
Ryburn has correctly evaluated the importance of
mother tongue in the teaching of grammar by saying:
If pupils were given a through
grounding in the grammar of their
mother tongue, it would make things
much easier for the English teacher.
So the teacher can explain the five points of grammar
in better way by using mother tongue. He can with a view
to make the concept clear also present comparison and
18 The Place of English in Indian Education
contrast between the grammatical forms of their mother
tongue.
2. Composition :
Composition in any ability of collecting and
organizing different ideas. An English teacher can not speak
throughout in English because of the existing level of
knowledge of his students and if he does so student will
not be able to understand him. In beginning students are
neither expected trained nor to think in English. The topic
already attempted by the student for composition in their
mother tongue lesson of the students. The well graded
practice of mother tongue can be attempted easily for
composition in English subject matter for written
composition in English can be borrowed from the mother
tongue lesson of the students. The well graded practice of
mother tongue acquired by the students will help them in
arranging all the ideas, thoughts and information in English
also.
3. Oral Work:
Oral expression in English depends also upon the oral
expression in the mother tongue. So before le:lrning English,
a student must be well conversant to express himself freely
in his own mother tongue. Before they are expected to
narrate their ideas English. They must be able to narrate
them in their mother tongue. R Gurry is quite right when
he remarks:
If a speaker talks freely and fluency in his own
language he can soon learn to speak well and easily in
mother tongue.
4. Translation:
"Translation of passage has as its object the securing
of an exact parallel in the mother tongue of a passage in
The Place of English in Indian Education 19
PROBLEM FACED IN SPEAKING
LEATING
LINGUISTIC PROBLEM
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEM
PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM
20 The Place of English in Indian Education
English. Its aim is to ascertain to what degree of perfection
the art of paralleling has been persuading." Translation
from and mother tongue occupies a very important place
in learning English language. Translation imparts the
student sufficient practice in expressing them in English,
as they are given various fresh passage in their mother
tongue which the students are required to translate it into
English and vice versa English passage into mother tongue.
5. Use in Pronunciation:
If pupils' pronunciation in his mother tongue is clear,
his pronunciation in English will be also clear. English is a
foreign language and has a very complex system of vowels,
specially the dip-thongs which do not have any sound in
any Indian language.
6. Reading:
Reading is a complex skill involving a number of
simultaneous operations. Reading has been divided into
two parts:
1. Reading aloud
2. Silent Reading
These two parts of reading in the mother tongue
provides sufficient help in reading aloud and silent reading
in English. Reading aloud is helpful in developing speech
habit and silent reading develops power of expression in
writing and quick comprehension. Silent reading is the
more efficient way of reading and more useful in life. Silent
reading means reading completely silently, without even
moving the lips. The importance of silent reading does not
reduce the importance of oral reading at the initial stages
of language learning. A teacher can develop reading habit
among his students through reading exercise in the mother
tongue. P Gurry remarks:
The Place of En/dish in Indian Education 21
Children who have taught to read in
their mother tongue well can quickly
learn to read English after one or two
years of oral English.
In Indian condition, pupil may take more time. But
ultimately reading habit can be developed in them through
reading exercises in their mother tongue.
Extensive reading helps in supplying new vocabulary,
new ideas, new sentence- pattern and new thoughts. It
should be properly done in the class room and proper
attention should be paid to it. It should be started with the
help of mother tongue. The use of mother tongue will help
the pupil in creating interest in the reading of additional
material in English.
(4) Problem faced by Gujarati speaking learner in
Learning Foreign Language
We know that Gujarati is second language for those
who have brought up in the Gujarat. It is taught as second
language in Gujarat state. It has been observed from the
society of Gujarat that the people or Gujarati learner find
this language very difficult. Why, the Gujarati learner feels
it too difficult. Naturally to learn English needs a boost, an
internal motivation to learn another language. As we know
that first language is learnt naturally. No any special
training is given to learn mother tongue while to learn
second or foreign language the special training is given to
Gujarati speaking learner. The important question is that
why Gujarati speaking learner of English find it difficult to
learn English.
Gujarati speaking learner are learning almost in
vacuum. The Gujarat is one of a state of India. Gujarati is
spoken in Gujarat. It is used every where, in all government
department and other department. The Gujarati is widely
22 The Place of English in Indian Education
spoken and there are many dialectical varieties within. The
code in Gujarati is based on Indian language, Sanskrit. From
the through out studies in the field of linguistic Sanskrit is
found the most scientific language. So naturally the Gujarati
is also one of scientific language of the world. The Gujarati
has its own speech and script and Gujarati speaking people
have mastered it. It is very difficult to find the subsidiary
environment using another language among Gujaratis.
Now we see that which difficulties are faced by Gujarati
speaking learner.
1. Linguistic Problem
2. Social and Political Problem
3. Pedagogical Problem
1. Linguistic Problem:
• Gujarati is syllable rhymed language while
English is stressed rhymed language.
• In Gujarati, the spoken language is closed to its
script whereas in English, spoken language
differ in it form.
• The word order in both language differ in form;
in Gujarati it is SCV, SOY, or SA V whereas in
English SVO, SVC, SVA.
• The Gujarati is scientific language while English
is not because in Gujarati there is one to one
correspondence between sound and its letters,
in English 26 letters represent 44 sounds.
• Syllabic formation in Gujarati is different from
English. In Gujarati it is V, CV, CVC, CCVC,
CCCVCC, etc. So Syllables are not easily
recognized by learner.
2. Social and Political Problem:
In Gujarat the English teaching has been considered
a problem because there is no clear policy about teaching
The Place of English in Indian Education 23
of English in college and school. There is no perfect sequence
of teaching English in school and college. In this category,
the social and political problems are included:
• We know that Gujarati is basically a business
community. The society has been divided into
two parts. Rural and Urban. In both these
stream, people like to live in there respective
community. Rural want to live with rural people
while urban like to live with urban. They don't
like to live together so they did not need any
other language to communicate. The elite class
is too small; they prefer English but the greatest
mass neglect learning 3econd language.
• In school there is no importance of teaching or
learning English. We know that there is no clear
policy of teaching English in colleges and
schools. English is taught but without having
goal of acquiring skill of using English.
• The some of the groups advocating learning in
vernacular language oppose almost policies on
this issue. So English medium institutes are
mushrooming like anything and teaching
English as second or foreign language is
neglected in school where Gujarati is the
medium of instruction.
• The language teaching is based on
recommendation of Dr. Kothari Commission.
The Government of Gujarat has accepted his
formula of teaching three languages in
secondary schools. English has been found a
compulsory component in very short period of
school education 2 to 4 years. The policy makers
are still in dilemma to make it compulsory from
lower primary.
24 The Place of English in Indian Education
3. Pedagogical Problem:
The way of teaching first language is different from
the way of teaching second language. The way teaching of
first language in teaching English, one can not teach
English. In pedagogical problem the teacher is not only
responsible but also those are also responsible who are
engaged in language teaching at whatever leveL Now we
see the problems which Gujarati speaking learners face:
• There are lack of good English teacher
• Little knowledge of linguistic
• No good methods are practiced
• Lack of the knowledge of how languages are
acquired and learned
• Lack of resources like authentic material and
software.
• Objectives should be based on psychomotor
domain.
• The language teaching should be task based,
• The language teaching should be
communicative.
• The teacher must have liberty of deciding
language activities and materiaL
• The school must have technological resources.
• The grammar teaching should be moderate and
language oriented.
+++++
2
+++++
FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
----------------------
(1) The Psychology of Foreign Language Learning
Many branches of language emerged from philosophy.
Psychology is one of them. The development of psychology
in the field of philosophy has made teaching and learning
very effective and scientific. First the education was in
shadow of teacher. They were the master of education and
what they spoke was next to God. The education was slave
of teacher. They have no any role in teaching learning
process. Whole teaching learning process was teacher
centred. Teacher teaches in his own way. He did not think
the mental condition of child. The psychology has made
us eligible for think minutely understanding teaching more
scientifically. It has provided the way of teaching and
learning both teacher and students have got this advantage
from the psychology. The psychology has helped "How to
teach language and "How it may be useful in teaching
learning process."
Language:
The different languages are spoken in the world. The
different languages are used all over the world. There are
many varieties within the language. How these languages
26 Foreign Language teaming
CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE
l
Language is cultured based
Language is unique system
Language is social behave
Language is medium of instruction
Language is structural system
"
Language is made up habit
Foreign Language Leaming 27
are originated, it is very difficult to know. It is believed that
people started conveying message quest, signals, postures,
gestures and sign etc. The Researcher has made it clear
that the language is a medium through which a one can
express his ideas, thought, feeling and message. Robins
rightly points out those definitions tend to be trivial and
uninformative but he does list and discuss a number of
silent facts that must be taken into account in any seriously
intended study of language. He notes:
Language is a symbol system based
on pure arbitrary conventions ...
infinitely extendable and modifiable
according to the changing needs and
conditions of the speakers.
Every language choices some symbols from the
alphabet of the language and joins in different combinations
to form meaningful words. Language conventions are not
easily changed. Language is extendable and modifiable.
Language is the method of human communication. Edward
Sapir quotes:
Language is purely human and non-
instinctive method of communicating
ideas, emotions and desires by means
of a system of voluntarily produced
symbols.
In their Outline of Linguistic Analysis Block and
Trager wrote: /I A language is a system of arbitery vocal
symbols by means of which a social group co-operates./I
Collins Cobuld Essential English Dictionaries defines
language as:
Language is a system of
communication through which
28 Foreign Language Learning
consists of a set of sounds and written
symbols which are used by the
people of a particular country for
talking or writing.
Darbyshire noted: "Language is undoubtedly a kind
of means of communication among human beings. It
consists primarily of vocal sounds. It is articulatory,
systematic and arbitrary." Language is a fully developed
means of communication. Language has changed the entire
gamut of human relations and made it possible for human
beings to grow into a human community on this world.
Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1995:795)
defines the term "language" as:
... a system of communication
consisting of small parts and a set of
rules which decide the ways in
which these parts can be combined
to produce messages that have
meaning.
Noam Chomsky Syntactic Structures observes: "A
language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite
in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements."
The Cambridge Concise Encyclopaedia defines the term
"language" as:
A species-specific communicative
ability, restricted to humans, which
involves the use of sounds, grammar,
and vocabulary, according to a
system of rules. Though other
animals can communicate vocally
and by gestures, they are restricted
to a participate set of messages,
Foreign Language Learning 29
genetically given, which cannot be
creatively varied.
In his Essays on Language Hall notes: "Language is
the institution whereby humans communicate and interact
with one another by means of habitually used oral auditory
arbitrary symbols." Encyclopaedia Britannica comments:
Language is a system of conventional
spoken or written symbols by means
of which human beings, as members
of a social group and participants in
its culture, communicate.
The teaching of language is basically conditioned by
the nature of the subject. Language is the manipulation of
experience by the use of symbols. The concept of language
as a learning task is a complex of interrelated and
interdependent experiences and elements, in which growth
proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees, dependent
on points or emphasis and interest.
The primary functions of language are
communication, self-expression and thinking. The
expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact.
The command of words and groups of words grows with
practise and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to
be expressed. The communication function is obvious. The
use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings
is equally real. Language is a means of clarifying perception
of discovering likeness and differences in thing observed,
of forming general ideas, and of discovering relationships.
It has been observed in the first place that language is
a vital part of the growth process. Language is a social act,
a means of adjustment to control over other people. The
entire process of socialization is largely a process of
language development.
30
F. L.
F. L. is acquired
It is acquired
naturally
Foreign Language Learning
LANGUAGE
l
s .....
S. L. is learnt
It is learnt through
practice

Foreign Language Learning
31
In the second place, it has been noted that, native
equipment gives potentialities of growth. It is a vital part
of the process of adjusting to life, physical and social.
Language is a means of gaining control of people and
thought. It is a means of bringing order into a bewildering
world. Command of language is an important factor in
the development of total personality of the child. Command
of language gives a feeling of confidence, satisfaction and
security. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects
the whole life of the child.
Language is purposeful, not a mechanical. The
purpose is largely utilitarian. The fourth important
implication is that language develops as a whole. The fifth
principle relates to grading and sequence.
Language is used to communicate our thoughts and
ideas. Language is essential for our survival and
development as human being. Language is a result of
cultural experience. Language is also a system of phonetics,
grammar and vocabulary. English Language has a set of
sounds peculiar to it. Language is learnt by imitation. With
patience and time, every language can be mastered. No
language is inferior or superior. Every language represents
its culture in the best possible way. Few characteristics are
given of Language:
• Language is a very important means of
communication
• Language is symbolic
• Language is dynamic
• Language is structured system
• Language is unique system
• Language is a carrier of civilization and culture
• Language is a form of social behaviour
32 Foreign Language Learning
rOREIGN LANGUAGE [CHARACTERISTICS
Diff'erent sound pattern
Diff'erent words
Little 0 de structure
Diff'erent meaning
Foreign Language Learning
33
• Language is arbitrary
• Language is medium of instruction
• Language is made up of habits
• Language is a symbol of system
• Language is as important as the air we breathe
• Language is the most valuable passion of man
• Language is an inseparable part of human body.
First Language :
There are many states in our country. Every state has
its own language like Gujarat, Tamil, Rajasthan and other
state. These languages may first for one state anQ for other
state second language. When a language is learnt naturally
or without training than it is called first language. For
example a child of Gujarat learns Gujarati naturally
because he has natural environment of Gujarati in house,
in society and many places. It is routine language for him,
so he speaks Gujarati without any problem. Thus Gujarati
is first language for him. The first language is used to learn
second language in many states. The first language can be
defined as under:
It is the language that an individual
has acquired when he was child as a
part of natural process of acquiring
language without any formal
training.
Second Language :
There are different kinds of languages are spoken in
India. All languages are different in nature. Diversity is
features of Indian but they have unique identity. In the
world several languages are used and they are differs from
each other. They are different in way of script, rhythms
34 Foreign Language Learning
PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING
~
1
Behaviorism Cognitivism
~ 1
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
..
/
Sounds of bell
(C onditioning
~ ~
Stimulus)
Come larva from mouth
of dog (Conditioning
Food ~
response)
( ~ ~
Stimulus)
,
I
r r e ~ ~ trigger to get Give
Give ReWfo:rcement r
f-----Jo
food resporue
Resporue is to Get Food
1
Foreign Language Learning 35
and sounds. Some time we find numbers of varieties within
language.
For example: In Gujarat, Gujarati is first language for
Gujarati people because it is learnt without any particular
training. But in Rajasthan it is not first language because it
is not learnt in routine in environment. In school and
colleges and other places the only Hindi is used so Hindi is
first language and Rajasthani may be second language. To
learn Rajasthani we need special training.
In south India the Hindi is Second language because
the Hindi is not used as routine language. The Tamil is First
language for them. They use it as first language. The term
second language can be defined in these words:
When a child learns a language
systematically or he is given
particular training for it then it is
called second language.
Foreign Language :
It is the language which is used by the people of other
country or society. For example Russian, Chin and other
country also use these languages. These are foreign
language because they have different sound pattern,
different words, little ode structure and entirely different
meaning. The term "Foreign language" has been defined
as:
Foreign language is the language where the secondary
environment is not observed and the people of linguistically
foreign societies use such language.
Difference between Acquisition and Learning :
Acquisition :
Many languages are used in our country or societies.
When languages are learnt without any practice it is called
36 Foreign Language Learning
first language. Child learns first language without any
problem and practice. He learns FL naturally. When
language is learnt naturally and without any systematic
practice then it is called Acquisition. The language when it
is learnt in primary environment or learnt without practice
it is Acquisition.
Language acquisition is the process by which a child
acquires its mother tongue. The acquisition of a first
language is the most wonderful feat we perform in our
whole life; we do it at an age when we can hardly do
anything else. Language acquisition is an active process.
Children take the clues available to them and use these
clues to construct their own grammatical rules, rules which
grow in sophistication as acquisition proceeds.
Learning:
Learning a language requires the operation of an
innate capacity possessed by all human beings. In our
schools many subjects are taught. English taught as second
language because particular practice is given to the students
to learn English. To learn English, the help of mother tongue
is taken. The term "Learning" can be defined as:
The way through which the art of using skill and
practice is given to learn it than it is learning.
Psychology of Learning :
1. Behaviourism
2. Cognitivism
1. Behaviourism:
This school of psychology has been established by
Russian Psychologist Pavlov and American Psychologist
B.F. Skinner. Behaviourism is the theory that psychology
should invoke only observable and measurable phenomena.
Foreign Language Learning
37
Behaviourism originated as a healthy reaction to this state
of affairs. The early behaviourists wanted to sweep away
what they saw as empty speculation and the endless
postulation of undetectable concepts. Behaviourism
exercised great influence over the linguist Leonald
Bloomfield and the American structuralists who followed
him. In 1957 the American Psychologist B.P. Skinner
published Verbal Behaviour. It was an attempt at
interpreting language acquisition strictly in terms of
Behaviourism. It was the most radical attempt ever treating
language in a behaviourist framework. A behaviourist
method of language teaching should embody at least the
following principles. It should be firmly anchored in spoken
language. Pavlov has given theory of classical conditioning
and B.F. Skinner has given the theory of Operant Condition.
Classical Conditioning: This theory is based on the
habit formation. Pavlov says that human or any creature
gives response due to stimulus. Stimulus are that things
which create excitation in creature. It means that human
learn due to stimulus. Pavlov has done one experiment on
a dog. In which when at first Pavlov rings a bell before dog
and dog hears it. With it, it is given food then it drops larva.
Just after he rings bell then it drops larva after again food
is given. In this condition we look that dog is given stimulus
and it gives response. Thus student can also be taught
according of this theory.
Operant Conditioning: This theory is also based on
the habit formation. B.F. Skinner says that human or any
creature gives response due to Reinforcement. He wants
to say that human or creature learns due to reinforcement.
B.P. Skinner has done experiment on Pigeons and Rats.
When they are reinforced they get their target or food. It
means student can be taught very effectively if they are
given proper reinforcement.
38 Foreign Language Learning
The structuralists believe in the pattern of practice.
They say that teacher should motivate to their student so
that he could get his all desired objectives. The motivated
learner learns fast and effectively.
Few Essential Points :
1. Language is learnt only through practice. The
more the learner is exposed to the use of
language, the better chance of learning it.
2. Producing the correct linguistic response to a
stimulus requires efforts. If the learner is not
called upon to make this effort there is no
learning.
3. Producing correct response also requires
attention.
4. -The spoken language comes earlier than the
written and the passive experience of language
is necessary before any productive (active) use
can begin.
5. Learning takes place fast if a correct response is
given t the students. The learner must know at
once if his effort is right or wrong.
6. Every new item must be learnt by reinforcement
by further practice before further learning
begins.
2. Cognitivism :
Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be
invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the
object of study itself. Today most psychologists,
philosophers and linguists, are preferably happy to invoke
invisible things like minds and purposes and even to make
mind itself the object of study. This approach is called
Cognitivism.
Foreign Language Learning
COGNITIVES
~
Cognitive emphasizes the importance ofthn!e things
1
Meaning
Understanding
39
Cognitive says that the language acquisition can be automadcaBy
attained
40 Foreign Language Learning
This theory is based on the developmentally readiness
of learner. The psychologist Piaget says when child is ready
to learn then he can be taught. He learns naturally. This
idea can be regarded as a starting point of the cognitivist
idea. The psychologist emphasizes the importance of three
things:
1. Meaning
2. Knowing
3. And understanding
According them learning is a meaningful process of
"relating new events or item to already existing already
cognitive concept." And it is thought to involve internal
representations that guide performance. In the case of
language acquisition, these representations are based on
language system. That involves procedure for selecting
appropriate vocabulary, grammatical rules and pragmatic
conventions governing language use.
David Ausubel has criticized the popular audio
lingual method for its theory based on reinforcement and
conditioning. Adult learning a second language could profit
from certain grammatical explanation. Though children
do not use deductive method of grammar and they do not
have superior cognitive capacities. They acquire mother
tongue quietly.
In short, the cognitivists say that language acquisition
can be automatically attained. Behaviourists favour the
view that language is behaviour is one sided and some what
superficial. According to Cognitivists there is some thing,
. which mediates between the stimulus and the response,
and the cognitive function. A learner just does not behave
in a mechanical manner. He uses his mind also. He not
only perceives the whole phenomena but also develops in
insight through which he solves a problem.
Foreign Language Learning 41
(2) Use of Motivation, Attention, Reinforcement,
Habit Formation, understanding and Memory in
teaching English
Motivation :
We know that first language is acquired and second
language is learnt. To learn first language we need not to
motivate the child, he is internally motivated and he
acquires first language. To learn second language students
are given systematic practice, it means he is motivated to
learn second language. Without motivation he can not learn
second language. Motivation is a term which occurs in
discussion of second rather than first language learning. It
is through speech that a child learns to organize his
perception and regulate his behaviour and mental activities.
Faced with problems and needs, the child wills merely look
for outside assistance. The word "Motivation" has been
defined as:
Motivation is considered with the
arousal of the interest in learning and
to the extent is basic to learning.
Motivation is the central factor in the
effective management of process of
learning. Some types of motivation
must be presented in learning.
Motivation is an energy change
within a person characterized
effective arousal and anticipatory
goal reaction.
Importance of Motivation :
1. Man became civilized from uncivilized man. It
is only due to motivation.
42
2.
Foreign Language Learning
Motivation makes expected change in human.
Human can adjust himself with society.
Motivation plays main role to encourage people.
3. Motivation makes learning and teaching
effective.
4. Motivation creates teaching atmosphere in class
room.
5. Motivation makes students active and creative.
They desire to do some thing new.
6. Motivation creates interest for self studies in
students. So that the atmosphere of motivated
situations could be created.
7. Motivation makes students to identify
themselves. Motivated students can move their
limitation by using their powers and ambitions.
8. Motivation inspires students to become active
and regular in their work and start their work.
9. Motivation inspires students to prove their goal
and objectives.
Reinforcement :
When you go to any shop. Do you think that if you
don't give charge of any goods? Will shopkeeper give
something to you? No he will give nothing to you without
any charge. Thus reinforcement is goods which can be
obtained by giving some thing right. The reinforcement has
been defined as:
Any environmental event that is
programmed as consequence of a
response that can increase that rate
of responding is called reinforcement.
Which makes any response powerful
is called reinforcement.
Foreign Language Learning
43
r-
KINDS
OF REINFORCER l
Positive Rein-
forcer
I Punishment
I Reputation I
Negative rein-
forcer
Primary Rein-forcer
Secondary Rein-forcer
I Get Wealth
! Post or Seat I
44 Foreign Language Learning
When an award or punishment is
given to make response powerful is
called rein-forcer.
Kinds of Rein-forcer :
1. Positive
2. Negative Rein-forcer
3. Punishment
4. Primary Rein-forcer
5. Secondary Rein-forcer
Attention:
Attention plays important role in teaching learning
process. Attention is a mental process of students which
decides the role of students' involvement in teaching
learning process. When we say that, this student is not
intelligent. It means that he does not draw his attention in
teaching learning process. Inattentive students can never
perceive knowledge. He disturbs whole teaching learning
process. The teacher should follow the simple rules for
stretching their attention till at the end of the class:
1. The teacher should be live in his presentation.
2. The stimulus variation technique should be used
in class room teaching.
3. The learning material and content must be
interesting.
4. The teacher should held enjoyable activities.
Memory :
You have listened about computer. In computer we
can store data on large scale. Why, the computer has
memory power which remembers whole data till long time.
Just like it human also has brain which have memory
Foreign Language Learning 45
STAGES OF PROCESS OF MEMORIZATION
I
RE GIS l'ER
I
1
RETAINING
RECOGNITION
RECALLING
46 Foreign Language Learning
capacity. Human brain is store house of memory. Human
performs several tasks which remembrance is stored in
memory system. There are stages in the process of
memorization. They are registering, retaining, recalling and
recognizing. If the learners can not fix the concept about
the language, they can not use. The learners have fixed the
ideas and when they need, they should recognize and recall
the retained information. The teacher should try to make
teaching so simple and lucid for better retention. If not, the
learner will not be able to fix and recall.
Habit Formation :
We know that practice plays important role in
teaching Learning process. If sufficient practice is given to
the students to perform task, he will learn language easily.
According to behaviourists psychologist the habit is
conditioned behaviour. So learning a language means
forming habit of using language. If we want to learn
language we should take it in practice. Acquiring new habit
is the result of learning. Learning a second language means
forming the habit of using English. Now we take the
example: at first child forms the habit of producing sound
in English. They have learnt it, later they form the habit of
forming words, letter and passage and then talking. In this
process the learner are acquiring these skills by modifying
their acquired behaviours in their respective mother tongue.
Communication skills are nothing but habit formation. The
learners have to form the habit of behaving in the manner
of English. Almost all kinds of primary or motor skill
learning is kind of habit formation. The teacher of English
should form following habit in order to attaining second
or foreign language:
1. Better articulation
2. Good acceptable rhythm
3. Better intonation and pronunciation
Foreign Language Learning
47
r------.---J>I
c
! Better articulation I
I--------J>II Good acceptable rhythm
I I
I--------J>II Better intonation and pronunciation
I I
1-------.j.1 Using English manner
I I
J Speaking and writing I
'---------.II
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
48 Foreign Language Learning
4. Using English manner
S. Speaking and writing
(3) Aims and Objectives of Teaching English at School
level in Term of language Point and Skill
Introduction :
We know that man performs several tasks. He is
always active. We study in our life. I don't think that a
man performs a task without any purpose. There is always
aim or purpose behind any task. Thus we can say that a
task without any purpose or objectives or aim is wasteful.
There is no meaning of that task. There should always be
purpose behind the task. Now we come to the point,
teaching of English. Is there any purpose or aim of teaching
English at school Level? Yes, there are aims and objectives
of teaching English at school Level. There are general and
specific objectives of teaching English. What are general
and specific objectives of teaching English? How can we
define general and specific objectives? We take an example
of a teacher who teaches English in class room. Suppose
he is teaching the unit "Mahatma Gandhi". What will be
general and specific objectives of this unit? General
objectives of this unit are:
1. To enable the student to speak English correctly.
2. To enable student to understand topic correctly.
3. To enable student to read English with ease.
4. To enable student to listen English with ease.
5. To enable student to write English correctly.
General objectives are those which are obtained at
the end the year. Specific objectives are of this unit:
1. To enable students to develop quality of
Mahatma Gandhi.
Foreign Language Leaming
49
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
GENERAL
OBJECTIVES
Those am got after the
end of the )'iarofihe
course
I TG uruhDtmd ~ (cxn:edly
TG nad J!n&Wh Wih. eue
SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVES
Those am got after the
ending ofihe Wlit
TG enable sIu.d.fnU ~ d.ev't!k>p quality d I
faaifke.
50 Foreign Language Learning
ENGLISH TEACHING
English should be taught
as languaIJ! not m
literature becalR on tlIis
st¥. students do not
understand tIE literary
sense of English. At this
st¥ language
development should be
chief objectives.
Develop taste for English
literature
Develop interest in English
literature
Develop transJating ability
Understanding of critical value
Drawing aesthetic pleasure
Foreign Language Learning
51
2. To enable students to develop the quality of
sacrifice.
3. To enable student to develop the quality of
loyalty for our country.
4. To enable student to develop the quality of high
thinking and simple living.
Thus we can say that the general objectives are those
which are got after the end of the year course and specific
objectives are those which are got after the ending of unit.
Now we take two types of objectives of teaching of
English which are limited to particular class V to VIII
and IX to XII:
1. Language Development
2. Literary Development
1. Language Development:
It is only for the students of class V to VIII. During
this stage the main aim of English teaching is only language
development of child. It means that English should be
taught only as language not as literature because on this
stage, student does not understand the literary sense of
English. We can say that teacher should not care about
pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and structure of
language but he should think only about the language
development of students. According to above opinions,
student starts the learning the language on this stage. So
first, they should have a good command over the language.
At this stage, language development should be chief
objective. According to P. Gurry,
It is necessary that the Indian people
should not only understand English
when it is spoken or written but also
52 Foreign Language Learning
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
l
I
To enable the students to understand the spoken
______ . ___ __ ge _______
___ __ T_o_e_na_b_le_the_stu_d_e_nts_t_o _sp_e_ak_E_D_gIis_" _h_c_orr_e_ct_-l
.
___ T •• nab" ............. to write "'" language prop.'" I
___ T. enabm "'" .tnd_ t .... ad .... _ with """'.
Foreign Language Learning 53
he should himself be able to speak
and to write it.
2. Literary Development:
This objective is for the stage of senior class students
from IX to XII. On this stage the ability of reading, listening,
speaking and the writing and understanding should be
developed in the students. Literary development is an
important objective at higher secondary stage. Literary
development to means to develop:
1. A taste for English literature by reading prose,
poetry, story etc.
2. Develop interest in English literaturE'
3. Development of translating ability
4. understanding the critical value
5. Drawing aesthetic pleasure, from reading
English literature
General objectives of Teaching English :
General objectives are global and long term goals.
Genera.l objectives state what to achieve at the end of the
course of the year. They are :
1. To enable students to understand spoken or
written language.
2. To enable students to speak simple English
correct language.
3. To enable the student to write the language
properly.
4. To enable the students to read the language with
ease.
Specific objectives of Teaching English :
Specific objectives are short term goals. Specific
objectives state what to achieve at the end of the unit.
54 Foreign Language Learning
Specific objectives are based on the above sub skills or
general objectives.
• To enable the students to understand spoken
language.
To enable student to ....... .
1. Differentiate sounds of English words and
sounds of words of mother tongue.
2. Recognize the sounds of English.
3. Associate ideas with pictures, chart or object
during oral presentation.
4. Carry out oral instruction.
5. Follow the meaning of words, phrases and
structure in their context.
6. Establishment of chronological order of
statement narration, maintaining a continuity
of thoughts.
7. Get main idea of the narration, talk and
discussion.
8. Point out the missing point in oral presentation.
9. Understand the purpose of the speaker by
noting his stresses and intonation pattern.
10. Follow the typical usage of the spoken form of
language.
• To enable students to speak simple English
correct language
To enable students to ........ .
1. Pronounce the sounds of English letters and
words correctly.
2. Speak sentence with proper stresses, pauses and
intonation pattern.
3. Use appropriate words and sentence pattern.
Foreign Language Learning
55
4. Answer the, questions.
5. Speak without any reversion.
6. Speak without using any meaningless and
unnecessary words.
7. Put ideas in proper sequence.
8. Speak with confidence.
9. Acquiring skill of effective communication.
10. Acquire active vocabulary.
• To enable the student to write the language
properly
To enable the students to ....
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Write the letter correctly.
Shape the letter correctly.
Write words with proper spacing between
letters.
Write sentence with proper spacing between
words.
Use capital letters in writing.
Use appropriate words, phrase and sentence
pattern.
Use punctuation correctly.
Spell the word correctly.
Write different types of compositions.
Write answer keeping in mind the format of
questions.
To enable the students to read the language
with ease
To enable the students to .......... .
1. Recognise words of English.
56
2.
Foreign Language Learning
Follow the meaning of words, phrases and
structure in their context.
3. Recognise different shades and meaning of
words.
4. Note and keep in view the punctuation mark
while reading.
5. Associate ideas of reading material with a
picture or a chart.
6. Read with the correct pronunciation and clear
expression.
7. Find out appropriate answer to question based
on reading material.
8. Locate key word, phrases and sentence.
9. Give the list of content material read.
10. Locate the sequence of ideas and facts.
11. Read with ease and appropriate speed.
+++++
3
..........
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND TEXT
BOOK
----------------------
(1) Use and selection of Instructional Material and
Teaching Aids
Introduction :
We know that teaching and learning is process.
Teacher teaches and students learn from teacher. In process
of teaching learning process teacher uses some thing to
make his teaching learning process effective. The material
and aids which are used by teacher to make his teaching
very effective is called teaching aids and instructional
material. The language teaching is not a static process but
it is a dynamic process.
We know the general objectives and specific objectives
of teaching English. Teacher should select teaching material
and instructional according the objectives decided by
teachers so that skill of reading, understanding, writing
and speaking and sub skills of skills could be developed in
students.
We know that English is second or foreign language.
So the teaching material and instructional material play
58
Slide Proj edu
O.H.P.
Instructional Material and Text Book
TEACHING AIDS
CompWir &sisud
L ~ LemUr!g (C.ALL)
v.c.P.
'--__ Ra._dW_--..." V. C. D.
I TdeWion
I HIm Pr(lj edflr
Instructional Material and Text Book 59
important role in teaching learning process. Thus we can
say that use and selection of teaching aids must be very
carefully.
Types of Teaching and Instructional Material :
• Visual aids :
1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft
boards.
2. Charts, Maps, Pictures, Drawings.
3. Static and Working Modal
4. Film strip, Slide Projector, OHP,
Transparencies and Episcope.
• Audio aids :
1. Audio Cassette Player
2'. Radio
• Audio Visual aids :
1. Video Cassette player
2. Video Compact Disc Player
3. Television
4. Film Projector
• Language Laboratory
• Computer Assisted Learning
Visual Aids :
1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft
boards: These boards are used to display different types
of display material. There are kinds of display boards used
to display charts, maps, tables etc.
2. Charts, Maps, Pictures and Drawings: These
teaching aids play main role in teaching learning process.
60 Instructional Material and Text Book
They interest in students. They prepare students mentally
and motivate for further preparation. Teachers can prepare
these aids himself of readymade. But he should himself be
a creative person so that student could follow him. Charts
may be written or drawn on thick coloured papers and
can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards.
Pictures can also be displayed by using any of the boards.
Maps can be either hanged or displayed by using any of
the display boards. The teacher can draw picture or any
sketch ar,y item also to be displayed with the help of display
board.
3. Static and Working Modal: Models play
important role in teaching learning process. Teacher can
use models to make his teaching very effective. For example,
teacher wants to teach the topic elephant. He can use both
the static and working model. Working model of elephant
creates primary interest in students. Static modal can be
used if working model is not available. If models are not
available he can use charts, pictures or drawing.
4. Film strip, Slide Projector, OHP,
Transparencies and Episcope : The teacher can use film
strip and slide projector to make his teaching too effective.
These aids make students to draw their attention very
carefully toward teaching. Slides are available in the market
and teacher can use them according to need of content.
Over Head Projector :
OHP is the hardware used to project the
transparencies. The transparency is plastic sheet which on
which teacher can develop his own material to be
presented. Use of OHP by teacher is good practical that
help him to make his teaching very interested and effective.
Episcope:
Episcope is also known as Epidiascope. The material
on opaque sheet is projected with the help of this hardware.
Instructional Material and Text Book 61
The teacher can project any material developed on simple
plain paper sheet. Small size of picture can be projected
through this instructional materiaL
Audio Aids:
1. Audio Cassette Player: We all are introduced
of tape recorder or audio cassette player. We use it in our
houses and shop to listen song. It is also used in teaching
learning process by teacher. It makes teaching very scientific
and effective. In this process the subject matter is recorded
as audio cassette and played on this machine. The students
repeat that subject matter and learn. The learners have an
access to native language and they better drill the pattern
in its required form. The teaching activities become more
and more effective and alive.
2. Radio: The radio was very famous medium of
mass media before three decades. It was first attempt to
teach English with the help of radio. In this source the
teacher has no criteria to select the learning material
because whatever aired is the source.
Radio must appeal to every type and level of taste.
But there is room on the air for instrumental and vocal
music, both classical and popular, addresses, forums,
debates, sports events, mysteries, religious broadcasts, quiz
programmes, variety programmes. It should be possible for
the listener to make a free selection from among many of
these kinds of programmes both during the day and in the
evening.
The first of the objectives of the study of radio in
secondary schools arises from the nature of the control of
the industry. In a democracy the best defence against
monopoly in the field of communication is an enlightened
public; and the schools have a major responsibility for
providing enlightenment.
62 Instructional Material and Text Book
The second important objective of the schools in the
area of radio study is the elevation of the listener's taste.
The third and perhaps the most important objective for
the radio study in secondary schools is the development of
the ability to evaluate news reports and communication as
the air. The method of improving young people's tastes in
radio is not the method of coercion. William Levenson
declares:
Enduring standards and tastes
cannot be imposed from without, but
must be developed from within. A
genuine continuous growth begins
first with an understanding of the
levels at which tastes exist.
Consequently, as applied to radio,
before the teacher attempts an
abstract discussion of comparative
standards, it is well to know to what
programmes the children are
listening. What programmes are
available in the community? When
do they listen? Such a simple survey
of the listening habits of the class is a
good preliminary step in guidance.
It will not only provide the teacher
with the information she seeks, but
if parents' reactions are solicited also,
the enterprise can serve to promote
further interest in parental guidance
at home. ( Teaching Through Radio,
New York, Rinehart & Company,
Inc., 1945:474)
Audio Visual Aids :
In the twentieth century technology was advanced
at the highest pace. In the beginning of the year there were
Instructional Material and Text Book
CHARACTRISTICS OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIAL
1
Supplement of oral Teaching
As Motivators
Prevent indiscipline and monotony
Make learning permanent
Save time and energy
Provide direct experience
63
64 Instructional Material and Text Book
limited resources available but in the end of the options are
many. It is believed that audio visual aids may create interest
and motivation at the highest degree because through this
teaching aid learners' both eye and ear become active so
they are widely used in teaching of language. Audio and
visual both media have high impact on the mind of
learners.
1. Video Cassette Player: We have seen many
films on video. How we see this film on video. Through
which tool we take enjoy of film? That is video cassette
which enable us to take enjoy of film. This material is
recorded in the video cassette and we look film. Thus in
teaching learning process teacher uses this VCP to make
his teaching effective and alive. Teaching materials
available on the video tape are played by this machine VCP.
2. Video Compact Disc Player: Now we can take
the help of VCD to make teaching effective so to view the
material the VCD is played on this machine. It is the latest
audio visual aid. The programmes record on the video
c a s s e ~ t e can be transferred into compact disk.
3. Television: We all know about television
because rather it is available at every house in India. On
television we take enjoy of film, serials, and other
programmes. Television is instrument through which one
can view educational programme. The educational
programmes are also aired from respective TV programmes
production centre. They are as good as radio programmes
which teacher can not select.
Film Projector :
Before the introduction of TV and other media
resources, the film was very famous media. The
programmes which are recorded on film are projected with
the help of film projectors.
Instructional Material and Text Book
CRITERIAL OF GOOD TEXT BOOK
~
The book should be accorclingthe individual cUfference of
students
The book should be accorclingthe objectives of teaching English
The subject matter should he well graded
Exercise work and practical work should be given at the end of
the chapter
It must develop moral qualities in the students.
There should he no printing mistake
It must not he very costly
The paper should he qualitative
The cover should he attractive and qualitative
65
66 Instructional Material and Text Book
Language Laboratory :
Language laboratory is the place where the learners
have to listen on headphone. The language labs are set up
with a view to provide listening activities in order to make
them developing good speech habit. The learning material
are recorded on audiotapes which are played back by
teacher is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the
mentor. Leamer himself records his practice and listens to
it.
Computer Assisted Language Learning:
Computer Assisted Language Learning means is to
present teaching material trough computer. To use of
computer in teaching learning process is innovation in
educational circle. The computer technology has brought
multimedia package means the programme is developed
with all kinds of media available for presentation. In this
presentation, texts, graphics, audio and video are available.
The computer is multi media system. It is VCD, DVD, VCR,
Slide projector and Film projector.
(2) Characteristics of Various types of Instructional
Material used in the class room Instruction:
Supplement Oral Teaching :
We know that most of class room teaching is verbal
which can not make teaching learning effective: The verbal
statements made by teacher do not help to clarify the view
points. At such a stage audio visual aids help to clarify the
view of teacher.
Audio Visual Aids as Motivator :
Audio visual aids work as motivators in teaching
learning process. Without use of these aids the teaching
becomes alive less. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear
Instructional Material and Text Book 67
his content then students take more interest in that
teaching. They mentally prepare for further teaching. They
are motivated to work more and effectively. Motivation, in
other words, is the preparatory. phase for all acts of
learning. Audio visual aids are helpful in establishing
motivation.
Prevent Indiscipline and Monotony :
Teacher uses teaching aids to make his teaching
effective and alive. Use of aids prevents monotony and
indiscipline of student because it creates interest in student
to know something. Thus it is helpful to make teaching
very interesting.
Make Learning Permanent :
Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory
organs of the 1earner which improve retentiveness and
make learning permanent. In audio visual aids, seeing and
hearing go together which play extraordinary roles in
learning. The aids appeals to those senses that can respond
adequately.
Save Time and Energy :
When teacher clear his content verbally or without
any teaching aid, it takes more time for students to
understand that content. But when it is cleared by using
audio visual aids, it takes lees time and makes students to
understand very easily. It saves more time of and energy of
teacher and students.
Provide direct Experience :
There are aids that provide direct learning experience
to students. Under this category, educational tours, visit to
zoo, and museums, taking the students into the
community- resources etc. are some of the sources that
68 Instructional Material and Text Book
provide first hand knowledge and serve as important aids
for learning.
(3) Requisite and Evaluation of Good Text Book
Text book is the area in which the language material
is presented prescribed for teaching and learning English.
The textbook boards of respective state develop the material
required. In Gujarat, the Gujarat state textbook board is
publishing books for teaching and learning English.
Criteria of the Selection of Good Text book:
Keeping in view the significance of text book one
should keep in his mind while selecting a text book those
below mentioned points:
1. According the age, interest and individual
differences should be kept in mind of selector.
He should select on the base of this criteria.
Selector should keep himself away from the
influence of out ward agencies and use his own
directional only.
2. The subject ~ a t t e r should be well graded in text
book and lit should be directly related to the
interest and life of the interest.
3. Text book should cover the objectives of the
English teaching.
4. Exercise work and practical work should be
given to the students at the end the chapter.
S. The teacher should select those books which help
to produce moral qualities in students.
6. There should be no any printing mistake and it
should be attractive and illustrative.
7. Language should be according the age and
interest of the students in the textbook.
Instructional Material and Text Book 69
8. The book should be not very costly so that every
student could purchase that could develop his
qualities.
9. The paper which is used in text book should be
white and durable.
10. The cover should be attractive and qualitative.
Characteristics of Good text books :
A good text books not only teaches but it also tests. A
few essential characteristics of good text books are given
below:
1. The words and structure are carefully graded.
2. No difficult words and new words are given in
good text book.
3. The words and structure already learnt are
repeated in the coming pages so that the students
could revise them making them stable in their
memory.
4. The size of text book should be handy for the
students.
5. The binding should be proper and strong.
6. The subject matter should be printed on good
quality paper.
7. Heading and subheading should be printed on
title page in bold form.
8. Illustration should be attractive. For every young
pupil, the picture should, be well drawn and
realistically coloured and not in black and white.
9. Clear and unambiguous instruction should be
given along side the test and practice and
exercise.
70 Instructional Material and Text Book
10. There should be both practice and text exercise
at the end of the chapter.
11. The subject matter of text book should provide
new information so that students could get new
knowledge.
12. The practice should be low which the majority
of students could solve them easily.
13. The introduction at the beginning and
conclusion at the end of the chapter should be
given in the text book.
14. A list of related books should be given at the
end of the lesson for the further study.
15. Textbook should cover whole syllabus.
16. Textbook must contain the lesson of national
integration, world peace, love and co-operation
among people without the distinction of caste,
sex and race .
..........
4
•••••
METHODS
----------------------
Introduction :
In India English is taught in each and every state's
school. English teaching is very complicate task in India.
The way of teaching English is very different in different
part of India. We know that English is taught as a second
language in our country. We know that when any language
is taught as second language, it becomes very necessary to
know for teacher "How and what to teach to students"
because it is very difficult for teacher to use suitable method.
Indian classes have their own problem and one of them is
teaching methodology. There is no single method that is to
be considered effective and accepted by all.
Methodology is systematic and scientific way of
teaching any subject. It guides teacher "How to teach" and
"How his teaching may be effective". It is very necessary
for teacher to know various types of methods and
techniques of teaching English. Method may also be defined
as: "The process of planning, selection and grading
language materials and items, techniques of teaching, etc."
Anthony (1963) defines the term 'Method' as: ''It is a
particular trick, strategy or contrivance used to accomplish
72 Methods
TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS
1
l 1 1
TheG.T.
I I
Direct I
I
Bili.ng1W
I
Reading
Method method Method Method
Situa:lional
I
Method
English or
Emphasis In .. adD:ng of
Emphasi
on:mather S.L ma.diJlc
.-
... "and.
t o ~ i n maybe wry
mo"'r
la:ncuaP
teadane; useful
t o ~ i n
is taudkt
... "and.
u.ordinc;to
teuhinc:
wi ......
la:ncuaP
Dr. Michel
.... and.
...... of
liJte Endish
Peu_._
la:ncuaP
cesium,
la:ncuaP. leam.S.Lby
Ji1e
utillJl.and
ThUis readine;
English
shDwinc:
irnpmved
difio_t
la:ncuaP
objeds.
.... ra-of boo., Nowh,
A. v. aids. Drama and
rnm>yo"'r
boo ••
In .... me"ihod "'m is dimct band. between speech ande"llm..u.n. TIle
difio_tsu-.u,iums am pJl!llll!nled inmeaninc:fu1situaiion. u.ameu am to
know ... siiuau-in which di1Ii!mnt riru.ctuII! am ...... d for tmmmitdnc;
mao .... ore"llmainc: ide ....
Methods
73
an immediate objective. It must be consistent with a method
and harmony with an approach as well." According to
W.E Mackey:
A Method must include four things
viz., Selection of Linguistic Material,
and Gradation of Linguistic Material,
Techniques of presentation, and
Practice by people.
Types of Methods :
1. The Grammar Translation Method
2. The Direct Method
3. The Bilingual Method
4. The Reading Method
5. The Situation Method
1. The Grammar-Translation Method:
The Grammar-Translation Method is the oldest
method of teaching English. This method is also known as
the Classical Method. The Grammar-Translation Method
dominated European and foreign language teaching from
the 1840s to the 1940s. It modified form it continues to be
widely used in some parts of the world today.
The Grammar-Translation Method was used for the
teaching of English in the beginning, under the influence
of classical languages like Latin, Greek and Sanskrit. In
The Grammar-Translation Method the students first study
the parts of speech and syntax in detail. The seni:ences in
English and the mother tongue were compared and
contrasted side by side. The Grammar-Translation Method
was the offspring of German scholarship. It was first known
in the United States as the Prussian Method.
74 Methods
The Grammar-Translation Method is called old
method of teaching. To use of this method is vary easy for
teacher. This method is also called classical method because
it is very helpful in learning the classical language like
Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Latin and Greek etc. In this
method the mother tongue is used to teach English. This
method is very famous in average teacher because it is very
easy for them to use this method. In English words, phrases
and sentences are taught with the help of this method. It
tells that every thing in English should be taught by
transiating into mother tongue. It is believed that
vocabulary and phraseology of a foreign language can be
learnt through translating its meaning into the mother
tongue and the teacher points out the grammatical point
and rules.
Characteristics :
!J The unit of teaching is word, not a sentence. It
means vocabulary is taught in the form of
isolated words.
• It considers grammar as a soul of language.
• Grammatical rules of teaching of English are
explained into mother tongue.
• This method does not help in development of
lmguistic competence of learner.
.. English grammar is taught through rules,
translation, definition and comparative study
of mother tongue grammar.
• Grammar is taught deductively.
• The main function of language learhing,
communication is ignored.
• Reading and writing are the major focus.
Methods "75
• Words are taught through bilingual word-lists,
dictionary study and memorization.
• The English is taught in mother tongue with little
use of target language.
• The students' native language is the medium of
instruction.
• Students are expected to attain high standards
in translation.
Advantage:
• When words and phrases are translated into
mother tongue, his understanding of those
words become very better and quicker.
• The Grammar-Translation Method develops the
art of translation.
• In this method the child associates foreign words
with translated words so strong memory bond
is created.
• The use of mother tongue helps the children in
vocabulary getting. It saves time and more
effective.
• The words and phrase are easily learnt and
explained if translation method is used.
• The working knowledge of mother tongue helps
them to learn grammar of a foreign language.
The principle of "to proceed from known to
unknown" is followed.
• Through this method we can test the ability of
comprehension of our students and we can
know the form of understanding the subject
matter.
• English grammar can be easily taught by
comparing with the grammar of mother tongue.
76


Methods
Students who studies in Gujarati medium
school, this method is very useful and effective
for Gujarati learner.
This method is very useful in over crowed
classes.
Disadvantage :
• The Grammar-Translation Method does not
emphasis on the basic skills like listening and
speaking etc.
• It is not possible to translate important aspect
of spoken language like pronunciation,
articulation, intonation, pauses, pitch etc.
• There are words, idioms, phrases in English for
which words can not be translated into mother
tongue. For example; prepositions and
propositional phrases.
• Language learning means speaking and reading
but translation in mother tongue prevents
students to read and speak in English.
• Student gets no opportunities to participate in
the discussion of the unit.
• Some of lingUistic items can not be translated
into mother tongue like article a, an, the.
• Translation into mother tongue affects the
originality of the words. It affects the sense and
beauty of the words.
• It prevents students to think directly in English.
Students first think in mother tongue and then
in English. Thus it prevents establishing of direct
bond between thought and expression.
Methods 77
• Grammar class can never be effective when
there is use of translation of grammatical rules
and their explanation.
• The Grammar-Trilnslation Method favours to
teach English by rules and not by use. According
to Dr. Ballard: "To speak any language whether
native or foreign entirely by rules is quite
impossible" .
• Psychologically and linguistically, this method
is not suitable. The language is multi-sensory
whereas this method makes it only a part of the
human information.
2. The Direct Method :
Child learns his mother tongue naturally and without
practice. It means child learns mother tongue directly. An
attempt to teach the language as one could in learning
mother tongue is known as the Direct Method. It is also
called natural method because it is learnt naturally like
mother tongue or first language. It is very difficult to bring
exact environment in which mother tongue or first language
is acquired, so later the same method became popular
called Direct Method. This method was against of
Grammar-Translation method. The extreme use of mother
tongue affected the naturalness of language. The students
did not learn language but practiced of ac:quiring mother
tongue or first language. In this method same environment
is created to learn second or foreign language but learning
SL is not natural process. It depends on the will of the
learner to learn for his own development. So teaching of
SL or FL by observing the principles of language acquisition
is the Direct Method. Prof. P. Gurrey in Teaching of English
as a Foreign Language (1966) comments:
78
Essentially, it (The Direct Method) is
a Principle, not a teaching method,
a system that operates through many
methods, a way of handling the new
language and of presenting to the
class. It demands a direct bond that
is a direct association between word
and thing and between sentence and
idea, between experience and
expression instead of an indirect one
through the mother tongue.
Methods
The Direct Method was quite successful in private
language schools. The Direct Method overemphasized and
distorted the similarities between naturalistic first language
learning and classroom foreign language learning. This
method represented the product of enlightened
amateurism. Henry Sweet viewed that it offered
innovations at the level of teaching procedures but lacked
a through methodological basis. Its main focus was on the
exclusive use of the target language in the classroom.
Sauveur opened a language school in Boston in the late
1860s. His method soon became referred to as the Natural
Method. Sauveur and other believers in the Natural Method
argued that a foreign language could be taught without
translation or the use of the learner's native tongue.
Webster's New International Dictionary notes:
Direct Method is a method of
teaching a foreign language,
especially a modern language
through conversation, discussion
and reading in the language itself,
without the use of the pupil's
language, without translation, and
Methods
without the study of formal
grammar. The first words are taught
by pointing to objects or pictures or
by performing actions.
79
The German scholar Franke wrote on the
psychological principles of direct association between forms
and meanings in the target language. For him a language
could best be taught by using it actively in the class room.
Teacher must encourage direct and spontaneous use of the
foreign language in the class room. Learners would be able
to induce rules of grammar. The teacher replaced the
textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking began
with proper attention to pronunciation. Famous words
could be used to teach new vocabulary, using name,
demonstration and pictures. These natural language
learning principles provided the formation for what came
to be famous as the Direct Method.
Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method
introduced it in France and Germany. It becomes widely
known in the United States through its use by Sauveur
and Maximilan Berlitz in successful commercial language
schools.
Characteristics of Direct Method :
• There is no interference of mother tongue. In
TG method at first child comes with the contact
of mother tongue and after with the target
language.
• In this method, there is direct bond of target
language. Child thinks into target language and
express into target language.
• Unit of teaching is sentence. Teacher performs
such activities which tell the meaning of the
sentence in the context. Teacher performs an
80 Methods
action related to the sentence which shows
meaning of the sentence.
• Direct Method is full of activities. The teacher
shows object or performs the action to clear his
concept.
• Direct Method is interesting and ,natural for
learners.
• Teacher shows the meaning of the sentence with
help of gestures, postures and action. It enable
student to establish direct bond between words
and expression.
• The teaching learning process is carried out in
English environment.
Advantage:
• This method is called natural method. The
English is taught as the child learns his mother
tongue.
• The pronunciation, accent, intonation and
rhythm are essential for better and effective
communication. This method helps to speak
language effectively.
• This method is based on the principle of
"Learning by Doing". Thus this method is
scientific and very effective.
• New teaching points were introduced orally.
• Both comprehension and speech were taught
• It observes scientific path of language
acquisition: LSRW.
• To learn any language means speak that
language with fluently. Thus this method creates
this ability in students.
Methods 81
• This method helps learners to enjoy the
language. So the learners start using the
language without fear.
• Correct use of grammar and pronunciation
were emphasized.
• Grammar was taught inductively.
Disadvantage :
• For every sentence or subject matter, the teacher
can not perform an action and show any object. It means
that every subject matter can not be explained by an action
or showing any object.
• This method is not useful in over crowed classes.
• This method does not help in important aspect
of language learning like reading and writing.
• To use this method in the class, the teacher
should be mastered in subject. He should have active
command on his teaching. He should be a perfect teacher.
• This method requires many audio visual aids,
which are very expensive so our schools can not afford
such equipments.
3. The Bilingual Method :
India is very big country. Many languages are spoken
in India. To make teaching effective, the appropriate
methods have to be applied in teaching learning process.
For this process we need huge fund. We know that teaching
materials are very costly so we can not use them in teaching
activities. There are basic requirements like school building,
blackboard, language laboratory, language rooms and
problem of over crowed class. How can we solve these
problems? We need large amount for this. Through specific
method the teaching can be made effective due to many
82 Methods
problems. Only there is one obstacle which can solve this
problem and that is use of mother tongue in teaching of
English. This method is improved version of audio visual
aid. Dr. c.J. Dodson of the University College of Wases has
developed this method during 1967 to 1972. This method
is known as Bilingual method because of proper use of
mother tongue is allowed. The use of mother tongue is one
of the resources of this method. There is drilling of the
pattern to enable learners to master basic required sentence
pattern which is effective practice of this method.
In the Bilingual Method, two languages, thilt is the
mother tongue and the language to be learnt are used. In
this method, the mother tongue is used only to explain the
meanings go difficult words. Mother tongue equivalent of
English words are given and the use of the mother tongue
is gradually dropped as the students' progress in learning
the language. Thus the Bilingual Method recommended a
restricted use of the mother tongue only by the teacher and
not by the pupils. It also provided for intensive practice of
patterns in English, helping the formation of correct
language habits.
Characteristics of Bilingual Method :
• Due to use of judicious use of mother tongue,
the leaner can easily grasp the situation of
learning English. He can learn target language
easily through this method.
• The learner can learn abstract ideas easily in
mother tongue while in secondary environment
it is very difficult for learner.
• It saves time and money because of use of mother
tongue. For secondary environment we need
extra ordinary talented teacher and larger
investment of fund.
Methods 83
• In primary environment student can assimilate
message very quickly and easily. It makes
teaching vary interesting and effective.
Advantage:
• Bilingual Method saves time and learning to
make effective use of learners' mother tongue
to understand content quickly.
• The teacher can provide them enough drilling
or pattern practice due to time saved.
• Bilingual method helps learner to developing
both fluency and accuracy in the target the
language.
• An average teacher can use this method easily
and effectively.
• In this method there is no need of audio visual
aids other technology so this method is very
useful for every teacher. This method is boon
for all those institutions where limited facilities
are available.
Disadvantage :
• Extreme use of mother tongue makes student
inactive to learn foreign language. He becomes
master of mother tongue but not Second
language.
• Teacher should be master in use of mother
tongue while teaching second language.
• The teacher should have the knowledge of use
of both methods while teaching English.
• If teacher is not innovative in her teaching
learning practice, she follows the rules of
grammar translation method. This method can
easily degenerate into the translation method.
84



Methods
It is used only in the earlier stages of learning
the language.
Students become weak in the target language
because he will try to learn every language
through mother tongue.
It requires a curriculum developed specially for
this method otherwise it is difficult to teach
target language in classroom.
• Bilingual method is used for rural and urban
schools.
4. The Reading Method:
Dr. Michael waste was the Director of education in
Bengal before partition. He was an innovative professor in
Dacca. His through study in field of teaching raised some
of the basic knowledge of teaching English. At that time
the direct method was being used by teacher and the result
was very weak. Dr. Waste drew his attention toward the
utility and aims of teaching English particularly to Indian
learner. Dr. Waste said that "English language was the need
of the time because it was the language that provided the
easy channel for communication with the international
community. In his opinion the Indian were learning English
to open the window of the world to look in the
advancement in the field of science and technology. These
all information is available in English language. To get this
knowledge, speaking is not necessary but reading is
necessary. He emphasized the silent and loud reading.
Characteristics of this Method :
• He emphasized on reading ability. He says
person who posses good reading ability can
learn speak and write easily. It is shortest road
to learn speak and write.
Methods 85
• Silent Reading: The reading is also very complex
skill but the Indian learner needs silent reading
not oral reading as they do to get knowledge.
• Reading material: The material that enable
learner to read was developed and they were
called Readers.
• This method is not helpful to average students
because it aims at the active command over the
language.
• This method ignores reading and writing aspect
of language learning.
Advantage:
• This method develops the reading ability in
learner. It makes learner a good reader.
• Reading becomes very easy and free from
phonetic difficulties.
• It trains the eye of reader to recognize the
graphics and other graphic object. It enables
reader to read easily.
• It is very effective in developing written
comprehension means reading.
• Reading increases the interest and confidence
of learner in reading literature written in target
language.
• New words and their meanings are easily
understood by learner. It means controlled
vocabulary is developed.
Disadvantage :
• This method is not scientific. Language is
integrated skill. Every skill is useful in developing
of language. This method emphasizes only on
reading which is unscientific.
86 Methods
• Much reading can not be helpful in mastering
of language.
., According to waste the ability to speak is more
difficult than reading is more doubtful.
• This method talks about only one skill that is
reading which is not proper. Every skill has it
contribution in developing of the language.
• Only reading can not create interest in students.
He also want to speak and listen and writing.
• Grammar, composition and idioms are of
secondary importance in this method.
• Emphasis on reading and particularly, silent
reading is educationally unsound. It makes
teaching procedure passive and dull. Students
require overt activity in the form of drill,
question and conversation. In the absence of
such activities they will not be able to feel and
use the language.
6. The Situation Method;
This approach is also known as situational language
teaching. British applied situational approach developed
by linguists. It dated from 1930s to the 1960s and which
had an impact on language courses. Many teachers are
still using this approach.
This approach is based on the structural view of
language. In this approach speech is emphasized as the
basis of the language and structure is very important for
developing speaking ability. In this method there is direct
bond between speech and expression. This approach
suggests to present different structures in meaningful
situations. Learners are to know the situation in which
different structures are used for transmitting message or
Methods
87
expressing ideas. The American psychologist also insisted
this approach. British linguists Firth and Halliday gave the
idea that structure must be used in different situations in
which they could be used. So they gave its distinctiveness
to Situational language teaching.
Principles :
The situational approach is based on the theory
established by the behaviourists. It includes the following
principles:
• Language learning is just a habit formation.
• The mistakes should always be avoided because
they create bad habit among learner.
• The language skill can be learnt more effectively
if they are presented orally first and after in
written form.
• Similarity is better foundation for language
learning than analysis.
• The meaning of the words can be learnt only in
a linguistic and cultural context.
Advantage:
. • This approach is very useful in teaching of
foreign language. Through structural items and
creating situation, the subject matter can be
explained easily.
• With the help of situation the students can
understand effectively and can master the
structure effectively and have durable
impression in their mind.
• It helps to introduce the vocabulary including
abstract vocabulary by using rear as well as
planned situation.
88

Methods
It makes teaching very effective and interesting
and alive instead of a burdensome process.
Disadvantage :
• It is useful I lower class only. Higher class
students are not benefited by this method. Only
few selected items can be taught through this
method not all language items.
• Such as a prose, poetry, rapid readers, and
composition items can not be taught through
this approach. Only intelligent and bright
students can take the benefit of this approach,
not average students .
•••••
5
+++++
APPROACHES
----------------------
Method refers the way of teaching a language and
approach refers the theories of language learning.
Types of Approach:
1. Structural Approach
2. Communicative Approach
According to Cambridge international Dictionary :
Method means a particular way of
doing something and Approach
refers to different theories about the
nature and acquisitions of language
or how languages are learned.
1. Structural Approach:
The structural approach means the arrangement of
words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern of
sentence. The mastery of sentence structure in considered
to be mare with than the acquisition of vocabulary.
In structural, content words are also taught. The
selection of content words is directed by their usefulness,
simplicity and teachability. A appropriate situation should
90 Approaches
APPROACHES
This approach tells about the
structure of the language.
According to it every language has
its own language structure like this.
Example:-
Gujarati - the vezb is placed at the
end of the sentence. Exa:-
Hu tyan jaun chun. In this sentence
the vezb "Jaun chun" is placed at
ele end of the sentence.
English- the vezb is plac ed after the
subject in the sentence. Exa.:-
I gQ there. In this sentence the vezb
"go" is placed after the subject.
Thus we can say that every
language has its own language
structure.
in this approach the teacher tries to
develop the communicative ability in
students.
GraJllJn.a tical Co JIlpe1encies
Speech Co JIlpe1encies
TecJudcal COJllpe1encies
Socio Linguistic COJllpe1encies
Approaches
91
be created to practice the structure and to relate its meaning
to it and to build up a vocabulary of content words even
structure is separately taught. The term is predated in a
appropriate situation by the teaching.
Generally the Structural approach to teaching English
refers to the way the language material is organised for
presentation. It is the way some English sentences all
carefully selected and graded are arranged to form a
syllabus.
Structural approach is based on the theory of
behaviourist. To teach language through this approach we
have to understand the pattern and structure of the
language. Each and every Language has its own structure.
Every language differs structurally. There are structural
difference between Gujarati and English.
In Gujarati the verb is placed at the end of the sentence
but in English the verb is placed after subject and after the
object or adverb according to sentence. The learners have
to practice this pattern thoroughly for naturalizing habits.
c.c. Fires says:
Only after much practice of the same
"Pattern" with diverse content do
the pattern themselves become
productively automatic.
Principles :
• Language is system of structure and signals.
Students can learnt very well if the teaching is
accords with its structure and signals in
scientific way.
• Students' activity is important rather than the
teachers' activity.
• Importance of speech.
92





Approaches
Importance of the formulation of language habit
in arranging words in proper pattern.
Language learning may be very easy if language
is presented into small structure which clears
the concept of the language entirely.
Language learning may be very effective if the
structure of the language is presented in the
context of the child's mother tongue.
The effectiveness of the language learning
depends upon the quantity of the subject matter.
If there is proper gradation of the subject matter,
the teaching may be very effective.
If the language is learnt as a living system,
learning of language may be too effective.
Advantage:
After learning five or six items can be categorised
• This method help student to learn very fast
because the subject matter is present in form of
structure. Students understand it easily.
• Students first listen to the teacher and they
repeat it. Thus they learn to speak first and then
read and write.
• When students learn the structure of the
language, they automatically learn grammar.
Words order, use of the word and sentence
pattern.
• This approach promotes the use of everyday
English.
• This approach enables student speak first which
is very important and then read and write.
• Proper stress on oral learning.
Approaches
93
COMMUNICATION ASPECTS
1
1 __
PHONOLOGY FUNCTIONS
GRAMMAR VARIATIONS
VOCABULARY INTERACTION SKILL
TEXTUAL
I CULTURAL FRAMWORK I
94


Approaches
Both the teacher and the student are active .
This method can be adopted for all the students
of language learning.
Disadvantage :
• This method prefers the selection and gradation
of the structure which does not solve the
problem of teaching English.
• This approach doesn't advise the teacher that
how should he present the structure of the
language or teaching material?
• This approach does not advise the teacher about
the teaching material for written exercise. The
technique of gradation is good in theory but it is
not good in practice work
• Structural approach is not suitable for higher
classes.
• Drilling makes the atmosphere of the class dull
and boring.
• Only well selected sentence pattern can be
taught.
• Predsed text book can not be taught.
• More teaching aids are needed.
• If the structure syllabus is followed strictly, it is
difficult to complete the syllabus.
2. Communicative Approach :
The communicative approach is a learner centred
approach. This approach gives the learner not only
grammatical competence but also a social skill as to what
to say. How to say, when to say and where, in order to
satisfy his daily needs as larger aim. In this approach, apart
from fluency, accuracy and appropriateness are equally
Approaches 95
important. Thus an effective use of language needs to
produce grammatically well formed.
This approach tries to develop both the accuracy and
fluency from the very beginning of language learning. In
this approach the role of teacher is that of a co-participant
not that of an authoritarian master. Teacher should provide
all the resources necessary for communication to be
effective in every context.
Communicative approach stresses the purpose of
writing and audience of it. So teachers using this approach,
have extended the readership. Teachers specify readers
outride the classroom.
The goal of communicative approach is to make
learners communicatively competency. In this approach the
teacher is seen as a facilitators of his students, learning.
Communicative approach is based on the idea that
the aim of learning second language is to gain
communicative competency. In this approach learner have
to knowledge of the rules of use of language to generate
language appropriately for certain situations. He should
have also the knowledge of the use of techniques to
communicate effectively. This approach draws attention
toward on the use of language in every day life.
Communicative Language teaching emerged in the 1970s
and 1980s.
The "term communicate" meant to express or convey
the ideas verbally or non-verbally. This approach
emphasizes the communicative capability of the learners.
In English language teaching, the teacher tries to develop
communicative ability in students or learners.
Communicative capability is also known as communicative
competence includes the following competences.
Communicative Competences :
1. Grammatical Competences
96 Approaches
2. Speech Competences
3. Technical Competences
4. Socio-Linguistic Competences
1. Communicative Competence :
This concept was introduced by Dell Hymes.
According. For him the speaker of English should have
knowledge of more and more grammatical competences
to become good speaker in English language or other
language. The learner of EFL \ESL have to know that how
a language is used by the member of the speech community
to accomplish their purpose?
There are eight aspects of communicative
competences. They are grouped into two parts.
1. Linguistic aspect
2.
(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
(8)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pragmatic aspect
Linguistic Aspects :
Phonology and grammatical description
Grammar
Vocabulary
Discourse
Pragmatic Aspects:
,
Functions
Variations
Interaction skill
Cultural Framework
For Savignon (1983) observes:
A communicative competence is
relative, not absolute. It depends on'
all participants who cooperate in this
Approaches 97
process. We know that human beings
are social creature but which things
make them social creature. Their
capabilities of exchanging ideas,
thoughts and the way of conveying
message makes them social creature.
With the help of communication,
people can establish interpersonal
relation. So communication is the
soul of human interaction.
Communication plays important role
in developing relation among people.
So teacher should emphasis on
communicative aspect of language.
Language is a mean or tool of communication so all
communicative competences should be developed very
carefully and effectively in children and people. The above
competences are very important with a view to developing
integrated skill of communication.
The Aim of Communicative Language :
The aim of communicative language is to develop the
communicative competence among learner. Functions
communicative language teaching is below:
1. Instrumental function of language is using
language to get things.
2. Regulatory function of language is using
language to control the behaviour of others.
3. Interaction function of language is using
language to create interaction with others.
4. Personal function of language is using language
to express personal feeling and thoughts.
5. Imaginative function of language is using
language to create the world of imagination.
98 Approaches
6. Representational function of language is using
language to communicate.
7. Heuristic function of language is using language
to learn and discover.
Characteristics of Communicative Approach :
1. Communicative approach emphasis on
communication of language because it plays
important part in development of sociality of
human. creature.
2. The message or thoughts expressed in
communication are always in form of function
so this approach is very useful.
3. If this approach is used in classroom activities
then it will be very useful for leaner because in
many classes language is taught as to pass
examination only so this approach enables
students to develop communicative ability which
is very important activity of life.
4. Through communicative approach, the leaner
learn target language as he learns mother
tongue. It means that the atmosphere of English
language is created so that student could learn
English directly.
5. Communicative approach enable student to
learn language naturally because the
environment of target language learning is
created.
6. All the teaching learning materials are prepared
according to child attitude and interest or
individual difference so that child could learn
language easily and effectively. This approach
is learner centred.
Approaches 99
7. In communicative approach every where, in
schools, classroom, on stages, and seminars, we
can say that the learner are taught as a native
person learn his language.
8. The students should be provided real life
situations. Creativeness of role play, simulation,
should be produced in students so that
they could connect these all with real life
situation.
9. In communicative approach, the emphasis on
active mode of learning is given. Thus it makes
students active in their activities including pair
work and group work.
10. The learners have to develop skill of language.
Speaking and listing aspect of language are too
important for oral communication so oral
expression is more emphasized. The oral
communication and written communication are
distinctively taught in this approach.
11. In this approach the visual aids are permitted.
These aids help to provoke practical
communication. They help to motivate and
focus pupils' attention.
12. The language is never static: it is dynamic. This
approach helps to learner to use language
naturally and according to accepted form and
usage.
13. The active use of lexical items help learner to
develop vocabulary. There should not be passive
use of lexical items. They need active command
of using words in meaningful message, so in this
approach the lexical items taught in context.
100
Approaches
Principles:
1. How to use the language is basic principle of
this approach. The communication is soul of the
human lives. People use communication for
verbal communication.
2. Communicative approach is based on natural
acquisition of language. so this the second
principle of this approach. Natural Acquisition
is principle of this approach. When learner
learns any language naturally then that is real
and authentic.
3. The teaching should be related to real life
situation so that students could understand the
reality of the life. The teaching without relating
real life situation is useless and vague.
4. We should not take language as a subject. In
school it is taught as a subject. Student study it
only to pass examination but it not proper.
Teacher should teach it as a skill. He should make
his students to speak perfectly so that they could
use it in their real life. So it should be accepted
as skill.
5. In this approach teacher is a main hero and his
role is different than conventional teacher
teaching other subjects. The teacher should teach
with heart but not the brain.
6. Developing communication ability is other
principle of this approach. Four sub skills are
main key of this approach. The four sub skills
are LSRW which should be developed in student
orderly. It combines active and passive skills to
design learning tasks.
Approaches
Merits :
101
1. Main function of communicative approach is
to develop communication competences, so they
are provided with optimum opportunities to use
the language.
2. This approach create communicative
environment among learners, teachers, and
society. They are motivated to form the bridge
of communication and to make use of real life
language, in other words language in use.
3. This approach is child or learner centred. So it
is very scientific. All the teaching materials are
prepared according to mentality and interest of
the students.
4. In this approach the modem methods are used
make teaching very e£.(ective and interested.
5. In this approach every leaner are active during
teaching because there are interaction among
learner and teacher. They communicate verbally
and non-verbally to each other, so every student
is active.
6. This approach provides sufficient opportunity
to students for practice of communication with
other students or people .
•••••
6
•••••
ORAL WORK
----------------------
1. Importance and uses of oral work in English
Teaching
When there is talking and writing there is also reading.
Mr. Mehta says there is much difference between speaking
and reading. When person speak then words come
naturally but in reading there is just reading or speaking
of only that things which have been written in the text.
There is in order of importance. The tongue is important
tool of speaking and reading so when there is writing and
speaking, there is reading also. The logical starting place
of any language teaching is oral work.
Usefulness of Oral Work:
1. To suggest new ideas : When teacher wants
to increase the vocabulary of students, he at first
should introduce the new ideas to the students
so that student could be able to increase his
vocabulary. During tris process, the teacher
should not apply his own notions on students.
He should put a topic' before students so that
Oral Work
103
UTILITY OF ORAL WORK
To suggest new ideas
cC Introdncenewldeas y
Knowledge of way of arranging words
properly
DeveJop the habit of speaking
104 Oral Work
TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING ORAL WORK
1
Oral composition
Read or look p i c ~ carefully
Completing Story
Dramatization
I
Conversational Activities
Language game
Oral Work
105
there will be discuss or talking among them on
the topic. Teacher should put topic according
to experiences and interests of students.
2. When teacher introduces new ideas, then new
word also should be introduced to students so
that students could be acquainted of new words.
With little efforts students can learn two or three
words of English language. Thus student can
be strong in remembering of words.
3. When students learn new ideas and new words,
then he should be given the knowledge of way
of arranging words properly. There is much
difference in order of words in English and
Gujarati language. Teacher should tell about the
two patterns of the languages. So that student
could understand it very well so that they could
apply them in their speech.
4. When students learn how to arrange the words
properly, then teacher should develop the habit
of speaking among his students. He can
develop it by asking questions and receiving
answers from students. He can organize debate
or discussion. So that the habit of speaking
could be developed in students.
Importance of Oral work:
• It unable student to speak very effectively and
mastery on communicate on skill.
• It makes student perfect in any kind of reading
and writing.
• Oral work helps students to read lesson of the
text very effectively and it helps to prepare the
way for textual teaching.
106








Oral Work
It prepares the foundation of good silent
reading.
It develops good speech, good pronunciation,
speak correct sentence and effective vocabulary.
The oral work helps students to improve their
spelling mistake.
Oral work helps to students to develop all
linguistic skill like LSWR very effectively.
Through oral practice, graded and controlled
vocabulary can be developed.
The oral work remits the pronunciation mistakes
and thus develops the habit of correct or
accurate speech.
It enables the students to understand how to
speak and how to use stress, intonation and
articulation in speech.
The oral work helps students to acquiring
proficiency in writing.
2. Material and techniques of conducting oral work
There are few techniques which help to conduct oral
work.
• Oral Composition is a first technique of
conducting oral work. In this work teacher can
take the simple objects, story, picture or any
incident. He can take answer orally from
students and can ask them to write on the
blackboard.
• Next the teacher can present the picture of any
object and ask them to read or look carefully
the picture. Then teacher ask questions on the
basis of picture. This technique helps the
Oral Work 107
students to draw their attention toward
particular objects.
• Completing story is good technique of
conduction oral work. In this work teacher tells
a story twice or thrice and then he asks students
to repeat it again and again. Last he asks them
to tell the story in their own words. This
technique develops the logical thinking and
sentence sense in the students. Story should be
brief, simple and interesting. It should be full of
actions.
• The other technique is dramatization. In this
work the teacher presents drama related to
English oral work. This works impress students
very much. They learn by acting and acting is
good technique of conducting oral work. It
touches the heart of student and develops the
oral quality perfectly.
• The other technique is conversational
activities. In this technique the command and
do exercise and question and answer exercises
have been included. In first exercise the teacher
orders to student and student follows it and he
speak that sentence which he does. In second
exercise teacher asks questions related to their
daily work and students give the answer of
question.
• Other technique is language games which
develop the correct speech habit in students.
Teacher divides students into two groups. He
gives them to frame the question and ask them
to converse.
• Other techniques are debate, talks and discussion
which also help to conduct oral work effectively.
108 Oral Work
MEASURES OF DEVELOPING CORRECT
SPEECH HABIT
Perception
There am ....... 01.
phone'iU: metho4.
1. RecGCllll_n.f
-n-......,..
Imitation
.owuII
I Recitblg poems
2. MaldRcef ...
I
........ b,. .........
J. Le...u..c ....
Feedback
I
.owuII ia. .. ap of
1-==. ... 1
.owuII eHdItu'"
4. Le ...... pn .........
Drill
I
the ..........
... ,,_:npidIy and.
I I
.. eedl.-a. of. Debating
I G1DrlD I
.... _.r .. the
text.
5. Pra.:&e.f
I
Dramatising
I
proolucinc c ..... c:t
.owuII.
I
Individ1lal Drill
I
Conversing
Oral Work 109
Teacher puts a topic before students and asks
them to discuss. Thus the oral quality can be
developed in students by conduction good oral
techniques.
3. How to develop correct Speech Habit
It is the duty of the teacher to unable his student to
speak in English. Through speech the pupil learns to make
a direct connection between English words or phrase, and
the object and ideas. He learns the habit of using words in
the correct sentence pattern and phrases pattern and he
can learn this in no other way.
Spoken words always have first place over the written
words. BloomfIeld has rightly pointed out "We write the
spoken word." The written word or printed word is nothing
but a symbol of spoken wont. For cultivating good speech
habit enough attention should be paid to pronunciation
because it is the root to a good speech. The teacher must
himself be acquainted with the fundamental of English
pronunciation. There are few causes of incorrect speech.
• Less attention is paid on speech training in
schools. When teacher teaches in class, he does
not care about the pronunciation of himself and
students.
• During teaching teacher himself, commits faulty
pronunciation so student also follow him.
• Teacher has no knowledge of speech sounds.
Every language has its own sounds. There is
difference in the sounds of English and Hindi
language. So enough knowledge should be given
to students and teachers.
• Regional effect on the speech.
• Retroactive inhibition.
110 Oral Work

Physical disability.


Lack of knowledge of intonation and stress.
Clipping of the sounds.
Measures to develop correct speech habit:
There are three main methods of teaching which can
develop correct speech habit in students:
1. Imitation method
2. Phonetic Method
3. Subsidiary method
Imitation Method :
The teachers' pronunciation must be good and correct
and it must separately be imitated by his students. This
method has four steps:
1. Perception
2. Imitation
3. Feed back
4. Drill
Perception:
Teacher writes the words or sentence on the black
board and himself gives model pronunciation among the
student. Students follow the pronunciation words or
sentence.
Imitation:
The training of the ear is an importance means of
mental development. The students therefore, carefully
attend to the two processes of listening and imitation. The
teacher pronounces the words and students try to
pronounce the words clearly and exactly like the teacher
but the pronunciation of the teacher must be correct.
Oral Work
Feed Back:
111
The teacher asks the students to pronounce the words
and if he finds that the pronunciation is not correct, he
tells them correct or exact pronunciation. That is called
feedback.
Drill :
It is the last step of imitation method. It had two parts.
1. Individual drill
2. Group Drill
The teacher asks the students to listen to his
pronunciation carefully and then ask them to speak the
word individually in higher class and -:::ollectively in lower
class.
Phonetic Method :
Phonetic is science of sounds as used in speech. The
teacher tells the correct pronunciation to student by giving
the knowledge of English phonetics. There are many sounds
in English language. So students must receive the
knowledge of English phonetic to produce these new
sounds correctly. In this method the teacher tries to tell
about 45 sounds presents in the English letters. He tells
that these sounds are produced by different human sounds
organs and also side by side explain the rules of producing
these sounds.
Daniel Jones has given five steps of the phonetic
method in his book An Outline of English Phonetic:
1. Recognition of various speech sounds correcting
the English language.
2. Making of these sounds by students.
3. Learning these sounds in the usage of sound
attribute.
112
4.
Oral Work
Learn to pronounce the complete sequence
rapidly and to each sound of a sequence or to
the text.
In the phonetic method practice of producing correct
sounds is very important. The teacher can also take the
help of different material aids in teaching pronunciation
through this method.
Subsidiary Method :
In addition to the above there are various other
methods also that can be used to teach pronunciation of
words. These are as follows:
1. Singing songs in chorus as well as individually
2. Reciting poems.
3. Analysing long and difficult words.
4. Debating.
5. Dramatising.
6. Conversing.
+++++
7
•••••
READING
----------------------
Introduction :
Bacon remarks in his essay Of Studies "Reading
makes a full man." Reading means to understand the
meaning of printed.. words Le. written symbols. Reading is
an active process which consists of recognition and
recognition and comprehension skill. Reading is an
important activity in life with which one can update his/
her knowledge. Reading skill is an important tool for
academic success.
Bacon's dictum: "Some books are to be tasted, others
to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and diverted"
provider available guidance about the kind of reading habits
to be developed in our pupils. It implies the pupil should
have two types of reading: Intensive reading and extensive
reading.
Reading is most useful and important skill for people.
This skill is more important than speaking and writing.
Reading is a source of joys. Good reading is that which
keeps students regular in reading which provide him both
pleasure and profit.
Reading is the most important activity in any language
114 Reading
class. Reading is not only a source of information and a
pleasurable activity but also as a means of consolidating
and extending one's knowledge of the language. Reading
is very necessary to widen the mind and gain and
understanding of the foreign culture. Reading is certainly
an important activity for expanding knowledge of a
language. Thus Reading and writing reinforce each other
and consolidate the aural-oral learning. The teaching and
speaking, provides for greater variety of classroom activity
for both teacher and students than a purely aural-oral
programme.
Reading habits not only help the student to get
knowledge and wisdom from the cultural of heritage, but
are also very helpful in passing for leisure period. Leisure
hours are not only, during the active period of life but also,
more significantly, during the period when man has retired
from active life. Therefore the learner of English must know
reading English. The education of a child is imperfect,
unless he is supplied every things needed with the ability
of reading. A.S. West comments: "Reading is a process of
sight- second sense." W.S. Gray notes:
Reading is form of experience.
Reading brings us in contact with the
minds of great authors, with the
written account of their experiences.
Their recorded lines and the
made by them in
various fields.
The process of reading may be broadly classified into
three stages:
1. The first stage is 'the recognition stage'. At this
stage the learner simply recognizes the graphic
ccunterparts of the phonological items. For
Reading 115
TYPES OF READING
INTENSIVE READING
IS ALOUD READING
nw. -dine can lie caIled.xi
redineorp ..... _ ~ In
this type of_dine ihe
leamer D!iiUIs ihe Btto CjI!t
Ja.w1edp. ru -dine-
do_ to cuv _tto CjI!t
-.ec:ifk mi>nnlkt-.
EXTENSIVE READING IS
SILENT READING
Exmn.riw -dine- ihe madinc
fiorpleuu:lll!. De ma.derwan_ to
ahoabDJnI!ihinc. The D!a.der
do. not QUI! ah .... tspec:ifk or
important DmnnlkUon at'i!r
r e ~ UruaJlypeople madfior
-.. ihe:m lIPda ••
116
Reading
instance he recognizes the spoken words in its
written form. Difficulty at this stage depends
upon the difference between the script of the
learner's mother tongue and English and
between the spelling conventions of two
languages.
2. The second stage is the 'structuring stage.' The
learner sees the syntactic relationship of the
items and understands the structural meaning
of the syntactical units.
3. The third stage is the 'interpretation stage'. This
is the highest level in the process of reading. The
learner comprehends the significance of a word,
a phrase, or a sentence in the overall context of
the discards. For instance, he comprehends the
serious and jocular use of words, distinguishes
between a statement of fact and a statement of
opinion. It is this stage at which a person really
reads for information or for pleasure.
Silent reading is the most important type of reading.
Silent reading should be introduced when the students has
mastered the basic structured, comprehends the meaning
of words and can recognize and pronounce words
accurately. Silent reading enable s the students to read
without making sounds and moving his lips. It helps him
read with speed, ease and fluency. It aids comprehension
and expands the student's vocabulary.
1. Teaching Reading at the earlier Stage:
At the early stage the necessary precautions should
be observed during the course of good teaching reading:
1. The teacher should not insist on speed of reading
but on the accuracy pronunciation while
teaching reading.
117 Readi!lg
2. While teaching reading teacher should ask not
more than one pupil to read at one time and he
should pay individual attention to every
students of class.
3. While teaching reading the teacher should be
very careful in pointing out and rectifying the
mistakes of pronunciation, articulation and
intonation of the pupil.
4. While teaching reading the teacher should first
try to find out the causes of mistakes committed
by the students and then try to correct them by
eradicating the cause of mistake.
S. While teaching reading the teacher should be
aware of the right sitting or standing posture
for reading.
The pupil should be enlightened on this point from
time to tome. Further pupil should be asked to read, keeping
the book at a right distance from the eyes and it should
also be ensured that when there reading, there should be
proper arrangement of light facility. If the visibility is poor
the door and windows should be opened. Light may be
put on a table lamp may also be used to improve viSibility.
While reading the book should be held in left hand and the
index finger of the right hand should be placed under the
word or line which is being read.
Types of Reading :
1. Intensive Reading.
2. Extensive Reading
3. Aloud Reading
4. Silent Reading,
1. Intensive Reading :
Intensive reading is related to further progress in
language learning under the teacher's guidance. Intensive
118 Reading
reading will provide a basis for explaining difficulties of
structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and
idioms. It will also provide material for developing greater
control of the language in speech and writing. The material
selected should parallel the type of material the advanced
student would enjoy in the native language: short stories,
novels, plays, and poems, articles on scientific discoveries,
artistic achievements, political development, and aspects
of contemporary community life in a country where the
language is spoken. Since this reading matter will be studied
in detail, it will not serve as the ideal vehicle for further
practice in direct teaching. This purpose will be served by
the material chosen for extensive reading.
Intensive reading material will be the basis for
classroom activity. It will not only be read but will be
discussed in detail in the target language, sometimes
analyzed and used as a basis for writing exercises. At this
stage, some teachers fall into the monotonous pattern of
setting a section of reading material for homework
preparation every night. Then they begin the lesson each
day by asking student to translate what they have
prepared, sentence by sentence around the class. This
becomes a tedious chore, completed in a purposeless way,
and soon destroys any pleasure in the reading assignment.
Teachers must work continuously for variety of presentation
in the classroom. Sometimes sections of intensive reading
material may be set for preparation before hand, the
students being supplied with questions to think about before
they come to class. The ability of the students to talk and
write in the foreign language about the material chosen
for intensive reading will be very dependent on the teacher's
choice of texts. The literature chosen for intensive study
should be predominantly contemporary.
Intensive reading is text reading or passage reading.
In this reading the learner read the text to get knowledge
Reading
119
or analysis. The goal of this reading is to read shorter text.
This reading is done to carry out to get specific information.
Learner reads book to acquire knowledge is the kind of
intensive reading. There are few characteristics of intensive
reading:
1. This reading helps learner to develop active
vocabulary.
2. Teacher play main role in this Reading.
3. Linguistic items are developed.
4. This reading aims at active use of language.
5. Intensive reading is reading aloud.
6. In intensive reading speech habit are
emphasized and accent, stress, intonation and
rhythm can be corrected.
2. Extensive Reading :
Material for extensive reading will be selected at a
lower level of difficulty than that for intensive reading. The
purpose of extensive reading will be to train the student to
read directly and fluently in the target language for
enjoyment, without the aid of the teacher. Extensive
reading can be made the basis for oral reports, to the rest
of the class, or full class discussion. It may be the source for
written compositions in which students deal with specific
issues arising from the material in the book. On occasions,
the class may be divided into groups to read interrelated
material. Each group may prepare some part of the project
on some present a group report to the rest of the class. This
type of class project gives a point and purpose to extensive
reading by building reading practice into a matrix of
purposeful activity. Thus, the attention of the reader is
directed toward the extraction of information from the text,
rather than towards the reading process itself.
120 Reading-
Extensive reading assignments may direct students
to articles of current interest in foreign language magazines
or newspapers. To ensure that students do not become
bogged down in reading which is too complicated, the
teacher will be well advised to discuss the relation of articles
to be read, with due regard to the special interests of the
readers. Extensive reading is the reading for pleasure. The
reader wants to know about something. The reader does
not care about specific or important information after
reading. Usually people read for to keep them update.
Few Characteristics of Extensive Reading are :
1. It helps learner to develop to active vocabulary.
2. Extensive reading is silent reading.
3. In extensive reading the subject matter is
emphasized.
4. In the extensive reading the learners play main
role because they have to ask for measures.
5. In extensive reading the idea can be developed.
6. The aim of extensive reading is to enrich learners'
knowledge.
7. Through extensive reading the good reading
habit can be developed.
3. Aloud Reading :
Reading aloud also play important role in teaching
of English. Teacher should know that the training of
reading aloud must be given at primary level because it is
the base of words pronunciation. If it is not cared, it will be
vary difficult at secondary level. According to S.
Venkateswaran reading aloud is not useful at the secondary
level because of the following reasons:
1. It is very difficult skill. In unseen text or in other
text there are many words which student does
not know how to pronounce it.
Reading
2.
3.
4.
121
If student have riot prepared himself for reading,
it will be very difficult for him. The reading will
be unnatural.
Reading basically is reading silently.
According to Venktes, only those text should be
read aloud, which have been written to read
aloud like poetry, dialogue, and other type of
text. The texts which have no need not to read
aloud should not be read aloud.
How to make reading aloud interesting :
English teaching is very important task at secondary
level. Because at this stage learner comes in contact of other
people and have to talk and read any subject matter. So it
becomes very necessary for him to pronounce very well in
English. In their academic college they have to read and
read so the skill of reading becomes very important for
learners. What the teacher can do for better and effective
teaching of reading as under:
1. The material which teacher present before
students should be according to previous
knowledge of the students or related t their own
experience.
2. The teacher should emphasize on the stress of
learners.
3. The teacher should be very careful while process
of reading is going on. If any mistake is
committed by learners, he should correct it.
Correction should be friendly and productive.
4. The teacher should care about all readers. He
should also draw his attention toward weak
readers
5. While teacher present model reading, this model
reading should be according the level of readers
122 Reading
so that readers could upderstand it very well
and pronounce very well.
Advantage of Aloud Reading :
1. It enables learner to develop the skill of reading
very well by speaking or expressing ideas.
2. It enables learner to develop the skill of
pronounce very well.
3. It makes reading very enjoyable while teacher
uses reinforcement during reading.
4. Language learning is a kind of imitation. When
teacher says anything or read any text, the
learner also tries to imitate that. So teacher
should have innovative ideas so that it can make
this activity very affective.
Disadvantage of Aloud Reading :
1. Over crowed class is very big problem. The
teacher can not provide sufficient opportunities
to all students.
2. At earlier stage reading aloud is very necessary.
If enough training of reading aloud is not given
at primary level, it will be difficult to read aloud
at secondary stage.
3. Only bright and intelligent students learn to
read aloud very well because they get chance
frequently while average/students hardly get the
chanced of reading. So they become the passive
learners.
5. Reading aloud takes more time so it is time
consuming. All students can not read at a time
so managing classroom becomes impossible.
4. Siler.t Reading :
Silent reading is a very important skill in teaching of
English. This reading should be employed to increase
Reading 123
reading ability among learners. Silent reading is done to
acquire a lot of information. Teacher has to make them
read silently as and when they are able to read without
any difficulties. It is kind of habit in which learner are
enabled to read without any audible whisper.
How to make Reading Interesting :
Teaching reading is very important skill because this
is the stage where the knowledge of learners starts to flight.
The selection of reading material should be authentic. How
the teacher can make his teaching reading effective:
1. Teacher should tell about the topic first to the
learners. He should motivate students. Teacher
should not read first but he should allow the
students to read the text.
2. Teacher should not allow the student to
murmuring while reading.
3. The subject matter should be interested and
effective and selected from the reading material
developed for it.
4. Eclectic approach can be used by teacher for
better comprehension and understanding.
Advantage of Silent Reading :
1. This reading makes students very active and
accurate.
2. Silent reading concentrates the attention of
learners toward subject matter and he learns
naturally.
3. It saves time because this activity is done at a
time. All students participate together in this
activity at a time.
124 Reading
4. It is very useful to develop the skill of reading
fast.
S. This skill plays main role to increase the
knowledge of students.
Disadvantage of Silent Reading :
1. This technique is not useful at earlier stage of
language learning.
2. Through this skill one can learn the
pronunciation.
3. In this skill the leaner can cheat the teacher if
subject matter is not interested.
4. Only bright and intelligent students can learn
this skill but average students learn it hardly.
+++++
8
+++++
WRITING AND COMPOSITION
----------------------
1. Mechanism of Writing Written Exercises
Language is primarily speech and writing is a means
to preserve it. Writing is a kind of linguistic behaviour; a
picture is not. It presents the sounds of language through
visual symbols. Writing may be very important for one
group of students but much less important for others. The
decision on how much writing to include will be made
independently according to the needs of each group of
students. Writing is a skill which must be taught and
practised. Writing is essential features of learning a language
because it provides a very good means of foxing the
vocabulary, spelling, and sentence pattern. It becomes an
important aspect of students' expression at higher stage.
Writing is the most efficiently acquired when practice
in writing parallels practice in the other skills. Writing
provides an excellent consolidating activity. Writing is also
useful for setting homework exercises and for some class
text. It has been suggested that writing is hailed a service
activity for most students rather than an end in itself; the
teacher will find that the problem 'how much writing?'
soon solves itself. The type of writing in which the students
126 Writing and Composition
are engaged will became more sophisticated as they acquire
greater facility in the exercise of the other skills.
Mechanics of Writing :
1. Making strokes with proper hand movements.
This means to know from where to start a letter
and where to end it
2. Write letter of appropriate size and proper
shape.
3. Write letter in words with proper space.
4. Write words in sentence with proper space.
5. Write sentence in paragraph with proper space.
6. Write correct spelling in words.
7. Write capital letters correctly.
8. Write legibly and neatly.
During the first new weeks of teaching English the
teacher may write on the black board occasionally, show
the flash card of picture with word on it and expect
students to read and then only to transcribe them. The
teacher may teach the writing in a formal way after a few
weeks of oral work.
How to Introduce Writing:
In the beginning the teacher must teach every thing
by demonstration. It is very necessary that the teacher gives
students practice in pattern drawing.
The teacher must give practice in writing script
because it is simple and easy. It helps the students to write
correct spelling because they have t reproduce the visual
image that they get while reading. The teaching of print
script is profitable also because it gives less strain to the
muscles because effort is not to be made to join letters. But
Writing and Composition 127
COMPOSITION
l
1
1
Guided and
con'lrolled
Free Composition
composition
/
In i1U11;ype ofcomposi"IiDn In i1U11;ype ofworkdae
the Jeamer IlOmple._ JeamerisJeftfme io
work1DUlerdae &Uidan.ee comple. his _rk
or controlJinc;of ....,her There is no inar:li!:dnc
.He is given all _quimd of.amer. The Jeamer
maaJial io IlOmple. his uses his own mind. and.
work. comple •• his wod.:

Oral composition Writlen composition

In tlu:s composition the learner
In this composition the learner
eXPlesses their ideas ani thoughts
eXPlesses his ideas ani thoughts
orally. Oral a:lmpositian maybe
in written farm. It may also be
comrolled or flee. comrolled or flee.
I
PkiuJ:e Composiii.an.
I
In ihU campomlan. _ms: Pve! .. pidun uul uk D lG4IJcinc
IhU lIidure. Iii. _type d IUi4ed C4lJIIP4IsDUxn.
128 Writing and Composition
teacher must make it a point to group the letter according
to their shape and size if he teaches the alphabet. He must
also decide to teach the small letters afterwards.
2. Graded Exercises in Written Work
The teacher may give the following types of exercise
after the students have acquired a writing skill to a certain
extent:
1. Transcription of sentence.
2. Writing sentence from the substitution table.
3. Forming sentence from disorders words.
4. Fill in the blanks
5. Matching parts of sentence.
6. Changing statement into questions.
7. Changing sentence into negative and other.
8. Changing singular in plural and gender change.
9. Putting capital letter and punctuation marks
in a sentence.
10. Writing answer of simple question.
11. Framing sentence to use particular words.
3. Picture Composition :
English Composition occupies a very important place
in the learning of English. It is now accepted that students
must be given intensive practice in controlled composition
and after that only they should be expected to write free
composition. Picture composition is one type of guided. The
teacher should teach picture composition very carefully
because the students have to develop the skill of observation
and then onl'y they have to arrange their ideas in proper
sequence using correct vocabulary and framing
Writing and Composition
129
grammatically correct sentences. The teacher may follow
the steps while teaching picture composition:
1. Before coming to composition exercise the
teacher should select a picture according to the
level of the students. Then he should revise the
structure and vocabulary.
2. The teacher will present a picture before students
to observe or he may give a list of word to write
paragraph on the picture
3. The teacher may present structure of words to
frame the sentence of the same type using them
from the ready list.
4. Then the teacher may ask students to develop
the composition.
5. The teacher must always present a picture
composition and ask students to write the
composition in their words.
6. The teacher can teach picture composition by
giving them unarranged sentence and ask them
to rearrange the sentence keeping in view the
picture presented to make a good composition.
7. The teacher may present a list of questions in
sequence and a picture. Then he may ask
students to write answer of question looking the
picture.
8. The teacher will present a picture and give
complete composition giving blank space and
ask the students to fill appropriate word in blank
space.
9. The teacher may present a picture before
students and gives points related to picture and
can ask them to write complete composition.
130 Writing and Composition
10. The teacher may present a picture and can ask
them to describe complete composition orally.
1. Guided and Controlled Composition :
In this type of composition, the learners are supplied
all necessary structural and lexical items to along with the
thoughts and ideas to be expressed. The role of the teacher
in this is only a improver and guide. The teacher gives them
guidance by way of asking questions, pictures, cues etc. it
enable students to work independently under guidance of
teacher. It is one of the activities included into supervised
study.
2. Free Composition :
This is the composition in which the learners express
their ideas freely and without controlling. The language is
not used in control manner by the learners. According
situation the learners prepare their composition freely. This
type of composition develops the ability of "learning
through insight". In beginning they need the guidance of
teacher but later they use it independently. It is called free
composition because at this stage the learners are free to
choose their structure and vocabulary and express their
own thoughts and ideas on a given topic.
3. Oral and Written composition:
A. Oral Composition : In oral composition the
learners express their ideas and thoughts orally. The oral
composition may be conti"Olled or free. In this, composition
only the spoken language is used. Learners are prohibited
to use pen and pencil. They are to express their thoughts
only orally. They can not express their ideas in written form.
It is very useful in primary classes of teaching English.
B. Written Composition: In written composition
the learners express their ideas and thoughts in written
form. The written composition may be also free or
Writing and Composition 131
controlled. In the written composition only written form
of language is accepted. Learners use pen or pencil in
written composition. This is also very useful exercise for
learning language.
4. Paragraph Writing:
In this writing the learner are asked to write a
paragraph on any topic. In this writing the learner express
their thoughts and ideas in his own way. In this writing
the learner needs special and specific training to write
sentence meaningfully. In the paragraph the lexical and
structural items should in proper order. This writing task
needs a idea or theme to be expressed in paragraph.
Teacher should give interesting topic to the students so that
he could make paragraph writing very interesting. The
teachers should give only those topics, on which students
could write. For example teachers may give these types of
topics:
• For primary classes:
My class teacher, My School, My Class room
• For intermediate class:
The Railway station, The Public Park, The post
man
• For Advanced Classes:
A Visit to a Museum, Do I like tea or Milk, A
Visit to A Zoo
5. Spelling and Pronunciation correction of written
work:
"Language is sound contextualized." When we learn
language, listening comes first than speaking. The teacher
must give motor training to enable student to write in good
manner, speedily and correctly.
Dictation is a good training to ear and as well as motor
132 Writing and Composition
training to the sttidents. There are many advantages of
dictation:
1. It trains students to reproduce in writing what
they listen.
2. It gives good aural practice to the students. It
develops the habit of listening attentively in
students.
3. It enables students to understand the part of
each sentence and word phrases.
4. It enables student to write at good reasonably
speed.
5. It enables students to understand spelling and
punctuation.
6. It enables student to write- to use capital letters.
7. It enables students to develop the habit of
listening spoken language and getting used to
the sound of system of the English language.
In dictation the teacher speaks the students listen to
him and write that in their note book. Dictation exercise in
early stage must be planned to help the students to write
correctly and also with reasonable speed. It should not be
used as the test exercise. It should be given out of the
language material which the students have already
practiced. If there is any difficulty or unfamiliar words in
the paragraph, the teacher should write them on black
board.
It is very necessary that the teacher at once corrects
the dictation but always not. In that case the teacher must
ask the students to exchange their note book with their
neighbours and then the teacher should write the words
likely to be mis-spelt and ask the students to check the note
books they have.
• ••••
9
+++++
TEACHING OF PROSE, POETRY AND
GRAMMAR
----------------------
1. Teaching of Prose
In English language teaching the teaching of prose
occupies an important place. In the yearly years all
language items should be practised before reading. Reading
implies reading with comprehension. Reading
comprehension involves understanding the meaning of
context, vocabulary, grammatical structure and concepts.
Reading reinforces the vocabulary. Intensive reading aims
at providing practice with sentence of newly introduced
pattern. It concentrates on the study of the language.
Extensive reading concentrates on the matter. It is reading
for information. Both are important in teaching prose.
Extensive reading reinforces the vocabulary and structure.
In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher
and loud reading by the students.
In the language one can use language in two forms.
One is prose and other is verse. The verse is the oldest form
of expressing thoughts and ideas whereas the prose is a
latest form of expressing ideas. Whole literature is divided
into two forms, verse and prose. The learners should have
134 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
TEACHING PLANNING
-
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---

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TEACHING PROSE
I I
TEACHING POETRY
I
TEACHING
I
GRAMAMR

---..----
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!Il!!!!!m.WuIAl b. odced *'

know.twImD _emad One .... ilW ..... g ....... t-...
in T.L.l'n' ... _eo.<h WuIAl b. odced *' Jawwfiwl_
DUIa.t!'f!"ih. rei:nfe:rt emmt.
inw.lvuIuntin T,L.l'n, ... oftor
I
4--5 Ouerii.m.I:&smUrlmu
eo.<h rim ...... rlinforU! ...... t
"'co ... ,WWeWIln
4-5 Ouerii.m.llllIliillmlI
AfIu: ....... oIion
....
... c ....
!l!!!!!!igWulAlb •
AfIu: ... oIu.ation ..........
pnper rlinfortemmt,
1Mn. Obj.div.typ.
du>uI4 b. odced. Obj.di""

typ.
..
At ........
At 1ari t ... m. WuIAl ncit.
At ........
WuIAlb. 1Mn, Effaytype
p .... "' • .(l!{pIouun,
WuIAl b. 1Mn. E •• ay
lL
typ.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 135
LANGUAGE FORM
OBJECTIVES OF
TEACHINC PROSE
1. To ,Jevelop ahili.",. of
readalowl with
correaprcm:unciaom.
and JhyiIoninJeamer.
2. To emiclL iheir
.
3. To clevelop. &hili.",.
Gf campmllll!!lul .
-anbIc ofihe ieD.
4.. To clevelop • &hi6..",.
of u,joy mading smri
pusap in iarpt
vmSEFORM
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC
VERSE
1. To enahJe s'ludenw ."
"UJUleutand and u,joy ihe
poetJy.
2. Undeuiand ihe amtm1
ide_. "Ihcnq;Jlw of ihe
poetJy and beauty of.
Lmc,u:ap.
3. To enahJe ihe s'ludenw ."
reaie • poem wi1h.

in'lDnaiim, _ami and
rhytun.
136 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
mastery in both verse and prose but expressing ideas in
verse is a little difficult. The prose is found very easily in
text book. Prose is a narrative art of expression. In higher
classes where the medium of instruction is English, prose
is taught.
Objectives of Teaching Prose :
Teaching of English is very complex task. It is taught
as second language in country like India. It is taught not as
other subject like math and social science. English is a
language so it is taught to increase the linguistic competence
in learner so that he could use it in his behavioural life.
There are objective which should be kept in mind while
teaching:
1. To develop the ability of read aloud with correct
pronunciation and rhythm in learners.
2. To enrich their vocabulary.
3. To develop the ability of comprehend meaning
of the text.
4. To develop the ability of enjoy reading short
passages in target language.
How can a teacher make teaching prose effective :
1. The prose should be selected according the
interest and individual differences of the
students.
2. The prose must be read aloud.
3. The teacher should motivate students for
listening.
4. Before teaching prose the teacher should narrate
the central idea or theme very briefly.
5. Teacher should use audio visual aids to make
his teaching effective.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 137
6. Before model reading, there should be
pronunciation drill.
7. The students should be asked to read silently.
8. Teacher should ask questions with a view to
familiarize them with literature of target
language; they should not be on literary aspect.
2. Teaching of Poetry
Teaching of poetry embodies the beauty of the
language, thought and feelings. It uplifts the human soul
and brings music and joy into life. Poetry is the musical
and metrical form of language and it brings students in
touch with the very best of human nature. It develops the
aesthetic pleasure and students enjoy the lyricism which is
inherent in poetry. Poetry plays an important role in the
several curriculums. It helps in the all round development
of the student, particularly the emotional, imaginative,
intellectual and aesthetic sides. It enriches the expression
of students and introduces a variety of language pattern.
Poetry is the blossom and fragrance of all human
knowledge, human thoughts, human passion and
emotions.
Poetry embodies light in expression, stretched,
between thought, feeling and form, Poet works at the
frontier of knowledge. Ted Hughes in his important and
international book Poetry in the Making describes two
aspect of poetry. Hughes claim is that poetry is possessed
of certain wisdom, some thing special, something that are
curious to learn. His claim is that the latent talent for self
expression in any child is immeasurable. There recognitions
are at the heart of reading and writing poetry in schools.
The activities in the classroom need to reflect a desire to
promote both in a collaborative endeavour between the
teacher and taught.
138 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
METHODS OF TEACHING GRAMMAR
J
l l
DEDUCTIVE METHOD INDUCTIVE METHOD
-----
~ ~ ~
In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m In fm me'lhod 'leacher
prelll!Jl.iI defini:li.cm, "iheory fiDt giw,s esample to
orprincipal. Th.enhe giw,. male his i e ~
the examples *' dear his
e&dive and ihen. eMs
concept. the mnceptor holY.
.. ..
lNDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE INCIDENTAL
MEmOD MEmOD
l
1
In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m
prelll!Jl.iI e ~ ihen. Ells h
definition or am.cept and. hn
In fm me'lhod h ieacher
he tales e ~ from
e ~ CORIpD III!JI.EIule
stud.enil. Then he dears his
pa:Hena.
concept.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 139
Poetry is often neglected and poorly provided for.
Many students spend much more time completing language
exercises of little value than they do rending, writing or
talking about poetry. Some English teachers express great
unease about teaching poetry. Poetry should be encouraged
whereas possible. Teachers attitude to poetry are crucial in
the importance they attach to it; the enthusiasm with which
they read it aloud.; the extent to which they read it widely
themselves; and the way in which they demonstrate a
concerned responsibility for it in how they give it status.
Poetry is powerful form of expression. Poetry is a thing
of beauty. Beauty of form, beauty of language, beauty of
thoughts, mood and feeling. Poetry is included in the school
curriculum so as to develop the aesthetic pleasure, the
feelings for beauty in pupils.
The aim of teaching poetry is to give pleasure and lay
the foundations for an adequate appreciation of what is
beautiful in life. It eases the ennui owed by the intensive
study of subjects. Poetry is beauty and truth. Poetry means
much to the adolescent. Poetry can communicate the actual
quality of experience with a subi:le and precision
unapproachable by nay other means. A poetry teacher
should bear in mind to pick up an apt poem for his pupils,
learn by heart, read it aloud with stress, intonation, keep
examinations apart and make it an exercise.
It is well known that poetry is for pleasure, enjoy and
appreciation. It is not for teaching language. This means
that poetry is not taught for teaching any language item. It
is said that poetry is to be felt and not studied as a prose
lesson is studied. It is some thing that is personal. Poetry is
a piece of creative writing in verse. In the words of
Coleridge, 'Poetry is the best words in their best orders'.
Poetry is always read for aesthetic pleasure. The reader
reads poetry to enjoy the beauty of the language.
140 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
The Objectives of Teaching Poetry :
Dr. Paliwal (1998) has defined the objectives of teaching
poetry at the secondary level in his book English Language
Teaching. The objectives are as under:
1. To enable students to understand and enjoy the
poetry.
2. To enable the students to understand the central
idea, thoughts of the poetry and beauty of the'
language.
3. To enable the students to recite the poem with
proper beats, stress, intonation, ascent ~ n d
rhythm.
4. To enable the students to imagine and develop
their aesthetic sense.
How can a teacher make Teaching Poetry Effective :
1. In poetry teaching, the teacher should not
emphasis on content.
2. Poetry should be read for pleasure.
3. To enable the students to develop the habit of
reading and reciting poem.
4. To enable students to read aloud for listening
comprehension.
5. To enable the students to enjoy words, phrases
and rhythm.
6. Ask learner to read silently.
7. Teacher should ask simple questions and make
them employing their effort to understand it.
A teacher should always know How to teach poetry
to second language or first language learners. The teaching
of poetry should be live and it should enrich their linguistic
capabilities for acquiring communicative competence.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
3. Teaching of Grammar
141
Grammar is a scientific statement of the principles of
good usage which concerns with the relation of words in
the sentence. Educated people use certain forms of
expression. Language specialists study the forms they use,
note that they follow a few comparatively simple principles,
and state these principles. The result is grammar.
Teaching of grammar is a much debated topic in
language learning. Different expert have give different
pinion about teaching of grammar. According some, the
language can not be learnt without studying of grammar
of the language. According to Dr. Sweet "Grammar is not
a code of rules." According to Chapman:
Grammar is a study of language by
specialist, made in order to establish
the rules and principles which
underline the correct speech and
writing, rules and principles which
are followed more or less
unconsciously by the native speakers.
But some people say that the utility of teaching of
grammar is doubtful in learning English. They say that the
students who study grammar are very often able to solve
grammar exercise but do not write correct speech.
Teaching of grammar had very important place in
the past. It was commonly believed that to help the pupil
to learn English language its grammar must be taught first.
It was also believed"that without knowing and mastering
grammatical rules of English, one can not learn to speak
and write it. Slowly it was realized that correct usages go
on changing fro time to time. And as a result grammar
teaching which was regarded as an end in itself lost its
142 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
importance. Then the direct method of teaching English
was introduced and teaching of grammar lost its
importance. The introduction of direct method gave an idea
that to be able to speak or write English knowledge of
grammatical rules is not necessary. Those who favoured
the direct method of teaching English said that language
can be learnt by practice and not by studying the rules of
grammar. Now it is believed that grammar can not be
taught in isolation. Teaching of grammar helps students
only to understand and to decide whether the language
that they speak or write is correct or not.
Methods of Teaching Grammar :
There are three methods of teaching of grammar:
1. Deductive Method
2. Inductive method
3. Inductive Deductive Method
4. Incidental Method
1. Deductive Method :
In deductive method the teacher uses a grammar text
book. He tells his students rules or definitions and explains
those with the help of examples then he gives exercise and
ask his pupils to apply the rules.
Advantages of Deductive Method :
1. Average teacher can use this method in country
like India.
2. This method hel ps students to compare the ideas
in grammar of mother tongue and second or
first language.
3. The learner can try the grammatical questions
very easily.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
143
4. Learner can respond effectively and can explain
rules, structures, etc.
Disadvantage of Deductive Method :
1. This method makes learner learning about
language.
2. This method can not develop communicative
ability among learners.
3. The learners become inactive during class room
teaching.
4. This method is not child centred but teacher
centred.
5. In the class room teaching there is hardly use of
audio visual aids.
2. Inductive Method :
In inductive method the teacher first presents or takes
the example from the students then comes on theory or
concept.
Advantage of Inductive Method :
1. Inductive method is based on the theory "From
example to generalization". So it is very useful
in class room teaching.
2. This method helps students to understand the
difference between particular notion in
grammar of L1 and L2/FL.
3. The learners learn the particular grammar point
through use. First they have to deduce the
meaning and later they generalize the form or
structure.
Disadvantage of Inductive Method :
1. This method is not useful in over crowed classes
like India.
144
2.
3.
4.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
The institute must be ready to focus the language
aspect, not the mark criteria.
In this method the teacher has to use modern
method of teaching language.
Only an innovative teacher can use this method.
3. Inductive Deductive Method :
This method as the name shows is the synthesis of
both above the methods. This method can remove the
limitation of both the above methods. The teacher following
this method will first present the examples before his
students then will explain them or analyses them. Then he
will try to see that pupil draw some conclusion and then
teacher will give the rules. But here the teacher does not
stop. He then gives new examples and ask his pupil to verify
the rules.
This method of teaching grammar proves very
successful and advantageous as it become practical, real
and scientific. It proves very successful because it is very
psychological following all the accepted maxims of teaching
and the pupil are not forces to cram the rules.
4. Incidental Method :
Grammar teaching in this method is done during the
teaching of a textbook or composition writing. The teacher
explains complex sentence pattern. But the method at times
disturbs the teaching of a textbook or composition writing .
•••••
10
+++++
SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES OF
ENGLISH TEACHER
----------------------
1. Skills and competencies of English Teacher :
English is a foreign language. To teach it in a
satisfactory manner good teacher of English is required. It
must also be remembered that all the good teachers can
not teach English in good manner at all stage. It is common
experience that a teacher teaching English in standard V
or VIII Le. at the primary level very satisfactorily may not
succeed in teaching at the secondary or higher secondary
level.
In other words to teach at different levels a teacher
needs to have calibre and qualities appropriate for that level.
Still however, a good teacher of English must possesses
some qualities:
• He must be lover of English.
• He must have sound knowledge of English
language as well as literature.
• He must know different methods of teaching
English.
• He must have an ability and skill to teach
methodically and systematically.
146 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGLISH
TEACHER
l
Personal attribute
ProCessional expertise
Personality traits
I _____ A_w_·m __ de ____ ______ Kn __ ______
English la:nguage teacher k as Facilitator not as a Conventio na1
teacher
English la:nguage teacher k as hlstrw:tor not as a Preacher .1
English la:nguage teacher k as Content and Material developer 1
English la:nguage teacher k as Classroom Manager I
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 147
• He must know how to use different audio visual
aids.
• He must be able to pronounce English
responsible correctly.
• He must have ability to speak English correctly.
• He must know the techniques of writing.
• He must know and speak observing correct
intonation and stress pattern.
• He must be able to speak with correct phrases.
• He must have an ability to understand his
students.
• He should always take interest in his students
and become soft toward his students.
• He must have an ability to identify the mistakes
of his students.
• He must have an ability of thinking power.
• He must have an ability to adopt necessary
remedial measurements.
• He should have good hand writing.
• He must have the knowledge of different types
of activities and how to organize all activities.
2. Importance of Evaluation in the Teaching of
English:
Evaluation has important place in the teaching of
English. The class room teacher, the head master, the district
education officer and parents wants to know how much
and in what ways the students are benefited through
studies.
The students are taught English with a view to
developing their ability to comprehend and to express.
148 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
TYPES OF EVALUATION QUESTIONS
Completion
This 'type of questioJl
GexeraIly this 'type 0 f Test
is also kJtowJl as long
questioJlS is askeol 2. Alternate
axswer questioJlS.
witJta mwto response Test.
TIle studeJlis bve to
axswer into 0 JIe or 3 Multiple
elaborate the aJlSWer
two seJlteJU:e. TIle cholce Test
ad they bve to
cIirect questioJlS are 4 Matciung
explaill according to
askeol with millim.a1 Test
questioJl askeol. Ix
wdt of the COJlteJlt. 5. Analogy Test
this 'type of questioJlS
6 U nSUl.tability
kJtowledge of the
Test
Iearxers CaB be
7 One word
assessed.
answer Test
8 Recall Test.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 149
EVALUATION TEST
In this type of In this type of test In this type of test the
test the the questions are practical or behavioral
questions are asked in written work is given to the
asked orally. Corm. The questions students. It may be an
The questions may be objectives or experiments, field
maybe short answer types. work or project work
objectives or on which students
short answer have to work.
types.
150 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
There for it is very necessary to find out in exact term the
out comes of the teaching learning programme in the light
of our instructional objectives. In evaluation the major
objectives are the outcomes in the broader terms and those
form the basis of the evaluation programme. Different way
and means must be devised and technique must be
employed to test the out comes of learning English.
Evaluation in that way is a means to judge the
achievement of the students in the field of education. The
achievement is generally measured through the test and
examination. This means the test and examination are very
important in the whole process of the learning.
The language arts teacher needs to arrive at an
understanding of the basic principles underlying his
practice. Basic principles concern the place that language
occupies in the life of the child and the adult, the nature of
language, the growth and development of the child and
the processes by which growth and development are
facilitated, the significant factors that contribute to
language development, the general curricular program of
work, the differentiation of work to meet individual
differences, and the techniques and procedures essential
to the implementation of the program. Because philosophy
and psychology inherently relate to every practical problem
of curriculum and teaching, they are best considered in
the situations to which they naturally apply. The basic
principles are summarized here, however, for emphasis and
review and to help raise teaching above the level of mere
pattern following.
The study and practice of teaching are threatened at
two extremes. At one, the student teacher is occupied with
abstract generalizations which, because of his inexperience,
he vaguely conceives and indifferently applies. Knowledge
of this kind has little effect on what the teacher actually
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
151
does. At the other extreme, the student teacher is primarily
occupied with acquiring a set of fixed patterns and with
using them more or less mechanically. If the patterns are
adaptable to the particular situation, he may do a good job
for a time. But situations vary and times change; inflexibility
results in inefficiency, helplessness, and stagnation. If a
teacher makes a choice, perhaps the second evil is to be
preferred to the first. But choice may not be necessary; it
may be entirely possible for the student teacher to gain a
command of practical techniques and, at the same time,
an understanding of the basic principles upon which the
techniques are based. This double grasp results in teaching
on a high leveL
Importance and Significance: The primary functions
of language are communication, self-expression and
thinking. These functions appear early in the life of the
child as inarticulate cries and gross bodily movements
expressing demands for attention and feelings of
satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As the child matures,
gestures, facial expressions, and sounds become more
specialized. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes
more exact : words express and communicate more
accurately and economically than cries an gestures. The
command of words and groups of words grows with
practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to
be expressed. The communication function is obvious. The
use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings
is equally real, if not so obvious. Language is a means of
clarifying perception, of discovering likenesses and
differences in thing observed, of forming general ideas, and
of discovering relationships. One deals with symbols rather
than concrete experiences.
The operation of the communication and thinking
functions is observable in the preschool year and
152 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
thrqughout the school life of the child. These function lay
a broad foundation on which to base of language program
having far-reaching implications as to contact and
procedure.
Collateral to thinking and the expression of ideas are
two other functions, related and implied. In the first place,
it is to be observed that commui'l:ication and thinking, as
do most other personal activities, necessarily concern other
people. Language is a social act, a means of adjustment to
and control over other people. The entire process of
socialization is largely a process of language development.
In the second place, command of language is an important
factor jIl the development of the total personality of the
child. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence,
satisfaction, and security in meeting many life situations.
Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the
whole life of the child.
Nature of Language: The teaching of language is
primarily conditioned by the nature of the subject.
Language is, concisely, the manipulation of experience by
the use of symbols. It may be observed that the involved
symbolism is purely arbitrary, as shown by the existence of
different words in different language to express the same
idea; that words stand for certain concepts based ori the
direct or vicarious experience of the speaker or writer; that
words have meaning to recipients only to the extent that
they recall or are interpreted by similar experiences; and
that growth in language is at once growth in experiences
and growth in control of the symbols which stand for
experiences.
Other significant factors in the nature of language
concern the interrelation and the interdependence of
language functions (thought, self-expression,
communication) and of language experiences (speaking,
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 153
writing, listening, and reading). A language experience,
such as conversation, may include storytelling, discussion,
explanations, directions, asking and answering questions,
and introductions. In writing a letter, one is concerned with
describing incidents, telling anecdotes, giving information,
or asking for facts. Particularly significant is the fact that
in schoolwork, oral and written experiences are combined
and discussion often proceeds writing, in the primary
grades, the oral telling of a story precedes its writing.
Significant also is the complexity of the learning
situation as it embraces the various attitudes abilities, and
skills which are consciously or unconsciously employed in
<.:arrying on language experiences. In a given experience
such as storytelling a child selects content, builds to a climax
by relating a series of incidents in a logical or psychological
order, chooses appropriate words and phrases, uses a
variety of sentence patterns for interest and force, cultivates
voice quality, pitch, and modulation, practices
pronunciation and enunciation, and acquires a favourable
or an unfavourable attitude toward oral participation. All
these important elements of language experience are
progressively strengthened or weakened according to the
concrete situations involved. Attitudes, such as a desire to
be effective and a willingness to work on particular
weaknesses, are essential to growth in language skills and
abilities. Vividness and force are directly affected by variety
of words and sentences. Content is conditioned largely by
choice of subject. Organization depends on content.
The concept of language as a learning task, then, is a
complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences
and elements, in which growth proceeds simultaneously
but in varying degrees, dependent on points or particular
emphasis and interest. If the various elements could be
isolated and developed separately, teaching would be
154 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
relatively simple. Isolated treatment results in improvement
in specific elements but frequently makes little change in
total performance. The teacher's job in handling elements
is to direct growth in a single element or ability while
keeping it in its proper relationship to other abilities and to
the total language situation of which it is a part.
Growth in Language : Complexity characterizes
language in early stages of development, as well as at
mature levels. Complexity appears in the evolution of kinds
of language experiences and in their component elements.
The order of development of language experiences and in
their component elements. The order of development of
language experiences is in part vague, but it is obvious that
the first experience to appear is oral communication as the
infant attempts to make known his needs through cries,
gestures, grimaces, and words. The first language efforts
are practical and utilitarian in purpose, relating to food,
comfort, and pain.
When immediate physical needs have been met and
a degree of maturity reached, the child becomes absorbed
with the intriguing task of making the acquaintance of a
great variety of things. What's dat? is asked frequently.
Inquiries concern animals, cars, people, houses, trains-
all sorts of novel objects and experiences. Asking questions
is the characteristic type of language activity at this stage.
"The three-year-old asked 376 questions and the four-year-
old 397 questions during the day." In inquiry, the emphasis
shifts from use of language for communication to the use
of language for thinking. The child is struggling to identify
the various objects in his environment, to bring order into
a confusing world of sight, sound, smell and feeling. In
this explanatory-naming stage, which continues for some
years, the child's vocabulary is composed largely of nouns.
" At two years there is a high proportion of nouns (50 to 60
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 155
percent)." Gradually, with increasing maturity and wider
experiences, the child's concepts become more clearly
defined, and ideas of relationship take shape. Thus, as the
dog, horse, and cow are distinguished and identified, the
bow-wow ceases to be any four-legged animal; the train
says too-too; the dog runs : flowers are pretty.
Correspondingly, language changes. Other parts of speech
appear: descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs), action
words (verbs), connectives, and pronouns. Growth in the
uses of these various parts of speech goes on
simultaneously. Anderson says, "All phases of language
development proceed at a fairly uniform rate. This indicates
that language is learned by wholes, rather than by isolated
and individual response, and that the relative proportion
of parts of speech is fixed by one general language pattern."
Words in phrases soon follow the use of single words, as in
Tommy cold. The verb is finally added and the sentence
form takes shape: Tommy is cold, The dog barks. At first,
sentences are predominantly simple : declarative,
interrogative, and finally imperative; but the complex and
compound sentences are used early.
It would seem that another kind of language
experience which begins to take shape early is dramatic
play. The first manipulating of objects is probably purely
mechanical in nature; but soon the use of materials with a
purpose seems to appear, as in loading a truck, moving
blocks, or constructing an airport. Words accompany
actions. Dramatic play becomes more complex and social
when several children play together. Children express in
action and words ideas about phases of life which interest
them: preparing food, taking cared of a baby, storekeeping.
Further differentiation in kinds of experience performed
appears with increasing maturity and the response to the
demands of life in and outside the school.
156 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
It is also apparent that growth in performing an
increasing variety of language experiences is paralleled by
growth in the component abilities and skills, as was shown
above in the development of vocabulary and in the use of
sentences. This growth is likewise true of the mechanics of
oral speaking: articulation, voice management, and
pronunciation; the general abilities of having something to
say and speaking to the point; and later the mechanics of
writing.
Factors in growth are maturation and stimulation by
environment. Maturation concern the natural development
of speech functions and processes of thinking. For example,
the utterance of sounds follows a natural order, beginning
with vowels and the consonant m. But maturation is also
directly affected by language patterns set by other people
and by the stimulation to though and action of rich, varied
experiences.
From this brief sketch of growth in language there
appear certain basic principles significant for teaching. It
has been observed in the first place that language is a vital
part of the growth process. It is a vital part of the process
of adjusting to life, physical and social; a means of gaining
control of people and thought; and a means of bringing
order into a bewildering world. Training children in
language is training in living, in understanding, and in
getting along with people. In the second place, it has been
observed that, although native equipment provides
potentialities of growth, actual growth is conditioned very
largely by the stimulation and direction provided by
parents and teachers. A rich environment of varied
experiences is essential to good language development. A
third implication is that language is purposeful, not a
mechanical or perfunctory act. The purpose is largely
utilitarian-communicating and extending experience-
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 157
but not exclusively so, because there is a place for the
development of creative, artistic impulses. A fourth
significant principle is that language develops as a whole-
a whole made up of many complex, interrelated elements.
A fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. The
teacher attempts to set up a program of work that is
consistent with natural order in the development of
experiences, abilities, and skills. Goals are adjusted to
capacity. Problems are recognized as characteristic of
particular age grade or maturity level, such as articulartory
difficulties in the lower grades.
Individual Differences: The teacher is no less
concerned with individual difference than with the general
course of language development in children. Individual
differences are marked in the experience phases of the
work, oral and written. Some children participate freely in
oral work, make worthy contributions, and shoe marked
ability in thinking and expression; others do not. In written
work, differences are much more apparent, appearing in
both quantity and quality. Betzner points out that children
in the five-to-eight age group write compositions varying
from 9 to 1,0,74 words with a median length of 66.6 words,
and that there is a similar wide range in thought units of 1
to 69. Reed points out that the quality of compositions of
pupils in grade 7 varied from 1.0 to 8.2 on the Hudelson
scale. While there is progress in average achievement from
grade to grade, there is great overlapping among grades.
Extreme variations in total achievement are to be
expected in composition work; they are, of course, no less
wide and no less significant in specific abilities and skills.
These difference appear as the teacher makes a check list
analysis of oral and written experiences; some can be
measured objectively, using standard tests.
Statistics give a reliable estimate of the range of
individual differences that may be expected in any class or
158 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
age group, but they do not give a clear, detailed picture of
the individual children with whom the teacher must deaL
General facts of variability are interpreted in terms of
concrete realities as the teacher works with individual
children from day to day in the varied intimate situations
that arise in the a classroom. Gradually each child emerges
as a person, a complex of specific attitudes, abilities, and
skills and of general powers. Each element appears as a
clearly identifiable entity, but its significance is revealed
only when it is considered in relation to other factors that
combine to form an organic whole. The teacher must deal
with each child as a person, as well as make general
adjustments by instruction for children with varying levels
of ability. The child is an individual, not a statistic.
Participation as a Factor in Growth: Language has
been found upon examination to consist of a variety of
experiences through which the child carries on the business
of living and learning and by which he exercises and gains
control of specific attitudes, abilities, and skills. Normal
growth in language takes place through participation and
the simultaneous exercise of a number of component
elements. It follows that the school, to be realistic and
lifelike, must base its program on actual participation. The
school must recognize the common language experiences
of children and adults, and it must train children in carrying
on these experiences. Situations in which language
experiences serve an immediate purpose must be provided
by the school. Emphasis must be placed on the whole
learning situation; interest must be secured : insight and
understanding achieved; and specifics-attitudes, skills, and
abilities-learned as related, integrated components of the
whole. This emphasis on complete learning experience is
an application of the familiar gestalt theory, a principle of
psychology that underlies many modern education trends
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 159
and has wide application in various areas of the
curriculum.
Attitudes as Factors in Learning: The whole,
organic theory of learning is not inconsistent with
concentration on specific elements as factors in the learning
process. The teacher must recognize that it may be
necessary at times to separate from the total learning
situation specific elements for emphasis in order to bring
about improvement in total performance. However,
practice and training exercises should be handled so that
their usefulness is clearly evident. The purpose of practice
and its relation to a whole language experience must be
recognized by the learner; and practice must be motivated
by desire for improvement.
Of all the basic factors, attitudes are at once the most
fundamental and the most elusive. Attitudes constitute the
dynamics of learning, the drives to participate in
experiences and to improve abilities and skills. Although
real life provides adequate stimulation for certain kinds of
experiences, the teacher may find that children in school
are verbally inactive and unresponsive. The solution is to
make schoolwork lifelike and to set up conditions that
encourage free participation.
Even more difficult is creating a desire for
improvement in the quality of performance; children may
be satisfied with low level performance. Some leverage for
improving quality may be found in purposeful experiences,
but good form is to some extent a matter of good taste or
convention. The teacher may show the high social value of
maintaining certain standards and may cite worthy
examples and authorities. He represents, for the time, adult
judgment and authority, and expressions of approval carry
weight. Setting up specific goals and recording
accomplishments are other effective means of motivation.
160 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Repetition as a Factor. in Learning: There is, in the
new psychology, no magic which eliminates the need for
repetition and drill; "that practice makes perfect is more
than a half-truth," says Reed. But that practice alone may
fail to assure competency in language is amply proved by
the results of traditional teaching. Making practice effective
involves certain basis considerations.
In the first place, it is recognized that practice must
be purposeful to the learner. Purpose derives from the
recognition by the individual of his shortcoming and from
the situation-an immediate one-in which the need for
the skill or ability is felt. Implied are some form or standard
with which a pupil can compare his work and some means
of diagnosis. Need is often revealed by failure to make
meaning clear or to convey a message adequately. Thus, a
child who mumbles is not heard, and the class protests;
and a child who combines his sentences interminably with
ands is a bore. Going from obvious effect to cause is the
most convincing evidence of need for improvement that
the teacher can present. However, at times the teacher must
resort to the appeal of convention or authority, such as:
"We show the end of a sentence by a period. . . . The
word get is pronounced get, not git. . . . Running is
spelled with two n's." Diagnosis is achieved by having a
child compare his performance or product with a given
standard and by testing; but often it is necessary for the
teacher to call attention to a specific difficulty of which the
child is not aware. Thus, a pupil through long use becomes
accustomed to certain faulty language patterns and to the
common mispronunciation of various words, and the
teacher must take positive steps to have the pupil hear and
get a feeling for the correct forms. Implied in the
consideration of purpose is the basic principle that a pupil
should be required to practice only forms needed by him
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 161
individually and that practice should be applied at the point
of error. The frequent assignment of class exercises, except
for testing purposes, results in a waste of time and lowered
class morale.
A second basic principle of repetition states that
practice should approximate as closely as possible the
situation in which the form is normally used. According to
this idea, strong reliance on the traditional language game
is faulty. Some children profit from hearing the correct form
repeated many times; but, in the main, learning is limited
to learning to play the game and does not result in use of
the correct form in real situations. Another point of error is
the reliance upon written blank-filling exercises for drill in
correct usage. The guide should primarily be sound.
A third basic principle emphasizes that repetition drill
should follow clear ideas of correct form. Live examples
should be set by the teacher and the textbook; incorrect
forms should be analysed as to the nature of difficulty and
the cause of error, and incorrect forms should be compared
with correct forms in the remedial phases of the work. More
than passive attention to explanations is here required. The
pupil should shoe recognition of correct form by choosing
correct forms, by reproducing them, and by using them in
original examples. The repetition following recognition is
at first deliberate, attentive, and consciously directed; later
it is used in connection with larger language units; and
finally it is practiced in total language situations with
marginal attention given to the specific skill or ability. The
situations in which a given form is practiced should be
varied. Multiple use in a variety of situations increases the
range of applicability and tends to maintain a high level of
interest.
The checking of progress toward the mastery of a
specific skill or ability may be recognized as a fourth basic
162 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
principle. Lists and record sheets used in the diagnostic
phase of the work are useful for recording progress. If
possible, the evaluation should be the pupil's own, and he
should keep his own record of progress. The teacher should
check and confirm the pupil's judgments. Repeated
checking in tests and actual use, as well as restudy and
practice, are constantly required until mastery is confidently
achieved.
Adequate repetition, carried to the point of mastery,
requires time, but effort should be concentrated on a short
list of basic skills and abilities determined by cruciality and
by the needs of particular pupils. Extensive treatment is
necessarily sacrificed to concentration on relatively few key
language elements.
Understanding as a Factor in Learning :
Traditionally, primary emphasis in learning has been placed
on seeing, doing , hearing, and saying. Language is still
largely learned by imitation, and good language is largely
judged by its sound. However, understanding is recognized
as an important factor in learning situations in which
generalizations, rules, and principles can be formulated and
applied. The traditional skill subjects are now being
approached in part from the point of view of meanings. It
is too early to say how far we may go in making the
mechanics of language meaningful to elementary pupils,
but some good examples of what may be done are offered
in recent literature. For example, Smith points out that
growth in the skills of punctuation and capitalization must
mean growth in sensing relationships between ideas and
gaining force through modification. The significance of the
period and question mark are made clear by recalling what
one does with the voice in oral reading. Specifically in regard
to commas, she says, "Commas are used to clarify meaning
when sentence elements are out of their usual order, to
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 163
separate interrupters from the main idea, and to make clear
the members of an enumeration." The growth of general
abilities relates mainly to developing ideas and meanings,
Le., understanding. Grammar is an attempt to develop
concepts, principles and rules relating to usage and to the
structure of language. Grammar provides a stock of ideas
and understandings that help to make language intelligible,
to give some insight into its structure, and to supply some
help in the use of language forms and in the correction of
errors.
Differentiation of Instruction : A differentiation of
work suited to the needs of individuals in the class is
necessary. This differentiation concerns all phases of work.
In handling the experience phases, the teacher assists pupils
in identifying and setting up general standards but allows
each pupil to select a specific standard as he gives his talk
and engages in conversation or dramatization. Moreover,
the teacher judges each pupil in terms of this ability, not in
terms of what other children do. For example, in handling
a lesson on reporting at the fifth-grade level, the teacher
may develop with the class the following standards :
1. Give facts that relate to the topic.
2. Tell the facts in order.
3. Use words that tell exactly what you want to
say.
4. Speak clearly.
5. Show interest in your topic.
All the pupils are engaging in a common experience-
reporting; the reports may be on the same or different
topics. The standards set up are those which the teacher
and pupils feel have some significance for the class as a
whole at its current stage of language development, but it
is not assumed that all the pupils have the same specific
164 :-_ ;l1s and Competencies of English Teacher
needs. Each child is encouraged to discover his weakness
and to pick a specific language goal on which he needs to
work and to concentrate on that goal during the
preparation and delivering of the report. The pupil is judged
by how well he does what he sets out to do, not in terms of
the total list of standards. Thus, differentiation and specific,
individualized training are provided within an experience
that superficially has the appearance of traditional whole-
class work.
In the practice or corrective phases, differentiation is
of the essence. The teacher makes an inventory of specific
individual needs, groups children having the same needs,
and provides the necessary instruction and practice
exercises. Pooley says, "Usage instruction should be as
highly individualized as it is possible to make it. Only those
errors lease acceptable in the speech and writing of a
majority of the class should be given class instruction and
drill; those occurring in the work of a few should be
handled in small groups or individually as the need arises."
It is desirable for the children, as well as the teacher, to
know what their specific needs are; and therefore each child
should have an inventory of his own skills and abilities.
The inventory serves as a note sheet, and the child refers to
it in preparation, in evaluation, and in recording progress.
Provision is made for extreme variants in the form of
individualized self-help materials.
Significance of Unit Organization: The organization
of learning experiences around lifelike situations contrasts
sharply with the traditional emphasis on small, isolated
language elements, chiefly skills. Through unit organization
children are trained not only for practical experiences but
in them; the ultimate goals become the immediate goals.
Also, the larger unit of learning preserves the integrity of
the learning experience; the varied and complex elements
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 165
of language are combined and to a large extent learned as
they function in purposeful expression; the learning
experience is an organic whole. Practice on specific,
component abilities and skills is related to some experience
and has an obvious, immediate purpose.
The significance of unit organization is apparent
whether the language program is developed independently
or as a part of larger curriculum units based on the social
studies and nature study. The trend toward large unit
organization in language gains additional respect when it
is observed that the same trend prevails in other areas of
the curriculum.
Processes: It must now be obvious that not one but
a battery of procedures is required to handle the various
phases of the language program. Three, or possibly four,
basic procedures will be used at various times, according
to the nature of the learning situation and the learning
outcome.
Handling an Experiences Unit: The first step in
handling an experience unit is to set up or utilize a situation
which creates definite reason for carrying on the work.
The situation may be one that requires the writing of a
thank-you note after the appearance of a guest speaker,
writing a letter to a sick friend, keeping the minutes of a
school council meeting, writing a playas a culmination of
a unit in the social studies, or summarizing information
gained in a nature-study field trip. The situation presents
a real motive and imposes requirements for worthy
performances. Alert teachers readily find occasions calling
for the various experiences in both the school and the out-
of-school experiences of children.
A second step is to develop ideas of good performance.
From past work or from trail performances in the
experience, initiated for that purpose, the class and teacher
166 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
presumably discover the need for further training. What is
good letter writing, reporting, storytelling, outlining, and
the like? Good models may be secured and studies. It is
relatively simple to secure good models of written work.
Textbooks provide them; the teacher may accumulate a file
from children's previous work; or children may supply
examples in the form of letters from home (with the help
and permission of parents). It is less easy to provide study
examples of oral work. Live examples of good
in the class provide the best material; recordings are
invaluable. The material should approximate the level of
work normally expected of the grade. Having pupils study
examples of varying degrees of merit and choose the best
is a procedure of considerable value. Study should be
directed first to content and general effect and then to the
specific literary devices employed by the author to produce
the effect. Some attention must be given to mechanics, oral
or written.
Analysis of models reveals key points which should
be listed as goals or standards to aim at, to imitate, and to
use in evaluation. Goals should be set with due regard to
the normal expectancies for the class and should be varied
enough to give every child something to work for. Generally,
a few key goals are better than many; the list may be
extended as the class grows in ability. Too many goals lead
to scattering of attention and effort. Thus, for a second-
grade class giving talks, it may be sufficient to set as
immediate goals willing participation, having something
to say, and sticking to the point. As these goals are reached
or approximated by a considerable number of the pupils,
the teacher may add to the list others such as the use of
complete sentences and apt, vivid words and phrases, a
clear, pleasing, well-modulated voice, good pronunciation
and enuncidtion, and interest-catching beginning sentences.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 167
A third basic phase of the work is one commonly
neglected or poorly handled-the setting up of individual
goals. Too often this is postponed until after the child has
completed his recitation or written exercise, and setting
individual goals then assumes the form of a post-mortem.
This method violates the sound psychological principle that
the learner should fix his attention on the skill to be
performed before practice, not after, except as a check on
performance. Individual goals, therefore, should be set up
early, before recitation and even before preparation for
recitation.
The fourth phase, following the setting up of
individual goals, is preparation. The child prepares his
assignment with both the over-all purpose and his specific,
individual goal in mind.
The fifth phase is participation, such as giving a talk,
writing a letter, or taking part in a dramatization. There
should be evidence in the child's work that he has kept in
mind his individual goal as well as the general purpose of
the assignment.
Evaluation by the pupil, class or teacher follows as
the sixth phase. This should be in terms of the pupil's
individual goals and should always be friendly and
constructive, with full recognition of differences in
individual capacity. Self-criticism is usually worth more
than class and teacher criticism, although a pupil is also
often stimulated by the approval of the class and teacher.
The initial lesson or series of lessons is followed by
other similar lessons or series in which gains are preserved
and further improvement is sought. Records of
accomplishments in specific skills and abilities may be kept
on the pupil's individual goal sheet and on the teacher's
class record sheet. Opportunities will arise for the individual
correction of mistakes without the pupil's losing sight of
the major purpose of the experience.
,.
168 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Handling a General-ability Lesson : A general-
ability lesson is a definite practice exercise designed to bring
about improvement in some specific ability, such as selecting
an appropriate subject, choosing pertinent content, dealing
with a sufficiently small and manipulable aspect of a topic,
organizing effectively, or composing a good beginning and
ending. The emphasis is on knowledge, understanding, and
judgment rather then on specific skills. An understanding
of what constitutes a good subject, for example, evolves
from a study and comparison of specific examples, such as
"The Fish I Didn't Catch," "Hired, Tired, and Fired," and
"Taking Home My Report Card," and from an analysis of
key qualities, such as personal approach, definiteness, and
brevity. The procedure is that which is characteristic of all
knowledge getting-the solution of problems; it is never
that of drill, as in the pronunciation of get.
The need for the lesson appears, of course, in an
experience phase of the work, and it results from an
analytical evaluation of the experience in terms of the
specific factors that condition performance. The training
lesson presumes inadequate performance and need for
improvement. The need may appear as a result of pupil,
class, or teacher evaluation; but it is important that the
learner recognize the need.
The second step, logically, is to gain some
understanding of what constitutes good performante. In
the selection of subjects, for instance, the teacher may
present to the class example, good and bad, taken from
current or previous work, from textb<;>oks, or from reading.
The examples are studied and the pupils are led to f e e ~ the
difference between good and poor subjects. The teacher
may present such subjects as the following and have the
pupils discuss them:
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 169
Poor Good
Where I Went
What I Heard
What I Did
Sunday
An Adventure
My Trip
Work
My Friend
What My Aunt Has
Catching a Rat
False Alarm
Too Sure
A Bad Shot
An Unexpected Ducking
A Hasty Reply
A Wet Seat
The Battle of Chicken Run
No Pie
Titles in the first list are found to be vague and weak.
Titles in the second list arouse curiosity and a desire to hear
more; they tap sources of personal experience and feeling;
and they set specific limits on a composition.
From the study of examples the children proceed to a
consideration of their own experiences, searching for phases
that are interesting to others and worth writing or talking
about, avoiding commonplace and sensational events. Then
they formulate good subject titles. Tentative lists of these
titles are profitably presented to the class for evaluation
and discussion. Approved subjects are then chosen, and
compositions are prepared and delivered. The value of the
subject is proved in the composition. When some assurance
as to competency has been gained, the children use their
improved ability in selecting subjects for all oral and written
work.
Handling Specific-skill Lessons : The third type of
lesson or exercise with which the teacher is necessarily
concerned involves the development of a specific language
skill, such as the pronunciation of words (often, going,
athletic), use of the comma in a series, and capitalization
of 1. Standards of usage are set by convention. The primary
170 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
emphasis in learning is on hearing or seeing and doing;
understanding enters into the learning process to the extent
that it is possible to show reasons for certain conventions
and to develop rules or principles. Understanding naturally
adds to ease of learning in this as in other phases of
language work.
The point of departure for a training lesson on a
specific skill is an immediate need, revealed usually by
performance in an experience. For example, in giving a
talk a child may say I seen for I saw; or in written work he
may fail to indicate clearly the persons attending a party
by the omission of commas in a series of names, as in /0
Ann Caryl and Tommy came to the party. The pupil may
be led to discover his difficulty by skilful questioning. The
next step is to show the correct form to the child by
explanation and demonstration or by directing the study
of example, correct and incorrect. Recognition of the correct
form and, if possible, the' reason for it is followed by
deliberate practice in selected example. Finally, consistent
use in exercises and in related speaking or writing is
provided. Work of this type is largely remedial, and involves
breaking old habits as well as forming new ones. The work
should be individualized, concentrated on a few of the most
important skills, and followed up consistently and
persistently until definite progress is made. The use of
individual record sheets is helpful in making a diagnosis
and later in recording progress.
There are many ways of handling directed training
lessons on specific skills and at the same time employing
good principles of learning. Specific procedures vary
somewhat in oral and in written work, although the basic
principles are the same. One procedure, making use of
original sentences as a means of drill, is illustrated in the
following quotation from Brown and Butterfield:
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 171
Another common drill is having children give original
sentences in which difficult forms are used correctly. For
example, the words seen and saw ,are put on the
blackboard. The children are told to make sentences using
each word correctly. The results may be something like the'
following: I saw a cat. I saw a dog. I saw a horse. I saw a
bird.
This kind of drill may be oral or written, but the
temptation will be to have the children write the sentences
because (from the teacher's point of view) this makes good
busywork.
To improve a drill of this sort and to make it mean
something to the children, the procedure can be changed
somewhat. The teacher, to begin with, asks the children to
tell, in their sentences, about something that they really
did see. John gives the first sentence, "I saw a cat." The
teacher remarks that this sentence is correct but that it
would be more interesting to the class if he could tell a
little more so that everyone could see the cat that he saw.
With a suggestion or two, John changes his sentence
to something like the following, "I saw a big black cat with
green eyes."
The class likes this sentences much better than the
first one; others may try to imitate it. Then the teacher will
suggest that there are many, many kinds of sentences using
saw and seen. She will give an example or two : "When
the boys went to the circus, they saw an elephant doing
tricks," or "If Mary had not seen the funnly little puppy,
she would have gone right home." This will encourage the
children to think out original sentences also. It is remarkable
how much a few suggestions add to the vitality of a simple
drill. The more intelligent children, instead of being bored
by meaningless repetition, will be stimulated by the
opportunity for creative expression.
172 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Relation to Work in Other Subjects : The teacher
recognizes that only a small part of his pupils' total
experience in language takes place in the language class.
Language is used throughout the day in all phases of work
and play, and the use of language in other subjects and in
all extracurricular work obviously helps set patterns and
habits of expression. Language, therefore, is a service
subject and as such involves two key points worthy of
attention. In the first place, the immediate needs for
particular language experiences appear in other phases of
work. Various subjects require discussion, reports,
explanations, and directions. Class ·meetings and pupil
councils involve discussions, reports, and keeping minutes.
When parents visit the school, as on school visiting days,
opportunities arise for making introductions and
explanations. In the second place, it is necessary to maintain
reasonable standards in all language work in school if gOQd
habits of speaking and writing are to be established. In the
social studies, in arithmetic, and in the school assembly
some attention must be given to good speaking and writing.
If properly handled this attention adds to the effectiveness
of work under way, and it is not necessarily a distraction.
The whole school should become language-conscious.
Language Programs: The language program, as we
have said, should consist of real, lifelike experiences and
training experiences as needed to develop the essential
abilities and skills. The program is a functional one.
Language experiences at once provide the chief immediate
and remote goals, the chief medium of learning, and the
basis for organizing the program into units of work.
Training lessons grow out of and are motivated by
immediate needs for particular skills and abilities revealed
in the experience phases of the work. These skills are
learned as far as possible in use-incidentally; but to the
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 173
extent that further specific training is necessary, separate
exercises or lessons are provided.
The minimum essentials of a modern language
program, then, include (1) primary emphasis on and
training in language experiences and (2) provision for the
systematic development of essential language abilities and
skills. Within the limits set by these minimum requirements
there is opportunity for a variety of programs providing
combinations of experience work and training experiences,
and for programs offering opportunities to combine
experiences and relate them to other phases of the
curriculum. At one extreme must be recognized the very
liberal or informal teacher who handles language mainly
as an integral part of the work in other subjects and school
activities and who provides only occasional directed
practice or remedial lessons as needed by individuals and
groups. Such a program can be excellent and may be
regarded as the ultimate goal of language teachers. But
the attempt to carryon the extreme type of informal
program often results in gross neglect of training in
language. Without sacrificing the essentials of a vital,
functional program to traditional formality, it is possible to
set a middle course consisting of a definite series of basic
language experiences and supplementary systematic work
on essential abilities and skills. This middle course makes
possible the ready use of available instructional materials;
and it seems to be consistent with the position taken by the
Commission on the English Curriculum of the National
Council of Teachers of English.
Use of Textbooks: In considering the wealth of live
opportunities for using language in curricular and school-
life experiences, several questions arise: What place does
the textbook have in the language program? What does it
contain? How can it be used effectively?
174 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
In the first place, a textbook provides a basic program
of unit work in experiences and related abilities and skills
generally appropriate to the grade, and it gives emphasis
to the several experiences according to their importance.
The sequence is timed-in part, at least-to meet the
progressive needs of children throughout the year.
Instruction and drill in specific abilities and skills are
introduced as needed to carryon the various experiences.
The textbook is the product of the study and thinking of
specialists who are qualified by research and experience to
write in their fields. In using the textbook, the teacher is
taking advantage of this specialized, technical knowledge
and competence.
In addition to a general plan of organization, the
textbook offers certain other resources which the teacher
must understand and use effectively. Among these resources
are models of stories, reports, outlines, and the like. If wisely
chosen, they suggest reasonable standards. However, for
any particular class, such standards may be too high or
too low. The teacher, therefore should collect from time to
time samples of his pupils' work to serve as supplementary
models. In addition to their easier adaptability to a
particular class, the local samples are more interesting than
textbook models.
Another common feature of textbooks is list of key
points-standards-for particular experiences. Any such
list may be well devised; the important question, however,
is, What use should be made of it? In the authors' opinion,
it is better to let children derive their standards from a study
of samples and to use the textbook lists mainly for checking
their own items than to have pupils begin by studying the
standards of the textbook. The textbook lists of standards
usually contain many items, and the implication here is
that all children are to work on all of them simultaneously.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 175
Again, in the authors judgment, such a precedure presents
and impossible task to the children; if a long list is used,
and it should be, each child should select one or two items
for emphasis in giving a story or report. Such selection and
concentration provide opportunities for individualizing
work within a common experience.
Textbooks also provide practice and remedial
exercises. Usually in this connection some kind of pretest
or diagnostic test is suggested so that only the children who
need the practice get it. This is common-sense procedure.
It is possible that some of the exercises will not be needed
by any child. It is also likely that common diffiqllties will
be found that are not covered in the test and practice
exercises. In this case the teacher should devise tests suited
to the particular needs of the children, possible using the
textbook exercises as models.
It may be found that the practice exercises in textbooks
are largely devoted to the mechanics of speaking, writing,
and usage. Little provision is commonly made for exercises
in the development of ability to select suitable topics, to
limit the scope of topics, to stick to the point, to follow a
clear sequence of ideas, and to introduce interesting details
and apt illustrations. Yet these language abilities are
regarded as primarily important in the language program.
If training exercises in this latter group of abilities are
needed, as they may well be, the teacher will be obliged to
supply them.
A further common textbook provision is the statement
of principles and rules relating to concepts, usages, and
mechanics. Rules and principles, it is generally agreed,
should not be memorized from the textbook but should be
arrived at inductively by pupils through a study of live
examples. The textbook statements can then serve as checks
on the children's own generalizations.
176 Skills and Competencies of English T e a c h ~
There are several general ways in which a book can
be used. One is, obviously, to follow it chapter by chapter
and exercise by exercise. It is unlikely, however, that a
textbook prepared for use in different sections of the country
and for different types of schools will be found perfectly
adapted to the needs of a particular class. Such use is
tolerable only in the hands of a teacher who lacks
confidence or through training.
At the other extreme, the textbook is used only as a
reference-exercise source. In this case, the basic program is
developed from purposeful experiences, largely arising in
connection with other curricular and extracurricular
activities, and units and exercises are selected from the
textbook as they are needed for training in particular
abilities and skills. Mature, well-trained, progressive
teachers are inclined to favour such use of the textbook
because in this method the functional concept of language
work is emphasized. The textbook work is also made vital
and purposeful. However, this procedure may lost the
planned continuity and sequence of training in essential
skills which the textbook provides, and the teacher thus
undertakes the responsible task of not only selecting the
experiences but also working out a systematic, sequential,
developmental program. This is certainly not impossible to
do, but the teacher must recognize his responsibility and
accept the amount of work involved.
There is a third plan, which combines adjusbnent to
present needs and the systematic treabnent of technical
content. The teacher follows the order of experiences set
by the textbook, but instead of using the exact topics for
oral and written work given in the text, he draws them
from the current lives of the children. This procedure is
thoroughly consistent with the purpose and specific
recommendations of many textbook authors. For example,
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 177
as the basis of studying outlining and reporting a certain
textbook sets up an experience in science in which children
are told the following : "Stir into half a cup of water as
much salt as the water will dissolve. Pour the water into a
saucer. Let it stand until the water is all gone. What
happens? What does this show?" Although a particular
class may not be performing this experiment at the time
when the language unit is taken up in the text, it may be
performing other science experiments or doing a similar
type of work in another subject that will provide materials
for outlining and reporting. The textbook, then, may serve
as a general guide and model in programming language
experiences and is using other curricular activities for
developing language abilities; its particular subject-matter
content need not be followed slavishly. The exercises for
developing technical skills may be used, if needed, or similar
exercises may be devised by the teacher to provide specific
training. This third plan conserves the general plan of
organization and the systematic program for the
development and maintenance of technical aspects of
language training as provided by the textbook, but it makes
the work functional and relates it to current needs.
Supplementary Practice Material : Teachers often
feel a need for more and different types of practice material
than is provided in the text. Authors commonly provide
supplementary practice exercises in workbooks designed
to accompany a parallel work in the texts. Workbooks
provide a convenient and inexpensive source of
supplementary practice material and save the teacher's
time. They are an additional expense to the school district
or to the children, however, and often not available. If
workbooks cannot be purchases for each pupil, the teacher
can devise a reasonably satisfactory supply of permanent
material by securing several copies of one or more
178 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
workbooks. Selected exercises are then torn out and
mounted on stiff paper. The material is filed in a convenient
place, accessible to pupils, possible in a standard vertical
file. The topics for filing are the particular abilities and skills,
mainly written, in which practice material is needed, e.g.,
content and organization, usage, capitalization, and
punctuation. The teacher naturally selects the exercises that
serve his purposes in meeting the individual needs of a
particular group of pupils. This material cannot be used
for whole-class assignments, but it serves very well for
individual and small-group assignments.
Old textbooks also can be used to provide
supplementary practice material. If the material is not
completely indexed by type of difficulty-and it probably
is not-it is necessary for the teacher to prepare such an
index. The index should be duplicated and given to the
pupils for filing in their language notebooks.
Supplementary practice work should be
individualized-directed at the point of difficulty. It is
inevitable that children will be working on many difficulties
at one time. The teacher will have little time for making
assignments, giving oral explanations, and checking. It
follows that the material should be housed so that the
children can get it with a minimum of teacher effort and
that the material should be self instructional and self-
checking. The answer key may be placed on the back of
the practice exercise. Cheating will be discouraged if the
teacher always gives tests on the work and checks it as
completed only on the basis of satisfactory test results.
Evaluation: It must be apparent to the student in
the field of language instruction, and even to the casual
reader, that evaluation is an essential part of a modern
language arts program and that such evaluation is
continuous and cumulative, serving various purposes and
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
179
taking various form throughout the term. These purposes
and forms, appearing as integral phases of the language
program in preceding chapters, are summarized here.
The teacher's first purpose is an evaluation survey to
determine early in the school year levels of achievement of
the class and individual pupils, in terms of performance in
language experiences and related abilities and skills.
Preliminary surveys are made to provide a basis for laying
out general plans and determining points of departure and
to provide means for measuring improvement during the
term. In the case of handwriting and spelling, for example,
surveys make possible an organization for group
instruction. The teacher should always be aware of the fact
that he is dealing with several different kinds of language
experiences and a multiplicity of skills, oral and written.
Evaluation forms and procedures are therefore adapted to
the experiences and to the nature of the learning elements.
The teacher's subjective judgment must be the chief
evaluation factor in most phases of oral experiences, abilities
and skills. However, the accuracy of his judgment is
improved by listing and evaluating specific points; thus in
judging a report, the teacher may concentrate on content,
organization, and effective delivery. (In general, the check
lists suggested throughout the book provide itemized bases
for evaluation.) In appraisal of written activities, the
teacher's judgment is similarly important; but the nature
of written work makes objective evaluation more
practicable through the use of suitable models. Standard
scales, though, offer teachers little help in evaluating quality
in written compositions. Only the mechanics of written
work-capitalization, punctuation, spelling, handwriting,
and usage--have been adequately covered in standard tests,
which may be profitably used early in the year to compare
the achievement of a class with that of other classes and to
180 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
locate deficiencies of individuals students. These survey
tests are not truly diagnostic, although their results may be
symptomatic. Many such tests dealing with various phases
of mechanics are available. The Unit Scales of Attainment
in Language cover capitalization, punctuation, and usage.
The Ayres scale for measuring the quality of handwriting
is widely used. The Morrison-MeCall Spelling Scale
provides a number of tests for use in grades 2 to 8. Taking
samples of handwriting early in the term and using them
as a means of measuring class and individual progress is a
sound, practical procedure. An informal preliminary test
in spelling, made up of words taken at random from the
term's work, gives the teacher valuable information on class
achievement and individual differences.
A second purpose of the teacher is to make a diagnosis
of individual accomplishments and needs in the
performance of various experiences and in general abilities
and specific skills. This diagnosis serves the all-important
purpose of directing attention to specific deficiencies both
in experiences and specific remedial exercises. Here, as in
the preliminary surveys, the teacher's judgment, as well
as the pupils', must serve. In written usage, handwriting,
and spelling, more objective treatment is possible. Many
standard tests are available, covering a large percentage of
usage crudities. One such is Charters' Diagnostic Test for
verbs, pronouns, and miscellaneous words, which is a
proofreading test designed for use in grades 3 to 12.
Covering the work of all grades, standard tests of usage do
not exactly fit the work of any particular grade. The teacher
will therefore find it extremely profitable to devise an
objective test including the key usage problems of his grade
and of preceding grades. The 'form may follow that of the
Charters tests and utilize proofreading or multiple-choice
techniques. Tests also may be taken from the textbook or
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 181
teacher's manual. Since the primary purpose of the
diagnostic test is determination of individual needs, not
measurement of achievement, the teacher-made test is as
serviceable as the standard test. In diagnosing handwriting,
the chief task is to determine the particular faults in letter
formation, slant, alignment, spacing, and colour of line.
The teacher' casual judgments may be refined, as suggested,
by the use of patterns and diagnostic sheets provided by
good handwriting books. Additional standard resources
are Gray's A Score Card for Measuring Handwriting and
Freeman's Diagnostic Chart. Diagnosis in spelling is mainly
a matter of locating particular words causing difficulty and
noting the nature of the difficulties. The customary weekly
protest serves as a basis for such diagnosis.
The third evaluative purpose of the teacher is to
measure the achievement of children during short periods
of time, from unit to unit or from difficulty to difficulty.
Here again the teacher must rely on his judgment of
achievement in most phases of the language program.
Records of progress on specific items should be kept on
goal sheets. The objective phases of the work-usage,
capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and handwriting-
can be measured in large part by informal objective tests
prepared by the teacher or selected from the textbook to
cover the specific items involved. These types of informal
objective tests are similar to those used in diagnosis.
The final purpose of evaluation is to measure progress
at the end of the term. The forms and procedures for the
survey are similar to those used in the preliminary
evaluation at the beginning of the term. Judgments of
general abilities and improvement in oral and written
experiences are made by the teacher, using check lists of
specific items for increased validity. Samples of written
work, as in the case of handwriting and composition, are
182 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
compared with the samples taken early in the term.
Improvement in handwriting may be determined by scores
on the Ayres scale. A final teacher-made test in spelling,
the term's work, shows the progress of individuals
and of the class; a Morrison-McCall spelling test may also
be given again, but the results should not be taken too
seriously. Informal objective tests covering essentials of
usage, capitalization, and punctuation may be given and
compared with scores on similar tests given early in the
term; or standard tests may be repeated. Scores on tests of
mechanics should be supplemented by observation of what
children do in actual writing. Mechanics are mastered only
when they are used habitually in purposeful expression.
Dictionary : A good children's dictionary should be
available to pupils in the intermediate and upper grades.
Training in habits and techniques of dictionary use should
be gradual and cumulative, adjusted to maturity and needs
at succeeding grade levels. Practice in alphabetizing is the
first step, which is provided interestingly through the
making of work and picture dictionaries in the first grades
and through the preparing of alphabetical word lists in
the second and third grades. Alphabetical order is used in
finding words, first by the initial letter and finally by the
second and third letters. One of the early uses of the
dictionary is for checking spelling, and this can begin in
the third grade. Checking pronunciation can begin in the
fourth grade, where attention is also called to syllabication
and marks for accent and the long and short sounds of
vowels. The use of key pronunciation words and of the
other common marks of vowel sounds is taught in the fifth
grade. The checking of meanings and the use of synonyms
and antonyms to .gain variety of expression may well be
emphasized in the sixth grade.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Importance of Examination and Test:
183
• Test helps a teacher to plan remedial
programme. It means the test provide a good
feed back to the teachers.
• Test enables teachers to find out whether the
students have learnt a language item or not.
• Test serves as eye openers for the students. The
test helps students to find out that pOint they
did not understand properly.
• Test enables teacher also to asses the success of
this teaching.
• The examination system for good or for bad,
gears the whole education system. It influences
the framing of syllabus, preparation of the text
book and teaching.of method.
Criteria for Good Language Test :
• The test must cover limited language skill but
must cover al the language skills which the
students is expected to master.
• Question should be so written that the student
understands what is expected of him. This
means there should be no ambiguity in
questions.
• The questions must be so framed that they test
the specific language skill. They should be so
worded that they help the teacher to find out
that the specific objectives are achieved or not.
• The question paper must be very well balanced.
It should neither to be difficult not to easy. It
should contain challenging questions for
students of all levels.
184

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
The question paper should include all types of
question, for examples objectives type, subjective
and others.

Average students must be kept in mind for
allotting time to answer the test.

The question paper must be so framed that it
has a wide coverage of content taught.
PLANNING OF TEACHING


YEAR PLAN
I I
UNIT PLAN
II PERIOD PLAN
.t .t .t
In this planning the Unit plans are the plans Lesson plan is
teacher plans of whole showing the details of normally p art of set
cowse and chvides it whatis gomg to be oflesson making up
into the units. The carned out dunng the a unit It there has all
teacher may plan the specific unit. Unit may be the same basIc parts
language activitie s, a chapter ar;r particular as unit plan but only
excursion, trips, etc. topic or topics. Unit plan for one day.
teacher can schedule should include following Following elements
all teaching and non elements:- shouldbe included
te aching activities 1. Objectives in le s plan.
including the dates of 2. techruques and Set induction:--
examinations. Year activities Aim of statement:-
plan should include 3. NecessalY

following elements:- resources Development
1. Objectives 4. time frame questions:-
2. Methods 5. Criterion of

3. Techniques determining questions' -
4. activities objectives Evaluation
Res ources:- 6. A set of daily Questions:-
1. A proj e ct time lesson plan
Frame
2. An evaluation
criterion
•••••
Questions 185
CHAPTER FIRST (QUESTIONS)
1. What is the constitutional place of English as a second
language in India?
2. What is curriculum of English in school and college
in Gujarat state? Discuss.
3. Hindi is first language and English is second language
for us. Why? Tell reasons.
4. What is importance of second and foreign language
leaning? OR English is window of the world. Why?
5. Which problems are faced by Gujarati speaking
learner in learning second or foreign language.
6. What is importance of mother tongue language and
habit?
7. Language is primarily speech. Discuss.
8. How English language is taught in Gujarat?
9. In spite of banishing the language from India the
people have made English as their own passion.
Discuss.
10. How mother tongue helps in learning second
language?
186 Questions
CHAPTER SECOND (QUESTIONS)
10 Language is tool of communication. How?
2. What is different between first Language and second
language?
3. What is different between Acquisition and Learning?
4. What is behaviorist's view on language learning?
5. What types of theory have been given by Pavlov and
B.F. Skinner in reference to language Learning.
Discuss in detail.
6. What is view of Cognitivist on Language Learning?
Discuss in detail.
7. Define motivation. How will motivate your students
to make your teaching effective as a teacher?
8. Attention and memory play important role in
developments of teaching learning process. How?
9. Define reinforcement. What are the kinds of rein
forcers? How they are helpful to make teaching
effective?
10. Language learning is nothing but habit formation.
Discuss?
11. What are the general objectives of teaching English
as Second language?
12. How specific objectives are differs from general
objectives?
13. What are the sub skills of language as skill?
Questions 187
CHAPTER THIRD (QUESTIONS)
1. Give the list of instructional material and teaching
aids.
2. How will use and select the instructional material and
teaching aid during teaching? Discuss.
3. What are characteristics or importance of teaching
and instructional material?
4. What is role of Computer Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) in development of teaching learning process?
5. How Audio Visual aids are useful to make teaching
effective?
6. What is the criterion of selection of good text book?
7. What are the characteristics of good text book? OR
How will you evaluate the good text book?
CHAPTER FOURTH (QUESTIONS)
1. Define Grammar Translation method. What are
advantage and disadvantage of the G.T. method?
2. G. T. method is very useful in Hindi medium school
in second language learning. How? Discuss.
3. Define Direct Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of Direct Method? Discuss.
4. Direct Method is not useful in Hindi Medium schools.
Why?
5. What is different between G.T. method and Direct
Method? Discuss.
6. Define Bilingual Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of this method? Discuss.
7. Define Reading Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of this method? Discuss.
188 Questions
8. Whatis Different between Bilingual and G.T. method?
Discuss.
9. Define Situational Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantages of this method? Discuss.
CHAPTER FIFTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What is structural approach? What are advantages
and Disadvantages of this approach? Discuss.
2. Define Communicative Approach. What are
advantages and disadvantages of this approach?
Discuss.
3. What are the principles of teaching English as second
language? Discuss.
4. What are the principles of communicative approach?
Discuss.
5. What is different between Method and Approach?
Discuss.
CHAPTER SIXTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What is importance of oral work in teaching of English
as second language? Discuss.
2. Which Two skills are included in oral work? Discuss
in detail.
3. What are the techniques of conducting oral work?
Discuss.
4. How can a teacher develop the correct speech habit
of English language learner as second language?
Discuss.
5. What are the c a u s e ~ of defective pronunciation of
students in learning of English as second language?
Discuss.
Questions
189
CHAPTER SEVETH (QUESTIONS)
1. What necessary precautions should be observed
during the course of teaching? Discuss.
2. What are the types of Reading? Discuss.
3. Intensive reading is type of reading aloud. How?
Discuss.
4. Extensive reading is type of silent reading. How?
Discuss.
5. What is aloud reading? Why it is not useful at
secondary level? Discuss.
6. How can a Teacher make reading aloud very
interesting? Discuss.
7. What are advantage and disadvantage of reading
aloud? Discuss.
8. What is silent reading? What are advantages and
disadvantages of Silent reading? Discuss.
9. What are general and specific objectives of reading
skill in leaning English as second language? Discuss.
10. What are general and specific objectives of listening
skill? Discuss.
11. What are general and specific objectives of speaking
skill? Discuss.
CHAPTER EIGHTH (QUESTIONS)
1. How a teacher can make improve bad handwriting
of students? OR What are the mechanics of writing?
Discuss.
2. What types of exercises should be given to the students
in written work? Discuss.
3. What steps should be kept in mind by teacher while
teaching picture composition? Discuss.
190 Questions
4. What is different between free composition and
controlled composition? Discuss.
5. Write short note on oral and written composition.
Discuss.
6. What should do a teacher to improve the spelling
mistake and bad pronunciation? Discuss.
7. Set induction is integral part of classroom teaching.
How? Discuss.
8. Imagine that you are teacher. What will you do to
make set induction very interesting and alive? Discuss.
CHAPTER NINTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What are the objectives of teaching prose? Discuss.
2. As a teacher, how will you make teaching prose very
effective? Discuss.
3. What steps should be followed by teacher while
teaching prose and poetry? Discuss.
4. Briefly describe the objectives of teaching prose.
s. As a teacher how will you make teaching poetry
effective and interesting? Discuss.
6. What steps should be followed by teacher while
teaching grammar? Discuss.
7. Write brief note on deductive and inductive method.
Discuss.
8. What are advantage and disadvantage of deductive
method? Discuss.
9. What are advantage and disadvantage of inductive
method? Discuss.
10. Why inductive- deductive method is more effective
than inductive and deductive method? Discuss.
Questions
191
CHAPTER TENTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What are the characteristics of good English Teacher?
Discuss.
2. What are types of test? Discuss.
3. What are types of evaluation question? Discuss.
4. Prepare objective types of questions or briefly state
the kinds of objective type questions. Discuss.
5. What is importance of evaluation in teaching of
English? Discuss.
6. What is importance of examination and test to
evaluate students' ac;hievements? Discuss.
7. What is criterion of good language test? Discuss .
•••••
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
(METHODS, TOOLS

& TECHNIQUES)

Dr. M.F. Patel Praveen M. Jain

PUBUSHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
E·566, Valshali Nagar, Near Akashwani Colony, Jalpur • 302021(Raj.)

Published by :

SUNRISE PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
E-566, Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur- 302021 (Raj.) Ph.:9413156675,9772299149(M)

First Published - 2008

©Reserved

ISBN: 978-81-906067-4-5

Printed at : Jaipur

All rights reserved. No pa.i of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any mean without permission in writing from the publisher.

Dedicated to

Shrj M.N. Patel
Honourable President, Rajpur Kelvani MandaI, Rajpur, Vijayanagar, Gujrat

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank" .

S. Now. V. Pancholi.••••• ---------------------Teaching of English as a second language in India has assured an important place. Department of PREFACE . College.N.H. J. Dr. Daramali and Dr. Vijaynagar for their constant encouragement to complete our work. Patel. Shri B. Purohit.M. Sflri oc 3mt. Dr. The book covers many topics that find place in the syllabi of universities of India. B. There is no doubt that' this book will prove useful to students.Ed. B. College.M. P. We are thankful to our colleagues Shri J. English is one of the most widely used International language. Patel of Rajpur Kelavani MandaI. S.N. Patan.S. 'Patan. B. Principal.Ed. Patel. teachers and scholar in Indian Universities. Patel and Honourable Secretary. Principal. Shri H. Principal. College.K. Jain. We express our sense of gratitude to Dr.S. Rajpur for their positive attitude and conducive atmosphere for our work. Patel.Ed. B. Principal. We are thankful to the Trustee Shri M. The book introduces some of the main areas that students and teachers of English in India understand in order to follow a scientific approach. Kotawala Arts College. Department of English.

College. Patel. Shri A. Vijaynagar and Shri JitendrakumaT J. Department of Education.Physical Education. Shri Akhilesh JO. We also take this opportunity to express our thanks to Shri Jitendra Gupta. Art College. Jaipur.shi. Vijaynagar Arts College for helping us in providing the books that we needed for our work. Sunrise Publishers and Distributors. We are thankful to the librarian. India for his promptness in bringing out this book in a very short time. Palat. Vijaynagar for their inspiration and encouragement to produce a book of such a literary calibre.P. Authors . REd. Shri Deepak Pandya.

10. 5. Poetry and Grammar 1 25 57 71 89 102 113 125 133 145 2. 8. 7. 6. Skills and Competencies of English Teacher . 9. 4. 3. Preface CONTENTS v The Place of English In Indian Education Foreign Language Learning Instructional Material and Text Book Methods Approaches Oral Work Reading Writing and Composition Teaching of Prose.••••• ---------------------• 1.

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank" .

... I 1 It is not taught as compulsory subject THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN INDIAN EDUCATION It is taught o n : ] English It is not compul~ory atl-Examination It is taught at upper English Level It is taught as Second Language It is not compulsory for Eng lis h I I .. .... 1 ---------------------PIIIIElI... . . . . ..

English helped the growth of nationalism which ultimately freed India from foreign fetters. The role of English within a nation's daily life is influenced by geographical." So long as the British ruled over India.2 The Place of English in Indian Education Introduction: English plays a key role in our educational system and national life. English is the language of the global village.attention was on trade. English could not be displaced from the position of predominance given it by Lord Macaulay. British came here as traders and their first. English served as a great unifying force in India's freedom struggle. the English spread like water in India and it became very essential for India to have a national language. but English in taste~ in opinions. English is a link language. It is a language of trade and industry. The role of English at a given point in time must affect both the way it is taught and the resultant impact on the daily life and growth of the individual. cultural and political factors. It reflects in our ways and views. English is full of knowledge and information. Position of English: English is the language that is found in all comers of India. The teaching of English should be made more practical and language-oriented. in morals and in intellect. After independence. At first they did not concentrate their attention on teaching of English. what Lord Macaulay called: a class of people. The British introduced English in our educational system in order to produce cheap clerks for their colonial administration and to produce. English is the language that is used for . English is to be taught as language of comprehension rather than as literary language. Indian in blood and colour. It has greatly contributed to the advancement of learning. U English is rich in literature and culture.

.The Place of English in Indian Education 3 IMPORTANCE OF SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE ~ 1 INTERNATIONAL LANGUGE J .1 "' I LmERARY IMPORTANCE NATIONAL IMPORTANCE I I l .1 RECREATIONAL IMPORT ANCI!: "' I .I EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE I J CULTURAL IMPORTANCE VOCATIONAL IMPORTANCE .. 1 I I I .

. It is the language of commerce and business. the outstanding consideration in the English is the language of the government public administration. Other causes responsible for revolt against English were lack of use of English in every day life. But we should not forget that English is too important for us so it should not be completely removed from the Indian curriculum. defective method of teaching of English and British policy of preserve clerks. When India became independent then a controversy began about the place. People like Rajgopal Chari favoured its importance and place. It is the medium of communication between two persons and between various language areas. It has knit them into one unit. But we can ignore that by learning and speaking for the last 150 years. But who were nationalist. This language has taught them to love freedom and democratic way of life. We should give the Hindi place of national language. Champion has said: In considering the position of English language in India. they did not support the view of Rajgopal Chari and said that British should leave this place early with English.4 The Place of English in Indian Education connecting peoples having different tongues. It has made them capable to take an advantage of western scientific researches and inventions. English has become the language of Indians to a great extent. the legislature and law courts. importance and study of the English. They declared that students can express their ideas and thought in their mother tongue language.

It is being taught as a compulsory subject at secondary level in class VIII.C. It runs without visualizing the benefits and advantage of English language from students' point of view.The Place of English in Indian Education 5 (1) Place of English in Curriculum of State: It is misfortune of Gujarat people that Gujarat Government has not decided its language teaching policy and in clear terms. Thus indefinite English language teaching policy of Gujarat state has become the main reason for low education standard and poor performance of Gujarati students at national and international level. But there are no enough qualified teachers of English. Examination. from national point of view and the state development point of view. IX and X. The place and position of English can be summarized as under: • English is not being taught as a compulsory subject at lower primary level. it is being taught as compulsory subject in class.XI. It is not • • compulsory at H. .S. Students passed H. English is taught as a compulsory subject at upper primary level in class V.5. It is also being taught as compulsory subject at college level.C. VI and VII. Exam without English are allowed offering English at college level in some universities and they have to study English compulsory. • • In higher secondary level. It is taught only in some private school.

For this ours reasons are as follows: 1. although less than a quarter of the vocabulary of Modern English is shared with West Frisian or other West Germanic languages because of extensive borrowings from Norse." Its importance as international language can be denied by none. Latin. The English language evolved from a set of West Germanic dialects spoken by the Angles. Common English. World English. and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects. Saxons.6 The Place of English in Indian Education (2) Importance of Second and Foreign Language Teaching: English is the language of the world and the knowledge of the language makes a person. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. The establishment of the first permanent Englishspeaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major . and other languages. a citizen of the world. and Jutes. Norman French. It is also referred to as Global English. This language is mother tongue of nearly 320 million people and another 200 million people use it as second language. It is spoken all over the world. Thus English is more closely related to West Frisian than to any other modern language. who arrived from the Continent in the 5th Century. International Language : English is the international language. or General English. So it is vary useful to establish international relation for communication purpose and for the exchange of views with different qmntries of the world. Pandit Nehru has said "English is a big key on the modern world.

It developed both as the language of English-speaking settlers from Britain and Ireland. but by all those who come to use it. but also in English. It especially means English words and phrases generally understood throughout the English-speaking world as opposed to localisms. as a language owned not just by native speakers. Isolated from each other by the Atlantic Ocean. the standardization of British English was more settled than it had been in the previous century. English as an additional language (EAL) usually is based on the standards of either American English or British English. and this relatively well-established English was brought to Africa. In Europe English received a more central role particularly since 1919. arguing that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately addressed in recent considerations of ElL. English as an international language (ElL) is EAL with emphasis on learning different major dialect forms. British English was only partially standardized when the American colonies were established.The Place of English in Indian Education 7 step towards the globalization of the language. when the Treaty of Versailles was composed not only in French. and as the administrative language imposed on speakers of other languages in the various parts of the British Empire. the common language of diplomacy at the time. and the latter in Indian English. International English sometimes refers to English as it is actually being used and developed in the world. the dialects in England and the colonies began evolving independently. The first form can be seen in New Zealand English. it aims to equip students with the linguistic tools to communicate internationally. in particular. In the 19th century. Roger Nunn considers different types of competence in relation to the teaching of English as an International Language. Asia and Oceania. The importance of non- .

social and cultural connotations attached to it..S. International English is a concept of English that minimizes the aspects defined by either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United States.Peters (2004. very much attributable to the influence of the United States as well. where . but conceptually based on a far greater degree of crosstalk and linguistic transculturation. International English) According to this viewpoint.both often concerned that their English should be neutral. This has a practical use: What could be better than a type of English that saves you from having to re-edit publications for individual regional markets! Teachers and learners of English as a second language also find. International English is a product of an emerging world culture. even the so-called 'standard' forms. without American or British or Canadian or Australian coloring.8 The Place of English in Indian Education native English language skills can be recognized behind the long-standing joke that the international language of science and technology is broken English. While British colonialism laid the foundation for English over much of the world. which tends to mitigate both U. The development of International English often centers around academic and scientific communities. Any regional variety of English has a set of political. influence and British colonial influence. it an attractive idea . International English reaches towards cultural neutrality.

Krishnan commission in the following words: English however must continue to be studied. If under sentimental we give up English. Library Importance : The Kothari Commission suggested that English be studied as a library language with the aim of getting the knowledge of science and technology. This formal International English allows entry into Western culture as whole and Western cultural values in general. that is they should be able to teach in the regional language as well as English. . we could cut ourselves from the living stream of ever growing knowledge. The importance of English as a library language nicely described by the Radha. English is a key to the store house of the knowledge. humanistic.The Place of English in Indian Education 9 formal English usage is prevalent. scientific and technical. The books on all branches of knowledge are written into English language. commerce and trade by reading standard books in English. The use of English as a library language also implif's that among the language skills of speaking. reading and 2. the Commission's recommendation would imply that teachers at Post Graduate level should be essentially bilingual. In view of the fact that the medium of instruction even at the Post Graduate stage is the regional language in many Universities (only the Professional courses are taught through English medium). The Commission said that no student be deemed qualified for a Master's Degree unless he has acquired a reasonable proficiency in English or in some other library language. It is a language which is rich in literature. and creative use of the language is at a minimum.

humanistic. which is 3. vocabulary. general and technical. National Importance: The English language is the window which opens up the vast prospect of human achievement. . we would cut ourselves off from the living stream of ever growing knowledge. apart from its being a valuable link with the world organizations and with the growing knowledge in science and technology and trade. the more will be benefit personally and contribute to the growth of our country as a modern nation of the 21 st century. which is in the English. opening up a vast vista of knowledge and scholarship. structure and meaning. literature and art.10 The Place of English in Indian Education writing. The more effective grasp of English in all its diversities of speech. This is the essence of using as a library language. the reading skill is the most important and it should be developed in the students to a high degree so that they will be able to read all reference material. rich in literature . English is a window on the world. make notes and use it for their purposes. scientific and technical. Radhakrishnan's (1948) words on the importance of English to India needs repetition: It (English) is a language. The chairman of the University Education Commission Dr. Students develop the ability to read fast and with understanding. Even with the growth of Indian languages English continues to be the link language between the States and the Centre and also between the multilingual Indian communities. The skill of getting the summery of books and periodicals in English quickly and properly is the most useful in modern life. under sentimental urges we give up English. If.

English is the lingua franca of the people from the South. English is the link language. The creation of any such hiatus or gap must be avoided at all costs. English has also its national importance because it is used as inter state communication language and in centre also. In that event there will be a gap. It is useful for both official and private communication between many parts of the country and thus it serves as a link language in the nation itself. Pandit Nehru's words bear repetition about the invaluable linking role of English in the country and across the world: The language link is a greater link between Us and the English speaking people than any political link or Commonwealth link or anything else . If you push out English. English is the official language. being the language used for communication among the Central and State Governments. In India it is used as link language so that people could express their ideas easily.The Place of English in Indian Education 11 In India. does Hindi fully take its place? I hope it will. North. serving to connect people of various regions and diverse backgrounds. It is this that leads me to the conclusion that English is likely to have an important place in the foreseeable future. . East and West of India. a hiatus. But I wish to avoid the danger of one unifying factor being pushed out without another unifying factor fully taking its place... I am sure it will. It is very vital to do so in the interest of the unity of the country.

12 The Place of English in Indian Education IMPORTANCE OF MOTHER TONGUE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION I LEARNING BY IMITATION 1 I I MAXIMUM OPPORTUNITIES LEARNING BY SITUATION .

English has one of the richest literatures in the world. English is the world's widely used language. 3. It was the language used by the British administrators. It is useful to distinguish three primary categories of use: 1. The University Education Commission (1948) headed by Dr. 5. It is the first language in UK. dramas. novels etc. fashion and glamour. politically. The English was politically imposed on the Indian education system. telecommunication and internet. Person who knows English can take enjoy the best stories. It is also the language of world sports. As a second language and As a foreign language 4. Educational Importance : Education systems around the world give special attention to teaching of English. administratively and in all spheres of modern activity. The English system of education was introduced in India in 1835 by the British. 2. scientifically. read English and write perfect. The main aims of teaching English are language development and library development. radio ard television. USA. English is a source of recreation and useful employment of leisure. written in English language. It enables students to understand spoken English. speak English.The Place of English in Indian Education 13 Thus English helps us to keep pace with the explosion of knowledge and scientific and technological advancement. Radhakrishnan recommended: . India has gained immensely from its contact with English linguistically. Recreational Importance:- English is one of the five languages of the United States. Canada and Australia. As a native language.

businessmen and research workers. scientist. commerce. business. teaching law etc. well-known scientists." It helps child in all kinds thinking. technology and Humanities. medicine. engineers.14 The Place of English in Indian Education English is studied in high schools and universities in order that we may keep in touch with the living stream of ever growing knowledge. As Ryburn remarks in his book. scientific. all over the world. technological relation with other countries. doctors. According to Mahatma Gandhi: "The mother tongue is as natural for the development of the man's mind as mother's milk is for the development of the infant's body. It is also important for politician. Vocational Importance : English offers opportunities many and varied vocational like diplomatic and foreign services. This would prevent our isolation from the world. Almost all our great leaders. (3) Importance of the Mother Tongue Language and Habit: 6. It develops commercial. educationists.The teaching of English: . English is a direct medium of acquiring knowledge of modem arts. English enriches knowledge of foreign culture. science. renowned philosophers and famous writers are the product of English education. and help us take advantage of th~ wider reach of the English langu~ge. 7. They increase their knowledge and experience by reading books available only in English language. Cultural Importance: English widens one's cultural and intellectual horizon.

habit may be formed in the class room which will be of greatest value in connection with the learning English. Child learns mother tongue naturally. It is quite right that mother tongue is not taught but it is caught and foreign language is first taught and after caught. In earlier the third language Sanskrit was learnt through mother tongue. Importance of Motivation : Teacher should try always to motivate students to learning the foreign language because motivation provides the necessary encouragement for learning. English was also learnt with the help of mother tongue language in the later half of the 19th century. and thoughts and he can understands their. unconsciously he has learnt the mother tongue and he can express his ideas. Importance of Mother Tongue in Teaching of English : 1. Ryburn remarked: If sufficient attention of teaching of mother tongue and if it is well taught. Justifying the use of mother tongue in the teaching of English language.The Place of English in Indian Education Mother tongue is the basis of the all works. In beginning the child is motivated by his parents to use mother tongue to express his thought. feelings. When he comes at the age of youth. Mother tongue learning begins from infancy. 15 The teaching of English through mother tongue is not new. ideas and feelings and in same way .

Teacher should give opportunities to students to learn foreign language with the help of mother tongue. and saying.16 The Place of English in Indian Education if a child is motivated by his teacher to learn English with the help of mother tongue. Thus student can learn English easily by imitation. He tries to associate certain symbols with the objects. A child learns his mother tongue by imitation. 4. 2. for teaching them. A students of correctly motivated to learn foreign language can himself manage to learn the language. Maximum Opportunities : In class room the teacher should use mother tongue language in teaching learning process. the child forms a concept and grasps the situation. and good language is largely judged by its sound. On the same principle the English can be learnt by imitation in class. Teacher should pronounce the word or sentence and ask students to pronounce it. doing. When family member pronounce any word the child imitate that word and learn to speak by mother tongue. So that the students may exchange with each other their ideas and concepts already learnt by them in the process of learning their own mother tongue. Language is still largely learned by imitation. While teaching new words and structure of the foreign language should create appropriate situation. In this context Dodson has rightly remarked: . 3. in the class room. hearing. Learning by Situation : While learning his mother tongue. he can easily learn English. Learning by Imitation : Traditionally basic emphasis in learning has been placed on seeing. Because we know that in India many people can not understand and learn English directly so teacher should use mother tongue most so that students could understand it easily.

We know that student use grammar unconsciously in his talking. The learnt by a child of his mother tongue forms the back ground of the English language. So the teacher can explain the five points of grammar in better way by using mother tongue. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and understandings that help to make language intelligible. he will very easily learnt English. Ryburn has correctly evaluated the importance of mother tongue in the teaching of grammar by saying: If pupils were given a through grounding in the grammar of their mother tongue. How the Mother Tongue helps in Teaching of English: The Teaching of Grammar : Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts. 1. If the students has a good knowledge of grammar. He can with a view to make the concept clear also present comparison and . to supply some help in the use of language forms and in the correction of errors. it forms a back ground of knowledge to which new grammar may be liked either by similarity or by difference. it would make things much easier for the English teacher. Thomas and Wyatt remarks: If the grammar of the mother tongue is well known. to give some insight into its structure.The Place of English in Indian Education 17 The best and perhaps the only way in which a human being learns a second language is for him to have the maximum numbers of meaningful and purposeful contact with this language in useful environments and situations. principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure of language.

Translation: "Translation of passage has as its object the securing of an exact parallel in the mother tongue of a passage in . They must be able to narrate them in their mother tongue. thoughts and information in English also. R Gurry is quite right when he remarks: If a speaker talks freely and fluency in his own language he can soon learn to speak well and easily in mother tongue. a student must be well conversant to express himself freely in his own mother tongue. Before they are expected to narrate their ideas English. In beginning students are neither expected trained nor to think in English. The well graded practice of mother tongue acquired by the students will help them in arranging all the ideas. 2. So before le:lrning English. The well graded practice of mother tongue can be attempted easily for composition in English subject matter for written composition in English can be borrowed from the mother tongue lesson of the students. Oral Work: Oral expression in English depends also upon the oral expression in the mother tongue. 3. Composition : Composition in any ability of collecting and organizing different ideas. 4. An English teacher can not speak throughout in English because of the existing level of knowledge of his students and if he does so student will not be able to understand him. The topic already attempted by the student for composition in their mother tongue lesson of the students.18 The Place of English in Indian Education contrast between the grammatical forms of their mother tongue.

The Place of English in Indian Education 19 PROBLEM FACED IN SPEAKING LEATING LINGUISTIC PROBLEM SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEM PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM .

English is a foreign language and has a very complex system of vowels. A teacher can develop reading habit among his students through reading exercise in the mother tongue." Translation from and mother tongue occupies a very important place in learning English language. Silent reading means reading completely silently. Reading: Reading is a complex skill involving a number of simultaneous operations. as they are given various fresh passage in their mother tongue which the students are required to translate it into English and vice versa English passage into mother tongue. 5. Its aim is to ascertain to what degree of perfection the art of paralleling has been persuading. Reading aloud is helpful in developing speech habit and silent reading develops power of expression in writing and quick comprehension. Reading aloud 2. his pronunciation in English will be also clear. Use in Pronunciation: If pupils' pronunciation in his mother tongue is clear. Translation imparts the student sufficient practice in expressing them in English. specially the dip-thongs which do not have any sound in any Indian language.20 The Place of English in Indian Education English. without even moving the lips. 6. Reading has been divided into two parts: 1. Silent reading is the more efficient way of reading and more useful in life. P Gurry remarks: . Silent Reading These two parts of reading in the mother tongue provides sufficient help in reading aloud and silent reading in English. The importance of silent reading does not reduce the importance of oral reading at the initial stages of language learning.

pupil may take more time. The important question is that why Gujarati speaking learner of English find it difficult to learn English. an internal motivation to learn another language. Gujarati speaking learner are learning almost in vacuum. The use of mother tongue will help the pupil in creating interest in the reading of additional material in English. new ideas. The Gujarat is one of a state of India. It has been observed from the society of Gujarat that the people or Gujarati learner find this language very difficult. But ultimately reading habit can be developed in them through reading exercises in their mother tongue. Extensive reading helps in supplying new vocabulary. As we know that first language is learnt naturally.pattern and new thoughts. It should be started with the help of mother tongue. new sentence. No any special training is given to learn mother tongue while to learn second or foreign language the special training is given to Gujarati speaking learner. Naturally to learn English needs a boost. It is taught as second language in Gujarat state. It should be properly done in the class room and proper attention should be paid to it. (4) Problem faced by Gujarati speaking learner in Learning Foreign Language We know that Gujarati is second language for those who have brought up in the Gujarat.The Place of En/dish in Indian Education 21 Children who have taught to read in their mother tongue well can quickly learn to read English after one or two years of oral English. It is used every where. in all government department and other department. The Gujarati is widely . Gujarati is spoken in Gujarat. Why. In Indian condition. the Gujarati learner feels it too difficult.

In Gujarati. • • • 2. SVC. CCCVCC. The Gujarati has its own speech and script and Gujarati speaking people have mastered it. Syllabic formation in Gujarati is different from English. The word order in both language differ in form. the spoken language is closed to its script whereas in English. The code in Gujarati is based on Indian language. CV. or SAV whereas in English SVO. Pedagogical Problem 1. In Gujarati it is V. So Syllables are not easily recognized by learner. in English 26 letters represent 44 sounds. in Gujarati it is SCV.22 The Place of English in Indian Education spoken and there are many dialectical varieties within. Linguistic Problem: • • Gujarati is syllable rhymed language while English is stressed rhymed language. From the through out studies in the field of linguistic Sanskrit is found the most scientific language. spoken language differ in it form. It is very difficult to find the subsidiary environment using another language among Gujaratis. etc. SOY. CCVC. Now we see that which difficulties are faced by Gujarati speaking learner. Social and Political Problem 3. Social and Political Problem: In Gujarat the English teaching has been considered a problem because there is no clear policy about teaching . Linguistic Problem 2. The Gujarati is scientific language while English is not because in Gujarati there is one to one correspondence between sound and its letters. Sanskrit. SVA. 1. So naturally the Gujarati is also one of scientific language of the world. CVC.

There is no perfect sequence of teaching English in school and college. English is taught but without having goal of acquiring skill of using English. The language teaching is based on recommendation of Dr. In this category. Kothari Commission. English has been found a compulsory component in very short period of school education 2 to 4 years.The Place of English in Indian Education 23 of English in college and school. The some of the groups advocating learning in vernacular language oppose almost policies on this issue. Rural and Urban. We know that there is no clear policy of teaching English in colleges and schools. • • • . The elite class is too small. In school there is no importance of teaching or learning English. So English medium institutes are mushrooming like anything and teaching English as second or foreign language is neglected in school where Gujarati is the medium of instruction. In both these stream. The Government of Gujarat has accepted his formula of teaching three languages in secondary schools. the social and political problems are included: • We know that Gujarati is basically a business community. people like to live in there respective community. The policy makers are still in dilemma to make it compulsory from lower primary. They don't like to live together so they did not need any other language to communicate. they prefer English but the greatest mass neglect learning 3econd language. Rural want to live with rural people while urban like to live with urban. The society has been divided into two parts.

The language teaching should be task based. The grammar teaching should be moderate and language oriented. +++++ . Objectives should be based on psychomotor domain. one can not teach English. The way teaching of first language in teaching English. The Place of English in Indian Education Pedagogical Problem: The way of teaching first language is different from the way of teaching second language.24 3. teaching should be The teacher must have liberty of deciding language activities and materiaL The school must have technological resources. The language communicative. In pedagogical problem the teacher is not only responsible but also those are also responsible who are engaged in language teaching at whatever leveL Now we see the problems which Gujarati speaking learners face: • • • • • • • • • • • There are lack of good English teacher Little knowledge of linguistic No good methods are practiced Lack of the knowledge of how languages are acquired and learned Lack of resources like authentic material and software.

First the education was in shadow of teacher. They have no any role in teaching learning process. The education was slave of teacher.2 +++++ ---------------------(1) The Psychology of Foreign Language Learning Many branches of language emerged from philosophy. He did not think the mental condition of child. It has provided the way of teaching and learning both teacher and students have got this advantage from the psychology. The psychology has helped "How to teach language and "How it may be useful in teaching learning process. Teacher teaches in his own way. The different languages are used all over the world. They were the master of education and what they spoke was next to God. There are many varieties within the language." Language: The different languages are spoken in the world. The psychology has made us eligible for think minutely understanding teaching more scientifically. The development of psychology in the field of philosophy has made teaching and learning very effective and scientific. How these languages FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING . Whole teaching learning process was teacher centred. Psychology is one of them.

26 Foreign Language teaming CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE l Language is cultured based Language is unique system Language is social behave Language is medium of instruction Language is structural system Language is made up habit " .

The Researcher has made it clear that the language is a medium through which a one can express his ideas. feeling and message./I Collins Cobuld Essential English Dictionaries defines language as: /I Language is a system of communication through which . Every language choices some symbols from the alphabet of the language and joins in different combinations to form meaningful words. Robins rightly points out those definitions tend to be trivial and uninformative but he does list and discuss a number of silent facts that must be taken into account in any seriously intended study of language. thought. Language is the method of human communication. postures.. In their Outline of Linguistic Analysis Block and Trager wrote: A language is a system of arbitery vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. signals. Language is extendable and modifiable. gestures and sign etc. emotions and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols. infinitely extendable and modifiable according to the changing needs and conditions of the speakers.Foreign Language Leaming 27 are originated. Language conventions are not easily changed. Edward Sapir quotes: Language is purely human and noninstinctive method of communicating ideas. He notes: Language is a symbol system based on pure arbitrary conventions . It is believed that people started conveying message quest.. it is very difficult to know.

. grammar. Darbyshire noted: "Language is undoubtedly a kind of means of communication among human beings. they are restricted to a participate set of messages. which involves the use of sounds. a system of communication consisting of small parts and a set of rules which decide the ways in which these parts can be combined to produce messages that have meaning." Language is a fully developed means of communication. It is articulatory.28 Foreign Language Learning consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country for talking or writing. according to a system of rules. systematic and arbitrary. restricted to humans. Noam Chomsky Syntactic Structures observes: "A language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences.. Language has changed the entire gamut of human relations and made it possible for human beings to grow into a human community on this world. Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1995:795) defines the term "language" as: . and vocabulary." The Cambridge Concise Encyclopaedia defines the term "language" as: A species-specific communicative ability. It consists primarily of vocal sounds. Though other animals can communicate vocally and by gestures.. each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.

Language is a social act. The concept of language as a learning task is a complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences and elements. communicate. The primary functions of language are communication. In his Essays on Language Hall notes: "Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with one another by means of habitually used oral auditory arbitrary symbols. which cannot be creatively varied. . Language is the manipulation of experience by the use of symbols. The teaching of language is basically conditioned by the nature of the subject. of forming general ideas. The entire process of socialization is largely a process of language development. The use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings is equally real.Foreign Language Learning 29 genetically given. in which growth proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees. It has been observed in the first place that language is a vital part of the growth process. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact. a means of adjustment to control over other people. The command of words and groups of words grows with practise and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed." Encyclopaedia Britannica comments: Language is a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings. self-expression and thinking. dependent on points or emphasis and interest. Language is a means of clarifying perception of discovering likeness and differences in thing observed. and of discovering relationships. The communication function is obvious. as members of a social group and participants in its culture.

F. L. L. s. is learnt It is learnt through practice ISe4:0nd~ .30 Foreign Language Learning LANGUAGE l F. L.... is acquired It is acquired naturally S..

It is a vital part of the process of adjusting to life. Few characteristics are given of Language: • • • • • • • Language is a very important means of communication Language is symbolic Language is dynamic Language is structured system Language is unique system Language is a carrier of civilization and culture Language is a form of social behaviour . native equipment gives potentialities of growth. Command of language is an important factor in the development of total personality of the child. physical and social. every language can be mastered. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence. English Language has a set of sounds peculiar to it. Language is essential for our survival and development as human being. Every language represents its culture in the best possible way. The fourth important implication is that language develops as a whole. it has been noted that.Foreign Language Learning 31 In the second place. grammar and vocabulary. Language is a result of cultural experience. With patience and time. It is a means of bringing order into a bewildering world. Language is used to communicate our thoughts and ideas. Language is learnt by imitation. not a mechanical. satisfaction and security. The fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. Language is also a system of phonetics. The purpose is largely utilitarian. Language is purposeful. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the whole life of the child. Language is a means of gaining control of people and thought. No language is inferior or superior.

32 Foreign Language Learning rOREIGN LANGUAGE [CHARACTERISTICS Diff'erent sound pattern Diff'erent words Little 0 de structure Diff'erent meaning .

Tamil. Second Language : There are different kinds of languages are spoken in India. For example a child of Gujarat learns Gujarati naturally because he has natural environment of Gujarati in house. They are different in way of script. In the world several languages are used and they are differs from each other. in society and many places. Thus Gujarati is first language for him. When a language is learnt naturally or without training than it is called first language. rhythms . Rajasthan and other state. Diversity is features of Indian but they have unique identity.Foreign Language Learning 33 • • • • • • • Language is arbitrary Language is medium of instruction Language is made up of habits Language is a symbol of system Language is as important as the air we breathe Language is the most valuable passion of man Language is an inseparable part of human body. All languages are different in nature. The first language can be defined as under: It is the language that an individual has acquired when he was child as a part of natural process of acquiring language without any formal training. Every state has its own language like Gujarat. so he speaks Gujarati without any problem. It is routine language for him. The first language is used to learn second language in many states. First Language : There are many states in our country. These languages may first for one state anQ for other state second language.

/ Come larva from mouth of dog (Conditioning response) Stimulus) I Give ReWfo:rcement r rre~~ trigger to get food f-----Jo Give resporue Resporue is to Get Food 1 .34 Foreign Language Learning PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ~ 1 Behaviorism Cognitivism ~ Classical Conditioning 1 Operant Conditioning . Sounds of bell (C onditioning Stimulus) Food (~~ ~~ ~ .

In school and colleges and other places the only Hindi is used so Hindi is first language and Rajasthani may be second language. The term second language can be defined in these words: When a child learns a language systematically or he is given particular training for it then it is called second language. They use it as first language.Foreign Language Learning 35 and sounds. For example Russian. To learn Rajasthani we need special training. Some time we find numbers of varieties within language. The Tamil is First language for them. In south India the Hindi is Second language because the Hindi is not used as routine language. For example: In Gujarat. little ode structure and entirely different meaning. Chin and other country also use these languages. The term "Foreign language" has been defined as: Foreign language is the language where the secondary environment is not observed and the people of linguistically foreign societies use such language. different words. But in Rajasthan it is not first language because it is not learnt in routine in environment. Gujarati is first language for Gujarati people because it is learnt without any particular training. These are foreign language because they have different sound pattern. Foreign Language : It is the language which is used by the people of other country or society. When languages are learnt without any practice it is called . Difference between Acquisition and Learning : Acquisition : Many languages are used in our country or societies.

36

Foreign Language Learning

first language. Child learns first language without any problem and practice. He learns FL naturally. When language is learnt naturally and without any systematic practice then it is called Acquisition. The language when it is learnt in primary environment or learnt without practice it is Acquisition. Language acquisition is the process by which a child acquires its mother tongue. The acquisition of a first language is the most wonderful feat we perform in our whole life; we do it at an age when we can hardly do anything else. Language acquisition is an active process. Children take the clues available to them and use these clues to construct their own grammatical rules, rules which grow in sophistication as acquisition proceeds.
Learning:

Learning a language requires the operation of an innate capacity possessed by all human beings. In our schools many subjects are taught. English taught as second language because particular practice is given to the students to learn English. To learn English, the help of mother tongue is taken. The term "Learning" can be defined as: The way through which the art of using skill and practice is given to learn it than it is learning. Psychology of Learning :
1.

Behaviourism Cognitivism

2.
1.

Behaviourism: This school of psychology has been established by Russian Psychologist Pavlov and American Psychologist B.F. Skinner. Behaviourism is the theory that psychology should invoke only observable and measurable phenomena.

Foreign Language Learning

37

Behaviourism originated as a healthy reaction to this state of affairs. The early behaviourists wanted to sweep away what they saw as empty speculation and the endless postulation of undetectable concepts. Behaviourism exercised great influence over the linguist Leonald Bloomfield and the American structuralists who followed him. In 1957 the American Psychologist B.P. Skinner published Verbal Behaviour. It was an attempt at interpreting language acquisition strictly in terms of Behaviourism. It was the most radical attempt ever treating language in a behaviourist framework. A behaviourist method of language teaching should embody at least the following principles. It should be firmly anchored in spoken language. Pavlov has given theory of classical conditioning and B.F. Skinner has given the theory of Operant Condition.

Classical Conditioning: This theory is based on the habit formation. Pavlov says that human or any creature gives response due to stimulus. Stimulus are that things which create excitation in creature. It means that human learn due to stimulus. Pavlov has done one experiment on a dog. In which when at first Pavlov rings a bell before dog and dog hears it. With it, it is given food then it drops larva. Just after he rings bell then it drops larva after again food is given. In this condition we look that dog is given stimulus and it gives response. Thus student can also be taught according of this theory. Operant Conditioning: This theory is also based on the habit formation. B.F. Skinner says that human or any creature gives response due to Reinforcement. He wants to say that human or creature learns due to reinforcement. B.P. Skinner has done experiment on Pigeons and Rats. When they are reinforced they get their target or food. It means student can be taught very effectively if they are given proper reinforcement.

38

Foreign Language Learning

The structuralists believe in the pattern of practice. They say that teacher should motivate to their student so that he could get his all desired objectives. The motivated learner learns fast and effectively.

Few Essential Points :
1. Language is learnt only through practice. The more the learner is exposed to the use of language, the better chance of learning it. Producing the correct linguistic response to a stimulus requires efforts. If the learner is not called upon to make this effort there is no learning. Producing correct response also requires attention. -The spoken language comes earlier than the written and the passive experience of language is necessary before any productive (active) use can begin. Learning takes place fast if a correct response is given t the students. The learner must know at once if his effort is right or wrong. Every new item must be learnt by reinforcement by further practice before further learning begins.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

2.

Cognitivism :

Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the object of study itself. Today most psychologists, philosophers and linguists, are preferably happy to invoke invisible things like minds and purposes and even to make mind itself the object of study. This approach is called Cognitivism.

Foreign Language Learning

39

COGNITIVES
~
Cognitive emphasizes the importance ofthn!e things

Meaning

1
Understanding

Cognitive says that the language acquisition can be automadcaBy attained

According to Cognitivists there is some thing. and the cognitive function. . 3. He learns naturally. The psychologist Piaget says when child is ready to learn then he can be taught. which mediates between the stimulus and the response. . David Ausubel has criticized the popular audio lingual method for its theory based on reinforcement and conditioning." And it is thought to involve internal representations that guide performance. Behaviourists favour the view that language is behaviour is one sided and some what superficial. In the case of language acquisition. these representations are based on language system. In short. This idea can be regarded as a starting point of the cognitivist idea.40 Foreign Language Learning This theory is based on the developmentally readiness of learner. He uses his mind also. Adult learning a second language could profit from certain grammatical explanation. Meaning Knowing And understanding According them learning is a meaningful process of "relating new events or item to already existing already cognitive concept. A learner just does not behave in a mechanical manner. 2. The psychologist emphasizes the importance of three things: 1. They acquire mother tongue quietly. He not only perceives the whole phenomena but also develops in insight through which he solves a problem. grammatical rules and pragmatic conventions governing language use. the cognitivists say that language acquisition can be automatically attained. That involves procedure for selecting appropriate vocabulary. Though children do not use deductive method of grammar and they do not have superior cognitive capacities.

it means he is motivated to learn second language. To learn second language students are given systematic practice. Some types of motivation must be presented in learning. To learn first language we need not to motivate the child. the child wills merely look for outside assistance. It is through speech that a child learns to organize his perception and regulate his behaviour and mental activities. he is internally motivated and he acquires first language. The word "Motivation" has been defined as: Motivation is considered with the arousal of the interest in learning and to the extent is basic to learning. Habit Formation. Motivation is the central factor in the effective management of process of learning. understanding and Memory in teaching English Motivation : We know that first language is acquired and second language is learnt. Without motivation he can not learn second language. . Motivation is a term which occurs in discussion of second rather than first language learning. Faced with problems and needs. It is only due to motivation. Man became civilized from uncivilized man. Reinforcement. Motivation is an energy change within a person characterized effective arousal and anticipatory goal reaction. Attention.Foreign Language Learning 41 (2) Use of Motivation. Importance of Motivation : 1.

4. Do you think that if you don't give charge of any goods? Will shopkeeper give something to you? No he will give nothing to you without any charge. Human can adjust himself with society. 8. The reinforcement has been defined as: Any environmental event that is programmed as consequence of a response that can increase that rate of responding is called reinforcement. Thus reinforcement is goods which can be obtained by giving some thing right. 7. So that the atmosphere of motivated situations could be created. Motivation makes expected change in human. Motivation makes students to identify themselves. Motivation makes learning and teaching effective. Reinforcement : When you go to any shop. . Motivation creates interest for self studies in students.42 Foreign Language Learning 2. Motivation makes students active and creative. 5. Motivated students can move their limitation by using their powers and ambitions. 6. They desire to do some thing new. Motivation creates teaching atmosphere in class room. 3. Which makes any response powerful is called reinforcement. Motivation plays main role to encourage people. Motivation inspires students to prove their goal and objectives. Motivation inspires students to become active and regular in their work and start their work. 9.

Foreign Language Learning 43 rI KINDS OF REINFORCER l Negative reinforcer Positive Reinforcer Punishment Primary Rein-forcer Secondary Rein-forcer I Reputation II Get Wealth ! Post or Seat I .

this student is not intelligent. 2. 2. The teacher should be live in his presentation. ~ The teacher should held enjoyable activities. 4. 3. 3. In computer we can store data on large scale. When we say that. The teacher should follow the simple rules for stretching their attention till at the end of the class: 1. the computer has memory power which remembers whole data till long time. Why. Attention is a mental process of students which decides the role of students' involvement in teaching learning process. Memory : You have listened about computer. Just like it human also has brain which have memory . Positive Rein~forcer Negative Rein-forcer Punishment Primary Rein-forcer Secondary Rein-forcer Attention: Attention plays important role in teaching learning process. 4. Kinds of Rein-forcer : 1. The stimulus variation technique should be used in class room teaching. 5. It means that he does not draw his attention in teaching learning process. The learning material and content must be interesting.44 Foreign Language Learning When an award or punishment is given to make response powerful is called rein-forcer. He disturbs whole teaching learning process. Inattentive students can never perceive knowledge.

Foreign Language Learning 45 STAGES OF PROCESS OF MEMORIZATION I RE GIS l'ER I 1 RETAINING RECOGNITION RECALLING .

Communication skills are nothing but habit formation. later they form the habit of forming words. Acquiring new habit is the result of learning. letter and passage and then talking. In this process the learner are acquiring these skills by modifying their acquired behaviours in their respective mother tongue. Human performs several tasks which remembrance is stored in memory system. the learner will not be able to fix and recall. They have learnt it. If not. So learning a language means forming habit of using language. they can not use. Now we take the example: at first child forms the habit of producing sound in English. Better articulation Good acceptable rhythm Better intonation and pronunciation . he will learn language easily. retaining. If we want to learn language we should take it in practice. There are stages in the process of memorization. Almost all kinds of primary or motor skill learning is kind of habit formation. 2. If sufficient practice is given to the students to perform task. If the learners can not fix the concept about the language. The learners have fixed the ideas and when they need. The teacher of English should form following habit in order to attaining second or foreign language: 1. According to behaviourists psychologist the habit is conditioned behaviour. 3. recalling and recognizing.46 Foreign Language Learning capacity. They are registering. Human brain is store house of memory. The teacher should try to make teaching so simple and lucid for better retention. Learning a second language means forming the habit of using English. Habit Formation : We know that practice plays important role in teaching Learning process. The learners have to form the habit of behaving in the manner of English. they should recognize and recall the retained information.

Foreign Language Learning 47 r------.j.II J Speaking and writing I ~--------------~ .1 I Using English manner '---------.---J>I c ! I I Better articulation I I--------J>II Good acceptable rhythm I I I I--------J>II Better intonation and pronunciation 1-------.

S. We study in our life. Now we come to the point. 5. To enable student to understand topic correctly. I don't think that a man performs a task without any purpose. Specific objectives are of this unit: 1. To enable student to read English with ease.48 4. Foreign Language Learning Using English manner Speaking and writing (3) Aims and Objectives of Teaching English at School level in Term of language Point and Skill Introduction : We know that man performs several tasks. Is there any purpose or aim of teaching English at school Level? Yes. General objectives are those which are obtained at the end the year. Suppose he is teaching the unit "Mahatma Gandhi". To enable student to listen English with ease. 2. To enable students to develop quality of Mahatma Gandhi. teaching of English. . There is always aim or purpose behind any task. 4. There should always be purpose behind the task. What are general and specific objectives of teaching English? How can we define general and specific objectives? We take an example of a teacher who teaches English in class room. He is always active. There are general and specific objectives of teaching English. What will be general and specific objectives of this unit? General objectives of this unit are: 1. there are aims and objectives of teaching English at school Level. There is no meaning of that task. To enable the student to speak English correctly. To enable student to write English correctly. Thus we can say that a task without any purpose or objectives or aim is wasteful. 3.

Foreign Language Leaming 49 OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH GENERAL OBJECTIVES SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Those am got after the end of the )'iarofihe course Those am got after the ending ofihe Wlit I TG uruhDtmd ~ (cxn:edly TG nad J!n&Wh Wih.d. I .ev't!k>p quality d faaifke.fnU ~ d. eue TG enable sIu.

At this st¥ language development should be chief objectives.50 Foreign Language Learning ENGLISH TEACHING English should be taught as languaIJ! not m literature becalR on tlIis Develop taste for English literature Develop interest in English literature Develop transJating ability st¥. students do not understand tIE literary sense of English. Understanding of critical value Drawing aesthetic pleasure .

they should have a good command over the language. 3. student starts the learning the language on this stage. At this stage. vocabulary and structure of language but he should think only about the language development of students. grammar. language development should be chief objective. To enable student to develop the quality of loyalty for our country. student does not understand the literary sense of English. Now we take two types of objectives of teaching of English which are limited to particular class V to VIII and IX to XII: 1. Thus we can say that the general objectives are those which are got after the end of the year course and specific objectives are those which are got after the ending of unit. Language Development: It is only for the students of class V to VIII. should not only understand English when it is spoken or written but also .Foreign Language Learning 2. It is necessary that the Indian people 1. It means that English should be taught only as language not as literature because on this stage. So first. According to above opinions. During this stage the main aim of English teaching is only language development of child. Language Development Literary Development 2. Gurry. We can say that teacher should not care about pronunciation. 4. To enable student to develop the quality of high thinking and simple living. 51 To enable students to develop the quality of sacrifice. According to P.

.I T ••nab" .... ..___mn_~ ge _ _ _ _ _ _~ ___ I ___-.I T.. to write "'" language prop.52 Foreign Language Learning GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH l To enable the students to understand the spoken ---~~~_ _ _ _ _ _. enabm "'" ...ad ...tnd_ t ......~l__ T_o_e_na_b_le_the_stu_d_e_nts_t_o_sp_e_ak_E_D_gIis_"_h_c_orr_e_ct_-l mn~ge ___~....'" I ___ ~. _ with """'. j.

Literary Development: This objective is for the stage of senior class students from IX to XII. Genera. 5. To enable the student to write the language properly. correct language. 2. Develop interest in English literaturE' Development of translating ability understanding the critical value Drawing aesthetic pleasure. 3. poetry. Specific objectives state what to achieve at the end of the unit. listening. To enable the students to read the language with ease. To enable students to speak simple English 2. To enable students to understand spoken or written language.l objectives state what to achieve at the end of the course of the year. 3. Literary development is an important objective at higher secondary stage. They are : 1. speaking and the writing and understanding should be developed in the students. . Specific objectives of Teaching English : Specific objectives are short term goals. 53 2. A taste for English literature by reading prose. 4.Foreign Language Learning he should himself be able to speak and to write it. from reading English literature General objectives of Teaching English : General objectives are global and long term goals. Literary development to means to develop: 1. story etc. 4. On this stage the ability of reading.

. 10. phrases and structure in their context.. 6. pauses and intonation pattern. Establishment of chronological order of statement narration.. 3. Follow the typical usage of the spoken form of language.. 5. 2. words correctly. chart or object during oral presentation.. To enable student to . Point out the missing point in oral presentation. Pronounce the sounds of English letters and 1.. talk and discussion... Speak sentence with proper stresses... Recognize the sounds of English. Differentiate sounds of English words and sounds of words of mother tongue. . Get main idea of the narration. 4. 3. 7.. Understand the purpose of the speaker by 9. To enable the students to understand spoken language. 8. 1. Associate ideas with pictures.. Follow the meaning of words. • To enable students to speak simple English correct language To enable students to .54 Foreign Language Learning Specific objectives are based on the above sub skills or general objectives. maintaining a continuity of thoughts. 2.. . Carry out oral instruction. • . noting his stresses and intonation pattern. Use appropriate words and sentence pattern.

1. 5... 7. • To enable the students to . 9.. Write different types of compositions.. Acquire active vocabulary.. To enable the students to . 8. • 10. l. Write words with proper spacing between letters. 9.. Use appropriate words. Write answer keeping in mind the format of questions.. Speak with confidence. 55 Answer the.. 6. 8. phrase and sentence pattern. Spell the word correctly. 10. 3. Use capital letters in writing... 5. 7.. Put ideas in proper sequence. Speak without any reversion. 4. Use punctuation correctly. Acquiring skill of effective communication. 2. To enable the students to read the language with ease Recognise words of English. To enable the student to write the language properly Write the letter correctly. 6. . Shape the letter correctly..Foreign Language Learning 4. questions. Write sentence with proper spacing between words. Speak without using any meaningless and unnecessary words. .

56
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Foreign Language Learning Follow the meaning of words, phrases and structure in their context. Recognise different shades and meaning of words. Note and keep in view the punctuation mark while reading. Associate ideas of reading material with a picture or a chart. Read with the correct pronunciation and clear expression. Find out appropriate answer to question based on reading material. Locate key word, phrases and sentence. Give the list of content material read. Locate the sequence of ideas and facts. Read with ease and appropriate speed.

+++++

..........
---------------------(1) Use and selection of Instructional Material and Teaching Aids Introduction : We know that teaching and learning is process. Teacher teaches and students learn from teacher. In process of teaching learning process teacher uses some thing to make his teaching learning process effective. The material and aids which are used by teacher to make his teaching very effective is called teaching aids and instructional material. The language teaching is not a static process but it is a dynamic process. We know the general objectives and specific objectives of teaching English. Teacher should select teaching material and instructional according the objectives decided by teachers so that skill of reading, understanding, writing and speaking and sub skills of skills could be developed in students. We know that English is second or foreign language. So the teaching material and instructional material play

3

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND TEXT BOOK

58

Instructional Material and Text Book

TEACHING AIDS

L~

CompWir &sisud LemUr!g (C.ALL)

v.c.P.

' - -_ _ Ra._dW_--..."

V. C. D.

I I

TdeWion

HIm Pr(lj edflr

Slide Proj edu

O.H.P.

Instructional Material and Text Book

59

important role in teaching learning process. Thus we can say that use and selection of teaching aids must be very carefully. Types of Teaching and Instructional Material :

Visual aids : 1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft boards. 2. Charts, Maps, Pictures, Drawings.
3. 4. Static and Working Modal Film strip, Slide Projector, Transparencies and Episcope. OHP,

Audio aids : 1. Audio Cassette Player 2'. Radio Audio Visual aids : 1. Video Cassette player 2. Video Compact Disc Player 3. Television 4. Film Projector Language Laboratory Computer Assisted Learning

• •

Visual Aids : 1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft boards: These boards are used to display different types of display material. There are kinds of display boards used to display charts, maps, tables etc. 2. Charts, Maps, Pictures and Drawings: These teaching aids play main role in teaching learning process.

He can use both the static and working model. Pictures can also be displayed by using any of the boards. They prepare students mentally and motivate for further preparation. teacher wants to teach the topic elephant. If models are not available he can use charts. Static modal can be used if working model is not available. Teachers can prepare these aids himself of readymade.60 Instructional Material and Text Book They interest in students. OHP. pictures or drawing. Transparencies and Episcope : The teacher can use film strip and slide projector to make his teaching too effective. The transparency is plastic sheet which on which teacher can develop his own material to be presented. The material on opaque sheet is projected with the help of this hardware. 3. Slide Projector. Working model of elephant creates primary interest in students. Slides are available in the market and teacher can use them according to need of content. Use of OHP by teacher is good practical that help him to make his teaching very interested and effective. For example. 4. . Maps can be either hanged or displayed by using any of the display boards. Film strip. But he should himself be a creative person so that student could follow him. These aids make students to draw their attention very carefully toward teaching. Static and Working Modal: Models play important role in teaching learning process. Charts may be written or drawn on thick coloured papers and can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards.y item also to be displayed with the help of display board. The teacher can draw picture or any sketch ar. Teacher can use models to make his teaching very effective. Episcope: Episcope is also known as Epidiascope. Over Head Projector : OHP is the hardware used to project the transparencies.

2. quiz programmes. . It makes teaching very scientific and effective. In this process the subject matter is recorded as audio cassette and played on this machine. debates. The students repeat that subject matter and learn. variety programmes. Radio: The radio was very famous medium of mass media before three decades.Instructional Material and Text Book 61 The teacher can project any material developed on simple plain paper sheet. But there is room on the air for instrumental and vocal music. forums. and the schools have a major responsibility for providing enlightenment. Audio Cassette Player: We all are introduced of tape recorder or audio cassette player. It should be possible for the listener to make a free selection from among many of these kinds of programmes both during the day and in the evening. Small size of picture can be projected through this instructional materiaL Audio Aids: 1. both classical and popular. sports events. addresses. We use it in our houses and shop to listen song. The first of the objectives of the study of radio in secondary schools arises from the nature of the control of the industry. mysteries. The teaching activities become more and more effective and alive. In a democracy the best defence against monopoly in the field of communication is an enlightened public. In this source the teacher has no criteria to select the learning material because whatever aired is the source. religious broadcasts. The learners have an access to native language and they better drill the pattern in its required form. It was first attempt to teach English with the help of radio. Radio must appeal to every type and level of taste. It is also used in teaching learning process by teacher.

but must be developed from within. Rinehart & Company. In the beginning of the year there were . The method of improving young people's tastes in radio is not the method of coercion. William Levenson declares: Enduring standards and tastes cannot be imposed from without. as applied to radio. Inc. A genuine continuous growth begins first with an understanding of the levels at which tastes exist.. it is well to know to what programmes the children are listening. before the teacher attempts an abstract discussion of comparative standards. The third and perhaps the most important objective for the radio study in secondary schools is the development of the ability to evaluate news reports and communication as the air. New York. It will not only provide the teacher with the information she seeks. but if parents' reactions are solicited also.62 Instructional Material and Text Book The second important objective of the schools in the area of radio study is the elevation of the listener's taste. the enterprise can serve to promote further interest in parental guidance at home. ( Teaching Through Radio. What programmes are available in the community? When do they listen? Such a simple survey of the listening habits of the class is a good preliminary step in guidance. 1945:474) Audio Visual Aids : In the twentieth century technology was advanced at the highest pace. Consequently.

Instructional Material and Text Book 63 CHARACTRISTICS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL 1 Supplement of oral Teaching As Motivators Prevent indiscipline and monotony Make learning permanent Save time and energy Provide direct experience .

Audio and visual both media have high impact on the mind of learners. It is believed that audio visual aids may create interest and motivation at the highest degree because through this teaching aid learners' both eye and ear become active so they are widely used in teaching of language. This material is recorded in the video cassette and we look film. Video Cassette Player: We have seen many films on video. and other programmes. On television we take enjoy of film. 1. Video Compact Disc Player: Now we can take the help of VCD to make teaching effective so to view the material the VCD is played on this machine.64 Instructional Material and Text Book limited resources available but in the end of the options are many. Teaching materials available on the video tape are played by this machine VCP. 3. Television is instrument through which one can view educational programme. . serials. the film was very famous media. They are as good as radio programmes which teacher can not select. It is the latest audio visual aid. How we see this film on video. 2. Thus in teaching learning process teacher uses this VCP to make his teaching effective and alive. Film Projector : Before the introduction of TV and other media resources. Television: We all know about television because rather it is available at every house in India. Through which tool we take enjoy of film? That is video cassette which enable us to take enjoy of film. The programmes record on the video casse~te can be transferred into compact disk. The programmes which are recorded on film are projected with the help of film projectors. The educational programmes are also aired from respective TV programmes production centre.

There should he no printing mistake It must not he very costly The paper should he qualitative The cover should he attractive and qualitative .Instructional Material and Text Book 65 CRITERIAL OF GOOD TEXT BOOK ~ The book should be accorclingthe individual cUfference of students The book should be accorclingthe objectives of teaching English The subject matter should he well graded Exercise work and practical work should be given at the end of the chapter It must develop moral qualities in the students.

(2) Characteristics of Various types of Instructional Material used in the class room Instruction: Supplement Oral Teaching : We know that most of class room teaching is verbal which can not make teaching learning effective: The verbal statements made by teacher do not help to clarify the view points. The computer is multi media system. DVD. Slide projector and Film projector. To use of computer in teaching learning process is innovation in educational circle. texts. Computer Assisted Language Learning: Computer Assisted Language Learning means is to present teaching material trough computer. Without use of these aids the teaching becomes alive less. In this presentation. The learning material are recorded on audiotapes which are played back by teacher is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the mentor. VCR. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear . graphics. Audio Visual Aids as Motivator : Audio visual aids work as motivators in teaching learning process. Leamer himself records his practice and listens to it. audio and video are available. The computer technology has brought multimedia package means the programme is developed with all kinds of media available for presentation. The language labs are set up with a view to provide listening activities in order to make them developing good speech habit.66 Instructional Material and Text Book Language Laboratory : Language laboratory is the place where the learners have to listen on headphone. It is VCD. At such a stage audio visual aids help to clarify the view of teacher.

Thus it is helpful to make teaching very interesting. in other words. Provide direct Experience : There are aids that provide direct learning experience to students. Motivation. Make Learning Permanent : Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory organs of the 1earner which improve retentiveness and make learning permanent.Instructional Material and Text Book 67 his content then students take more interest in that teaching. are some of the sources that . They are motivated to work more and effectively. it takes lees time and makes students to understand very easily. Prevent Indiscipline and Monotony : Teacher uses teaching aids to make his teaching effective and alive. Under this category. phase for all acts of learning. educational tours. taking the students into the community. They mentally prepare for further teaching.resources etc. visit to zoo. is the preparatory. The aids appeals to those senses that can respond adequately. Use of aids prevents monotony and indiscipline of student because it creates interest in student to know something. In audio visual aids. it takes more time for students to understand that content. and museums. seeing and hearing go together which play extraordinary roles in learning. It saves more time of and energy of teacher and students. Save Time and Energy : When teacher clear his content verbally or without any teaching aid. But when it is cleared by using audio visual aids. Audio visual aids are helpful in establishing motivation.

In Gujarat. Selector should keep himself away from the influence of out ward agencies and use his own directional only. The subject ~atter should be well graded in text book and lit should be directly related to the interest and life of the interest. 6.68 Instructional Material and Text Book provide first hand knowledge and serve as important aids for learning. He should select on the base of this criteria. Language should be according the age and interest of the students in the textbook. 2. (3) Requisite and Evaluation of Good Text Book Text book is the area in which the language material is presented prescribed for teaching and learning English. 3. According the age. S. the Gujarat state textbook board is publishing books for teaching and learning English. interest and individual differences should be kept in mind of selector. 4. . Text book should cover the objectives of the English teaching. There should be no any printing mistake and it should be attractive and illustrative. 7. Exercise work and practical work should be given to the students at the end the chapter. Criteria of the Selection of Good Text book: Keeping in view the significance of text book one should keep in his mind while selecting a text book those below mentioned points: 1. The textbook boards of respective state develop the material required. The teacher should select those books which help to produce moral qualities in students.

4. 9. 9. be well drawn and realistically coloured and not in black and white. 2. the picture should. Illustration should be attractive. 6. The book should be not very costly so that every student could purchase that could develop his qualities. 5. The size of text book should be handy for the students. The cover should be attractive and qualitative. 10.Instructional Material and Text Book 69 8. No difficult words and new words are given in good text book. Heading and subheading should be printed on title page in bold form. The binding should be proper and strong. The subject matter should be printed on good quality paper. 3. . 7. For every young pupil. A few essential characteristics of good text books are given below: 1. Clear and unambiguous instruction should be given along side the test and practice and exercise. The paper which is used in text book should be white and durable. The words and structure are carefully graded. Characteristics of Good text books : A good text books not only teaches but it also tests. 8. The words and structure already learnt are repeated in the coming pages so that the students could revise them making them stable in their memory.

. 16. A list of related books should be given at the end of the lesson for the further study. world peace. Textbook should cover whole syllabus. love and co-operation among people without the distinction of caste. 11.... 15.. 14. 13..70 10. Textbook must contain the lesson of national integration.. The subject matter of text book should provide new information so that students could get new knowledge. sex and race . . The practice should be low which the majority of students could solve them easily. Instructional Material and Text Book There should be both practice and text exercise at the end of the chapter... 12. The introduction at the beginning and conclusion at the end of the chapter should be given in the text book..

The way of teaching English is very different in different part of India. selection and grading language materials and items. Methodology is systematic and scientific way of teaching any subject." Anthony (1963) defines the term 'Method' as: ''It is a particular trick. We know that when any language is taught as second language. techniques of teaching. strategy or contrivance used to accomplish METHODS . English teaching is very complicate task in India. There is no single method that is to be considered effective and accepted by all. It is very necessary for teacher to know various types of methods and techniques of teaching English. We know that English is taught as a second language in our country. it becomes very necessary to know for teacher "How and what to teach to students" because it is very difficult for teacher to use suitable method. Indian classes have their own problem and one of them is teaching methodology.••••• 4 ---------------------Introduction : In India English is taught in each and every state's school. Method may also be defined as: "The process of planning. It guides teacher "How to teach" and "How his teaching may be effective". etc.

.72 Methods TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS TheG... ore"llmainc: ide.iums am pJl!llll!nled inmeaninc:fu1situaiion.ng1W Method 1 I Reading Method 1 I Emphasis on:mather to~in . me"ihod "'m is dimct band. In .adD:ng of S. ra-of A.. siiuau-in which di1Ii!mnt riru.... . . la:ncuaP liJte Endish In ... ThUis irnpmved . between speech ande"llm.ameu am to know .and.to Dr."and. Method l 1 I I Situa:lional Method I I Direct method Bili...diJlc maybe wry useful u.n. teadane..S.. . Michel Peu_...ordinc. utillJl.L ma....... TIle difio_tsu-..u.."and. mao.and shDwinc: objeds. v...... Ji1e English la:ncuaP la:ncuaP is taudkt wi. of cesium.d for tmmmitdnc.u..... Drama and rnm>yo"'r boo•• la:ncuaP..- Emphasi mo"'r to~in English or . aids. la:ncuaP teuhinc: .T. Nowh.ctuII! am .Lby readine.._ leam.. u. difio_t boo.....

5. The Grammar-Translation Method: The Grammar-Translation Method is the oldest method of teaching English.Methods 73 an immediate objective. It modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world today. The seni:ences in English and the mother tongue were compared and contrasted side by side. Greek and Sanskrit. 3. It must be consistent with a method and harmony with an approach as well. Techniques of presentation. The Grammar-Translation Method dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s. . In The Grammar-Translation Method the students first study the parts of speech and syntax in detail. 2. 1.E Mackey: A Method must include four things viz. under the influence of classical languages like Latin. and Gradation of Linguistic Material. Selection of Linguistic Material." According to W.. It was first known in the United States as the Prussian Method. The Grammar-Translation Method was used for the teaching of English in the beginning. This method is also known as the Classical Method. The Grammar-Translation Method was the offspring of German scholarship. The Grammar Translation Method The Direct Method The Bilingual Method The Reading Method The Situation Method 4. Types of Methods : 1. and Practice by people.

In English words. Arabic. communication is ignored. Latin and Greek etc. This method is very famous in average teacher because it is very easy for them to use this method. translation. In this method the mother tongue is used to teach English. It considers grammar as a soul of language. It is believed that vocabulary and phraseology of a foreign language can be learnt through translating its meaning into the mother tongue and the teacher points out the grammatical point and rules. • • • . Characteristics : !J The unit of teaching is word. The main function of language learhing. Grammar is taught deductively.74 Methods The Grammar-Translation Method is called old method of teaching.. definition and comparative study of mother tongue grammar. It means vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated words. Persian. not a sentence. This method is also called classical method because it is very helpful in learning the classical language like Sanskrit. phrases and sentences are taught with the help of this method. This method does not help in development of lmguistic competence of learner. To use of this method is vary easy for teacher. Reading and writing are the major focus. It tells that every thing in English should be taught by transiating into mother tongue. Grammatical rules of teaching of English are explained into mother tongue. • • • . English grammar is taught through rules.

• In this method the child associates foreign words with translated words so strong memory bond is created.Methods • • • • "75 Words are taught through bilingual word-lists. • The Grammar-Translation Method develops the art of translation. • The use of mother tongue helps the children in vocabulary getting. The students' native language is the medium of instruction. The English is taught in mother tongue with little use of target language. . • The words and phrase are easily learnt and explained if translation method is used. his understanding of those words become very better and quicker. dictionary study and memorization. The principle of "to proceed from known to unknown" is followed. • The working knowledge of mother tongue helps them to learn grammar of a foreign language. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation. • English grammar can be easily taught by comparing with the grammar of mother tongue. It saves time and more effective. Advantage: • When words and phrases are translated into mother tongue. • Through this method we can test the ability of comprehension of our students and we can know the form of understanding the subject matter.

Disadvantage : • The Grammar-Translation Method does not emphasis on the basic skills like listening and speaking etc. This method is very useful in over crowed classes. the. • • • • • . Some of lingUistic items can not be translated into mother tongue like article a. an. Thus it prevents establishing of direct bond between thought and expression. pauses. It prevents students to think directly in English. It affects the sense and beauty of the words. Translation into mother tongue affects the originality of the words. idioms. It is not possible to translate important aspect • of spoken language like pronunciation. phrases in English for which words can not be translated into mother tongue. For example. Students first think in mother tongue and then in English.76 Methods • • Students who studies in Gujarati medium school. Language learning means speaking and reading but translation in mother tongue prevents students to read and speak in English. articulation. this method is very useful and effective for Gujarati learner. pitch etc. prepositions and propositional phrases. Student gets no opportunities to participate in the discussion of the unit. intonation. • There are words.

So teaching of SL or FL by observing the principles of language acquisition is the Direct Method. Psychologically and linguistically. P. Ballard: "To speak any language whether native or foreign entirely by rules is quite impossible" . An attempt to teach the language as one could in learning mother tongue is known as the Direct Method. Gurrey in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (1966) comments: . According to Dr. It depends on the will of the learner to learn for his own development. The Direct Method : Child learns his mother tongue naturally and without practice. The extreme use of mother tongue affected the naturalness of language. • • 2. so later the same method became popular called Direct Method. Prof. It is also called natural method because it is learnt naturally like mother tongue or first language. The Grammar-Trilnslation Method favours to teach English by rules and not by use. The students did not learn language but practiced of ac:quiring mother tongue or first language. This method was against of Grammar-Translation method. It means child learns mother tongue directly. The language is multi-sensory whereas this method makes it only a part of the human information. It is very difficult to bring exact environment in which mother tongue or first language is acquired. In this method same environment is created to learn second or foreign language but learning SL is not natural process.Methods • 77 Grammar class can never be effective when there is use of translation of grammatical rules and their explanation. this method is not suitable.

Sauveur opened a language school in Boston in the late 1860s. Methods The Direct Method was quite successful in private language schools. discussion and reading in the language itself. The Direct Method overemphasized and distorted the similarities between naturalistic first language learning and classroom foreign language learning. not a teaching method. it (The Direct Method) is a Principle. Webster's New International Dictionary notes: Direct Method is a method of teaching a foreign language. without the use of the pupil's language. between experience and expression instead of an indirect one through the mother tongue. Henry Sweet viewed that it offered innovations at the level of teaching procedures but lacked a through methodological basis. a way of handling the new language and of presenting to the class. This method represented the product of enlightened amateurism.78 Essentially. Sauveur and other believers in the Natural Method argued that a foreign language could be taught without translation or the use of the learner's native tongue. without translation. His method soon became referred to as the Natural Method. and . Its main focus was on the exclusive use of the target language in the classroom. especially a modern language through conversation. a system that operates through many methods. It demands a direct bond that is a direct association between word and thing and between sentence and idea.

Methods without the study of formal grammar. Characteristics of Direct Method : • There is no interference of mother tongue. The teacher replaced the textbook in the early stages of learning. using name. demonstration and pictures. In this method. Child thinks into target language and express into target language. Teacher performs an • • . Teacher performs such activities which tell the meaning of the sentence in the context. Speaking began with proper attention to pronunciation. Unit of teaching is sentence. 79 The German scholar Franke wrote on the psychological principles of direct association between forms and meanings in the target language. Learners would be able to induce rules of grammar. Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany. Teacher must encourage direct and spontaneous use of the foreign language in the class room. It becomes widely known in the United States through its use by Sauveur and Maximilan Berlitz in successful commercial language schools. In TG method at first child comes with the contact of mother tongue and after with the target language. Famous words could be used to teach new vocabulary. For him a language could best be taught by using it actively in the class room. there is direct bond of target language. The first words are taught by pointing to objects or pictures or by performing actions. These natural language learning principles provided the formation for what came to be famous as the Direct Method.

The teaching learning process is carried out in English environment. Teacher shows the meaning of the sentence with help of gestures. Thus this method is scientific and very effective. Thus this method creates this ability in students. The teacher shows object or performs the action to clear his concept. This method is called natural method.80 Methods action related to the sentence which shows meaning of the sentence. It enable student to establish direct bond between words and expression. accent. New teaching points were introduced orally. postures and action. This method is based on the principle of "Learning by Doing". Direct Method is interesting and . The pronunciation. • Direct Method is full of activities. . This method helps to speak language effectively. • To learn any language means speak that language with fluently. intonation and rhythm are essential for better and effective communication.natural for learners. Both comprehension and speech were taught It observes scientific path of language • • • Advantage: • • • • • • acquisition: LSRW. The English is taught as the child learns his mother tongue.

The Bilingual Method : India is very big country. Through specific method the teaching can be made effective due to many . the appropriate methods have to be applied in teaching learning process. For this process we need huge fund. So the learners start using the language without fear. • This method does not help in important aspect of language learning like reading and writing. He should be a perfect teacher. 3. language rooms and problem of over crowed class. • To use this method in the class. the teacher should be mastered in subject. blackboard. To make teaching effective. language laboratory. How can we solve these problems? We need large amount for this. It means that every subject matter can not be explained by an action or showing any object. • This method requires many audio visual aids. There are basic requirements like school building. We know that teaching materials are very costly so we can not use them in teaching activities. the teacher can not perform an action and show any object. Grammar was taught inductively. He should have active command on his teaching.Methods • 81 This method helps learners to enjoy the language. • • Disadvantage : • For every sentence or subject matter. • This method is not useful in over crowed classes. Many languages are spoken in India. which are very expensive so our schools can not afford such equipments. Correct use of grammar and pronunciation were emphasized.

This method is known as Bilingual method because of proper use of mother tongue is allowed. c. The learner can learn abstract ideas easily in mother tongue while in secondary environment it is very difficult for learner. • • . Dr. This method is improved version of audio visual aid. the mother tongue is used only to explain the meanings go difficult words. Mother tongue equivalent of English words are given and the use of the mother tongue is gradually dropped as the students' progress in learning the language. For secondary environment we need extra ordinary talented teacher and larger investment of fund. There is drilling of the pattern to enable learners to master basic required sentence pattern which is effective practice of this method. In this method. the leaner can easily grasp the situation of learning English. It saves time and money because of use of mother tongue. In the Bilingual Method.82 Methods problems. Characteristics of Bilingual Method : • Due to use of judicious use of mother tongue. It also provided for intensive practice of patterns in English. The use of mother tongue is one of the resources of this method. Only there is one obstacle which can solve this problem and that is use of mother tongue in teaching of English. He can learn target language easily through this method. Thus the Bilingual Method recommended a restricted use of the mother tongue only by the teacher and not by the pupils.J. two languages. Dodson of the University College of Wases has developed this method during 1967 to 1972. helping the formation of correct language habits. thilt is the mother tongue and the language to be learnt are used.

Methods • 83 In primary environment student can assimilate message very quickly and easily. It makes teaching vary interesting and effective. If teacher is not innovative in her teaching learning practice. • Teacher should be master in use of mother tongue while teaching second language. In this method there is no need of audio visual aids other technology so this method is very useful for every teacher. • • The teacher can provide them enough drilling or pattern practice due to time saved. Bilingual method helps learner to developing both fluency and accuracy in the target the language. • • An average teacher can use this method easily and effectively. Advantage: • Bilingual Method saves time and learning to make effective use of learners' mother tongue to understand content quickly. Disadvantage : • Extreme use of mother tongue makes student inactive to learn foreign language. . He becomes master of mother tongue but not Second language. she follows the rules of grammar translation method. • • The teacher should have the knowledge of use of both methods while teaching English. This method can easily degenerate into the translation method. This method is boon for all those institutions where limited facilities are available.

Michael waste was the Director of education in Bengal before partition. He emphasized the silent and loud reading. Waste said that "English language was the need of the time because it was the language that provided the easy channel for communication with the international community.84 Methods • • • • 4. . Students become weak in the target language because he will try to learn every language through mother tongue. In his opinion the Indian were learning English to open the window of the world to look in the advancement in the field of science and technology. Dr. The Reading Method: Dr. Characteristics of this Method : • He emphasized on reading ability. It is used only in the earlier stages of learning the language. To get this knowledge. He was an innovative professor in Dacca. His through study in field of teaching raised some of the basic knowledge of teaching English. Waste drew his attention toward the utility and aims of teaching English particularly to Indian learner. It is shortest road to learn speak and write. speaking is not necessary but reading is necessary. It requires a curriculum developed specially for this method otherwise it is difficult to teach target language in classroom. Bilingual method is used for rural and urban schools. Dr. At that time the direct method was being used by teacher and the result was very weak. He says person who posses good reading ability can learn speak and write easily. These all information is available in English language.

This method is not helpful to average students because it aims at the active command over the language. Every skill is useful in developing of language. This method emphasizes only on reading which is unscientific. . • • • Advantage: • This method develops the reading ability in learner. • New words and their meanings are easily understood by learner. It enables reader to read easily. This method ignores reading and writing aspect of language learning. Language is integrated skill. It means controlled vocabulary is developed. • Reading increases the interest and confidence of learner in reading literature written in target language.Methods • 85 Silent Reading: The reading is also very complex skill but the Indian learner needs silent reading not oral reading as they do to get knowledge. • Reading becomes very easy and free from phonetic difficulties. • It is very effective in developing written comprehension means reading. Reading material: The material that enable learner to read was developed and they were called Readers. • It trains the eye of reader to recognize the graphics and other graphic object. Disadvantage : • This method is not scientific. It makes learner a good reader.

In the absence of such activities they will not be able to feel and use the language. Learners are to know the situation in which different structures are used for transmitting message or . It dated from 1930s to the 1960s and which had an impact on language courses. He also want to speak and listen and writing. Emphasis on reading and particularly. Many teachers are still using this approach. Only reading can not create interest in students. This approach is based on the structural view of language. This method talks about only one skill that is reading which is not proper. • • • 6. British applied situational approach developed by linguists. In this approach speech is emphasized as the basis of the language and structure is very important for developing speaking ability. The Situation Method. Every skill has it contribution in developing of the language. It makes teaching procedure passive and dull. composition and idioms are of secondary importance in this method. This approach suggests to present different structures in meaningful situations. This approach is also known as situational language teaching. Students require overt activity in the form of drill. • Methods Much reading can not be helpful in mastering of language. question and conversation. According to waste the ability to speak is more difficult than reading is more doubtful. In this method there is direct bond between speech and expression..86 • . silent reading is educationally unsound. Grammar.

The language skill can be learnt more effectively if they are presented orally first and after in written form. • With the help of situation the students can understand effectively and can master the structure effectively and have durable impression in their mind. It includes the following principles: • • • Language learning is just a habit formation. So they gave its distinctiveness to Situational language teaching.Methods 87 expressing ideas. It helps to introduce the vocabulary including • abstract vocabulary by using rear as well as planned situation. • • Advantage: . British linguists Firth and Halliday gave the idea that structure must be used in different situations in which they could be used. Similarity is better foundation for language learning than analysis. Principles : The situational approach is based on the theory established by the behaviourists. Through structural items and creating situation. The mistakes should always be avoided because they create bad habit among learner. The meaning of the words can be learnt only in a linguistic and cultural context. the subject matter can be explained easily.• This approach is very useful in teaching of foreign language. The American psychologist also insisted this approach. .

rapid readers. Disadvantage : • It is useful I lower class only. poetry. Only few selected items can be taught through this method not all language items. Only intelligent and bright students can take the benefit of this approach. and composition items can not be taught through this approach. not average students . Higher class students are not benefited by this method.88 Methods • It makes teaching very effective and interesting and alive instead of a burdensome process. ••••• . • Such as a prose.

In structural. Communicative Approach Method means a particular way of doing something and Approach refers to different theories about the nature and acquisitions of language or how languages are learned. A appropriate situation should .5 +++++ ---------------------Method refers the way of teaching a language and approach refers the theories of language learning. The mastery of sentence structure in considered to be mare with than the acquisition of vocabulary. content words are also taught. Types of Approach: 1. Structural Approach 2. simplicity and teachability. APPROACHES According to Cambridge international Dictionary : Structural Approach: The structural approach means the arrangement of words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern of sentence. 1. The selection of content words is directed by their usefulness.

According to it every language has its own language structure like this.:I gQ there. Example:Gujarati . Exa.a tical Co JIlpe1encies Speech Co JIlpe1encies TecJudcal COJllpe1encies Socio Linguistic COJllpe1encies .90 Approaches APPROACHES This approach tells about the structure of the language. Exa:Hu tyan jaun chun.the vezb is placed at the end of the sentence. English. Thus we can say that every language has its own language structure. In this sentence the vezb "go" is placed after the subject. GraJllJn. In this sentence the vezb "Jaun chun" is placed at ele end of the sentence. in this approach the teacher tries to develop the communicative ability in students.the vezb is plac ed after the subject in the sentence.

The learners have to practice this pattern thoroughly for naturalizing habits. Principles : • Language is system of structure and signals. In Gujarati the verb is placed at the end of the sentence but in English the verb is placed after subject and after the object or adverb according to sentence.Approaches 91 be created to practice the structure and to relate its meaning to it and to build up a vocabulary of content words even structure is separately taught. The term is predated in a appropriate situation by the teaching. • Importance of speech. Generally the Structural approach to teaching English refers to the way the language material is organised for presentation. . There are structural difference between Gujarati and English. Students can learnt very well if the teaching is accords with its structure and signals in scientific way. c. Structural approach is based on the theory of behaviourist. • Students' activity is important rather than the teachers' activity. Each and every Language has its own structure. To teach language through this approach we have to understand the pattern and structure of the language. Every language differs structurally.c. It is the way some English sentences all carefully selected and graded are arranged to form a syllabus. Fires says: Only after much practice of the same "Pattern" with diverse content do the pattern themselves become productively automatic.

This approach enables student speak first which is very important and then read and write. If there is proper gradation of the subject matter. If the language is learnt as a living system.92 Approaches • • • Importance of the formulation of language habit in arranging words in proper pattern. Proper stress on oral learning. Students first listen to the teacher and they repeat it. Language learning may be very effective if the structure of the language is presented in the context of the child's mother tongue. learning of language may be too effective. the teaching may be very effective. When students learn the structure of the language. use of the word and sentence pattern. This approach promotes the use of everyday English. Words order. Students understand it easily. • • Advantage: After learning five or six items can be categorised • This method help student to learn very fast because the subject matter is present in form of structure. The effectiveness of the language learning depends upon the quantity of the subject matter. Thus they learn to speak first and then read and write. • • • • • . they automatically learn grammar. Language learning may be very easy if language is presented into small structure which clears the concept of the language entirely.

Approaches 93 COMMUNICATION ASPECTS 1 __ PHONOLOGY 1 FUNCTIONS GRAMMAR VARIATIONS VOCABULARY INTERACTION SKILL TEXTUAL I CULTURAL FRAMWORK I .

apart from fluency. it is difficult to complete the syllabus. accuracy and appropriateness are equally . Communicative Approach : The communicative approach is a learner centred approach. This method can be adopted for all the students of language learning. This approach gives the learner not only grammatical competence but also a social skill as to what to say. In this approach. • This approach doesn't advise the teacher that how should he present the structure of the language or teaching material? • This approach does not advise the teacher about the teaching material for written exercise. when to say and where. • More teaching aids are needed.94 Approaches • • Both the teacher and the student are active . • Predsed text book can not be taught. in order to satisfy his daily needs as larger aim. The technique of gradation is good in theory but it is not good in practice work • Structural approach is not suitable for higher classes. 2. • If the structure syllabus is followed strictly. • Only well selected sentence pattern can be taught. How to say. Disadvantage : • This method prefers the selection and gradation of the structure which does not solve the problem of teaching English. • Drilling makes the atmosphere of the class dull and boring.

In English language teaching. Grammatical Competences . In this approach the teacher is seen as a facilitators of his students. So teachers using this approach. Communicative capability is also known as communicative competence includes the following competences. the teacher tries to develop communicative ability in students or learners. This approach tries to develop both the accuracy and fluency from the very beginning of language learning. In this approach learner have to knowledge of the rules of use of language to generate language appropriately for certain situations. This approach draws attention toward on the use of language in every day life.Approaches 95 important. Communicative approach stresses the purpose of writing and audience of it. learning. This approach emphasizes the communicative capability of the learners. Teachers specify readers outride the classroom. Thus an effective use of language needs to produce grammatically well formed. Teacher should provide all the resources necessary for communication to be effective in every context. Communicative approach is based on the idea that the aim of learning second language is to gain communicative competency. In this approach the role of teacher is that of a co-participant not that of an authoritarian master. The goal of communicative approach is to make learners communicatively competency. The "term communicate" meant to express or convey the ideas verbally or non-verbally. He should have also the knowledge of the use of techniques to communicate effectively. have extended the readership. Communicative Language teaching emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Communicative Competences : 1.

4. They are grouped into two parts. 4. (A) 1. The learner of EFL \ESL have to know that how a language is used by the member of the speech community to accomplish their purpose? There are eight aspects of communicative competences. It depends on' all participants who cooperate in this . not absolute. 4. (8) 1. Functions Variations Interaction skill Cultural Framework For Savignon (1983) observes: A communicative competence is relative. Approaches Speech Competences Technical Competences Socio-Linguistic Competences 1.96 2. Communicative Competence : This concept was introduced by Dell Hymes. 1. For him the speaker of English should have knowledge of more and more grammatical competences to become good speaker in English language or other language. According. 3. 2. 3. 2. 3. Linguistic aspect Pragmatic aspect Linguistic Aspects : Phonology and grammatical description Grammar Vocabulary Discourse 2. Pragmatic Aspects: .

Imaginative function of language is using language to create the world of imagination. So communication is the soul of human interaction. Personal function of language is using language to express personal feeling and thoughts. people can establish interpersonal relation. thoughts and the way of conveying message makes them social creature. 97 Language is a mean or tool of communication so all communicative competences should be developed very carefully and effectively in children and people. Interaction function of language is using language to create interaction with others. Regulatory function of language is using 2. . With the help of communication. The Aim of Communicative Language : The aim of communicative language is to develop the communicative competence among learner. So teacher should emphasis on communicative aspect of language. We know that human beings are social creature but which things make them social creature. 4. Their capabilities of exchanging ideas. language to get things. 5. Functions communicative language teaching is below: Instrumental function of language is using 1. Communication plays important role in developing relation among people. The above competences are very important with a view to developing integrated skill of communication. 3. language to control the behaviour of others.Approaches process.

Heuristic function of language is using language to learn and discover. This approach is learner centred. Characteristics of Communicative Approach : 1. 4. 6. Communicative approach enable student to learn language naturally because the environment of target language learning is created. If this approach is used in classroom activities then it will be very useful for leaner because in many classes language is taught as to pass examination only so this approach enables students to develop communicative ability which is very important activity of life. Communicative approach emphasis on communication of language because it plays important part in development of sociality of human. The message or thoughts expressed in communication are always in form of function so this approach is very useful.98 6. 7. . creature. Approaches Representational function of language is using language to communicate. Through communicative approach. 2. the leaner learn target language as he learns mother tongue. 5. It means that the atmosphere of English language is created so that student could learn English directly. 3. All the teaching learning materials are prepared according to child attitude and interest or individual difference so that child could learn language easily and effectively.

Approaches 7. project~ should be produced in students so that they could connect these all with real life situation. They need active command of using words in meaningful message. so in this approach the lexical items ~re taught in context. . The active use of lexical items help learner to develop vocabulary. They help to motivate and focus pupils' attention. 10. the emphasis on active mode of learning is given. 9. The students should be provided real life situations. The language is never static: it is dynamic. Speaking and listing aspect of language are too important for oral communication so oral expression is more emphasized. Thus it makes students active in their activities including pair work and group work. we can say that the learner are taught as a native person learn his language. In communicative approach. on stages. The learners have to develop skill of language. 11. classroom. 12. and seminars. Creativeness of role play. in schools. 8. There should not be passive use of lexical items. The oral communication and written communication are distinctively taught in this approach. These aids help to provoke practical communication. 13. In this approach the visual aids are permitted. 99 In communicative approach every where. simulation. This approach helps to learner to use language naturally and according to accepted form and usage.

Student study it only to pass examination but it not proper. In this approach teacher is a main hero and his role is different than conventional teacher teaching other subjects. The teaching without relating real life situation is useless and vague. The teacher should teach with heart but not the brain. People use communication for verbal communication. Communicative approach is based on natural acquisition of language. The communication is soul of the human lives. He should make his students to speak perfectly so that they could use it in their real life. We should not take language as a subject. 2. Approaches How to use the language is basic principle of this approach. so this the second principle of this approach. 6. 4. Developing communication ability is other principle of this approach. 5. When learner learns any language naturally then that is real and authentic. The four sub skills are LSRW which should be developed in student orderly. Teacher should teach it as a skill. . It combines active and passive skills to design learning tasks. Four sub skills are main key of this approach. So it should be accepted as skill. The teaching should be related to real life situation so that students could understand the reality of the life. 3. In school it is taught as a subject. Natural Acquisition is principle of this approach.100 Principles: 1.

6. In this approach the modem methods are used make teaching very e£. All the teaching materials are prepared according to mentality and interest of the students. teachers. Main function of communicative approach is to develop communication competences. 4. So it is very scientific. 5. so they are provided with optimum opportunities to use the language. and society. They are motivated to form the bridge of communication and to make use of real life language. This approach create communicative environment among learners. They communicate verbally and non-verbally to each other.Approaches 101 Merits : 1.(ective and interested. so every student is active. ••••• . 3. This approach provides sufficient opportunity to students for practice of communication with other students or people . in other words language in use. 2. This approach is child or learner centred. In this approach every leaner are active during teaching because there are interaction among learner and teacher.

there is reading also. Importance and uses of oral work in English ORAL WORK Teaching When there is talking and writing there is also reading.••••• 6 ---------------------1. Mr. he at first should introduce the new ideas to the students so that student could be able to increase his vocabulary. Mehta says there is much difference between speaking and reading. Usefulness of Oral Work: 1. To suggest new ideas : When teacher wants to increase the vocabulary of students. He should put a topic' before students so that . During tris process. The logical starting place of any language teaching is oral work. When person speak then words come naturally but in reading there is just reading or speaking of only that things which have been written in the text. There is in order of importance. The tongue is important tool of speaking and reading so when there is writing and speaking. the teacher should not apply his own notions on students.

Oral Work 103 UTILITY OF ORAL WORK To suggest new ideas cC Introdncenewldeas y Knowledge of way of arranging words properly DeveJop the habit of speaking .

104 Oral Work TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING ORAL WORK 1 Oral composition Read or look pic~ carefully Completing Story Dramatization I Conversational Activities Language game .

Importance of Oral work: • • mastery on communicate on skill. So that student could understand it very well so that they could apply them in their speech. . • Oral work helps students to read lesson of the text very effectively and it helps to prepare the way for textual teaching. It unable student to speak very effectively and 3. He can organize debate or discussion. When teacher introduces new ideas. When students learn new ideas and new words. It makes student perfect in any kind of reading and writing. So that the habit of speaking could be developed in students. 4. There is much difference in order of words in English and Gujarati language.Oral Work 105 there will be discuss or talking among them on the topic. then he should be given the knowledge of way of arranging words properly. then teacher should develop the habit of speaking among his students. He can develop it by asking questions and receiving answers from students. 2. Teacher should put topic according to experiences and interests of students. When students learn how to arrange the words properly. Teacher should tell about the two patterns of the languages. Thus student can be strong in remembering of words. then new word also should be introduced to students so that students could be acquainted of new words. With little efforts students can learn two or three words of English language.

story. Then teacher ask questions on the basis of picture. intonation and articulation in speech.106 Oral Work • It prepares the foundation of good silent reading. It enables the students to understand how to speak and how to use stress. This technique helps the • . • speak correct sentence and effective vocabulary. graded and controlled vocabulary can be developed. good pronunciation. The oral work remits the pronunciation mistakes and thus develops the habit of correct or accurate speech. picture or any incident. Material and techniques of conducting oral work There are few techniques which help to conduct oral work. In this work teacher can take the simple objects. • • • • • The oral work helps students to improve their spelling mistake. 2. He can take answer orally from students and can ask them to write on the blackboard. • The oral work helps students to acquiring proficiency in writing. Through oral practice. It develops good speech. Next the teacher can present the picture of any object and ask them to read or look carefully the picture. Oral work helps to students to develop all linguistic skill like LSWR very effectively. • Oral Composition is a first technique of conducting oral work.

The other technique is dramatization. It touches the heart of student and develops the oral quality perfectly. In this technique the command and do exercise and question and answer exercises have been included. Teacher divides students into two groups. In first exercise the teacher orders to student and student follows it and he speak that sentence which he does. Other techniques are debate. In this work the teacher presents drama related to English oral work. Story should be brief. This works impress students very much. In this work teacher tells a story twice or thrice and then he asks students to repeat it again and again. • • • • . Last he asks them to tell the story in their own words. In second exercise teacher asks questions related to their daily work and students give the answer of question. • Completing story is good technique of conduction oral work. They learn by acting and acting is good technique of conducting oral work. It should be full of actions.Oral Work 107 students to draw their attention toward particular objects. talks and discussion which also help to conduct oral work effectively. simple and interesting. This technique develops the logical thinking and sentence sense in the students. He gives them to frame the question and ask them to converse. Other technique is language games which develop the correct speech habit in students. The other technique is conversational activities.

. eedl.. the I I Conversing ....._:npidIy .. ....c .owuII eHdItu'" 4. . the .-a... 5. b.... phone'iU: metho4. Le. pn. .. ... 1-==... I I I Recitblg poems I I J. Feedback Drill MaldRcef....... 1 Debating Dramatising I of..owuII.r. 1. . 01..... Pra....c:t ..... . and...u.... RecGCllll_n... I G1DrlD I I I Individ1lal Drill text. .. ... ......owuII Imitation 2. Le..f -n-.owuII ia....:&e.f proolucinc c.108 Oral Work MEASURES OF DEVELOPING CORRECT SPEECH HABIT Perception There am ... _.ap of ... ....... .. .

So enough knowledge should be given to students and teachers. • • • • . How to develop correct Speech Habit It is the duty of the teacher to unable his student to speak in English. • Less attention is paid on speech training in schools. Through speech the pupil learns to make a direct connection between English words or phrase. 3. commits faulty pronunciation so student also follow him. and the object and ideas. The teacher must himself be acquainted with the fundamental of English pronunciation.Oral Work 109 Teacher puts a topic before students and asks them to discuss. Spoken words always have first place over the written words. For cultivating good speech habit enough attention should be paid to pronunciation because it is the root to a good speech. He learns the habit of using words in the correct sentence pattern and phrases pattern and he can learn this in no other way." The written word or printed word is nothing but a symbol of spoken wont. There is difference in the sounds of English and Hindi language. BloomfIeld has rightly pointed out "We write the spoken word. Every language has its own sounds. Teacher has no knowledge of speech sounds. During teaching teacher himself. There are few causes of incorrect speech. he does not care about the pronunciation of himself and students. Thus the oral quality can be developed in students by conduction good oral techniques. Retroactive inhibition. When teacher teaches in class. Regional effect on the speech.

Imitation method Phonetic Method Subsidiary method Imitation Method : The teachers' pronunciation must be good and correct and it must separately be imitated by his students. • • Measures to develop correct speech habit: There are three main methods of teaching which can develop correct speech habit in students: 1. Lack of knowledge of intonation and stress. carefully attend to the two processes of listening and imitation. Imitation: The training of the ear is an importance means of mental development. 2. This method has four steps: 1. . Perception Imitation Feed back 4. Clipping of the sounds. The students therefore. Students follow the pronunciation words or sentence. The teacher pronounces the words and students try to pronounce the words clearly and exactly like the teacher but the pronunciation of the teacher must be correct. 2. 3. Drill Perception: Teacher writes the words or sentence on the black board and himself gives model pronunciation among the student.110 Oral Work • Physical disability. 3.

So students must receive the knowledge of English phonetic to produce these new sounds correctly. It had two parts. 1. . The teacher tells the correct pronunciation to student by giving the knowledge of English phonetics. He tells that these sounds are produced by different human sounds organs and also side by side explain the rules of producing these sounds. Phonetic Method : Phonetic is science of sounds as used in speech. Learning these sounds in the usage of sound attribute. Making of these sounds by students. Daniel Jones has given five steps of the phonetic method in his book An Outline of English Phonetic: 1. That is called feedback. 2. 2. he tells them correct or exact pronunciation. 3. Drill : It is the last step of imitation method. Recognition of various speech sounds correcting the English language. In this method the teacher tries to tell about 45 sounds presents in the English letters.Oral Work 111 Feed Back: The teacher asks the students to pronounce the words and if he finds that the pronunciation is not correct. There are many sounds in English language. Individual drill Group Drill The teacher asks the students to listen to his pronunciation carefully and then ask them to speak the word individually in higher class and -:::ollectively in lower class.

Analysing long and difficult words. The teacher can also take the help of different material aids in teaching pronunciation through this method. 6. Dramatising. Conversing. Subsidiary Method : In addition to the above there are various other methods also that can be used to teach pronunciation of words. 5. 3. 2. 4. +++++ . These are as follows: 1.112 Oral Work 4. Singing songs in chorus as well as individually Reciting poems. Debating. Learn to pronounce the complete sequence rapidly and to each sound of a sequence or to the text. In the phonetic method practice of producing correct sounds is very important.

Reading is an active process which consists of recognition and recognition and comprehension skill. written symbols. This skill is more important than speaking and writing. Reading is an important activity in life with which one can update his/ her knowledge. words Le.." Reading means to understand the meaning of printed. Reading is the most important activity in any language READING . Reading is most useful and important skill for people. Reading is a source of joys.••••• 7 ---------------------Introduction : Bacon remarks in his essay Of Studies "Reading makes a full man. Good reading is that which keeps students regular in reading which provide him both pleasure and profit. Reading skill is an important tool for academic success. It implies the pupil should have two types of reading: Intensive reading and extensive reading. Bacon's dictum: "Some books are to be tasted. others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and diverted" provider available guidance about the kind of reading habits to be developed in our pupils.

For . provides for greater variety of classroom activity for both teacher and students than a purely aural-oral programme. West comments: "Reading is a process of sight. The first stage is 'the recognition stage'. The process of reading may be broadly classified into three stages: 1. during the period when man has retired from active life. A." W. Reading is certainly an important activity for expanding knowledge of a language. At this stage the learner simply recognizes the graphic ccunterparts of the phonological items.S. during the active period of life but also. unless he is supplied every things needed with the ability of reading. The teaching and speaking. more significantly. Their recorded lines and the advancem~nt made by them in various fields. The education of a child is imperfect.114 Reading class. Reading is very necessary to widen the mind and gain and understanding of the foreign culture. Gray notes: Reading is form of experience. with the written account of their experiences.second sense. Thus Reading and writing reinforce each other and consolidate the aural-oral learning. Leisure hours are not only. Reading is not only a source of information and a pleasurable activity but also as a means of consolidating and extending one's knowledge of the language. Reading brings us in contact with the minds of great authors. but are also very helpful in passing for leisure period. Therefore the learner of English must know reading English.S. Reading habits not only help the student to get knowledge and wisdom from the cultural of heritage.

-dine can lie caIled.. ru -dinedo_ to cuv _tto CjI!t important DmnnlkUon at'i!r re~ UruaJlypeople madfior -. not QUI! ah .derwan_ to ahoabDJnI!ihinc. .der do.tspec:ifk or leamer D!iiUIs ihe Btto CjI!t Ja.Reading 115 TYPES OF READING INTENSIVE READING IS ALOUD READING EXTENSIVE READING IS SILENT READING nw..xi redineorp.ec:ifk mi>nnlkt-..ihe madinc fiorpleuu:lll!. _~ In this type of_dine ihe Exmn.w1edp. ihe:m lIPda•• ..... .. De ma. The D!a.riw -dine.

Silent reading should be introduced when the students has mastered the basic structured. 1. Silent reading is the most important type of reading. The teacher should not insist on speed of reading but on the accuracy pronunciation while teaching reading. 2. distinguishes between a statement of fact and a statement of opinion. The learner comprehends the significance of a word. Difficulty at this stage depends upon the difference between the script of the learner's mother tongue and English and between the spelling conventions of two languages. The second stage is the 'structuring stage. ease and fluency. It aids comprehension and expands the student's vocabulary. a phrase. Teaching Reading at the earlier Stage: At the early stage the necessary precautions should be observed during the course of good teaching reading: 1. 3. or a sentence in the overall context of the discards.' The learner sees the syntactic relationship of the items and understands the structural meaning of the syntactical units. For instance. The third stage is the 'interpretation stage'. It helps him read with speed. he comprehends the serious and jocular use of words. . This is the highest level in the process of reading. Silent reading enable s the students to read without making sounds and moving his lips. comprehends the meaning of words and can recognize and pronounce words accurately. It is this stage at which a person really reads for information or for pleasure.116 Reading instance he recognizes the spoken words in its written form.

Types of 1. While reading the book should be held in left hand and the index finger of the right hand should be placed under the word or line which is being read. 4. 4. Light may be put on a table lamp may also be used to improve viSibility. Intensive . keeping the book at a right distance from the eyes and it should also be ensured that when there reading. 3. While teaching reading the teacher should be aware of the right sitting or standing posture for reading. 3. While teaching reading the teacher should be very careful in pointing out and rectifying the mistakes of pronunciation. Intensive Reading : Intensive reading is related to further progress in language learning under the teacher's guidance. Reading : Intensive Reading.Readi!lg 2. 1. The pupil should be enlightened on this point from time to tome. 2. there should be proper arrangement of light facility. articulation and intonation of the pupil. S. Extensive Reading Aloud Reading Silent Reading. If the visibility is poor the door and windows should be opened. While teaching reading the teacher should first try to find out the causes of mistakes committed by the students and then try to correct them by eradicating the cause of mistake. Further pupil should be asked to read. 117 While teaching reading teacher should ask not more than one pupil to read at one time and he should pay individual attention to every students of class.

sentence by sentence around the class.118 Reading reading will provide a basis for explaining difficulties of structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. artistic achievements. Then they begin the lesson each day by asking student to translate what they have prepared. Teachers must work continuously for variety of presentation in the classroom. Sometimes sections of intensive reading material may be set for preparation before hand. and aspects of contemporary community life in a country where the language is spoken. Intensive reading material will be the basis for classroom activity. and soon destroys any pleasure in the reading assignment. the students being supplied with questions to think about before they come to class. articles on scientific discoveries. At this stage. Since this reading matter will be studied in detail. This purpose will be served by the material chosen for extensive reading. it will not serve as the ideal vehicle for further practice in direct teaching. novels. plays. and poems. completed in a purposeless way. It will not only be read but will be discussed in detail in the target language. political development. Intensive reading is text reading or passage reading. sometimes analyzed and used as a basis for writing exercises. This becomes a tedious chore. The material selected should parallel the type of material the advanced student would enjoy in the native language: short stories. The ability of the students to talk and write in the foreign language about the material chosen for intensive reading will be very dependent on the teacher's choice of texts. It will also provide material for developing greater control of the language in speech and writing. The literature chosen for intensive study should be predominantly contemporary. some teachers fall into the monotonous pattern of setting a section of reading material for homework preparation every night. In this reading the learner read the text to get knowledge .

This reading helps learner to develop active vocabulary. Thus. 2. This reading is done to carry out to get specific information. Extensive Reading : Material for extensive reading will be selected at a lower level of difficulty than that for intensive reading. 6. Extensive reading can be made the basis for oral reports. Intensive reading is reading aloud. Linguistic items are developed. There are few characteristics of intensive reading: 1. The goal of this reading is to read shorter text. 4. 2. This type of class project gives a point and purpose to extensive reading by building reading practice into a matrix of purposeful activity. without the aid of the teacher. . or full class discussion. In intensive reading speech habit are emphasized and accent. to the rest of the class. On occasions. 3. 5. the class may be divided into groups to read interrelated material. stress. Learner reads book to acquire knowledge is the kind of intensive reading. intonation and rhythm can be corrected. Teacher play main role in this Reading.Reading 119 or analysis. Each group may prepare some part of the project on some present a group report to the rest of the class. The purpose of extensive reading will be to train the student to read directly and fluently in the target language for enjoyment. This reading aims at active use of language. rather than towards the reading process itself. It may be the source for written compositions in which students deal with specific issues arising from the material in the book. the attention of the reader is directed toward the extraction of information from the text.

Aloud Reading : Reading aloud also play important role in teaching of English. with due regard to the special interests of the readers. Extensive reading is the reading for pleasure. The reader wants to know about something. Venkateswaran reading aloud is not useful at the secondary level because of the following reasons: 1. The reader does not care about specific or important information after reading. In unseen text or in other text there are many words which student does not know how to pronounce it. The aim of extensive reading is to enrich learners' knowledge. If it is not cared. it will be vary difficult at secondary level. habit can be developed. 3. Teacher should know that the training of reading aloud must be given at primary level because it is the base of words pronunciation. 2. In the extensive reading the learners play main role because they have to ask for measures. In extensive reading the idea can be developed. 4.120 Reading- Extensive reading assignments may direct students to articles of current interest in foreign language magazines or newspapers. To ensure that students do not become bogged down in reading which is too complicated. It is very difficult skill. It helps learner to develop to active vocabulary. According to S. Through extensive reading the good reading 7. . Extensive reading is silent reading. 3. the teacher will be well advised to discuss the relation of articles to be read. Usually people read for to keep them update. Few Characteristics of Extensive Reading are : 1. 5. In extensive reading the subject matter is emphasized. 6.

According to Venktes. 4. only those text should be read aloud. Correction should be friendly and productive. In their academic college they have to read and read so the skill of reading becomes very important for learners. . He should also draw his attention toward weak readers While teacher present model reading. 121 If student have riot prepared himself for reading. it will be very difficult for him. The teacher should emphasize on the stress of learners. 5. 3. So it becomes very necessary for him to pronounce very well in English. The teacher should care about all readers.Reading 2. 3. If any mistake is committed by learners. The reading will be unnatural. The material which teacher present before students should be according to previous knowledge of the students or related t their own experience. How to make reading aloud interesting : English teaching is very important task at secondary level. which have been written to read aloud like poetry. What the teacher can do for better and effective teaching of reading as under: 1. this model reading should be according the level of readers 4. The texts which have no need not to read aloud should not be read aloud. dialogue. 2. Because at this stage learner comes in contact of other people and have to talk and read any subject matter. and other type of text. Reading basically is reading silently. The teacher should be very careful while process of reading is going on. he should correct it.

It enables learner to develop the skill of pronounce very well. 3. All students can not read at a time so managing classroom becomes impossible. 3. When teacher says anything or read any text. This reading should be employed to increase 4. 4. teacher can not provide sufficient opportunities to all students. Only bright and intelligent students learn to read aloud very well because they get chance frequently while average/students hardly get the chanced of reading. Siler. So teacher should have innovative ideas so that it can make this activity very affective. 2. Language learning is a kind of imitation. Advantage of Aloud Reading : It enables learner to develop the skill of reading 1. It makes reading very enjoyable while teacher uses reinforcement during reading. If enough training of reading aloud is not given at primary level. 2. The 1. it will be difficult to read aloud at secondary stage.122 Reading so that readers could upderstand it very well and pronounce very well. At earlier stage reading aloud is very necessary. Disadvantage of Aloud Reading : Over crowed class is very big problem. So they become the passive learners.t Reading : Silent reading is a very important skill in teaching of English. very well by speaking or expressing ideas. Reading aloud takes more time so it is time 5. the learner also tries to imitate that. . consuming.

Reading 123 reading ability among learners. How the teacher can make his teaching reading effective: 1. Teacher has to make them read silently as and when they are able to read without any difficulties. The selection of reading material should be authentic. Teacher should not read first but he should allow the students to read the text. Eclectic approach can be used by teacher for better comprehension and understanding. Teacher should not allow the student to murmuring while reading. This reading makes students very active and accurate. The subject matter should be interested and effective and selected from the reading material developed for it. Teacher should tell about the topic first to the learners. Silent reading concentrates the attention of learners toward subject matter and he learns naturally. . 3. It is kind of habit in which learner are enabled to read without any audible whisper. He should motivate students. It saves time because this activity is done at a time. Advantage of Silent Reading : 1. 4. Silent reading is done to acquire a lot of information. 2. 3. How to make Reading Interesting : Teaching reading is very important skill because this is the stage where the knowledge of learners starts to flight. All students participate together in this activity at a time. 2.

Through this skill one can learn the pronunciation. 2. This technique is not useful at earlier stage of language learning.124 Reading 4. +++++ . It is very useful to develop the skill of reading fast. 3. Only bright and intelligent students can learn this skill but average students learn it hardly. In this skill the leaner can cheat the teacher if subject matter is not interested. This skill plays main role to increase the knowledge of students. 4. Disadvantage of Silent Reading : 1. S.

Writing is essential features of learning a language because it provides a very good means of foxing the vocabulary. Writing may be very important for one group of students but much less important for others. spelling. Writing is a kind of linguistic behaviour. Writing provides an excellent consolidating activity. It presents the sounds of language through visual symbols. a picture is not. It has been suggested that writing is hailed a service activity for most students rather than an end in itself. The type of writing in which the students WRITING AND COMPOSITION . Writing is the most efficiently acquired when practice in writing parallels practice in the other skills. Writing is a skill which must be taught and practised. The decision on how much writing to include will be made independently according to the needs of each group of students. the teacher will find that the problem 'how much writing?' soon solves itself. and sentence pattern. It becomes an important aspect of students' expression at higher stage.8 +++++ ---------------------1. Writing is also useful for setting homework exercises and for some class text. Mechanism of Writing Written Exercises Language is primarily speech and writing is a means to preserve it.

3. It helps the students to write correct spelling because they have t reproduce the visual image that they get while reading. The teacher may teach the writing in a formal way after a few weeks of oral work. 2. Write capital letters correctly. Write legibly and neatly. The teacher must give practice in writing script because it is simple and easy. This means to know from where to start a letter and where to end it Write letter of appropriate size and proper shape. Write words in sentence with proper space. 6. 8. 7. 5. But .126 Writing and Composition are engaged will became more sophisticated as they acquire greater facility in the exercise of the other skills. show the flash card of picture with word on it and expect students to read and then only to transcribe them. Write letter in words with proper space. 4. During the first new weeks of teaching English the teacher may write on the black board occasionally. Mechanics of Writing : 1. How to Introduce Writing: In the beginning the teacher must teach every thing by demonstration. Making strokes with proper hand movements. Write sentence in paragraph with proper space. It is very necessary that the teacher gives students nec~ssary practice in pattern drawing. The teaching of print script is profitable also because it gives less strain to the muscles because effort is not to be made to join letters. Write correct spelling in words.

He is given all _quimd maaJial io IlOmple.. comple•• his wod. his work. I Wlitep~ lG4IJcinc In ihU campomlan. Oral a:lmpositian maybe comrolled or flee.amer. _type d IUi4ed C4lJIIP4IsDUxn.: ~ Oral composition ~ Writlen composition ~ In tlu:s composition the learner eXPlesses their ideas ani thoughts orally.. Iii..her . . I PkiuJ:e Composiii. It may also be comrolled or flee._ work1DUlerdae &Uidan.ee or controlJinc. and.an. his _rk There is no inar:li!:dnc of. The Jeamer uses his own mind. _ms: Pve! . ~ In this composition the learner eXPlesses his ideas ani thoughts in written farm..Writing and Composition 127 COMPOSITION l 1 Guided and con'lrolled composition 1 Free Composition ~ In i1U11..ype ofcomposi"IiDn the Jeamer IlOmple. pidun uul uk D IhU lIidure.of . / ~/ In i1U11.ype ofworkdae JeamerisJeftfme io comple.

2. 8. 6. 9.128 Writing and Composition teacher must make it a point to group the letter according to their shape and size if he teaches the alphabet. 2. Writing sentence from the substitution table. 5. 3. Transcription of sentence. He must also decide to teach the small letters afterwards. Fill in the blanks Matching parts of sentence. Framing sentence to use particular words. Putting capital letter and punctuation marks in a sentence. 3. 10. Forming sentence from disorders words. Changing statement into questions. Picture composition is one type of guided. 4. It is now accepted that students must be given intensive practice in controlled composition and after that only they should be expected to write free composition. Writing answer of simple question. 7. The teacher should teach picture composition very carefully because the students have to develop the skill of observation and then onl'y they have to arrange their ideas in proper sequence using correct vocabulary and framing . Graded Exercises in Written Work The teacher may give the following types of exercise after the students have acquired a writing skill to a certain extent: 1. Changing sentence into negative and other. 11. Picture Composition : English Composition occupies a very important place in the learning of English. Changing singular in plural and gender change.

3. 8. The teacher will present a picture before students to observe or he may give a list of word to write paragraph on the picture The teacher may present structure of words to frame the sentence of the same type using them from the ready list.Writing and Composition 129 grammatically correct sentences. Then the teacher may ask students to develop the composition. 2. The teacher may follow the steps while teaching picture composition: 1. . Then he may ask students to write answer of question looking the picture. The teacher may present a picture before students and gives points related to picture and can ask them to write complete composition. Then he should revise the structure and vocabulary. 7. 6. 5. Before coming to composition exercise the teacher should select a picture according to the level of the students. The teacher will present a picture and give complete composition giving blank space and ask the students to fill appropriate word in blank space. The teacher must always present a picture composition and ask students to write the composition in their words. The teacher can teach picture composition by giving them unarranged sentence and ask them to rearrange the sentence keeping in view the picture presented to make a good composition. The teacher may present a list of questions in sequence and a picture. 4. 9.

Learners are prohibited to use pen and pencil. It is very useful in primary classes of teaching English. . The language is not used in control manner by the learners. cues etc. In beginning they need the guidance of teacher but later they use it independently. Oral Composition : In oral composition the learners express their ideas and thoughts orally. This type of composition develops the ability of "learning through insight".130 10. Written Composition: In written composition the learners express their ideas and thoughts in written form. Oral and Written composition: A. They are to express their thoughts only orally. pictures. It is one of the activities included into supervised study. Free Composition : This is the composition in which the learners express their ideas freely and without controlling. The teacher gives them guidance by way of asking questions. Writing and Composition The teacher may present a picture and can ask them to describe complete composition orally. it enable students to work independently under guidance of teacher. In this. The role of the teacher in this is only a improver and guide. Guided and Controlled Composition : In this type of composition. According situation the learners prepare their composition freely. They can not express their ideas in written form. The oral composition may be conti"Olled or free. It is called free composition because at this stage the learners are free to choose their structure and vocabulary and express their own thoughts and ideas on a given topic. the learners are supplied all necessary structural and lexical items to along with the thoughts and ideas to be expressed. 2. 1. B. The written composition may be also free or 3. composition only the spoken language is used.

The post man • For Advanced Classes: A Visit to a Museum. The teachers should give only those topics. In the paragraph the lexical and structural items should in proper order. This is also very useful exercise for learning language. In this writing the learner needs special and specific training to write sentence meaningfully. listening comes first than speaking. Learners use pen or pencil in written composition. Paragraph Writing: In this writing the learner are asked to write a paragraph on any topic. speedily and correctly." When we learn language. My School. In the written composition only written form of language is accepted. My Class room For intermediate class: The Railway station. In this writing the learner express their thoughts and ideas in his own way. The Public Park. on which students could write. Do I like tea or Milk. 4. The teacher must give motor training to enable student to write in good manner. Spelling and Pronunciation correction of written work: "Language is sound contextualized. This writing task needs a idea or theme to be expressed in paragraph. Dictation is a good training to ear and as well as motor . A Visit to A Zoo 5. For example teachers may give these types of topics: • • For primary classes: My class teacher. Teacher should give interesting topic to the students so that he could make paragraph writing very interesting.Writing and Composition 131 controlled.

punctuation.to use capital letters. If there is any difficulty or unfamiliar words in the paragraph. the teacher should write them on black board. 6. It enables students to understand the part of each sentence and word phrases. Dictation exercise in early stage must be planned to help the students to write correctly and also with reasonable speed. It should be given out of the language material which the students have already practiced. It enables student to write at good reasonably speed. 3. 2. It enables student to write. It should not be used as the test exercise. 7. It enables students to develop the habit of listening spoken language and getting used to the sound of system of the English language. In dictation the teacher speaks the students listen to him and write that in their note book. they listen. It gives good aural practice to the students. It is very necessary that the teacher at once corrects the dictation but always not. In that case the teacher must ask the students to exchange their note book with their neighbours and then the teacher should write the words likely to be mis-spelt and ask the students to check the note books they have.132 Writing and Composition training to the sttidents. ••••• . There are many advantages of dictation: It trains students to reproduce in writing what 1. It develops the habit of listening attentively in students. 4. It enables students to understand spelling and 5.

grammatical structure and concepts. The verse is the oldest form of expressing thoughts and ideas whereas the prose is a latest form of expressing ideas. Extensive reading concentrates on the matter. vocabulary. It is reading for information. Intensive reading aims at providing practice with sentence of newly introduced pattern. Both are important in teaching prose. In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher and loud reading by the students. POETRY AND GRAMMAR ---------------------1. verse and prose. The learners should have .9 +++++ TEACHING OF PROSE. In the yearly years all language items should be practised before reading. Reading implies reading with comprehension. It concentrates on the study of the language. Reading comprehension involves understanding the meaning of context. In the language one can use language in two forms. Extensive reading reinforces the vocabulary and structure. Teaching of Prose In English language teaching the teaching of prose occupies an important place. Reading reinforces the vocabulary. One is prose and other is verse. Whole literature is divided into two forms.

d ~ .. .. w.... 4--5 Ouerii. Obj.m.. J!!!I!!trir.l'n' . by .. ~firri""'" ..... E••ay 4-5 Ouerii. pnper ..t . . . El<!!lm!dim byteuher ...g ..... ~ WuIAl b..... w.j.twImD _emad in T... .... I I TEACHING POETRY ---..... ...... EXDImdonbyteuher .. eGuo Seliluiudim ...... Poetry and Grammar - TEACHING PLANNING '" " .WWeWIln ~pnporrlinfor'em ....... "'dJniqw!o .. . ~~ ~ lL At 1ari t ..div...lvuIuntin T...firri... ~.... c... p.... .. rlinforU!.t!'f!"ih...(l!{pIouun. odced..ack b.. WuIAl b... ninf"n .firri..j. ninf"n ... .~- .. !lo!!J!U!lt !Il!!!!!m... Effaytype pnper rlinfortemmt. WuIAl ncit.. Teadter WuIAl ...iure *' rea<h Guo_.. topi.. oftor eo.. ilW ..134 Teaching of Prose. topi<. ~ WuIAlb. .... we fIf pnpertodmiquoo .. .. WWeW.. At . 1Mn...pk Teadter WuIAl~ l!..di"" typ..../ . " "" .... oIu.I:&smUrlmu ~fnm"- "'co...... odced *' know... firri... rei:nfe:rt emmt........iIIuft:nIimf.a<kb.-- "'..rure ...a<k b.g ......---- I TEACHING GRAMAMR ... ..GD. One .'" du>uI4 be .. --- ~. pnper bl...j. Teadter WuIAl !!!I!!! ........ odced *' Jawwfiwl_ inw.. Obj.....t .ation . toJot One or ilW .. ..WuIAl b... "'• .. ~ ..rure *' reo..m. pnperbl.rur. EXDImdonby teuher "'pnp....'" WuIAlbe ....... by .m..._ ...<h Guo ~ ... I SelinAI!Jdim . fIf pnpertodmiquoo .dlWrk.......<h DUIa.....d wurk..... pnperiDufjntient. ... I AfIu: .typ..L. ...llllIliillmlI ..iure*' . _eo..l'n....bl. 1Mn. pnp. flfpnp.. ninf"nellunt WuIAl be . Teadter WuIAl ~ GuoUpi''''pnp. pnpor iIIwlnIi..<h rim . by teuh. pnper ..m. oIion !l!!!!!!igWulAlb• 1Mn..... :!!!!I!!! ... .. . AfIu: .....~ typ.......iure ....... At .. ....L...... "v.. TEACHING PROSE ~ SelindudiAIn ....m. du>uI4 b.iwIaIIf WuIAlnci1lo..

properbeaw. poetJy and beauty o f . To .".".Jevelop ahili. &hili. To emiclL iheir . ~cahu1ar. Gf campmllll!!lul ... of 1. 3.joy mading smri pusap in iarpt in'lDnaiim. and JhyiIoninJeamer..stm.Jlw of ihe Lmc. To clevelop. To enahJe ihe s'ludenw .Teaching of Prose. ide_.. Poetry and Grammar 135 LANGUAGE FORM vmSEFORM OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC PROSE OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC VERSE 1. readalowl with correaprcm:unciaom. 3." "UJUleutand and u.joy ihe poetJy.".y. . To enahJe s'ludenw . 2. To clevelop • &hi6. 4.~ -anbIc ofihe ieD. _ami and rhytun. Undeuiand ihe amtm1 2." reaie • poem wi1h. "Ihcnq.u:ap. ofu..

4. The prose should be selected according the interest and individual differences of the students. The prose must be read aloud. 2. The prose is found very easily in text book. Before teaching prose the teacher should narrate the central idea or theme very briefly. How can a teacher make teaching prose effective : 1. prose is taught. Poetry and Grammar mastery in both verse and prose but expressing ideas in verse is a little difficult. To develop the ability of comprehend meaning of the text. In higher classes where the medium of instruction is English. There are objective which should be kept in mind while teaching: 1. It is taught as second language in country like India. 4. Objectives of Teaching Prose : Teaching of English is very complex task.136 Teaching of Prose. It is taught not as other subject like math and social science. 3. Prose is a narrative art of expression. The teacher should motivate students for listening. To enrich their vocabulary. Teacher should use audio visual aids to make his teaching effective. To develop the ability of enjoy reading short passages in target language. 5. . To develop the ability of read aloud with correct pronunciation and rhythm in learners. 2. 3. English is a language so it is taught to increase the linguistic competence in learner so that he could use it in his behavioural life.

particularly the emotional. His claim is that the latent talent for self expression in any child is immeasurable. human thoughts. There recognitions are at the heart of reading and writing poetry in schools. 137 Before model reading. intellectual and aesthetic sides. Poetry embodies light in expression. they should not be on literary aspect. 2. The students should be asked to read silently. something that are curious to learn. It helps in the all round development of the student. The activities in the classroom need to reflect a desire to promote both in a collaborative endeavour between the teacher and taught. thought and feelings. Poetry is the musical and metrical form of language and it brings students in touch with the very best of human nature. feeling and form. human passion and emotions. Ted Hughes in his important and international book Poetry in the Making describes two aspect of poetry. It enriches the expression of students and introduces a variety of language pattern. Poetry plays an important role in the several curriculums. Hughes claim is that poetry is possessed of certain wisdom. 8. 7. some thing special. It uplifts the human soul and brings music and joy into life. Poet works at the frontier of knowledge. stretched. Teaching of Poetry Teaching of poetry embodies the beauty of the language. imaginative. between thought. Teacher should ask questions with a view to familiarize them with literature of target language. Poetry and Grammar 6. Poetry is the blossom and fragrance of all human knowledge. . It develops the aesthetic pleasure and students enjoy the lyricism which is inherent in poetry. there should be pronunciation drill.Teaching of Prose.

. lNDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE MEmOD . Ells h l 1 In fm me'lhod h pa:Hena. Then he dears his concept. the examples male his ie~ e&dive and ihen. hn he tales e~ from stud.iI e~ ihen.iI defini:li.cept and. INCIDENTAL MEmOD In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m prelll!Jl.enil.enhe giw. ieacher e~ CORIpD III!JI. Poetry and Grammar METHODS OF TEACHING GRAMMAR DEDUCTIVE METHOD l J ~ l INDUCTIVE METHOD ----concept. *' dear his .s esample to In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m prelll!Jl. .EIule definition or am. eMs the mnceptor holY.cm. "iheory orprincipal. Th.138 Teaching of Prose. ~ ~ In fm me'lhod 'leacher fiDt giw.

. It is well known that poetry is for pleasure. keep examinations apart and make it an exercise. It is some thing that is personal.Teaching of Prose. In the words of Coleridge. beauty of thoughts. Poetry can communicate the actual quality of experience with a subi:le and precision unapproachable by nay other means. . read it aloud with stress. intonation. writing or talking about poetry. A poetry teacher should bear in mind to pick up an apt poem for his pupils. beauty of language. mood and feeling. Poetry should be encouraged whereas possible. Many students spend much more time completing language exercises of little value than they do rending. Teachers attitude to poetry are crucial in the importance they attach to it. Poetry is powerful form of expression. Poetry is a piece of creative writing in verse. Poetry is always read for aesthetic pleasure. The aim of teaching poetry is to give pleasure and lay the foundations for an adequate appreciation of what is beautiful in life. Poetry is a thing of beauty. It is not for teaching language. the feelings for beauty in pupils. Poetry is included in the school curriculum so as to develop the aesthetic pleasure. Poetry and Grammar 139 Poetry is often neglected and poorly provided for. and the way in which they demonstrate a concerned responsibility for it in how they give it status. 'Poetry is the best words in their best orders'. Beauty of form. Some English teachers express great unease about teaching poetry. learn by heart. the extent to which they read it widely themselves. enjoy and appreciation. Poetry is beauty and truth. This means that poetry is not taught for teaching any language item. Poetry means much to the adolescent. The reader reads poetry to enjoy the beauty of the language. It is said that poetry is to be felt and not studied as a prose lesson is studied. It eases the ennui owed by the intensive study of subjects. the enthusiasm with which they read it aloud.

To enable students to read aloud for listening comprehension. 3. Paliwal (1998) has defined the objectives of teaching poetry at the secondary level in his book English Language Teaching. 2. To enable the students to imagine and develop their aesthetic sense. ascent ~nd rhythm. 5. To enable the students to understand the central idea. To enable the students to develop the habit of reading and reciting poem. 2. To enable the students to enjoy words. thoughts of the poetry and beauty of the' language. the teacher should not emphasis on content. The objectives are as under: 1. How can a teacher make Teaching Poetry Effective : 1. stress. Teacher should ask simple questions and make them employing their effort to understand it. Poetry and Grammar The Objectives of Teaching Poetry : Dr. 7.140 Teaching of Prose. 6. phrases and rhythm. . 3. A teacher should always know How to teach poetry to second language or first language learners. The teaching of poetry should be live and it should enrich their linguistic capabilities for acquiring communicative competence. 4. intonation. To enable students to understand and enjoy the poetry. Ask learner to read silently. 4. To enable the students to recite the poem with proper beats. Poetry should be read for pleasure. In poetry teaching.

rules and principles which are followed more or less unconsciously by the native speakers. Educated people use certain forms of expression. Teaching of grammar is a much debated topic in language learning. According to Dr. And as a result grammar teaching which was regarded as an end in itself lost its . Different expert have give different pinion about teaching of grammar. It was commonly believed that to help the pupil to learn English language its grammar must be taught first. The result is grammar. made in order to establish the rules and principles which underline the correct speech and writing. Slowly it was realized that correct usages go on changing fro time to time. the language can not be learnt without studying of grammar of the language. It was also believed"that without knowing and mastering grammatical rules of English. They say that the students who study grammar are very often able to solve grammar exercise but do not write correct speech. Sweet "Grammar is not a code of rules." According to Chapman: Grammar is a study of language by specialist. Poetry and Grammar 141 3.Teaching of Prose. Teaching of Grammar Grammar is a scientific statement of the principles of good usage which concerns with the relation of words in the sentence. According some. and state these principles. Language specialists study the forms they use. one can not learn to speak and write it. But some people say that the utility of teaching of grammar is doubtful in learning English. note that they follow a few comparatively simple principles. Teaching of grammar had very important place in the past.

Poetry and Grammar importance. This method hel ps students to compare the ideas in grammar of mother tongue and second or first language. 4. Advantages of Deductive Method : 1. Those who favoured the direct method of teaching English said that language can be learnt by practice and not by studying the rules of grammar. Now it is believed that grammar can not be taught in isolation. . 3.142 Teaching of Prose. The learner can try the grammatical questions very easily. 3. Teaching of grammar helps students only to understand and to decide whether the language that they speak or write is correct or not. The introduction of direct method gave an idea that to be able to speak or write English knowledge of grammatical rules is not necessary. Deductive Method Inductive method Inductive Deductive Method Incidental Method 1. Deductive Method : In deductive method the teacher uses a grammar text book. Average teacher can use this method in country like India. 2. Methods of Teaching Grammar : There are three methods of teaching of grammar: 1. 2. Then the direct method of teaching English was introduced and teaching of grammar lost its importance. He tells his students rules or definitions and explains those with the help of examples then he gives exercise and ask his pupils to apply the rules.

Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
4.

143

Learner can respond effectively and can explain rules, structures, etc. This method makes learner learning about language. This method can not develop communicative ability among learners. The learners become inactive during class room teaching. This method is not child centred but teacher centred. In the class room teaching there is hardly use of audio visual aids.

Disadvantage of Deductive Method :
1.

2. 3.

4.
5.

Inductive Method : In inductive method the teacher first presents or takes the example from the students then comes on theory or concept. Advantage of Inductive Method : 1. Inductive method is based on the theory "From example to generalization". So it is very useful in class room teaching. 2. This method helps students to understand the difference between particular notion in grammar of L1 and L2/FL. 3. The learners learn the particular grammar point through use. First they have to deduce the meaning and later they generalize the form or structure. Disadvantage of Inductive Method : 1. This method is not useful in over crowed classes like India.

2.

144 2.

Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar

The institute must be ready to focus the language aspect, not the mark criteria. In this method the teacher has to use modern method of teaching language. Only an innovative teacher can use this method.

3.
4. 3.

Inductive Deductive Method :

This method as the name shows is the synthesis of both above the methods. This method can remove the limitation of both the above methods. The teacher following this method will first present the examples before his students then will explain them or analyses them. Then he will try to see that pupil draw some conclusion and then teacher will give the rules. But here the teacher does not stop. He then gives new examples and ask his pupil to verify the rules. This method of teaching grammar proves very successful and advantageous as it become practical, real and scientific. It proves very successful because it is very psychological following all the accepted maxims of teaching and the pupil are not forces to cram the rules. 4. Incidental Method :

Grammar teaching in this method is done during the teaching of a textbook or composition writing. The teacher explains complex sentence pattern. But the method at times disturbs the teaching of a textbook or composition writing.

•••••

10
+++++
SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH TEACHER

---------------------Skills and competencies of English Teacher : English is a foreign language. To teach it in a satisfactory manner good teacher of English is required. It must also be remembered that all the good teachers can not teach English in good manner at all stage. It is common experience that a teacher teaching English in standard V or VIII Le. at the primary level very satisfactorily may not succeed in teaching at the secondary or higher secondary level. In other words to teach at different levels a teacher needs to have calibre and qualities appropriate for that level. Still however, a good teacher of English must possesses some qualities:
1.

• • • •

He must be lover of English. He must have sound knowledge of English language as well as literature. He must know different methods of teaching English. He must have an ability and skill to teach methodically and systematically.

146

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGLISH TEACHER

l
Personal attribute ProCessional expertise

Personality traits

I_____ ~.

A_w_·mde ______

~11~

______ O_W_le_~
Kn __

______

~
.1
1

English la:nguage teacher k as Facilitator not as a Conventio na1 teacher English la:nguage teacher k as hlstrw:tor not as a Preacher

English la:nguage teacher k as Content and Material developer English la:nguage teacher k as Classroom Manager

I

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
• • • • • • • • • • • • • 2.

147

He must know how to use different audio visual aids. He must be able to pronounce English responsible correctly. He must have ability to speak English correctly. He must know the techniques of writing. He must know and speak observing correct intonation and stress pattern. He must be able to speak with correct phrases. He must have an ability to understand his students. He should always take interest in his students and become soft toward his students. He must have an ability to identify the mistakes of his students. He must have an ability of thinking power. He must have an ability to adopt necessary remedial measurements. He should have good hand writing. He must have the knowledge of different types of activities and how to organize all activities.

Importance of Evaluation in the Teaching of English:

Evaluation has important place in the teaching of English. The class room teacher, the head master, the district education officer and parents wants to know how much and in what ways the students are benefited through studies. The students are taught English with a view to developing their ability to comprehend and to express.

148

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher

TYPES OF EVALUATION QUESTIONS

Completion

This 'type of questioJl

GexeraIly this 'type 0 f
questioJlS is askeol

Test 2. Alternate response Test.

is also kJtowJl as long
axswer questioJlS.

witJta mwto
axswer into 0 JIe or
two seJlteJU:e. TIle

TIle studeJlis bve to
elaborate the aJlSWer ad they bve to explaill according to questioJl askeol. Ix

3 Multiple
cholce Test

cIirect questioJlS are

4 Matciung
Test 5. Analogy Test 6 UnSUl.tability Test 7 One word answer Test

askeol with millim.a1
wdt of the COJlteJlt.

this 'type of questioJlS
kJtowledge of the

Iearxers CaB be
assessed.

8 Recall Test.

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher

149

EVALUATION TEST

In this type of test the questions are asked orally. The questions maybe objectives or short answer types.

In this type of test the questions are asked in written Corm. The questions may be objectives or short answer types.

In this type of test the practical or behavioral work is given to the students. It may be an experiments, field work or project work on which students have to work.

150

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher

There for it is very necessary to find out in exact term the out comes of the teaching learning programme in the light of our instructional objectives. In evaluation the major objectives are the outcomes in the broader terms and those form the basis of the evaluation programme. Different way and means must be devised and technique must be employed to test the out comes of learning English. Evaluation in that way is a means to judge the achievement of the students in the field of education. The achievement is generally measured through the test and examination. This means the test and examination are very important in the whole process of the learning. The language arts teacher needs to arrive at an understanding of the basic principles underlying his practice. Basic principles concern the place that language occupies in the life of the child and the adult, the nature of language, the growth and development of the child and the processes by which growth and development are facilitated, the significant factors that contribute to language development, the general curricular program of work, the differentiation of work to meet individual differences, and the techniques and procedures essential to the implementation of the program. Because philosophy and psychology inherently relate to every practical problem of curriculum and teaching, they are best considered in the situations to which they naturally apply. The basic principles are summarized here, however, for emphasis and review and to help raise teaching above the level of mere pattern following. The study and practice of teaching are threatened at two extremes. At one, the student teacher is occupied with abstract generalizations which, because of his inexperience, he vaguely conceives and indifferently applies. Knowledge of this kind has little effect on what the teacher actually

facial expressions. and of discovering relationships. But situations vary and times change. of discovering likenesses and differences in thing observed. The operation of the communication and thinking functions is observable in the preschool year and . These functions appear early in the life of the child as inarticulate cries and gross bodily movements expressing demands for attention and feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. and sounds become more specialized. he may do a good job for a time. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact : words express and communicate more accurately and economically than cries an gestures. at the same time. helplessness. If a teacher makes a choice. Language is a means of clarifying perception. the student teacher is primarily occupied with acquiring a set of fixed patterns and with using them more or less mechanically. self-expression and thinking. if not so obvious. and stagnation. gestures. This double grasp results in teaching on a high leveL Importance and Significance: The primary functions of language are communication. As the child matures. The communication function is obvious. inflexibility results in inefficiency. The command of words and groups of words grows with practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed. The use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings is equally real. of forming general ideas. an understanding of the basic principles upon which the techniques are based. it may be entirely possible for the student teacher to gain a command of practical techniques and. But choice may not be necessary.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 151 does. If the patterns are adaptable to the particular situation. One deals with symbols rather than concrete experiences. perhaps the second evil is to be preferred to the first. At the other extreme.

Nature of Language: The teaching of language is primarily conditioned by the nature of the subject. necessarily concern other people. as do most other personal activities. Other significant factors in the nature of language concern the interrelation and the interdependence of language functions (thought. These function lay a broad foundation on which to base of language program having far-reaching implications as to contact and procedure. . Language is. related and implied. the manipulation of experience by the use of symbols. command of language is an important factor jIl the development of the total personality of the child. In the second place. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the whole life of the child. The entire process of socialization is largely a process of language development. that words stand for certain concepts based ori the direct or vicarious experience of the speaker or writer. a means of adjustment to and control over other people. it is to be observed that commui'l:ication and thinking. Collateral to thinking and the expression of ideas are two other functions. It may be observed that the involved symbolism is purely arbitrary. and security in meeting many life situations.152 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher thrqughout the school life of the child. and that growth in language is at once growth in experiences and growth in control of the symbols which stand for experiences. In the first place. that words have meaning to recipients only to the extent that they recall or are interpreted by similar experiences. concisely. Language is a social act. communication) and of language experiences (speaking. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence. self-expression. satisfaction. as shown by the existence of different words in different language to express the same idea.

oral and written experiences are combined and discussion often proceeds writing. or asking for facts. All these important elements of language experience are progressively strengthened or weakened according to the concrete situations involved. and skills which are consciously or unconsciously employed in <. explanations. dependent on points or particular emphasis and interest. chooses appropriate words and phrases. are essential to growth in language skills and abilities. is a complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences and elements. in the primary grades. Content is conditioned largely by choice of subject. the oral telling of a story precedes its writing. then. discussion. and introductions. cultivates voice quality. practices pronunciation and enunciation.:arrying on language experiences. Vividness and force are directly affected by variety of words and sentences. telling anecdotes. If the various elements could be isolated and developed separately. Attitudes. Significant also is the complexity of the learning situation as it embraces the various attitudes abilities. teaching would be . listening. may include storytelling. in which growth proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees. Particularly significant is the fact that in schoolwork. A language experience. one is concerned with describing incidents. builds to a climax by relating a series of incidents in a logical or psychological order. such as conversation. and modulation.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 153 writing. directions. and acquires a favourable or an unfavourable attitude toward oral participation. asking and answering questions. uses a variety of sentence patterns for interest and force. such as a desire to be effective and a willingness to work on particular weaknesses. In writing a letter. Organization depends on content. The concept of language as a learning task. giving information. and reading). In a given experience such as storytelling a child selects content. pitch.

Isolated treatment results in improvement in specific elements but frequently makes little change in total performance. The order of development of language experiences is in part vague. as well as at mature levels.154 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher relatively simple. " At two years there is a high proportion of nouns (50 to 60 . Inquiries concern animals. people. and words. Complexity appears in the evolution of kinds of language experiences and in their component elements. What's dat? is asked frequently. Growth in Language : Complexity characterizes language in early stages of development. which continues for some years. The order of development of language experiences and in their component elements. The teacher's job in handling elements is to direct growth in a single element or ability while keeping it in its proper relationship to other abilities and to the total language situation of which it is a part. grimaces. "The three-year-old asked 376 questions and the four-yearold 397 questions during the day. and pain. In this explanatory-naming stage. The first language efforts are practical and utilitarian in purpose. The child is struggling to identify the various objects in his environment. the child becomes absorbed with the intriguing task of making the acquaintance of a great variety of things. sound. trainsall sorts of novel objects and experiences. the emphasis shifts from use of language for communication to the use of language for thinking. cars." In inquiry. but it is obvious that the first experience to appear is oral communication as the infant attempts to make known his needs through cries. houses. relating to food. the child's vocabulary is composed largely of nouns. to bring order into a confusing world of sight. gestures. comfort. Asking questions is the characteristic type of language activity at this stage. When immediate physical needs have been met and a degree of maturity reached. smell and feeling.

moving blocks. Words accompany actions. with increasing maturity and wider experiences. the train says too-too. as in loading a truck. storekeeping. and pronouns. the bow-wow ceases to be any four-legged animal. Dramatic play becomes more complex and social when several children play together. This indicates that language is learned by wholes. the child's concepts become more clearly defined. .Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 155 percent). Anderson says. sentences are predominantly simple : declarative." Gradually. but the complex and compound sentences are used early." Words in phrases soon follow the use of single words. It would seem that another kind of language experience which begins to take shape early is dramatic play. The verb is finally added and the sentence form takes shape: Tommy is cold. and that the relative proportion of parts of speech is fixed by one general language pattern. interrogative. taking cared of a baby. Thus. and finally imperative. action words (verbs). "All phases of language development proceed at a fairly uniform rate. and ideas of relationship take shape. Children express in action and words ideas about phases of life which interest them: preparing food. Other parts of speech appear: descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs). or constructing an airport. horse. connectives. The dog barks. The first manipulating of objects is probably purely mechanical in nature. language changes. as in Tommy cold. Further differentiation in kinds of experience performed appears with increasing maturity and the response to the demands of life in and outside the school. as the dog. but soon the use of materials with a purpose seems to appear. At first. Correspondingly. and cow are distinguished and identified. the dog runs : flowers are pretty. rather than by isolated and individual response. Growth in the uses of these various parts of speech goes on simultaneously.

beginning with vowels and the consonant m. varied experiences. It is a vital part of the process of adjusting to life. it has been observed that. This growth is likewise true of the mechanics of oral speaking: articulation. But maturation is also directly affected by language patterns set by other people and by the stimulation to though and action of rich. voice management. actual growth is conditioned very largely by the stimulation and direction provided by parents and teachers. although native equipment provides potentialities of growth.156 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher It is also apparent that growth in performing an increasing variety of language experiences is paralleled by growth in the component abilities and skills. the general abilities of having something to say and speaking to the point. a means of gaining control of people and thought. Maturation concern the natural development of speech functions and processes of thinking. It has been observed in the first place that language is a vital part of the growth process. For example. Training children in language is training in living. A third implication is that language is purposeful. the utterance of sounds follows a natural order. The purpose is largely utilitarian-communicating and extending experience- . and a means of bringing order into a bewildering world. From this brief sketch of growth in language there appear certain basic principles significant for teaching. and pronunciation. Factors in growth are maturation and stimulation by environment. physical and social. and later the mechanics of writing. and in getting along with people. as was shown above in the development of vocabulary and in the use of sentences. In the second place. A rich environment of varied experiences is essential to good language development. in understanding. not a mechanical or perfunctory act.

no less wide and no less significant in specific abilities and skills.74 words with a median length of 66. differences are much more apparent. In written work. Individual differences are marked in the experience phases of the work. and skills. and shoe marked ability in thinking and expression. such as articulartory difficulties in the lower grades.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 157 but not exclusively so. abilities. because there is a place for the development of creative. A fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. Problems are recognized as characteristic of particular age grade or maturity level. The teacher attempts to set up a program of work that is consistent with natural order in the development of experiences. some can be measured objectively.6 words.0 to 8. others do not. Extreme variations in total achievement are to be expected in composition work. Some children participate freely in oral work. Reed points out that the quality of compositions of pupils in grade 7 varied from 1. they are.0. of course. These difference appear as the teacher makes a check list analysis of oral and written experiences. artistic impulses. While there is progress in average achievement from grade to grade. oral and written.2 on the Hudelson scale. using standard tests. there is great overlapping among grades. A fourth significant principle is that language develops as a wholea whole made up of many complex. make worthy contributions. Betzner points out that children in the five-to-eight age group write compositions varying from 9 to 1. Individual Differences: The teacher is no less concerned with individual difference than with the general course of language development in children. Statistics give a reliable estimate of the range of individual differences that may be expected in any class or . and that there is a similar wide range in thought units of 1 to 69. interrelated elements. appearing in both quantity and quality. Goals are adjusted to capacity.

but its significance is revealed only when it is considered in relation to other factors that combine to form an organic whole. detailed picture of the individual children with whom the teacher must deaL General facts of variability are interpreted in terms of concrete realities as the teacher works with individual children from day to day in the varied intimate situations that arise in the a classroom. The child is an individual. The school must recognize the common language experiences of children and adults. abilities. but they do not give a clear. to be realistic and lifelike. and abilities-learned as related. Emphasis must be placed on the whole learning situation. Gradually each child emerges as a person. and skills and of general powers. skills. a principle of psychology that underlies many modern education trends .158 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher age group. and specifics-attitudes. Normal growth in language takes place through participation and the simultaneous exercise of a number of component elements. must base its program on actual participation. Situations in which language experiences serve an immediate purpose must be provided by the school. It follows that the school. and it must train children in carrying on these experiences. a complex of specific attitudes. interest must be secured : insight and understanding achieved. This emphasis on complete learning experience is an application of the familiar gestalt theory. and skills. abilities. as well as make general adjustments by instruction for children with varying levels of ability. The teacher must deal with each child as a person. integrated components of the whole. Participation as a Factor in Growth: Language has been found upon examination to consist of a variety of experiences through which the child carries on the business of living and learning and by which he exercises and gains control of specific attitudes. Each element appears as a clearly identifiable entity. not a statistic.

the teacher may find that children in school are verbally inactive and unresponsive. The teacher must recognize that it may be necessary at times to separate from the total learning situation specific elements for emphasis in order to bring about improvement in total performance. Attitudes constitute the dynamics of learning. The purpose of practice and its relation to a whole language experience must be recognized by the learner. . However. attitudes are at once the most fundamental and the most elusive. and expressions of approval carry weight. children may be satisfied with low level performance. the drives to participate in experiences and to improve abilities and skills. Of all the basic factors. He represents. Some leverage for improving quality may be found in purposeful experiences. Setting up specific goals and recording accomplishments are other effective means of motivation. Although real life provides adequate stimulation for certain kinds of experiences. organic theory of learning is not inconsistent with concentration on specific elements as factors in the learning process. The solution is to make schoolwork lifelike and to set up conditions that encourage free participation. adult judgment and authority. and practice must be motivated by desire for improvement. but good form is to some extent a matter of good taste or convention. The teacher may show the high social value of maintaining certain standards and may cite worthy examples and authorities. for the time.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 159 and has wide application in various areas of the curriculum. practice and training exercises should be handled so that their usefulness is clearly evident. Attitudes as Factors in Learning: The whole. Even more difficult is creating a desire for improvement in the quality of performance.

a pupil through long use becomes accustomed to certain faulty language patterns and to the common mispronunciation of various words. But that practice alone may fail to assure competency in language is amply proved by the results of traditional teaching. but often it is necessary for the teacher to call attention to a specific difficulty of which the child is not aware. . not git. Purpose derives from the recognition by the individual of his shortcoming and from the situation-an immediate one-in which the need for the skill or ability is felt. in the new psychology. However.160 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Repetition as a Factor. "that practice makes perfect is more than a half-truth. and a child who combines his sentences interminably with ands is a bore. at times the teacher must resort to the appeal of convention or authority. Thus. and the teacher must take positive steps to have the pupil hear and get a feeling for the correct forms. Implied in the consideration of purpose is the basic principle that a pupil should be required to practice only forms needed by him . Making practice effective involves certain basis considerations. Running is spelled with two n's. Going from obvious effect to cause is the most convincing evidence of need for improvement that the teacher can present. a child who mumbles is not heard." Diagnosis is achieved by having a child compare his performance or product with a given standard and by testing. no magic which eliminates the need for repetition and drill. . . Need is often revealed by failure to make meaning clear or to convey a message adequately. Implied are some form or standard with which a pupil can compare his work and some means of diagnosis. . Thus. In the first place. . in Learning: There is. The word get is pronounced get." says Reed. and the class protests. such as: "We show the end of a sentence by a period. . it is recognized that practice must be purposeful to the learner.

in the main. More than passive attention to explanations is here required. except for testing purposes. The frequent assignment of class exercises. The pupil should shoe recognition of correct form by choosing correct forms. by reproducing them. Some children profit from hearing the correct form repeated many times. incorrect forms should be analysed as to the nature of difficulty and the cause of error. attentive. Another point of error is the reliance upon written blank-filling exercises for drill in correct usage. and consciously directed. learning is limited to learning to play the game and does not result in use of the correct form in real situations. The situations in which a given form is practiced should be varied. The checking of progress toward the mastery of a specific skill or ability may be recognized as a fourth basic . A second basic principle of repetition states that practice should approximate as closely as possible the situation in which the form is normally used. and incorrect forms should be compared with correct forms in the remedial phases of the work. A third basic principle emphasizes that repetition drill should follow clear ideas of correct form. results in a waste of time and lowered class morale. but. The repetition following recognition is at first deliberate. Live examples should be set by the teacher and the textbook.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 161 individually and that practice should be applied at the point of error. later it is used in connection with larger language units. and finally it is practiced in total language situations with marginal attention given to the specific skill or ability. Multiple use in a variety of situations increases the range of applicability and tends to maintain a high level of interest. According to this idea. and by using them in original examples. The guide should primarily be sound. strong reliance on the traditional language game is faulty.

Extensive treatment is necessarily sacrificed to concentration on relatively few key language elements.162 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher principle. hearing. carried to the point of mastery. but effort should be concentrated on a short list of basic skills and abilities determined by cruciality and by the needs of particular pupils. requires time. The significance of the period and question mark are made clear by recalling what one does with the voice in oral reading. Specifically in regard to commas. It is too early to say how far we may go in making the mechanics of language meaningful to elementary pupils. she says. The traditional skill subjects are now being approached in part from the point of view of meanings. Language is still largely learned by imitation. Lists and record sheets used in the diagnostic phase of the work are useful for recording progress. are constantly required until mastery is confidently achieved. understanding is recognized as an important factor in learning situations in which generalizations. and principles can be formulated and applied. Understanding as a Factor in Learning : Traditionally. as well as restudy and practice. Adequate repetition. For example. rules. doing . and he should keep his own record of progress. primary emphasis in learning has been placed on seeing. Repeated checking in tests and actual use. to . but some good examples of what may be done are offered in recent literature. the evaluation should be the pupil's own. "Commas are used to clarify meaning when sentence elements are out of their usual order. If possible. and good language is largely judged by its sound. and saying. The teacher should check and confirm the pupil's judgments. Smith points out that growth in the skills of punctuation and capitalization must mean growth in sensing relationships between ideas and gaining force through modification. However.

in handling a lesson on reporting at the fifth-grade level. Speak clearly. and to make clear the members of an enumeration. For example. Moreover. All the pupils are engaging in a common experiencereporting. principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure of language. the teacher may develop with the class the following standards : 1. Differentiation of Instruction : A differentiation of work suited to the needs of individuals in the class is necessary. and to supply some help in the use of language forms and in the correction of errors. Give facts that relate to the topic. the teacher judges each pupil in terms of this ability. 3. the teacher assists pupils in identifying and setting up general standards but allows each pupil to select a specific standard as he gives his talk and engages in conversation or dramatization. The standards set up are those which the teacher and pupils feel have some significance for the class as a whole at its current stage of language development. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and understandings that help to make language intelligible. This differentiation concerns all phases of work. Use words that tell exactly what you want to say. understanding. not in terms of what other children do. In handling the experience phases. Le. to give some insight into its structure.. Tell the facts in order. the reports may be on the same or different topics. 2.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 163 separate interrupters from the main idea. 5. Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts. but it is not assumed that all the pupils have the same specific . 4. Show interest in your topic." The growth of general abilities relates mainly to developing ideas and meanings.

groups children having the same needs. those occurring in the work of a few should be handled in small groups or individually as the need arises. individualized training are provided within an experience that superficially has the appearance of traditional wholeclass work. Only those errors lease acceptable in the speech and writing of a majority of the class should be given class instruction and drill. Significance of Unit Organization: The organization of learning experiences around lifelike situations contrasts sharply with the traditional emphasis on small.l1s and Competencies of English Teacher needs. differentiation is of the essence. isolated language elements. Pooley says. not in terms of the total list of standards. to know what their specific needs are. the varied and complex elements . Thus. Through unit organization children are trained not only for practical experiences but in them. and provides the necessary instruction and practice exercises. in evaluation. differentiation and specific. The inventory serves as a note sheet. "Usage instruction should be as highly individualized as it is possible to make it. The teacher makes an inventory of specific individual needs. Also. and in recording progress. In the practice or corrective phases. chiefly skills. as well as the teacher." It is desirable for the children. and the child refers to it in preparation. the ultimate goals become the immediate goals. The pupil is judged by how well he does what he sets out to do. and therefore each child should have an inventory of his own skills and abilities. the larger unit of learning preserves the integrity of the learning experience.164 :-_ . Each child is encouraged to discover his weakness and to pick a specific language goal on which he needs to work and to concentrate on that goal during the preparation and delivering of the report. Provision is made for extreme variants in the form of individualized self-help materials.

The situation may be one that requires the writing of a thank-you note after the appearance of a guest speaker. Handling an Experiences Unit: The first step in handling an experience unit is to set up or utilize a situation which creates definite reason for carrying on the work. the learning experience is an organic whole. The significance of unit organization is apparent whether the language program is developed independently or as a part of larger curriculum units based on the social studies and nature study. basic procedures will be used at various times. or summarizing information gained in a nature-study field trip. immediate purpose.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 165 of language are combined and to a large extent learned as they function in purposeful expression. Practice on specific. The trend toward large unit organization in language gains additional respect when it is observed that the same trend prevails in other areas of the curriculum. The situation presents a real motive and imposes requirements for worthy performances. From past work or from trail performances in the experience. according to the nature of the learning situation and the learning outcome. keeping the minutes of a school council meeting. A second step is to develop ideas of good performance. Processes: It must now be obvious that not one but a battery of procedures is required to handle the various phases of the language program. Alert teachers readily find occasions calling for the various experiences in both the school and the outof-school experiences of children. Three. component abilities and skills is related to some experience and has an obvious. writing a playas a culmination of a unit in the social studies. writing a letter to a sick friend. the class and teacher . initiated for that purpose. or possibly four.

vivid words and phrases. the teacher may accumulate a file from children's previous work. The material should approximate the level of work normally expected of the grade. pleasing. Goals should be set with due regard to the normal expectancies for the class and should be varied enough to give every child something to work for. Live examples of good performanc~ in the class provide the best material. reporting. or children may supply examples in the form of letters from home (with the help and permission of parents). having something to say. and to use in evaluation. Having pupils study examples of varying degrees of merit and choose the best is a procedure of considerable value. a few key goals are better than many. As these goals are reached or approximated by a considerable number of the pupils. a clear. . for a secondgrade class giving talks. storytelling. the list may be extended as the class grows in ability. it may be sufficient to set as immediate goals willing participation. and the like? Good models may be secured and studies.166 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher presumably discover the need for further training. What is good letter writing. and sticking to the point. and interest-catching beginning sentences. Generally. Thus. It is relatively simple to secure good models of written work. Analysis of models reveals key points which should be listed as goals or standards to aim at. Study should be directed first to content and general effect and then to the specific literary devices employed by the author to produce the effect. recordings are invaluable. good pronunciation and enuncidtion. Too many goals lead to scattering of attention and effort. oral or written. outlining. to imitate. the teacher may add to the list others such as the use of complete sentences and apt. It is less easy to provide study examples of oral work. Some attention must be given to mechanics. well-modulated voice. Textbooks provide them.

with full recognition of differences in individual capacity. or taking part in a dramatization. should be set up early. such as giving a talk. and setting individual goals then assumes the form of a post-mortem. except as a check on performance. Too often this is postponed until after the child has completed his recitation or written exercise. This should be in terms of the pupil's individual goals and should always be friendly and constructive. . class or teacher follows as the sixth phase. is preparation. therefore.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 167 A third basic phase of the work is one commonly neglected or poorly handled-the setting up of individual goals. following the setting up of individual goals. Individual goals. The fourth phase. not after. Records of accomplishments in specific skills and abilities may be kept on the pupil's individual goal sheet and on the teacher's class record sheet. The child prepares his assignment with both the over-all purpose and his specific. There should be evidence in the child's work that he has kept in mind his individual goal as well as the general purpose of the assignment. before recitation and even before preparation for recitation. The initial lesson or series of lessons is followed by other similar lessons or series in which gains are preserved and further improvement is sought. individual goal in mind. This method violates the sound psychological principle that the learner should fix his attention on the skill to be performed before practice. Self-criticism is usually worth more than class and teacher criticism. although a pupil is also often stimulated by the approval of the class and teacher. writing a letter. Evaluation by the pupil. Opportunities will arise for the individual correction of mistakes without the pupil's losing sight of the major purpose of the experience. The fifth phase is participation.

as in the pronunciation of get. for instance. choosing pertinent content. dealing with a sufficiently small and manipulable aspect of a topic. The training lesson presumes inadequate performance and need for improvement. The procedure is that which is characteristic of all knowledge getting-the solution of problems." and "Taking Home My Report Card. or composing a good beginning and ending. organizing effectively. The teacher may present such subjects as the following and have the pupils discuss them: . and it results from an analytical evaluation of the experience in terms of the specific factors that condition performance. such as selecting an appropriate subject.. of course. logically.>oks. Tired. An understanding of what constitutes a good subject. The need for the lesson appears. evolves from a study and comparison of specific examples.. or teacher evaluation. In the selection of subjects. or from reading. such as personal approach. but it is important that the learner recognize the need. and Fired." and from an analysis of key qualities. class. The emphasis is on knowledge. it is never that of drill. The second step. such as "The Fish I Didn't Catch. 168 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Handling a General-ability Lesson : A generalability lesson is a definite practice exercise designed to bring about improvement in some specific ability. definiteness. The examples are studied and the pupils are led to fee~ the difference between good and poor subjects. understanding. in an experience phase of the work. The need may appear as a result of pupil. for example." "Hired. from textb<. the teacher may present to the class example. and brevity. taken from current or previous work. and judgment rather then on specific skills. is to gain some understanding of what constitutes good performante. good and bad.

.

Tentative lists of these titles are profitably presented to the class for evaluation and discussion. and they set specific limits on a composition. When some assurance as to competency has been gained. searching for phases that are interesting to others and worth writing or talking about. athletic). Standards of usage are set by convention. Handling Specific-skill Lessons : The third type of lesson or exercise with which the teacher is necessarily concerned involves the development of a specific language skill. Approved subjects are then chosen. avoiding commonplace and sensational events. The primary . The value of the subject is proved in the composition. Then they formulate good subject titles. and capitalization of 1. they tap sources of personal experience and feeling. going. and compositions are prepared and delivered.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Poor Where I Went What I Heard What I Did Sunday An Adventure My Trip Work My Friend What My Aunt Has 169 Good Catching a Rat False Alarm Too Sure A Bad Shot An Unexpected Ducking A Hasty Reply A Wet Seat The Battle of Chicken Run No Pie Titles in the first list are found to be vague and weak. such as the pronunciation of words (often. use of the comma in a series. Titles in the second list arouse curiosity and a desire to hear more. From the study of examples the children proceed to a consideration of their own experiences. the children use their improved ability in selecting subjects for all oral and written work.

or in written work he may fail to indicate clearly the persons attending a party by the omission of commas in a series of names. The pupil may be led to discover his difficulty by skilful questioning. There are many ways of handling directed training lessons on specific skills and at the same time employing good principles of learning. in giving a talk a child may say I seen for I saw. is illustrated in the following quotation from Brown and Butterfield: . the' reason for it is followed by deliberate practice in selected example. consistent use in exercises and in related speaking or writing is provided. Work of this type is largely remedial.170 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher emphasis in learning is on hearing or seeing and doing. Finally. The use of individual record sheets is helpful in making a diagnosis and later in recording progress. The work should be individualized. The next step is to show the correct form to the child by explanation and demonstration or by directing the study of example. One procedure. The point of departure for a training lesson on a specific skill is an immediate need. Recognition of the correct form and. as in /0 Ann Caryl and Tommy came to the party. Understanding naturally adds to ease of learning in this as in other phases of language work. if possible. understanding enters into the learning process to the extent that it is possible to show reasons for certain conventions and to develop rules or principles. although the basic principles are the same. For example. and followed up consistently and persistently until definite progress is made. Specific procedures vary somewhat in oral and in written work. and involves breaking old habits as well as forming new ones. revealed usually by performance in an experience. concentrated on a few of the most important skills. making use of original sentences as a means of drill. correct and incorrect.

but the temptation will be to have the children write the sentences because (from the teacher's point of view) this makes good busywork. This kind of drill may be oral or written.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 171 Another common drill is having children give original sentences in which difficult forms are used correctly. Then the teacher will suggest that there are many. I saw a horse. "I saw a cat. The children are told to make sentences using each word correctly. It is remarkable how much a few suggestions add to the vitality of a simple drill. she would have gone right home. To improve a drill of this sort and to make it mean something to the children. about something that they really did see. The results may be something like the' following: I saw a cat. to begin with. With a suggestion or two. the words seen and saw ." or "If Mary had not seen the funnly little puppy. She will give an example or two : "When the boys went to the circus. others may try to imitate it." The class likes this sentences much better than the first one. I saw a dog. . John gives the first sentence.are put on the blackboard. "I saw a big black cat with green eyes. many kinds of sentences using saw and seen. in their sentences. they saw an elephant doing tricks. The teacher. John changes his sentence to something like the following." This will encourage the children to think out original sentences also. I saw a bird. For example. instead of being bored by meaningless repetition." The teacher remarks that this sentence is correct but that it would be more interesting to the class if he could tell a little more so that everyone could see the cat that he saw. the procedure can be changed somewhat. asks the children to tell. will be stimulated by the opportunity for creative expression. The more intelligent children.

These skills are learned as far as possible in use-incidentally. the immediate needs for particular language experiences appear in other phases of work. The whole school should become language-conscious. Language Programs: The language program. and the use of language in other subjects and in all extracurricular work obviously helps set patterns and habits of expression. as on school visiting days. reports. lifelike experiences and training experiences as needed to develop the essential abilities and skills. Language experiences at once provide the chief immediate and remote goals.172 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Relation to Work in Other Subjects : The teacher recognizes that only a small part of his pupils' total experience in language takes place in the language class. reports. Various subjects require discussion. and it is not necessarily a distraction. When parents visit the school. In the first place. but to the . Training lessons grow out of and are motivated by immediate needs for particular skills and abilities revealed in the experience phases of the work. therefore. should consist of real. Class ·meetings and pupil councils involve discussions. explanations. is a service subject and as such involves two key points worthy of attention. Language is used throughout the day in all phases of work and play. and the basis for organizing the program into units of work. In the social studies. and in the school assembly some attention must be given to good speaking and writing. In the second place. as we have said. The program is a functional one. it is necessary to maintain reasonable standards in all language work in school if gOQd habits of speaking and writing are to be established. opportunities arise for making introductions and explanations. If properly handled this attention adds to the effectiveness of work under way. and directions. in arithmetic. the chief medium of learning. Language. and keeping minutes.

and for programs offering opportunities to combine experiences and relate them to other phases of the curriculum. The minimum essentials of a modern language program. several questions arise: What place does the textbook have in the language program? What does it contain? How can it be used effectively? .Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 173 extent that further specific training is necessary. But the attempt to carryon the extreme type of informal program often results in gross neglect of training in language. include (1) primary emphasis on and training in language experiences and (2) provision for the systematic development of essential language abilities and skills. Use of Textbooks: In considering the wealth of live opportunities for using language in curricular and schoollife experiences. At one extreme must be recognized the very liberal or informal teacher who handles language mainly as an integral part of the work in other subjects and school activities and who provides only occasional directed practice or remedial lessons as needed by individuals and groups. Such a program can be excellent and may be regarded as the ultimate goal of language teachers. and it seems to be consistent with the position taken by the Commission on the English Curriculum of the National Council of Teachers of English. it is possible to set a middle course consisting of a definite series of basic language experiences and supplementary systematic work on essential abilities and skills. then. functional program to traditional formality. separate exercises or lessons are provided. Without sacrificing the essentials of a vital. Within the limits set by these minimum requirements there is opportunity for a variety of programs providing combinations of experience work and training experiences. This middle course makes possible the ready use of available instructional materials.

the local samples are more interesting than textbook models. Instruction and drill in specific abilities and skills are introduced as needed to carryon the various experiences. such standards may be too high or too low. and the like. Another common feature of textbooks is list of key points-standards-for particular experiences. . therefore should collect from time to time samples of his pupils' work to serve as supplementary models. a textbook provides a basic program of unit work in experiences and related abilities and skills generally appropriate to the grade. Among these resources are models of stories. the textbook offers certain other resources which the teacher must understand and use effectively. outlines. technical knowledge and competence. it is better to let children derive their standards from a study of samples and to use the textbook lists mainly for checking their own items than to have pupils begin by studying the standards of the textbook. In using the textbook. and the implication here is that all children are to work on all of them simultaneously. is. reports. the teacher is taking advantage of this specialized. The textbook lists of standards usually contain many items. Any such list may be well devised. The textbook is the product of the study and thinking of specialists who are qualified by research and experience to write in their fields. however. they suggest reasonable standards. The teacher. In addition to their easier adaptability to a particular class. However. If wisely chosen. for any particular class. the important question. In addition to a general plan of organization. What use should be made of it? In the authors' opinion.174 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher In the first place. at least-to meet the progressive needs of children throughout the year. The sequence is timed-in part. and it gives emphasis to the several experiences according to their importance.

and it should be. writing. in the authors judgment. Little provision is commonly made for exercises in the development of ability to select suitable topics. usages. Textbooks also provide practice and remedial exercises. and mechanics. as they may well be. The textbook statements can then serve as checks on the children's own generalizations. Rules and principles. the teacher will be obliged to supply them. it is generally agreed. Yet these language abilities are regarded as primarily important in the language program. such a precedure presents and impossible task to the children. It may be found that the practice exercises in textbooks are largely devoted to the mechanics of speaking. possible using the textbook exercises as models. should not be memorized from the textbook but should be arrived at inductively by pupils through a study of live examples. It is possible that some of the exercises will not be needed by any child.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 175 Again. This is common-sense procedure. to limit the scope of topics. to stick to the point. to follow a clear sequence of ideas. A further common textbook provision is the statement of principles and rules relating to concepts. Such selection and concentration provide opportunities for individualizing work within a common experience. if a long list is used. If training exercises in this latter group of abilities are needed. Usually in this connection some kind of pretest or diagnostic test is suggested so that only the children who need the practice get it. and to introduce interesting details and apt illustrations. and usage. each child should select one or two items for emphasis in giving a story or report. It is also likely that common diffiqllties will be found that are not covered in the test and practice exercises. In this case the teacher should devise tests suited to the particular needs of the children. .

176 Skills and Competencies of English Teach~ There are several general ways in which a book can be used. For example. and the teacher thus undertakes the responsible task of not only selecting the experiences but also working out a systematic. but instead of using the exact topics for oral and written work given in the text. . largely arising in connection with other curricular and extracurricular activities. One is. sequential. Such use is tolerable only in the hands of a teacher who lacks confidence or through training. this procedure may lost the planned continuity and sequence of training in essential skills which the textbook provides. to follow it chapter by chapter and exercise by exercise. and units and exercises are selected from the textbook as they are needed for training in particular abilities and skills. The teacher follows the order of experiences set by the textbook. but the teacher must recognize his responsibility and accept the amount of work involved. The textbook work is also made vital and purposeful. he draws them from the current lives of the children. that a textbook prepared for use in different sections of the country and for different types of schools will be found perfectly adapted to the needs of a particular class. progressive teachers are inclined to favour such use of the textbook because in this method the functional concept of language work is emphasized. This is certainly not impossible to do. It is unlikely. There is a third plan. however. which combines adjusbnent to present needs and the systematic treabnent of technical content. At the other extreme. developmental program. the textbook is used only as a reference-exercise source. This procedure is thoroughly consistent with the purpose and specific recommendations of many textbook authors. However. the basic program is developed from purposeful experiences. Mature. obviously. In this case. well-trained.

Workbooks provide a convenient and inexpensive source of supplementary practice material and save the teacher's time. Supplementary Practice Material : Teachers often feel a need for more and different types of practice material than is provided in the text. and often not available. the teacher can devise a reasonably satisfactory supply of permanent material by securing several copies of one or more . The textbook. If workbooks cannot be purchases for each pupil. Let it stand until the water is all gone. This third plan conserves the general plan of organization and the systematic program for the development and maintenance of technical aspects of language training as provided by the textbook. then. its particular subject-matter content need not be followed slavishly. Authors commonly provide supplementary practice exercises in workbooks designed to accompany a parallel work in the texts. The exercises for developing technical skills may be used. however. They are an additional expense to the school district or to the children. if needed.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 177 as the basis of studying outlining and reporting a certain textbook sets up an experience in science in which children are told the following : "Stir into half a cup of water as much salt as the water will dissolve. but it makes the work functional and relates it to current needs. What happens? What does this show?" Although a particular class may not be performing this experiment at the time when the language unit is taken up in the text. may serve as a general guide and model in programming language experiences and is using other curricular activities for developing language abilities. it may be performing other science experiments or doing a similar type of work in another subject that will provide materials for outlining and reporting. Pour the water into a saucer. or similar exercises may be devised by the teacher to provide specific training.

The teacher will have little time for making assignments. and even to the casual reader. that evaluation is an essential part of a modern language arts program and that such evaluation is continuous and cumulative.. in which practice material is needed. Supplementary practice work should be individualized-directed at the point of difficulty. possible in a standard vertical file. It follows that the material should be housed so that the children can get it with a minimum of teacher effort and that the material should be self instructional and selfchecking. If the material is not completely indexed by type of difficulty-and it probably is not-it is necessary for the teacher to prepare such an index.178 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher workbooks. but it serves very well for individual and small-group assignments. usage. Old textbooks also can be used to provide supplementary practice material. e. content and organization. It is inevitable that children will be working on many difficulties at one time. capitalization. and punctuation. The material is filed in a convenient place. Evaluation: It must be apparent to the student in the field of language instruction. Cheating will be discouraged if the teacher always gives tests on the work and checks it as completed only on the basis of satisfactory test results. The topics for filing are the particular abilities and skills. giving oral explanations.g. The index should be duplicated and given to the pupils for filing in their language notebooks. Selected exercises are then torn out and mounted on stiff paper. This material cannot be used for whole-class assignments. The answer key may be placed on the back of the practice exercise. mainly written. and checking. serving various purposes and . The teacher naturally selects the exercises that serve his purposes in meeting the individual needs of a particular group of pupils. accessible to pupils.

surveys make possible an organization for group instruction. The teacher's subjective judgment must be the chief evaluation factor in most phases of oral experiences. in terms of performance in language experiences and related abilities and skills. Evaluation forms and procedures are therefore adapted to the experiences and to the nature of the learning elements. though. Preliminary surveys are made to provide a basis for laying out general plans and determining points of departure and to provide means for measuring improvement during the term. and effective delivery. (In general. for example. handwriting. spelling. the check lists suggested throughout the book provide itemized bases for evaluation. the teacher may concentrate on content. which may be profitably used early in the year to compare the achievement of a class with that of other classes and to . the teacher's judgment is similarly important.) In appraisal of written activities. oral and written. appearing as integral phases of the language program in preceding chapters. Only the mechanics of written work-capitalization. These purposes and forms. In the case of handwriting and spelling.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 179 taking various form throughout the term. the accuracy of his judgment is improved by listing and evaluating specific points. abilities and skills. and usage--have been adequately covered in standard tests. organization. are summarized here. offer teachers little help in evaluating quality in written compositions. The teacher should always be aware of the fact that he is dealing with several different kinds of language experiences and a multiplicity of skills. thus in judging a report. The teacher's first purpose is an evaluation survey to determine early in the school year levels of achievement of the class and individual pupils. but the nature of written work makes objective evaluation more practicable through the use of suitable models. punctuation. However. Standard scales.

The Unit Scales of Attainment in Language cover capitalization. the teacher's judgment. covering a large percentage of usage crudities. An informal preliminary test in spelling. handwriting. This diagnosis serves the all-important purpose of directing attention to specific deficiencies both in experiences and specific remedial exercises. pronouns. made up of words taken at random from the term's work.180 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher locate deficiencies of individuals students. One such is Charters' Diagnostic Test for verbs. These survey tests are not truly diagnostic. Covering the work of all grades. and spelling. as in the preliminary surveys. In written usage. must serve. standard tests of usage do not exactly fit the work of any particular grade. Tests also may be taken from the textbook or . Many standard tests are available. as well as the pupils'. practical procedure. The 'form may follow that of the Charters tests and utilize proofreading or multiple-choice techniques. The Ayres scale for measuring the quality of handwriting is widely used. punctuation. The teacher will therefore find it extremely profitable to devise an objective test including the key usage problems of his grade and of preceding grades. Many such tests dealing with various phases of mechanics are available. gives the teacher valuable information on class achievement and individual differences. and usage. although their results may be symptomatic. and miscellaneous words. The Morrison-MeCall Spelling Scale provides a number of tests for use in grades 2 to 8. Here. which is a proofreading test designed for use in grades 3 to 12. A second purpose of the teacher is to make a diagnosis of individual accomplishments and needs in the performance of various experiences and in general abilities and specific skills. more objective treatment is possible. Taking samples of handwriting early in the term and using them as a means of measuring class and individual progress is a sound.

alignment. slant. as in the case of handwriting and composition. by the use of patterns and diagnostic sheets provided by good handwriting books. Additional standard resources are Gray's A Score Card for Measuring Handwriting and Freeman's Diagnostic Chart. the chief task is to determine the particular faults in letter formation. The objective phases of the work-usage. In diagnosing handwriting. Judgments of general abilities and improvement in oral and written experiences are made by the teacher. spelling. Since the primary purpose of the diagnostic test is determination of individual needs. and handwritingcan be measured in large part by informal objective tests prepared by the teacher or selected from the textbook to cover the specific items involved. from unit to unit or from difficulty to difficulty.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 181 teacher's manual. as suggested. punctuation. These types of informal objective tests are similar to those used in diagnosis. Records of progress on specific items should be kept on goal sheets. The teacher' casual judgments may be refined. and colour of line. not measurement of achievement. capitalization. are . the teacher-made test is as serviceable as the standard test. using check lists of specific items for increased validity. spacing. The forms and procedures for the survey are similar to those used in the preliminary evaluation at the beginning of the term. The customary weekly protest serves as a basis for such diagnosis. The third evaluative purpose of the teacher is to measure the achievement of children during short periods of time. Diagnosis in spelling is mainly a matter of locating particular words causing difficulty and noting the nature of the difficulties. Samples of written work. Here again the teacher must rely on his judgment of achievement in most phases of the language program. The final purpose of evaluation is to measure progress at the end of the term.

Training in habits and techniques of dictionary use should be gradual and cumulative. first by the initial letter and finally by the second and third letters. capitalization. or standard tests may be repeated. Mechanics are mastered only when they are used habitually in purposeful expression. Checking pronunciation can begin in the fourth grade. . but the results should not be taken too seriously. One of the early uses of the dictionary is for checking spelling. shows the progress of individuals and of the class. and punctuation may be given and compared with scores on similar tests given early in the term. Alphabetical order is used in finding words. Informal objective tests covering essentials of usage.gain variety of expression may well be emphasized in the sixth grade. and this can begin in the third grade. The use of key pronunciation words and of the other common marks of vowel sounds is taught in the fifth grade. A final teacher-made test in spelling. which is provided interestingly through the making of work and picture dictionaries in the first grades and through the preparing of alphabetical word lists in the second and third grades. adjusted to maturity and needs at succeeding grade levels. Improvement in handwriting may be determined by scores on the Ayres scale. cov~ring the term's work. a Morrison-McCall spelling test may also be given again. where attention is also called to syllabication and marks for accent and the long and short sounds of vowels. Practice in alphabetizing is the first step. Scores on tests of mechanics should be supplemented by observation of what children do in actual writing.182 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher compared with the samples taken early in the term. Dictionary : A good children's dictionary should be available to pupils in the intermediate and upper grades. The checking of meanings and the use of synonyms and antonyms to .

The test helps students to find out that pOint they did not understand properly. It influences the framing of syllabus. Test enables teachers to find out whether the students have learnt a language item or not. • • • • Criteria for Good Language Test : • The test must cover limited language skill but must cover al the language skills which the students is expected to master. The questions must be so framed that they test the specific language skill. gears the whole education system. Test serves as eye openers for the students. Test enables teacher also to asses the success of this teaching. It should neither to be difficult not to easy.of method.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Importance of Examination and Test: • 183 Test helps a teacher to plan remedial programme. They should be so worded that they help the teacher to find out that the specific objectives are achieved or not. It means the test provide a good feed back to the teachers. The question paper must be very well balanced. This means there should be no ambiguity in questions. • • • . Question should be so written that the student understands what is expected of him. It should contain challenging questions for students of all levels. The examination system for good or for bad. preparation of the text book and teaching.

t . Objectives 2. Objectives 2. A proj e ct time Frame 2. trips. Criterion of determining objectives 6. Average students must be kept in mind for allotting time to answer the test.r particular topic or topics. The teacher may plan the language activitie s. Set induction:-Aim of statement:~ti~ Development questions:&J:~ questions' Evaluation Questions:AssI~ent:- Unit plans are the plans showing the details of whatis gomg to be carned out dunng the specific unit. Methods 3. subjective and others. time frame 5. The question paper must be so framed that it has a wide coverage of content taught. NecessalY resources 4. teacher can schedule all teaching and non te aching activities including the dates of examinations. etc. excursion. PLANNING OF TEACHING ~ ~ ~ YEAR PLAN . Unit may be a chapter ar. Unit plan should include following elements:1. A set of daily lesson plan ••••• . activities Res ources:1. Following elements shouldbe included in le s ~on plan. An evaluation criterion II UNIT PLAN II ~ PERIOD PLAN . techruques and activities 3.t In this planning the teacher plans of whole cowse and chvides it into the units.184 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher • • • The question paper should include all types of question. for examples objectives type.t Lesson plan is normally p art of set oflesson making up a unit It there has all the same basIc parts as unit plan but only for one day. Techniques 4. Year plan should include following elements:1.

Why? Tell reasons. 7. How English language is taught in Gujarat? In spite of banishing the language from India the people have made English as their own passion. 5. . Discuss. 3. How mother tongue helps in learning second language? 10. 8. 6. Why? Which problems are faced by Gujarati speaking learner in learning second or foreign language. Hindi is first language and English is second language for us. Discuss. What is importance of mother tongue language and habit? Language is primarily speech. What is the constitutional place of English as a second language in India? What is curriculum of English in school and college in Gujarat state? Discuss. 4. 2. 9.Questions 185 CHAPTER FIRST (QUESTIONS) 1. What is importance of second and foreign language leaning? OR English is window of the world.

How will motivate your students to make your teaching effective as a teacher? Attention and memory play important role in developments of teaching learning process. Discuss in detail. 8. 7. Discuss? What are the general objectives of teaching English as Second language? How specific objectives are differs from general objectives? What are the sub skills of language as skill? 6. Skinner in reference to language Learning. 10. Language is tool of communication. 12. 4. 13. 9. 11. What are the kinds of rein forcers? How they are helpful to make teaching effective? Language learning is nothing but habit formation. How? What is different between first Language and second language? What is different between Acquisition and Learning? What is behaviorist's view on language learning? What types of theory have been given by Pavlov and B.F. .186 CHAPTER SECOND (QUESTIONS) Questions 10 2. What is view of Cognitivist on Language Learning? Discuss in detail. How? Define reinforcement. 5. 3. Define motivation.

How will use and select the instructional material and teaching aid during teaching? Discuss. What are advantage and Disadvantage of this method? Discuss. What are advantage and disadvantage of the G. Direct Method is not useful in Hindi Medium schools.T. Define Grammar Translation method. 6. Define Bilingual Method.Questions CHAPTER THIRD (QUESTIONS) 1. 5. How? Discuss. 6. Define Reading Method. Why? What is different between G. method and Direct Method? Discuss. 7. 5. Define Direct Method.T. 2. 3. T. 187 Give the list of instructional material and teaching aids. method? G. method is very useful in Hindi medium school in second language learning. 2. 4. 4. . What are advantage and Disadvantage of this method? Discuss. What are advantage and Disadvantage of Direct Method? Discuss. 3. 7. What are characteristics or importance of teaching and instructional material? What is role of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in development of teaching learning process? How Audio Visual aids are useful to make teaching effective? What is the criterion of selection of good text book? What are the characteristics of good text book? OR How will you evaluate the good text book? CHAPTER FOURTH (QUESTIONS) 1.

4. Define Situational Method. CHAPTER SIXTH (QUESTIONS) 2. Define Communicative Approach. What are advantage and Disadvantages of this method? Discuss. What are the principles of communicative approach? Discuss. 1. What are the techniques of conducting oral work? Discuss. 9. 4.T. CHAPTER FIFTH (QUESTIONS) 8. 3. method? Discuss. 2. 3. What are the cause~ of defective pronunciation of students in learning of English as second language? Discuss. 5. 5. What is different between Method and Approach? Discuss. What is importance of oral work in teaching of English as second language? Discuss. 1. How can a teacher develop the correct speech habit of English language learner as second language? Discuss. What are advantages and disadvantages of this approach? Discuss. . What is structural approach? What are advantages and Disadvantages of this approach? Discuss.188 Questions Whatis Different between Bilingual and G. Which Two skills are included in oral work? Discuss in detail. What are the principles of teaching English as second language? Discuss.

5. 3. 8. What are general and specific objectives of reading skill in leaning English as second language? Discuss. What is aloud reading? Why it is not useful at secondary level? Discuss. What is silent reading? What are advantages and disadvantages of Silent reading? Discuss. What are the types of Reading? Discuss. 6. 4.Questions 189 CHAPTER SEVETH (QUESTIONS) 1. 7. What are advantage and disadvantage of reading aloud? Discuss. Extensive reading is type of silent reading. CHAPTER EIGHTH (QUESTIONS) 1. What types of exercises should be given to the students in written work? Discuss. How? Discuss. Intensive reading is type of reading aloud. 9. How a teacher can make improve bad handwriting of students? OR What are the mechanics of writing? Discuss. 2. What are general and specific objectives of listening skill? Discuss. What are general and specific objectives of speaking skill? Discuss. What necessary precautions should be observed during the course of teaching? Discuss. 3. 10. What steps should be kept in mind by teacher while teaching picture composition? Discuss. 11. 2. How? Discuss. How can a Teacher make reading aloud very interesting? Discuss. .

8.deductive method is more effective than inductive and deductive method? Discuss. What will you do to make set induction very interesting and alive? Discuss. Set induction is integral part of classroom teaching. Discuss. 8. 7. What is different between free composition and controlled composition? Discuss. Why inductive. 4. What steps should be followed by teacher while teaching prose and poetry? Discuss. As a teacher. What are advantage and disadvantage of inductive method? Discuss. 2. Imagine that you are teacher.190 Questions 4. Discuss. Write short note on oral and written composition. s. CHAPTER NINTH (QUESTIONS) 1. 6. What steps should be followed by teacher while teaching grammar? Discuss. 7. What should do a teacher to improve the spelling mistake and bad pronunciation? Discuss. How? Discuss. 6. What are the objectives of teaching prose? Discuss. 10. . What are advantage and disadvantage of deductive method? Discuss. 9. As a teacher how will you make teaching poetry effective and interesting? Discuss. 5. 3. how will you make teaching prose very effective? Discuss. Briefly describe the objectives of teaching prose. Write brief note on deductive and inductive method.

What is importance of evaluation in teaching of English? Discuss. What is importance of examination and test to evaluate students' ac.Questions CHAPTER TENTH (QUESTIONS) 191 1. ••••• . 3. What are types of evaluation question? Discuss. What is criterion of good language test? Discuss . 4.hievements? Discuss. Discuss. Prepare objective types of questions or briefly state the kinds of objective type questions. What are types of test? Discuss. 2. 7. 5. 6. What are the characteristics of good English Teacher? Discuss.

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