PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS
by
Donald T. Greenwood
Professor, Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering University of Michigan
most intron additional )urse at this dergraduate ~entation of lathematical Iples having I theory and of problems lpetence In lny the first mechanics. rocket and ~, an effort :ral context :is, uniform pproximate y. ts of Newdefinitions. lnost comy of giving Leyanse. )f difficulty dnematics. ~ discussed [eral three:0 rotating s. opment.of ~ven in the f dynamics troduction is almost n addition
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PREFACE
to the derivation of the orbital trajectories, some attention is given to the time of flight, the determination of orbits, and to elementary perturbation theory. ,Beginning with Chapter 6, extensive usage is made of the Lagrangian formulation of the equations of motion. The principle of virtual work is often associated with the study of statics. But it is included here because the ideas of virtual displacement and' virtual work are fundamental in the derivation of Lagrange's equations and in obtaining a clear understanding of generalized forces. The introduction of Lagrange's equations of motion at this point goes very smoothly in the classroom because the students now have a sufficient fundamental background. Furthermore, they have been motivated to find ways of easing the kinematical difficulties in problem formulation. Chapters 7 and 8 present the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies with particular emphasis upon rotational motion in three dimensions. In addition to the general analysis of free and forced motions of rigid bodies, special attention is given to the forced motion of axially symmetric bodies using the complex notation method. Matrix notation is introduced and is extensively used in these chapters. Matrix notation is continued in the final chapter which is devoted to vibration theory. The finding of eigenvalues and the diagonalization of matrices, which were previously as~ociated with the problem of obtaining principal axes of inertia, are now extended to the solution for the natural modes of vibration of systems with many degrees of freedom. Other topics such as Rayleigh's principle, the use of symmetry, and the free and forced vibrations of damped systems are also included. The material contained in this text can be covered in about four semester hours at the senior or fifthyear levels. It is my opinion, however, that the discussion of homework problems and illustrative examples should be given, an important place in the overall allotment of class time; hence the course could easily be extended to six semester hours. On the other hand, a course of three semester hours could be arranged by omitting portions of Chapters 5 and 9, and by spending less time on problems. The major portion of this book was written during a sabbatical leave from the University of Michigan. I am particularly appreciative of the aid of Professor H. D. Christensen and others of the Aerospace Engineering faculty at the University of Arizona for providing a place to write and for their helpful discussions. Also, the comments and suggestions of Professor Y. C. Fung of Caltech were of great value during the final preparation of the manuscript. Finally, I wish to thank my wife who typed the manuscript, helped with the proofreading, and provided eJ;1couragement throughout this period.
DONALD
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Although there has been a steady inlprovelnent in the depth of most introductory courses in dynamics during recent years, the place of an additional course at the intermediate level relnains an important one. A course at this level is normally taken by firstyear graduate students or by undergraduate seniors. The greater Inaturity of these students pennits the presentation of the subject from a nlore advanced viewpoint, with additional Inathematical knowledge assunled, and with the inclusion of illustrative examples having more than the usual cOlnplexity. Through the study of the general theory and its application in these exanlples, and by the solution of a variety of problems of comparable difficulty, Inost students can attain a real competence in dynalnics. This textbook has evolved from a set of notes which accompany the first of three courses forming a sequence in the general area of flight mechanics. The nature of this sequence explains the presence of several rocket and satellite problems among the illustrative examples. Nevertheless, an effort has been lllade to treat the subject of dynalllics in a rather general context with the liberal use of idealizations such as particles, massless rods, uniform disks, and so on, without requiring that the ,configurations approximate practical designs in any particular area of presentday technology. The introductory chapter reviews some of the basic concepts of Newtonian mechanics and gives a short discussion of units and the;ir definitions. There is also a review of. those topics in vector analysis which are most commonly used in dynamics. This is in accord with the general policy of giving brief explanations or summaries of new mathematical topics as they arise. It has been my observation that one of the principal sources of difficulty for students of the vectorial approach to dynamics is one of kinematics. Consequently, the kinematical foundations of particle Illotion are discussed rather thoroughly in Chapter 2. Motion in a plane and also general threedimensional motion are included. Particular attention is given to rotating reference frames and to vector derivatives relative to these frames. With this background in kinematics, a general vectorial development. of the dynamics of a single particle and of systems of particles is given in the next two chapters. Thus we find that most 0f the basic principles of dynamics are developed and applied to a general set of particles before the introduction cf systems with distributed mass. Chapter 5 is concerned with orbital motion. The discussion is almost entirely limited to motion in an inversesquare gravitational field. In addit}on
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CONTENTS
39. The Simple Pendulum 310. Examples
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116 120 130 130 132 '135 140 142 ",,.. 151 152 161
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DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 41. The Equations of Motion _4.3· Work and Kinetic Energy 43. Conservation of Mechanical Energy 44. Linear Impulse and Momentum 45. Angular Momentum 46. Angular Impulse 47. Collisions 48. The Rocket Problem 49. Examples
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5 ORBITAL MOTION
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Kepler's Laws and Newton's Law of Gravitation The TwoBody Problem The Geometry of Conic Sections Orbital Relationships Time and Position Satellite Orbits About the Earth Elementary Perturbation Theory Examples
191 197
200
204 207
213 218
6
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
229 229
231 232 235
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61. Degrees of Freedom 62. Generalized Coordinates 63. Constraints 64. Virtual Work \\ 65. Generalized Forces '\ 66. D5rivation of Lagrange's Equations 67. Lagrange Multipliers BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS OF_ RIGID BODY MOTION
249
252
267
281 281 283
71. Qegree§,.Qf Freedom ora Rigid Body 72. Moments of Inertia
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CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
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Elements of Vector Analysis Newton's Laws of Motion Units The Basis of Newtonian Mechanics D' Alembert's Principle
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KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 21. 22. 23. Position, Velocity, and Acceleration of a Point Angular Velocity Rigid Body Motion About a Fixed Point Time Derivative of a Unit Vector Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle In Several Coordinate Systems Simple Motions of a Point Velocity and Acceleration of a Point in a Rigid Body Vector Derivatives in Rotating Systems Motion of a Particle in a Moving Coordinate System Plane Motion Examples
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31 32 34
35 40 , 45 47 49 52 57
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DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE
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31. Direct Integration of the Equations of Motion 32. Wark and Kinetic Energy 33. Conservative Systems 34. Potential Energy 3:::5.. Linear Impulse and Momentum 36. Angular Momentum and Angular Impulse 37. The MassSpringDamper System 38. Coulomb Friction
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Matrix Notation Kinetic Energy Translation of Coordinate Axes Rotation of Coordinate Axes Principal Axes
288 295 297 298 302 317 320 322 328 332 336
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Displacelnents of a Rigid Body I 79. Axis and Angle of Rotation 710. Reduction of Forces
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General Equations of Motion Equations of Motion in Terms of Eulerian Angles Free Motion of a Rigid Body The Poinsot Method The Motion of a Top Other Methods for Axially Symmetric Bodies Examples
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484 489
VIBRATION THEORY 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. Review of Systems with One Degree of Freedom Equations of Motion Free Vibrations of a Conservative System The Use of Symmetry Forced Vibrations of a Conservative System Vibrations with Damping
APPENDICES A. B. Inertial Properties of Homogeneous Bodies Answers to Selected Problems 498
502
509
INDEX
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INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
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for the most part, although some of the insights and procedures of analytical mechanics will also be used. Because vector operations are so important in the solution of dynamical problems, we shall review briefly a few of the basic vector operations. First, however, let us distinguish among scalars, vectors, and other tensors of higher order. A scalar quantity is expressible as a single, real number. Common examples of scalar quantities are mass, energy, temperature, and time. A quantity having direction as well as magnitude is called a vector. 1 Common vector quantities are force, moment, velocity, and acceleration. If one thinks of a vector quantity existing in a threedimensional space, the essential characteristics can be expressed geometrically by an arrow or a . directed line segment of proper magnitude and direction in that space. But the vector can be expressed equally well by a group of three real numbers corresponding to the components of the vector with respect to some frame of reference; for example, a set of cartesian axes. If one writes the numbers in a systematic fashion, such as in a column, then one can develop certain conventions which relate the position in the column to a given component of the vector. This concept can be extended readily to mathematical spaces with more than three dimensions. Thus, one can represent a vector in an ndimensional space by a column of n numbers. So far, we have seen that a scalar can be expressed as a single numt)er and that a vector can be expressed as a column of numbers, that is, as a one:dimensional array of numbers. Scalars and vectors are each special cases of tensors. Scalars are classed as zeroorder tensors, whereas vectors are firstorder tensors. In a similar fashion, a secondorder tensor is expressible as a twodimensional array of numbers; a thirdorder tensor is expressible as a threedimensional array of numbers, and so on. Note, however, that an array must also have certain transformation properties to be called a tensor. An example of a secondorder tensor is the inertia tensor which expresses the essential features of the distribution of mass in a rigid body, as it affects the rotational motion. We shall have no occasion to use tensors of order higher than two; hence no more than a twodimensional array of numbers will be needed to express the quantities encountered. This circumstance enables us to use matrix notation, where convenient, rather than the more general but less familiar tensor notation. (Matrix notation will be introduced in Chapter 7 in the study of the rotational motion of rigid bodies.) For the most part, we shall be considering motions which can be described mathematically using a space of no more than three dimensions; that is,
In addition, vectors must have certain transformation properties. For examph~, equal vectors must remain equal after a rotation of axes. See Sec. 76 for a discussion of these rotation equations.
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INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
The science of mechanics is concerned with the study of the interactions of material bodies. Dynan1ics is that branch of mechanics which consists of the study of the motions of interacting bodies and the description of these motions in terms of postulated laws. In this book we shall concentrate on the dynamical aspects of Nelvtonian or classical nonrelativistic mechanics. By omitting quantum mechanics, we eliminate the study of the interactions of elementary particles on the atonlic or nuclear scale. Further, by omitting relativistic effects, we eliminate from consideration those interactions involving relative speeds approaching the velocity of light, whether they occur on an atomic or on a cosmical scale. Nor shall we consider the very large systems studied by astronomers and cosmologists, involving questions of longrange gravitation and the curvature of space. Nevertheless, over a broad range of system dimensions and velocities, Newtonian mechanics is found to be in excellent agreement with observation. It is remarkable that nearly three centuries ago, Newton, aided by the discoveries of Galileo and other predecessors, was able to state these basic laws of motion and the law of gravitation in essentially the same form as they are used at present. Upon this basis, but using the mathematical and physical discoveries and notational improvements of later investigators, we shall present a modern version of classical dynamics.
11. ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ANALYSIS
Scalars, Vectors, and Tensors. Newtonian mechanics is, to a considerable extent, vectorial in nature. lts basic equation relates the applied force and the acceleration (both vector quantities) in terms o'f a scalar constant of proportionality called the mass. In contrast to Newton's vectorial approach, Euler, Lagrange, and Hamilton later emphasized the analytical or algebraic approach in which the differential equations of motion are obtained by performing certain operations on' a scalar function, thereby simplifying the analysis in certain respects. Our approach to the subject will be vectorial
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Unit Vectors. If a positive scalar and a vector are multiplied together (in either order), the result is another vector having the same direction, but whose magnitude is multiplied by the scalar factor. Conversely, if a vector is multiplied by a negative scalar, the direction of the resulting vector is reversed, but the magnitude is again multiplied by a factor equal to the magnitude of the scalar. Thus one can always think of a given vector as the product of a scalar magnitude and a vector of unit length which designates its direction. We 'can write (11) where the scalar factor A specifies the magnitude of A and the unit vector eA shows its direction (Fig. 11). Addition of Vectors. The vectors A and B can be added as shown in Fig. 12 to give the resultant vector C. To addB to A, translate B until its origin coincides with the terminus or arrow of A. The vector sum is indicated by the line directed from the origin of A to the arrow of B. It can be seen that C == A
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Types of Vectors. This is not to iJnply that the location of a vector quantity. not only the magnitude and direction of the force. this vector specifying the velocity of any point in the body. and point of application are specified. the moment acting on the body depends upon the line of action of the force. if they are represented by parallel line segments of equal length which 'are directed in the same sense. Another example is a force vector when considering its effect upon translational motion. the magnitude. where A is a scalar. is known as a free vector. sliding vectors. does not alter the equality since they are considered as free vectors. in the evaluation of the coefficients in the equations of Inotion. direction. but not location. is irrelevant in a physical sense. It can be seen that the translation of either A or B. Considering the geometrical interpretation of a vector as a directed line segment. the rules for the InatheInatical manipulation of vectors do not involve location. but also its line of action is important. it is important to recall that its essential features include l11agnitude and direction. On the other hand. An exception will be found in the study of vibration theory in Chapter 9 where we shall consider eigenvectors in a multidimensional space. An exanlple of a free vector is the translational velocity of a nonrotating body. A vector quantity having the previously discussed characteristics of magnitude and direction. but is independent of the precise point of application along that line. for exaInple. the elastic deformation being dependent upon the exact location of the force along its line of action. such as a force. the only quantities of interest are Inagnitude and direction. vector quantities can be classified into three types. The location or point of application can be very iInportant. nanlely. But frOITI the physical point of view. and bound vectors. A is a vector of magnitude A. that is. For example. We shall use boldface type to indicate a vector quantity. In this case. Note again that all mathematical operations with vectors involve only their free vector properties of magnitude and direction. The third type of vector is the bound vector. Nevertheless. when one considers the effect of a force on the rotational ITIotion of a rigid body. An example of a bound vector is a force acting on an elastic body. but no specified location or point of application. In this case. I . from the mathelnatical point of view. therefore. free vectors.SEC. Two vectors A and B are equal if A and B have the same magnitude and direction. or both. A vector of this sort is known as a sliding vector. 11 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 3 each matrix or array will have no more than three rows or columns and each vector will have no more than three components. and this will be reflected in the details of the Inathematical fonnulation. Equality of Vectors.
A+B (AI + Bt)e l + + y (A2 (A3 + B 2 )e 2 + B3)e 3 (113) x Fig. Thus. (n + m)A = + B) nA nA. + mA + nB (19) (110) and n(A = Components of a Vector. This result applies. whether or not e t . Since component vectors defined in this way are not unique. and A3 are now determined uniquely. it is the usual practice in the case of a threedimensional space to specify three directions along which the component vectors must lie. (112) z then the components of the vector sum of A and B are just the sums of the corresponding components. These directions are indicated by three linearly independent unit vectors. A y . e 2 . it can be resolved as follows: . as in the cartesian coordinate system of Fig. A 2 . and A z. and e 3 form an orthogonal triad of unit vectors. Then we can write (111) where the scalar coefficients A}. these vectors can be considered as component vectors of A. Now consider a case where the unit vectors are mutually orthogonal. or simply the components. Suppose we choose the unit vectors e l . that is. e 2 .I)A = 0 (18) In general.A = (1 .6 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. 1 A . The vector A can be expressed in terms of the scalar components Ax. If another vector B is expressed in terms of the same set of unit vectors. and A3 are known as the scalar components. a set of unit vectors such that none can be expressed as a linear combination of the others. the distributive law applies to either the scalar or the vector. for example. At. that is. 14. If a given vector A is equal to the sum of several vectors with differing directions. and e 3 with which to express the given vector A. 14. A 2 . of the vector A in the given directions. The components of a vector in a cartesian coordinate system.
Furthermore.B multiplication of a vector and a scalar to obtain .B) In particular. thus closing the polygon. (13) and (14) we obtain (A + B) + D == A + (B + D) == A + B + D (15) illustrating that vector addition is associative. 13. Further discussion of this topic will be found in Chapter 7. we may use the distributive law for A . Suhtraction of Vectors. using the graphical procedure of Fig.'1 (16) which has the same magnitude as A but is opposite in direction. For example. The negative of the vector A is the vector A == Ae. for the case where A == B. It is important to note that certain physical quantities that are apparently vectorial in nature do not qualify as true vectors in the sense that the usual rules for vector operations do not apply to them. the vector A is equal to the product of the vector A and the scalar 1. A similar procedure applies for the case where all vectors do not lie in the same plane. This generalization of the parallelogram rule is termed the polygon rule of vector addition. we see that the resultant vector E is drawn from the origin of the first vector A to the terminus of the last vector D. 11 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 5 A Fig. From Eqs. Because of the commutative and associative properties of vector addition. a finite rotational displacement of a rigid body is not a true vector quantity because the order of successive rotations is important. Subtracting a vector B from another vector A is equivalent to adding its negative. (17) == A + (. In other words. and therefore it does not follow the commutative property of v~ctor addition.SEC. 13. we can dispense with the parentheses in a series of additions and perform the additions in any order. The polygon rule of vector addition.
C 2 . to limit () to the range 0 < 0 < 'iT. the page. 1 Now consider the dot product of two vectors A and B. (121) Plane Q Fig. Referring again to Fig. we see from Eq. For this case.. The distributive law for the vector product. Using the righthand rule. the terms involving dot products of different unit vectors are all zero.7. that is. each of which is expressed in terms of a given set of unit vectors C I . It is customary. (111) and (112). From Eqs.. (118) that (119) Vector Product. and out of. we define the vector product or cross product as follows: A X B = ABsinOk (120) where k is a unit vector perpendicular to. the direction of k is found by the righthand rule. 1. it is perpendicular to the plane of A and B and positive in the direction of advance of a righthand screw as it rotates in the sense that carries the first vector A into the second vector B.8 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. The angle of this rotation is O. 15. . we obtain Ae B = AIBI + A2B2 + AaBa + (AIB2 + + (AlBa + AaBl)C I Ca + (A2Ba + e A 2B 1 )C I e C 2 Aa B 2)e 2 e C a (118) For the common case where the unit vectors form an orthogonal triad. but not necessary. and Ca. it can be seen that A X B = B X A indicating that the vector product is not commutative. In general.
Therefore. for. j. and k are unit vectors in the directions of the positive x. a vector along a diagonal of the parallelepiped has its con1ponents represented by edge lengths. For the case of a skewed coordinate system. 11 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 7 (114) where i. however.1 c Fig. is the vector A. in general. A similar situation occurs for the case of nonorthogonal or skewed unit vectors. in this case. and it is custolnary to place the origins· of the vector A and the unit vectors at the origin of the coordinate system. y. The scalar product or dot product is A • B == AB cos (j (115) Since the cosine function is an even function. and Azk fonn the edges of a rectangular parallelepiped \vhose qiagon~ll. except that the parallelepiped is no longer rectangular. Consider the two vectors A and B shown in Fig. it can be seen that the component vectors Axi. MultipJication of two implying that the scalar multiplicavectors. This distinction will be in1portant in the discussions of Chapter 8 concerning the analysis of rigid body rotation by means of Eulerian angles. Now. 16 that the sum of the projections of vectors A and B onto a third vector C is equal to the projection of A + B onto C. 15. I . for an orthogonal coordinate system. the scalar components are not equal. to the corresponding orthogonal projections. 14. and z axes.SEC. Nevertheless. Scalar Product. The distributive law for the dot product. Ayj. (A + B) • C == A • C + B •C (117) Thus. The scalar product can also be considered as the product of the n1agnitude of one vector and the orthogonal projection of the second vector upon it. we obtain . From Fig. the distributive property applies to the scalar prod uct of vectors. it can be seen from Fig. a skewed system of unit vectors is used. respectively. It is ilnportant to note that. noting that the multip1ication of scalars is distributive. it can be seen that A (116) Fig. the components of a vector are identical with the orthogonal projections of the given vector onto the coordinate axes. 16. we are dealing with free vectors. 15. tion of vectors is commutative. I n this geolnetrical construction.
depending upon whether or not A and B X C lie on the same side of the plane of Band C. . Furthermore. Looking at Fig. influences the sign of the result but not its magnitude. by the projection of A onto the vertical. but no change in the sign of the product. On the other hand. and C lie in the same plane. We can find the scalar triple product in terms of cartesian components by using equations in the form of Eqs. The order.. Vector Triple Product. and C as edges. i~ general. (B X C) is positive or negative. B. (114) and (126) to obtain i A • (B X C) j k Ax Bx Cx Ay By Cy Az Bz Cz (128) == A· Bx By Cx Cy Bz Cz From the rules for determinants. The sign of A . The prod uct A • (B X C) is known as the BxC scalar triple product . or a cyclic permutation of the vectors may occur. without affecting the result. (A X B) X C lies in the plane of A and B and is not. an even number of such interchanges results in a cyclic permutation of the vectors. has a volume that is independent of the order of these vectors. 18 that the vector triple product A X (B X C) lies in the plane of Band C. the product is zero. as we have seen. Triple products of vectors. any two rows) results in a change in the sign of the product. B. we· see that B X C is a vector whose magnitude is equal to the area of a parallelogram having Band C as sides and whose direction is perpendicular to the plane of that parallelogram. Considering this o B plane to be horizontal for the moment.10 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. we note that the interchange of any two vectors (that is. we note that A • (B X C) is Ax(BxC) just the area of the base multipli~d Fig. 18. equal to . A • (B X C) == (A X X B) • C X (129) B) (130) Also. its magnitude is the volume of the parallelepiped having A. if A. B. Therefore. 18. 1 Scalar Triple Product. A • (B X C) == B • (C A) == C • (A These results can be interpreted geometrically by noting that the parallelepiped whose edges are formed by the vectors A. since the dot product is commutative. It can be seen from Fig. the dot and the cross in a scalar triple product may be interchanged. that is. Of course. and C.
AzBy)i + (AzBx . respectively. X (124) i == i X k == j A X B == (AyBz . and A X (8 + C) must all lie in plane a that is normal to A. and e 3 forms a righthanded set of mutually orthogonal unit vectors. I~ \ I I.! . we note that the vectors A X B. then A X B must be directed along the line of intersection of these planes with the sense again being determined by the righthand rule. A X C. Now let us use this approach to evaluate the vector product A X (B + C) (Fig. Furthermore. First. it is equal to B tilnes the projection of A onto plane b. (123) But iXi==jXj==kXk==O ixl==jXi==k j X k == k X j == i k and therefore. The magnitude of A X B is equal to A times the projection of B onto plane a.. SEC.. Thus. 17).AxBz)j i j + (AxBy . A X (B + C) == A X B + A XC (122) showing that the distributive law applies to vector products. we can evaluate the vector product A X B' in terms of the cartesian components of each. then the vector product can be expressed in terms of the corresponding components as follows: e1 A X B ~ e2 e3 (127) Ai A2 A3 B2 B3 Bl . there being a rotation through 90 degrees in plane a and a multiplication by a scalar factor A. f Another way of visualizing the vector product A X B is to note again' that it must be perpendicular to both A and B. we obtain that ~ \' i \ j I I' I It. the parallelogram formed by the vectors A X B and A X C is similar to that formed by the projections of Band C onto a.AyBx)k (125) This result can be expressed more concisely as the following determinant: k A X B == Ax Ay Bx By Az Bz (126) In general. Therefore. it is apparent that the projection of B + C onto plane a is equal to the vector sum of the projections of Band C onto the same plane. or conversely. Using the distributive law. 11 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 9 •• f Ii I . . if the sequence e b e 2 . ~ ! . Thus. Thus if planes a and b pass through a common origin 0 and are normal to A and B.
a unit vector is always perchange of pendicular to that unit vector. . (138) where we note that the time rate of. and ea which may change their orientation in space. Sir Isaac Newton stated the laws upon which classical mechanics is based... + A 2 e2 + Aaea + dA 2 e dt 2 + dAa e dt a + A del I dt + A de 2 2 dt + A dea a dt expressing the result using a dot over a symbol to indicate its time derivative. .. that dA == dAx i dt dt + dAy · dt J + dAz k dt (137) In the more general case where A is expressed in terms of the unit vectors e h e 2 . the mutual forces of two bodies acting upon each other are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. we obtain. "' . consider the vector A expressed In terms of its cartesian components: + Ayj + Azk For the common case where differentiation is with respect to time. . '1 . of rest. .. III... these laws can be stated as follows: I... The time rate of change of linear momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon it and occurs in the direction in which the force acts. we can write A == AIel Then. we obtain dA == dAI e dt dt I Of. published in ~687. that is...... (133)..!!. ~. 12 NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION In his Principia. and the unit vectors have a fixed orientation in space. compelled to change that state by forces acting upon it. II.INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. (A X B) == dA du du A == Axi X B+ A X dB du (136) As an example of differentiation.. (114). or of uniform motion in a straight line... To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. . unless. and (134). .. Every body continues in its state... using Eqs. Using modern terminology.. Equations of this sort will be developed more extensively in the study of kinematics in Chapter 2.
these interaction forces are equal in magnitude. (139). The added requirement of collinearity will be found to be essential for the conservation of angular momentum of an isolated mechanical system and applies to all mechanical or gravitational interaction forces. The third basic law is the law of addition of forces: Two forces P and Q acting simultaneously on a particle are together equivalent to a single force F == P + Q. where 'a particle is defined as a mass concentrated at a point. charged particles. An understanding of Newton's laws of motion is most easily' achieved by applying them to the study of the motion of particles.SEC. but the collinearity of the interaction forces has been mentioned specifically. since we are not concerned with relativistic effects and any variablemass systems are treated as collections of particles. Newton stated the law of addition of forces as a corollary to his laws of . It can be expressed by the equation F == k dt (mv) == kma d (139) where the product mv is known as the linear nlomentum p. that is. F is the applied external force. Because of the fundamental nature of Eq. and directed along the straight line joining the particles. and k is a positive constant whose value depends upon the choice of units.. Now let us state three basic laws applying to the motion of a particle. The mass m is considered to be constant. a is its acceleration. when we consider the case of bodies with a continuous distribution of mass. It does not apply. (139) simplifies to F == ma (141) which is the usual statement of the law of motion. The first is the law of motion which summarizes Newton's first two laws. This is essentially a statement of Newton's third law as it applies to two particles. the units are chosen such that k == 1. a situation which will not concern us in this book. to certain forces between moving. The second basic law is the law of action and reaction: When two particles exert forces on each other. 12 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 13 The Laws of Motion for a Particle. Eq. opposite in sense. the generalization of the dynamical methods from the discrete to the continuous case win be seen to be quite straightforward. with a proper choice of units. So. By similar reasoning. we can conclude that the simultaneous action of more than two forces on a particle produces the same motion as a single force equal to their vector sum. p == mv (140) and where m is the mass of the particle. however. Later.
reference frame to be. if we consider a particle of mass m to be moving with respect to a fixed cartesian system under the action of a force F. In our previous discussion we have not concerned ourselves with the question of what is a proper reference frame from which to measure the accelerations to be expected in accordance with the laws of motion. The approach which we shall take is to define an inertial or Newtonian . presupposes that the particle velocity. That these equations can be verified experimentally indicates the actual independence of the component accelerations and also that the mass m is a single scalar quantity. the earth would be a completely inadequate approximation to an inertial frame. Such a choice would be adequate for most cases where the distances traveled are short. Note that it also implies that a single force ·may be replaced by its component forces in a dynamical calculation.2 Frames of Reference. is small compared to the velocity of light and therefore that relativistic effects can be neglected. 2 . A much better approximation would be a system whose origin is at the center of the earth and whose axes are not rotating with respect to the "fixed" stars. Thus. exactly.14 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. moon. pne might consider first a system fixed in the earth. one could choose as a Newtonian reference frame a system at the center of the sun (or. Even here. of course. relative to the earth's radius and where the velocities are sm~ll compared to the velocity of escape from the earth. In an attempt to find an example of an inertial frame in the physical world. (141) is equivalent to the three scalar equations of Eq. Finally. and planets. If one were to analyze longrange missiles or satellites. we can write F == Fxi + Fyj + Fzk Fx == Fy == Fz == (142) and the resulting acceleration components are found from mx my (143) mz (144) where the total acceleration is a == xi + yj + zk In other words. however. more. at the center of mass of the solar This. the single vector equation given in Eq. measurements of satellites traveling far from the earth would easily show deviations from Newton's laws due to the neglected gravitational forces exerted by the sun. however. (143). any rigid set of coordinate axes such that particle motion relative to these axes is described by Newton's laws of motion. 1 motion.
mass. This would appear to be adequate for the foreseeable future. respectively.SEC. Thu~. 13 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 15 system) and nonrotating with respect to the socalled fixed stars. as we shall see. we obtain 'is 1 1 l II : II : f : . the sizes of the units used to specify force. As we have seen previously. One can sumn1arize by saying that the existence of an inertial frame implies the existence of an infinite number of other inertial frames. Ii : i i \ : ' t : I . and therefore that Newton's laws apply for motions relative to this frame. It can be seen that the units which are used in the measurement 'of physical quantities may differ quantitatively as well as qualitatively. masses. For example. Dimensions. and accelerations. 1 . (141).1 1 . I I \ 1 : : I == VB + Vrel (145) V)'el I. For example. (139). (141) is equally valid for each observer. It can be shown that any other reference frame that is not rotating but is translating with a uniform velocity relative to an inertial frame is itself an inertial frame. I \: II' . Furthermore. that is. observers on systen1s A and B see identical forces. So fron1 the Newtonian point of view. if system B is translating at a constant velocity Vre1 with respect to an inertial systen1 A. I (146) where aA and an are the accelerations of the particle as viewed from systems A and B. In considering the problem of units let us first discuss the socalled dimensions associated with each unit. then. quantities fixes the units to be used in measuring the third quantity since the proportionality constant is assulned to be dimensionless. we see that VA ! I. when we set the proportionality constant k equal to unity in Eq. Eq. denoting the velocity of a particle as viewed by observers on A and B by VA and VB. all having no rotation rate relative to the fixed stars but translating with constant velocities relative to each other. UNITS When one attempts to apply the law of motion as given by Eq. the foot and the inch differ in n1agnitude but are qualitatively . . one is immediately faced with the problem of choosing a proper set of units with which to express the quantities of interest. and acceleration are no longer arbitrary. So let us assume that we have found an inertial reference frame. Differentiating with respect to tilne and noting that the derivative of zero. and therefore. even Newtonian mechanics has no single. preferred fralne of reference. the selection of units for any two of these. respectively. Now the total force applied to the particle is independent of the Inotion of the observer. I 13. it is a pure number and has no units associated with it.
and vice versa. the centimeter (or meter) is the fundamental unit of length. In . By this. length. must be dimensionless. and the second is the fundamental unit of time. the former being used more extensively by physicists and other scientists. If we note that the equations of mechanics are principally of the form of Eq. the radian. 1 the same in that both are units of length. and time are the fundamental dimensions. If one chooses mass to be the third fundamental dimension. the foot and the inch both have the dimension of length.16 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. written [LTl]. (2) the gravitational system in which force. Similarly. is dimensionless. the qualitative aspects of a given unit are characterized .by its dimensions. of course. regardless of whether the units chosen are milhr. It turns out that all units used in the study of mechanics can be expressed in terms of only three dimensions. the gram (or kilogram) is the fundamental unit of mass. we mean that any terms which are added or subtracted must have the same dimensions and it also implies. Bessel function. the second are qualitatively different. we see that there are two obvious possibilities for choices of fundamental dimensions: (1) the absolute system in which mass. the dimensions of length and of time are considered to be fundamental.s to the requirement of dimensional homogeneity. exponential function. By common agreement. On the other hand. Furthermore. Now. or its integrals with respect to space or time (or the corresponding moments). length. of course. One will sometimes find apparent exceptioD. Thus. the foot and . that is. A characteristic of the equations of physics is that they must exhibit dimensional homogeneity. that the expressions on each side of an equality must have the same dimensions. and so on. any argument of a transcendental function. Similarly. the hour and the second have the dimension of time. Thus. Systems of Units. but in all cases some of the coefficients will prove to have unsuspected dimensions or else the equation is an empirical approximation not based on physical law. and time are the fundamental dimensions. (141). many sets of fundamental units can be chosen. Within either the absolute system or the gravitational system. Thus. acceleration has the dimensions [LT2]. such as the trigonometric function.checking for dimensional homogeneity. one should note that the unit of angular displacement. the latter by engineers. a physical quantity such as velocity has the dimensions of length per unit time. ftlsec. all exponents associated with the fundamental dimensions of the argument must be zero. Absolute systems of units in common use include the egs or centimetergramsecond system and the mks or meterkilogramsecond system where. . then the dimensions of force are determined. or even knots. then the requirement of dimensional homogeneity implies that the fundamental dimensions corresponding to mass and force cannot be chosen independently. Both types of systems are in wide use in this country.
length. The letters F. and seconds. Note particularly that we always use the term pound as a unit of force and never as a unit of mass. (141) and the principle of dimensional homogeneity. a standard unit of mass is the pound. from Eq. we see that 1 slug == 1 lb sec 2 /ft since. the pound as the fundamental unit of force. the unit of mass must equal the unit of force divided by the unit of acceleration. L. To avoid confusion. the unit of mass. it is advisable to carry along the units. one converts to three basic units.SEC. Normally. When making checks of dimensional homogeneity. feet. A possible source of confusion arises from the fact that the legal standard of mass is based on the absolute system and. the English gravitational system. ( ~ Conversion of Units. This algebraic manipulation of units often requires the conversion from one set of units to another set having the same dimensions. which is the system that we shall use. . and time. we shall use the gravitational system exclusively. and even when performing numerical computations. however. TABLE 11. employs the foot as the fundamental unit of length. and T refer to the dimensions of force. A slug is that mass which is given an acceleration of 1 ftlsec by an applied force of 1 lb. the slug. is a derived unit rather than a fundamental unit. rather than carrying along derived units. In this case. and the second as the fundamental unit of time. in that system. also called the poundmass. 13 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 17 On the other hand. such as pounds. Some of the quantities that are most commonly used in dynamics are listed in Table 11. respectively. treating them as algebraic quantities. In terms of fundamental units. GRA VITA TIONAL UNITS AND DIMENSIONS Gravitational Units ft sec Ib Ib sec2/ft (slug) ft/sec ft/sec 2 ft Ib rad/sec Ib ft lb ft sec2 lb sec lb ft sec lb sec lb ft sec Dimensions [L] [Tl [F] [FT2Ll] [LTl] [LT2] [FL] [Tl] [FL] [FLT2] [FT] [FLT] [FT] [FLT] Quantity Length Time Force Mass Velocity Acceleration Energy (work) Angular Velocity Moment Moment of Inertia Linear Momentum Angular Momentum Linear Impulse Angular Impulse .
Suppose. for example. but only their form of expression. Thus it turns out that centrifugal as well as gravitational forces enter the probleln. such as slugs. One finds that 1 knot == 1 nautical mi/hr 1 nautical mi == 6080 ft Therefore.naut. mt Ift3600 sec == 20.18 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. This is not an inertial frame in the strict sense because the earth is rotating in space. 1. g is the acceleration that would result if the body were released from rest in a vacuum at that location. First. 1 knot Ihr 1 ft == 12 in. This emphasizes the need for a clear distinction between weight and mass since the weight of an object is expressed in units of force. its mass is constant. the acceleration of gravity is measured with respect to a reference frame fixed in the earth. that is. A second reason for the slight variation In the acceleration of gravity .force. that one wishes to convert knots into inches per second. although we shall use the pound as a unit of . In this conversion process.. Its mass is the quantity of matter in the body. Therefore.27 in. irrespective of its location in space. A convenient method of changing units is to multiply by one or more fractions whose magnitude is unity. mi)( 6080ft. and g is the local acceleration of gr?vity. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause a slight change in the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of gravity. Although the interpretation of Eq. as we shall show more clearly in Chapter 2. one of the units of mass in the absolute system is also known as the pound. certain complications arise in the detennination of the acceleration of gravity. We have seen that./sec Weight and Mass.. or perhaps several different units of length. For example. (147) appears to be straightforward. if a given body is moved from a valley to the top of an adjacent mountain. the weight of a body is the force with which that body is attracted toward the earth. one does not change the lnagnitudes of any of the physical quantities. Another approach is provided by the equation w == mg (147) where w is the weight. the amount of the change depending upon the latitude.)( Ihr) l. Briefly. the socalled inertial forces must be included in a calculation of the acceleration of gravity. 1 hr == 3600 sec I == (1 Jlaut. m is the mass. but in which the numerator and the denominator are expressed in different units. but its weight is less on the mountain top because the magnitude of the gravitational attraction decreases with increasing elevation above sea level.)(12 in.
By homogeneous ~~~~i:~!tcp iCLit~i~. in any discussion of orbits about the earth.3 per cent smaller than the equatorial radius. we shall use the symbol go which includes gravitational effects only and refers to a spherical earth.17 cos 2 () ft/sec 2 where g is the local acceleration of gravity and () is the latitude of the point in question. On philosophical grounds. the polar radius being about 0. and force from the viewpoint of Newtonian mechanics and indicate experimental procedures for defining the corresponding fundan1entaI units.the l. ~el:!ntthat . Newton assumed the existence of a primary inertial frame. he chose to give special preference to the inertial frame that is fixed at the "center of the universe.2 ft/sec 70r the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the earth. saw in the discussion of Eq.0. erence frame relative to a given inertial frame will produce apparent acceleration terms which change the form of the basic equation of motion. it will generally be sufficient to use the value g == 32. and absolute. In claiming that space is absolute. homogeneous. In the latter process. But any rotational motion of a ref. 14 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 19 with latitude is the oblateness of the earth. THE BASIS OF NEWTONIAN MECHANICS Now that we have presented the basic laws of ITIotion and have discussed the question of units briefly. Furthennore.SEC. mass.. For our purposes. The two factors previously mentioned result in a variation of the acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface which can be approximated by the expression g == 32.tJC>.<:(:~re . let us consider the concepts of space. let us consider in greater detail the fundamental assumptions of Newtonian mechanics.l.Qc_a1. So we . The infinite nature of space follows from the implicit assumption that ordinary.J2!92(:x!i(:~_QLsp<."_Q~~JJ. I I 'l 1 \ Space.n. In particular. Newton conceived of space as being infinite. time. Euclidean geometry applies to it. Of course. (146) that the law of motion is not changed by the transformation to another system that is translating uniformly : with respect to a given inertial system.'iiwas nonrotating relative to the fixed stars and also was fixed relative to the center of the universe which was interpreted as being located at the center of mass of the solar system. isotropic. or_ .26 .mdep~n dent ~ 0 . too. we shall not be concerned so much with the practical utility of the operational definitions as with their theoretical validity. dlrec. however. fnhis"'vTew. Newton realized that any other coordinate system that is translating uniformly with respect to his primary frame would serve equally well as an inertial frame.Qn." We. 14..
the rotation rate of the earth relative to the fixed stars is constant except for a very small retarding effect due to tidal friction.: The Open Court Publishing Co. 1. . In either event. or perhaps one could define the standard unit of length in terms of the wavelength of the light corresponding to a given . does not depend upon the motion of either the standard or the observer. For example. In deciding which physical process to use as a basis for the definition of a standard unit of time. Mach. As a standard unit of length. furthermore. an approximation to the uniform flow of "true" time. we shall adopt the Newtonian assumption that time is the same for all observers. the same for all observers and. the definition of a standard unit of time based upon the rotation rate of the earth. Newton conceived of time as an ~b~gJ:t!~. He considered that a definition of time in terms of natural phenomena such as the rotation of the earth was.. Note that this allows for a finite propagation velocity of light if compensation is made for the time of transmission of clock synchronizing signals from one place to another. But one cannot show that the motion of the clock is uniform in itself. according to Newtonian mechanics. we say that object A moves uniformly if equal changes in the displacement of A correspond to equal changes in the "position of another system such as the hands of a clock. for most purposes. For example. The Science of Mechanics (La Salle. Ill. No relativistic corrections are required if the. Also. the unit is obtained iIi a rather direct fashion and. The spatial relationships associated with Newtonian mechanics are measured in units of length. or at a constant frequency. The first edition was published in 1893. Later. So. at best. proceeds at a uniform rate. we assume the validity of certain physical laws and choose a process that. but translational motion is relative in that an arbitrary uniform translation may be superimposed. but is assumed in order to express the interrelationships of the motions of the physical world.9. 1942). Thus. 3E. can conclude that Newtonian mechanics requires an absolute reference for rotational motion. and is relatively easy to measure.uantity.relative velocities of all bodies are much smaller than the velocity of light. Mach 3 contended that time is merely an abstraction arrived at by changes in the physical world. would seem to be satisfactory. according to the physical theory. one can choose the distance between two marks on a bar at a standard temperature. independent of" aIrobjects of the physical world. a comparison must be made with another system.spectral Ii ne measured under standard conditions. as measured by the interval between successive transits of a given star. that is. time is not ail absolute entity. I I Time.20 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. in this theory.
If one assumes further that mass is an additive property. that !l1. Let us consider first the choice of mass as a fundamental dimension. 51. Using this method. ".: The mass that we are interested in determlning'~~l's"fne"inerfial mass m in the equation of motion F == mao On the other hand. 4 In comparing the masses of two bodies by comparing their weights. corresponds to zero acceleration in an inertial frame... 4It is interesting to note that Newton tacitly assumed the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass.. in accordance with the law of motion..ravitat(911a!. that the mass of several bodies acting together is equal to the sum of their individual masses.. In more recent times. Another body B is assumed to have a mass equal to that of A if bodies A and B balance when tested on a beam balance. Using the standard masses. but there is no a priori reason for the equality of gravitational mass and inertial mass. this principle of equivalence has been one of the p~~!ulates of Einstein's general theory of relativity.. For this case.E independent of its motio!1~ In other words.lfl§. This equality must be experimentally determined. As we shall see in Sec..Lg_QQ1.? mf!§. we might take a given body A as a standard. during the balancing procedure. . One difficulty is that it assumes the equivalence of inertial mass and s. This results in a net force of zero which. then one can establish a set of standard masses which are equal to various multiples or fractional parts of the original primary standard. the assumption is made that. 14 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 21 ! I I .SEC.J. an additional assumption must be made. r \ J 1. one can in theory determine the mass of a given body to an arbitrary precision. the bodies are motionless in an inertial frame. In an attempt to find a more satisfactory definition of mass. if one wishes to determine the mass of a moving body. Newton defined Inass as "quantity of matter" which was calculated as the product of volume and density.§. namely. . Although this definition may give one an intuitive concept of mass. The third fundamental unit can be chosen as a unit of mass or of force.. This relatively convenient procedure of comparing the masses of two bodies by comparing their weights has certain deficiencies when used as a fundamental definition of mass. it is not a satisfactory operational definition but merely replaces one undefined term by another. the force of gravity acting on a body is proportional to its mass. the weighing procedure compares the magnitudes of the forces of gravity acting on the bodies.r. Mass. In other words. the upward force exerted on each body by the balance is equal to the 'downward force of gravity on that body. its mass while in 'motion is assumed . their masses are equal if their weights are equal. in agreement with the initial assumption. that is..JJ. We have seen that reasonably straightforward operational definitions can be given for the fundamental units of length and of time. . depending upon whether the absolute or the gravitational system of dimensions is considered to be most appropriate.Lf.
Now suppose that the mass of a given body is to be determined by weighing. be determined. the mass ratio is . the unit of force can then be defined in accordance with the law of motion as the effort required to produce a unit acceleration of a unit mass.) The use of a spring scale to measure the mass of a body relative to the mass of a primary standard will be observed to have all the shortcomings of the beam balance. First is the practical difficulty of finding a system of two interacting masses that is dynami ear effe unl' inte sati for ligh nlZl reql velo . the law of action and reaction follows from the law of motion and M·ach's experimental proposition in the definition of a mass ratio. if mass A is a standard unit._ _ . .... Another possibility is a momentary interaction such as occurs in an impact.. (Note that in obtaining standard masses. (148) where aA and an are the magnitudes of the corresponding accelerations. mg.... ....r~tios by measuring accelerations.§~. This assumption of Newtonian mechanics is in agreement with experimental results for cases where the velocity is very small compared with the velocity of light and· relativistic effects are negligible. Mach's procedure has the virtue of not specifically assuming the concept of force.. The calibration can be accomplished by using a set of standard masses which are obtained in a manner similar to that used previously except that a spring scale is used in place of a beam balance. Besides being a dynamic method of measuring mass. H . This follows from the definition of weight given by Eq.~ . In order to avoid the theoretical difficulties involved in determining mass by means of weight measurements. and time... (147) and the fact that the spring scale measures weight or force directly rather than matching weights as in the case of the beam balance.. . Designating the bodies as A and B... using a calibrated spring scale. making the experimental proposition that the accelerations are opposite in direction and lie along the line connecting their centers. It might be gravitational or perhaps a direct connection as by a rigid rod or elastic rope...2 22 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. consisting of two mutually interacting masses. the mass of body B can. Mach proposed a method of measuring inertial... he defines the mass ratio to be the inverse ratio of their acceleration magnitudes. Given the definitions of mass... in theory. Then... no calibration of the scale is required since weights are merely matched. Nevertheless. Mach does not specify the nature of the interaction in his definition. Furthermore. Then. l c u IT tl Pi Ie st fa st sa pI pt to ch un chi on pa: en1 me as ch( un] Fo] to be the same as the mass which was measured while at rest... In addition."... the calibration of the scale is accurate only if the weighings occur at a location with an acceleration of gravity equal to the calibration value. length. Mach's procedure has its shortcomings. . A dynamically isolated system is assumed...
the measurement of mass by a weighing procedure will undoubtedly continue to be widely used. Next.·' by connecting a given spring in series with various numbers of parallel standard springs. 47. suppose that . Then. Another important point in the discussion of mass is that Newtonian mechanics assumes the principle of conservation of mass. the definition of mass assumes the validity of a law which presupposes a definition of lnass. length. the given spring may be . the impact will cause very large accelerations of short duration. Another possibility is to cause the masses to hit each other. then the force transmitted by the n springs is n standard force units. noting that springs connected in series transmit equal forces. we can mark the extensions produced by the standard force in each of a set of similar springs. Thus. This principle enables one to consider a wide variety of physical systems as a group of particles. and during this interval. As will be seen lnore clearly in Sec. Since the criterion for an inertial fralne is that Newton's law of motion applies in this frame. constant in number. So. Now. as a practical matter. a unit force applied to a unit mass results in a unit acceleration. 14 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 23 cally isolated. thereby producing a group of standard springs. The earth's gravitational attraction would be an extraneous influence for experiments performed near the earth. and time are chosen as fundamental " dimensions. we see that. A second objection to Mach's procedure is its tacit assumption that the accelerations are measured relative to an inertial frame of reference.force. What is a suitable operational procedure for defining a standard unit of force? We shall define a unit force in terms of the effort required to produce a certain extension in a given standard spring under standard conditions. while a certain quantity of water may be converted to the vapor phase. time. the total mass of the rocket body and ejected gases remains constant. Thus. then the corresp. its mass is not changed in the process. with the mass of each particle remaining the same in spite of changes in its motion or its physical state. the effects of other influences will be relatively lninor. t s e n e 1 Force. again. although the effect could be minimized by confining the motion to a horizontal plane by constraints with very small friction. we observe that if n standard springs are connected in parallel and if each is stretched the standard amount. and mass are chosen. We have seen that if standard units of length. if a rocket is fired. Similarly. But.SEC. But these procedures do not appear to be practical for mass determinations of ordinary objects.onding unit of force is determined in accordance with Newton's law of motion. A dynamic method of Inass Ineasurement such as Mach proposes would seem to be the least objectionable on theoretical grounds.
Contact forces refer to a direct mechanical push or pull which is transmitted by material means. the gravitational force does not produce any elastic deflection and therefore this method cannot be used to measure it. there are objections to the choice of force as a fundamental dimension. or even air or water pressure could be used to apply contact forces to a body at its surface.24 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS CHAP. It is merely another name for the product of mass and acceleration which occurs in the mathematics of solving a problem. The assumption is made. which is based upon an elastic deformation. Furthermore. Briefly. the socalled inertial forces associated with the mass of the spring must be small compared to the force transmitted by the spring. using Newton's laws of motions. field forces are calculated by observing accelerations and obtaining the corresponding forces from Newton's law of motion. i \ . of course. if a body is falling freely in a uniform gravitational field. has the advantage of not requiring the measurements to be made in an inertial system if the spring is assumed to have negligible mass. But before we discuss these objections. let us first note that the forces that concern us in mechanics are of two general types. Now. accelerations are observed and then forces are inferred in accordance with the law of motion.1 calibrated in standard force units and subsequently used for force measurements. Also. :1 I . the idea of a force. the idea of force as a cause of motion should be discarded since the assumed cause and effect relationships cannot be proved. For example. field forces are associated with action at a distance. difficulties arise when one attempts to apply to field fot:ces the concept of a force as a push or pull that is measured by an elastic deflection. vv'as considered to be an intellectual construction which has no real existence. a rod or a rope. In other words. On the other hand. the gravitational force is often found by counteracting it with a contact force such that the acceleration is zero and then measuring this contact force. For example. we . field forces are often applied throughout a body rather than at the surface. In a practical· case. The concept of force as a fundamental quantity in the study of mechanics has been criticized by various scientists and philosophers of science from shortly after Newton's enunciation of the laws of motion until the present time. For the most part. such as in the cases of gravitational and electrical forces. contact forces and field forces. More generally. This definition of force. and a field force in particular. We shall adopt the viewpoint that the existence of contact forces can be detected and measured by springs or by other means of measuring elastic deformations. or else from rules governing the force that have been established from such observations. Actually. namely. This is the process of weighing the body. Nevertheless. Field forces will be calculated from observed accelerations. that the gravitational force is not a function of v~locity or acceleration.
SEC.
15
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
25
shall avoid questions of cause and effect. For example, suppose a stone is tied to the end of a string and is whirled in a circular path. Does the tension in the string cause the stone to follow a circular path, or does the motion in a circular path cause the tension in the string? Conceivably, either view. point could be taken. But generally it is preferable to note that forces and accelerations occur silTIultaneously and neither is specifically cause nor effect. We have seen that the definitions of the fundamental units of ll1echanics depend to some extent upon Newton's laws of motion and these are the laws to be demonstrated. Thus, the logic has a certain circularity. Nevertheless, the validity of the laws of lTIotion has been established for mechanical systems with a wide range of velocities and spatial dimensions. So long as the distances involved are larger than atolTIic dimensions and the velocities are much smaller than the velocity of light, the fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics apply remarkably well.
15. D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE
Newton's law of motion for a particle is given by Eq. (141). Suppose we write it in the form
'F  rna
==
0
(149)
J
I
J
where F is the sum of the external forces acting on the particle, rn is its mass, and a is the acceleration of the particle relative to an inertial reference frame. Noy.;, if we consider the term rna to represent another force, known as an inertial force or reversed effective force, then Eq. (149) states that the vector sum of all forces, external and inertial, is zero. But this is just the form of the force summation equation or" statics and the methods of analysis for statics problems apply to it, including more advanced methods, such as virtual work (Sec. 64). Thus, in a sense, the dynamics problem has been reduced to a statics problem. Briefly, then, d' Alembert's principle states that the laws of static equilibrium apply to a dynamical system if the inertial forces, as well as the actual external forces, are considered as applied forces acting on the system. Of course, one still must solve the differential equations of dynamics rather than the algebraic equations of statics, but the point of view in setting up the equations is similar to that of statics. '. Considerable care must be used in setting up the equations of motion by means of d' Alembert's principle. In particular, the inertial forces should "not be confused with the external forces comprising the total force F that is applied to the particle. In order to keep the distinction clear on force diagrams, we will des"ignate inertial forces by a dashed arrow and external forces by a solid arrow, as shown in Fig. 110. By external forces, we mean contact forces and gravitational or other field forces applied to the particle.
1
26
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
CHAP.
1
Another approach is to think of the inertial force as a reaction force exerted by the particle on its surroundings in accordance with the law of action and reaction. This viewpoint is convenient when the motion of a particle is given and one desires to calculate the force it exerts on the remainder of the system. For examma m F ple, if a particle is whirled in a cir+ o~."" cular path by means of ~. string attached to a fixed point, the·n the inertial force of the particle is the socalled Fig. 110. Inertial force for an centrifugal force which is equal to accelerating particle. the tensile force in the string. On the other hand, the external force on the particle is the centripetal force of the string acting radially inward toward the fixed point at the center of the circular path. By the law of action and reaction, the centripetal force is equal in magnitude to the centrifugal force but is opposite in direction.
Example 11. A particle of mass m is supported by a massless wire of length I that is attached· to a point 0; of a box having a constant acceleration a to the right (Fig. 111). Find the angle 0 corresponding to a condition of equilibrium, that is, such that the particle will remain at constant
a
•
!
9
ma
~Om
to
g
I
(
m
Im
(0)
( b)
Fig. 111. Simple pendulum in an accelerating box.
l:
.1
if released from this position. What is the tensile force T in the wire in this case? [The direction of the acceleration due to gravity is shown by the vertical arrow' in Fig. 111(a).] . The external forces acting on the particle are the weight rng and the force T due to the wire, as shown in Fig. 1II(b). In addition, one notes that the particle has an acceleration a to~the right for constant 0, and therefore the inertial force is of magnitude rna and is directed to the left. Now, according to d' Alembert's principle, the external and inertial
f)
SEC.
15
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
27
forces must add vectorially to zero. So, taking horizontal components, we obtain
T sin ()  rna
== 0 == 0
Similarly, taking vertical cOlnponents,
T cos ()  rng
Solving these two equations, we obtain
() = tan  1
( ; )
and
REFERENCES
1. Housner, G. W., and D. E. Hudson, Applied MechanicsDynamics, 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1959.
2. Jammer, M., Concepts of Space. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954. 3. 1957. 4. , Concepts of Mass. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961. 5. Lass, H., Vector and Tensor Analysis. New York: McGrawHill, Inc., 1950. 6. Lindsay, R. B., and H. Margehau, Foundations of Physics, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957. 7. Mach, E., The Science of Mechanics, 6th ed. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Company, 1960. 8. Phillips, H. B., Vector Analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1933. , Concepts of Force. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
PROBLEMS
11. Forces P and Q are applied to a particle of mass m. The magnitudes of these forces are constant but the angle between their lines of action can be varied, thereby changing the acceleration of the particle. If the maximum possible acceleration is three times as large as the minimum acceleration, what value of is required to attain an acceleration which is the mean of these two values? 12. In terms of a fixed cartesian system, the position of auton10bile A is ra == 100ti ft and the position of airplane P is rp == 1000i + 300tj + 2000k ft where the time t is measured in seconds. Find: (a) the velocity of P relative to A and (b) the minimum separation between P and A. 13. Given the following triad of unit vectors:
e
e
I
I
28
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
C1 C2 C3
CHAP.
1 .
== II i
+ 12 j + 13 k
== mlB ==
+ m 2 i + m3 k n1i + n 2i + n3 k
where i, j, k are the usual cartesian unit vectors. (a) Write 3 equations involving the l's, m's, and n's which apply for any unit triad. (b) What additional equation applies if e h e 2 , and e3 are coplanar? (c) What equations apply if C 1 , C 2 , and e3 are mutually orthogonal? 14. Consider the vector A == Axi + Ayj + Azk. Find the components AhA2' A3 of the vector A in a skewed coordinate system whose axes have directions specified by the following unit vector triad:
15. If units of length, mass, and force were chosen as the fundamental units, what would the dimensions of time and acceleration be? 16. Suppose that units of force, length, and time are chosen such that the density of water and the acceleration of gravity are both of unit magnitude. If the pound is taken as the unit of force, what are the sizes of the units of length and time? 17. At a certain moment during reentry, a satellite is moving horizontally in the earth's atmosphere. The satellite carries an accelerometer which measures the . contact force acting on a sman mass moving with the satellite. If the accelerometer reading is 64 ft/sec 2 in a direction opposite to the velocity of the satellite, and if the acceleration of gravity at that point is 32 ft/sec 2 , what is the absolute acceleration of the satellite? If the speed of the satellite is 10,000 ft/sec, what is the angular rate of rotation of its velocity vector? 18. The particles at Band C are of equal mass m and are connected by a strings to each other and to points A D and D as shown, all points remaining I in the same horizontal plane. If points I A and D move with the same acceleraI tion a along parallel paths, solve for the tensile force in each of the strings. m m Assume that all points retain their Fig. PI8 initial relative positions.
2
KINEMATICS OFA PARTICLE
Kinematics is the study of the motions of particles and rigid bodies, disregarding the forces associated with these motions. It is purely mathematical in nature and does not involve any physical laws such as Newton's laws. In this chapter we are concerned primarily with the kinematics of a particle, that is, with the motion of a point. Depending upon the circumstances, we may at times choose to consider the point as being attached to a rigid body and at other times as being the location of an individ ual particle. In any event, we shall be interested in calculating such quantities as the position, velocity, and acceleration vectors of the point. In discussing the motion of a point, one must specify a frame of reference, since the motion will be different, in general, when viewed frOlTI different reference frames. We saw in Sec. 12 that Newton's laws of motion apply in a particular set of reference frames known as inertial frames. These frames, nonrotating but translating uniformly relative to one another, thus constitute a special or preferred set in writing the dynamical equations of a particle. From the viewpoint of kinematics, however, there are no preferred frames of reference since physical laws are not involved in the derivation of kinematical equations. Thus, in the strict sense, all motion is considered to be relative and no reference frame is more fundamental or absolute than another. Nevertheless, we shall at times refer to absolute motions because of the dynamical background, or for ease in exposition.
21. POSITION, VELOCITY, AND ACCELERATION OF A POINT
The position of a point P relativ~ to the X YZ reference frame (Fig. 21) is given by the vector r drawn from the origin 0 to P. If the point P moves on a curve C, then the velocity v is in the direction of the tangent to the curve at that point and has a magnitUde equal to the speed 1 with which it moves along the curve.
lSpeed is a scalar quantity. and is equal to the magnitude of the velocity. Sometimes the term velocity is used loosely in the same sense, the meaning generally being clear from the context.
29
30
KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE
CHAP: 2
z
z
~y
~~y
X
X
Fig. 21. Position and velocity vectors of a particle P as it moves along curve
Fig. 22. The hodograph showing velocity and acceleration vectors.
c.
Considering the velocity v as a free vector, we can imagine that it is drawn with its origin at the origin of the coordinate system at each instant of time, as shown in Fig. 22. The path C' of the tip of the velocity vector v is then known as the hodograph. Now, in general, the velocity of the tip of a vector drawn from the origin in a given coordinate system is simply the time derivative of the vector in that system. So the velocity of the tip of the vector v along the hodograph is the acceleration a of point P relative to the XYZ system. Hence we summarize by stating that the velocity of point Pis
v ==dt
!i
II
dr
(21)
i:
and the corresponding acceleration is
dv d2r a == dt == dt2
I,'
(22)
\.,
!.,
Note that a knowledge of the path C does not determine the motion unless the speed along the path is known at all times. Similarly, a knowledge of C' does not determine the motion unless one knows the starting point in space as well as the rate of travel along the hodograph at all times. If both C; and C' are known and are compatible, then the motion is nearly always' determined, an exception being the case of rectilinear motion at a varying speed. We always assume that C is continuous, corresponding to a finite velocity of the point.
SEC. 22
KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE
31
22. ANGULAR VELOCITY
In studying the kinematics of a particle, we are primarily concerned with the translation of a point relative to a given reference fra me, that is, with the position vector of the point and with its derivatives with respect to time. On the other hand, the general motion of a rigid body involves changes of orientation as well as changes of location. It is the rate of change of orientation that is expressed by means of the angular velocity vector. Consider the motion of the rigid body shown in Fig. 23 during the infinitesimal interval ~t. Anticipating the results of Chasles' theorem (Sec. 78), we note thaLJhe_jnfinitesimaL__displacement . during_this ...,intery.aL_can. l:?_e.~Qnsid.ered ... as_a.__tr_q.n~latjQggLQi~I?lg.£~m~nt.A..s_.Q{_.alLI?ojJ!!~_in_J.b~b_Qdy :r!!!~__ ~_IQt~Ji.Q!H!.L_displacement. . ~(J_~ab.o.ut .... an . ,.axis_thr.o_ugh__ th.e..11(JS.g. _.J2..Qjl1L. .cl~. . _fj~.~~.. j!1.!he... _bQdy. The order of performing the translation and rotation is ilTIlTIaterial, but Fig. 23 shows the case where the translation occurs first. Thus a typical point P moves to pI and the base point A n10ves to A', each undergoing the same displacement ~s. Then the infinitesimal rotation ~(J occurs, moving pI to P" while A' does not move since it is on the axis of rotation. The infinitesimal angular displacement ~(J is a vector whose magnitude
z
J~r~~y
/
x
Fig. 23" Infinitesimal displacement of a rigid body.
32
KINEMATICS OFA PARTICLE
CHAP. 2 ~
is equal to the angle of rotation and whose direction is along an axis determined by those points not displaced by the infinitesimal rotation. The sense. is in accordance with the righthand rule. We define the angular velocity Q) as follows:
(jJ
== 1· m I /lfJ
At.O
Ilt
(23)
Now, if we should analY~~tih~__s_ame_infinitesimal.dis.ple.£~~t_Qf..Jhe.· bo..Q.y__bJJt_choo.se_.a..differentbase, ..point, ...only.Jhe~.translatioll.aLApart. . of .the motion would lt~t.c.hanged;. the rotational displacementwo'JJld be. identical.. tJ:iuswe~a;;~e~ that the angul~r velocity is a property of the b~y ~~;"~>';h~i~ and is not dependent upon the choice of a base point. Therefore the angular velocity Q) is a free, vector. N ote 1hat...measurements"of~the..angular~yelQcitY. . Qf"~...Q.Qgy~~,~yj~w.~~Lfr.QllL different ............reference frcgne~Hl,J..rL~g~11~IJ!1",,.J?Ig9!l~e. different results. There_,..".......,.. .__ .... .... .. "' ........
~~ ~ ~"" ~~t._..,~="t. ~""""':~"'''"'::'''~''''e.:.....~"l.""",,~.!:vt.o'''''~,:j:''''''''~'''''':;''''''''\''' .. ,.,

fO~Jy.helLKiyjng.Jh.~.~~ngylg.Lyelo~ily',_th~tx~f.t:!renG~_,Jnlm~Ls.houlcLbe_slat.~.Q Qf_ cl~llrly_irrn~li~~l., An inertial frame is usually assumed if no statement is
made to the contrary. Also, recall again that angular velocity refers to the motion of a rigid body, or, in essence, to the motion of three rigidly connected points that are not collinear. The term has no unique meaning for the motion of a point or a vector (or a straight line) in threedimensional space. Finally, the angular velocity vector wil~ u~u~J1Y__flH!J1g~.~J2Qlh.jts. ~itu.d.e.Jl.nd_..dir.es;Ji.QJ1.J;_Qntinuo.u_sJY._~Jth.J.i.me.:.Qnly. in ...~Q.~_._~LmQl~L.cases .~. is the motion ..confined to.. ,...... ........ .. ,', about__an_. .axis fixed in'.. space or in the body . rotation '.....  .......,.. . ..._. . . . . _____•__ '... ... ....... ,.
..~.. ~.···.··'~··r···. "~~.~ ~"
z
23. RIGID BODY MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT
As ~~....h~y..~_ s~~.!.'! ,.__!h~._LQ ta tiQI1~J motion relative to a given ~y.~Jem
_ _ ..• _ _ ._0, .• ' .... ," .• " • •
< • • • • • • ' . "
doe~"~·~tdenen(ruQ·on"the·ch~ice.of r ...... _ _...,. "'..... . . . . . . _ ....,...... .....
!he..E_as~_.E.~int. So, in order to concentrate upon the rotational aspects of the motion, (L~s_u.ro~_t!l.'!.tJbebase noint of the rigid body is fixed at the
~.~ •• ...
~"
................ , _ ... _ ..
po~.................
0 ....... , ....  . _ _ . . . . . .,..
. , , . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . _ ..... .., ...  . • . • • • . • .
~ •• ~.,
••
QI!.gi.o~Q_QfJhe.cartes.ian"system.X.yZ,
y
X
Fig. 24. Rigid body rotation about a fixed point.
i.'
as shown in Fig. 24. Let us calculate the velocity v relative to the X YZ system of a point P that is fixed in the bod y. If the X YZ system is fixed in inertial space, then v is the absolute velocity of point P and Q) is the absolute angular velocity of the body.
SEC.
23
KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE
33
In general, the rotation at any instant is taking place about an axis passing through the fixed base point. This axis is known as the instantaneous axis of rotation. Consider first the case where the rotation takes place about an axis that is fixed in the XYZ system. Then lIJ has a fixed direction and the path of point P is a circle of radius r sin e, as can be seen from Fig. 24. The speed with which point P moves along the circle is
S == ror sin
e
(24)
where s is the displacement of P along its path, ro is the magnitude of (J), r is the constant length of the position vector drawn from 0 to P, and () is the angle between (J) and r. The velocity of P is of magnitude s and is directed along the tangent to the path. Thus we can write
v==(J)Xr
(25)
~s
In the general case where co and e may vary with time, the displacement of point P during the infinitesimal interval fl.t is
~s ==
ror
~t
sin e
(26)
where higherorder terms have been neglected. It is assumed that ~ro and b..e approach zero as the interval ~t approaches zero, implying that m is finite. Of course, ~r is zero, since point P and the base point 0 are fixed in the body. Dividing Eq. (26) by ~t and letting ~s and fl.t approach zero, we again obtain Eq. (24). Furthermore, the direction of v is again normal to (J) and r. Hence we see that Eq. (25) is valid for the general case of rigidbody rotation about a fixed point. Differentiating Eq. (25) with respect to time, we obtain an expression for the acceleration a of point P.
or, noting that t is the velocity v and using Eq. (25),
a ==
(J)
X
«(J)
X r)
+ mX r
(27)
I
where, of course, all vectors are measured relative to the X YZ system. It can be seen that the term (J) X (lIJ X r) in Eq. (27) is a vector that is directed radially inward from point P toward the instantaneous axis of rotation and perpendicular to it. It is called the centripetal acceleration. The term mX r is often called the tangential acceleration. Note, however, that the socalled tangential acceleration is in a direction tangent to the path of P only if OJ is parallel to the'plane of (J) and r. This would occur, for example, if (J) retains a constant direction and changes in magnitude only.
"j" "
34
KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE
CHAP.
2
24. TIME DERIVATIVE OF A UNIT VECTOR We have obtained the ,derivative with respect to time of the position vector r of a point P in a rigid body that is rotating about a fixed point o (Fig. 24). A similar situation exists in the calculation of the rates of change of unit vectors. As was the case with the position vector to point P, the unit vectors are each of constant length. Furthermore, we have seen that the time derivative of a vector can be interpreted as the velocity of the tip of the vector when the other end is fixed. So let us calculate the velocities of the unit vectors C 1 , C 2 , and C g drawn from the origin of the fixed system XYZ and rotatingtogether as a rigid body with an absolute angular velocity (J) (Fig. 25). From Eq. (25), we see that the velocities of the tips of the unit vectors, that is, their time derivatives, z are
e= e =
2
3
(J) Q)
X C2 X C3
(28)
JIIi:: Y
x
Fig. 25. The rotation of a vector triad.
unit
For the case where C 1, C2 , and C g form an orthogonal 'set of unit vectors, that is, C 1 X C 2 = C 3 , and so on, we can perform the vector multiplications using the determinant expression of Eq. (127). Writing the angular velocity (J) in the form"""
(J)
=
(01 C 1
+
e3
(02C2
+
(OgC g
(29)
we obtain
C1 C2
CO2
3
e1 =
Similarly,
(01
e
~3
j=
=
003
e2

002
(210)
1
C1
0
C2 CO2 Cg (Og (OlCg (OgC!
e2 =
and
(01
(211)
0
C1
1
C2
lO2
0
Cg
lOa
eg =
(01
=
lO2CI 
lOl C 2
(212)
0
0
1
and e3 == k. we find that the velocity of point P relative to the xyz system is given by v == t == xi + Yi + ik (216) i . we obtain from Eqs. the acceleration of the particle relative to a fixed coordinate system and the acceleration relative to a moving coordinate system would. On the other hand.ferred to a certain system means that the vector is expressed in terms of the unit vectors of that system. the term re. VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION OF A PARTICLE IN SEVERAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS Cartesian Coordinates.OOxi I t can be seen that. e 2 == j. For example. we can make the substitutions e l == i. In either event. \r 25. (210). we are considering the same vector but are merely expressing the result in two different forms. j.i + G>zk (213) where OO x . . roy. [ ! I. respectively. and OO z are the components of (J) in the directions of i. and (211) that i == j == (J) (J) (J) X i X j X k == OOzj  oo ll k . in general. j. in accordance with the definition of a cross product. be quite different vectors. j. The terms relative to or with respect to a given systeln mean as viewed by an observer fixed in that system and moving with it. and k. 25 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 35 In the particular case where we consider a rotating triad of cartesian unit vectors i. Noting that (J) == G>xi + G>y. and k. (29). the time derivative of a unit veQtor lies in a plane perpendicular to the vector. the terminology should be made clear. and Z axes). Y. and k are unit vectors fixed in the xyz system. OOxk .G>zi (214) k == == OO1Ji . the absolute acceleration of a certain particle can be given in terms of the unit vectors of a fixed or of a moving coordinate system. Suppose that the position of a particle P relative to the origin 0 of the cartesian system xyz is given by the vector (Fig. Since this approach will be used extensively in our later work. in each case.SEC. (28). On the other hand. Differentiating Eq. (215) with respect to time. Observe that in each case we have calculated the rate of change of a unit vector with respect to a fixed coordinate system but have expressed the result in terms of the unit vectors of the moving system. 26) r == xi + yj + zk (215) wherei. (not along the X.
we obtain the velocity by . are due solely to changes in cp. !I I'. Similarly. we find that the acceleration of P relative t6 the xyz system is a == xi + yj + zk (217) For the common case where the cartesian system is assumed to be fixed in an inertial frame. 26. and z. </>' and z. Further.' z z ez p p t:e~ e. the changes in the directions of C r and eq.differentiating Eq.. In this case. corresponding to rotations about the z axis. 1>. (216) with respect to time. and k are all zero since they are fixed in the given cartesian system. I. It can be seen that er and eq.of point P relative to the xyz system shown in Fig. change their directions in space as P moves through a general displacement.1: . coordinates and Fig. Cylindrical coordinates and unit vectors.36 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. the preceding expressions refer to the absolute velocity and acceleration. y . the position vector of Pis " I . As before. Cartesian unit vectors. (218) Note that the 'unit vectors en eq)) and ez form a mutually orthogonal triad whose directions are given by the directions in which P moves for small increases in r. 27 is expressed in terms of the cylindrical coordinates r. 27. Thus the absolute rotation .Jj I z y z x Fig. 2 . finding the derivative of r with 'respect to time: (219) i':i I' . but e z is always parallel to the z axis. where we note that the time derivatives of the unit vectors i. respectively. Cylindrical Coordinates. j. Now consider the case where the position .
28).. The position vector of the point P in terms of spherical coordinates and the corresponding unit vectors is simply r == re r (224) since.SEC. I . in accordance with Eq. 28 .. (28). (221) to yield + (r¢ + 2f¢)e1> + ze z (223) SpJzerical Coordinates.. Since e1> and ez are perpendicular. 2. (219) and (221). it) this case. we find that e r == e1> == 0) 0) 0) X e r == ¢e1> X e1> == ¢e r X (221) ez == v e z == 0 (222) So from Eqs. (224) with respect to time.e z J. the unit vector er is defined to be in the direction of the position vector r (Fig.0 (22@) and. it is relatively easy to express ez in terms of the remaining unit vectors: x Fig. we obtain the velocity I (225) In order to ev~luate en eo'. and e1>' we note first that changes in the directions of the unit vectors can arise because Qf changes in () or 1>: An increase in () rotates the unit vector triad about an ~xis having the direction e1>. Differentiating Eq. whereas an increase in 1> corresponds to a rotation about the z axis.. 25 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 37 rate of the unit vector triad is 0) P( == . we obtain == fer + r¢e1> + ie:: Another differentiation with respect to time results in the acceleration a == r == re r + (feb + r¢)e1> + ze z + fer + r¢e1> + ie z a == (r . sinlplified with the aid of Eq. Thus the total rotation rate of the unit vector triad is 0) z Y == Be1> + cfoe z (226) where ez is a unit vector in the direction of the positive z axis. Sphericiil coordi~tes and unit vectors.rcfo2)e r which can be.
the velocity of point P is v = rer a = + rOco + r¢ sin f) e4> In order to find the acceleration of P. 29. (226) and (227). The velocity and acceleration of a point P as it moves on a curved path in space may be expressed in terms of tangential and normal components. so we can use the determinant method of evaluating the cross products involved in obtaining en eo.gonal. ds v = dr = s dr = set dt (2. = cos f) e. we differentiate again.:!" Ii where et is a unit vector that is tangent to the path at P and points in the direction of increasing s. 2.sin f) Co (227) (228) Therefore. The velocity of P is · .r¢2 sin 2 0) e r + (re + 2fO . Let us assume that the position of P is specified by its distance s along the curve from a given reference point. the corresponding change in the position vector r is dr = dset or dr et = ds (234) I I' 'I.¢ sin () 1 () (229) ( o o and. from Eqs.35) . .r¢2 sin 0 cos + (r¢ sin f) + 2r¢ sin f) + 2rO¢ cos f)) e4> f)) eo (233) Tangential and Normal Components. as P moves an infinitesimal distance ds along the curve.38 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE Cz CHAP. al1:d c4> are mutually ortho. From Fig. it can be seen that. obtaining v = rer + (rO + re) Co + (r¢ sin (j + r1> sin f) + rf)¢ cos ()) (p + rer + riJeo + r¢ si n () e4> (232) Substituting Eq. and c4>. the result is a = (r . we obtain (J) = ¢ cos 0 Cr  ¢ sin () Co + f) e4> The unit vectors Cn Co. From Eqs. from Eqs.r0 2 . (225) and (230). we have Cr eo e4> \ er = (I) X er = ¢ cos (j . using a similar procedure to evaluate eo and e4>' we can summarize as follows: eo \ = Ocr + ¢ cos 0 c4> \ (230) e4> =  ¢ sin () Cr  ¢ cos f) Co (231) Finally. (230) into (232) and collecting terms. (28) and (228).
that point. s (240) . 25 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 39 To find the acceleration of P. the position of the center of curvature changes. any Inotion of et Inust binormal unit vectors for a curve in take place in the osculating plane at space. since the y magnitude of et is constant. The angular rate (i)b can be expressed in terms of the radius of curvature p and the speed s of the point P as it moves alorig the curve.SEC. Of course. we differentiate Eq. From Eqs. in general. a == set s + p '2 en (241' . The plane of et and en at any x point P is called the osculating plane. The direction of the derivative det/ds is normal to et.en p and. in general. rob == p s (239) Note that the vector pen gives the position of the center of curvature C relative to P. norn1al. and Therefore. substituting this expression into Eq.. Tangential. and hence the vector et lies in this plane and points in the ell direction. Fig. we note that. as P moves along the curve. Its magnitude is equal to its rotation rate (i)b about an axis perpendicular to the osculating plane. we have . (237) and (239). This is known as the normal direction at P and is designated by the unit vector en. Thus (237) where rob is the rotation rate of et about an axis in the binonnal direction ebo The binormal unit vector eb is perpendicular to the osculating plane and is given by (238) thus completing the orthogonal triad of unit vectors at P. et changes direction continuously with increasing s. (235) with respect to time. we obtain et == . (236). 29. obtaining z (236) Before evaluating et explicitly.
Consider the motion of a point P in a circular path of radius a (Fig. Any normal component of OJ would result in a binormal component of Ct.40 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. Of course. the coordinate r is the scalar constant a. Circular motion of a point. we have (245) and (246) Using the notation that ~'+ x 00=8 IS v (247) we find that the speed along the path = aO = a(i) (248) Fig. From Eqs. y ' In this case. 0) and the corresponding unit vectors. Thus. (i)t is equal in magnitude to eb and is a function of $ and deb/ds. or . we find that Ct = en OJ X et = OJ X en OJ X eb (f)ben (f)bet (i)ten = cb = = =  + (i)t eb (243) We have seen that (i)b is equal in magnitude to Ct and is a function of the speed $ and the radius of curvature p. (f)t does not influence Ct. 210) in the fixed xy plane. (244) where the magnitude of deb/ds is called the torsion of the curve. 2 The acceleration component s is the tangential acceleration and the component $2/ P is the normal or centripetal acceleration. It can be seen that (j)tis also the rotation rate of the osculating plane. 210. The time derivatives of the unit vectors can also be obtained in terms of the angular rotation rate OJ of the unit vector triad. SIMPLE MOTIONS OF A POINT Circular Motion. (28) and (242). The motion will be described in terms of the polar coordin~tes (r. in conflict with the original assumption. 26. We have (242) Note that the normal component of OJ is zero. Similarly. This can be explained by the fact that en was defined to lie in the dIrection of Ct. Thus.
(249) with respect to (251) (252) we obtain a·== .aro 2 er + arocq. we obtain i ta~1 k z == ka!fJ (255) z == ka¢ == karo (257) and.aro 2 er + awee .J) e ('} (250) IS obtained by differentiating Eq...en P == a. + vee • (253) An alternate form is obtained by substituting for w from Eq. G . Helical Motion. since The acceleration time: or. . (248). en == .:: '. v2 a er (254) The first term on the right represents the centripetal acceleration. (222). 211). where k is the tangent of the helix angle and a is constant (Fig.. Note that the same result is obtained by using the tangential and normal unit vectors of Eq. a.SEC. from Eqs. 26 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 41 (249) I in agreement with Eq. / . we find that the velocity is v .UJ. noting that ~' . and (257). ~. + karoc z (259) x For the case where the point P Fig.. (246). (223). the second term is the tangential acceleration. (256). e. t == aweq. obtaining a == . (f41) where et == eo.. 211. Now let (256) Differentiating the expression for z in Eq. (255). + karoe z (258) ~~y The acceleration is found by a similar evaluation of Eq. Next consider the velocity and acceleration of a particle moving along a helix which is given in terms of cylindrical coordinates by r == a. yielding a == . Helical motion of a point. and s == v.{ 0 ev~ (" .
and x == A cos rot (264) Motion wherein the position oscillates sinusoidally with time is known as simple harmonic motion (Fig. So we can write the differential equation (262) where (02 is a constant. (141) or Eq. in general. If. however. the. Harmonic Motion. In this case. (241). But we' have assumed that the applied force is proportional to x and is directed toward the origin. we recall that the acceleration of the particle P is proportional to the applied force. A common type of particle motion is that in which the particle is attracted toward a fixed point by a force that is directly proportional to the distance of the particle from the point. then a == 0. angular acceleration cO' is zero and only the radial acceleration remains. the locus of the centers of curvature is a helix with the same radius and helix angle. (143). This motion is periodic with a period T== 27t (0 (265) . the radius of curvature is p == 2a and the center of curvature is diametrically opposite P on the surface of the cylinder r == a. 212). Consider first the onedimensional case in which the motion takes place along the x axis of a fixed cartesian system because of an attracting center at x == O. 2 moves at uniform speed along the helix. The solution can be written in the form x == A cos (rot + a) (263) where. we choose to measure time from the instant when the particle is at the positive extreme of its motion. (259) to the normal or centripetal acceleration previously found in Eq. ' The radius of curvature at a point on the helix can be calculated by equating the magnitude of the radial acceleration found in Eq. the constants A and a are evaluated from the values of x and x at t == O. Noting that the speed is (260) we find that S2 == a 2 ro 2 (1 + k 2 ) == aro 2 p p from which we obtain (261) For example.·42 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. if the helix angle is 45°. From Newton's law of motion as given by Eq.
26 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 43 .Aro sin rot i . Differentiating Eq. we see that the velocity is v a == t == . Using vector notation.. (264) that 2The term frequency refers to the number of cycles per unit time..Bro sin (rot + . we find that the position of P is r == xi + yj == A cos rot i + B cos (rot + . x ==  A ro 2 cos rot == Aro 2 cos (rot + 7t) (267) It can be seen that each differentiation with respect to time results in a sinusoidal oscillation of the same frequency. x rr+i I I ~~+~~~~f x == . (264). since the time reference was chosen such that a == 0 in Eq.. and vice versa. we obtain expressions for the velocity and acceleration. generally use the circular frequency (i) rather than f and often shall refer to as the frequency. but the amplitude is multiplied by ro and the phase angle is advanced by 7t /2 radians. Simple harmonic motion. The solution of this differential equation can be written in the form y == B cos (rot + {3) (269) where the angle {3 is not zero. Suppose the particle P moves in the x direction in accordance with Eq . 212. as discussed previously. 2 Differentiating Eq. Thus the extreme values of the displacement and acceleration occur at the moment when the velocity is zero. (270) with respect to time.ro 2 y (268) where the value of ro is assumed to be the same as for the x motion. we shall. Now consider the case of twodimensional harmonic motion.Aro 2 cos rot i .Bro 2 cos (rot + {3) j The path of the particle P in the xy plane may also be found by first noting from Eq. " where ro is usually measured in radians per second and is known as the circular frequency. for convenience.Aro sin rot = Aco cos ( cot + ~) and (266) Fig. But it also moves independently in the y direction according to the following equation: Y == .8) j (270) where i and j are the usual cartesian unit vectors. in general.8) j (271) (272) and the acceleration is == v == . or Tl.SEC. Ct) . Thus (i) = 27tf In this book. (262). (263).
we obtain (sintS)2 G: + ~:  2 ~ ~ costS) = 1 (275) which is the equation of an ellipse (Fig. (275) reduces to X2 A2 + B2 y2 _ . Harmonic motion in two dimensions. using Eqs.. we again have simple rectilinear harmonic motion.44 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. Eq. Eq. For example. (276) reduces to X2 + y2 = t6t A2 (278) which is the equation of a circle of radius A. 213). ~\ Fig. On the other hand. the path is inscribed within the dashed rectangle shown in Fig.2 Ayll>l. (273) Then. we see that sin rot = (sin tS) . For the case where fJ = +1(/2 and A = B.~ ~I~~~~r_x I I I I I I I ____________ J '.28 v L~ _ _.\ rr. 213. 1044 I . 2' cos rot = ~.1 (276) indicating that the x and y axes are principal axes in this case. Also.. . if fJ = 0 or 1(. if fJ = + 1(/2. 213. The relative phase angle (3 between these motions is determined from the initial conditions and the value of (3 will influence the shape and sense of the motion along the elliptical path. (273) and (274) and adding. 213. '(275) reduces to A x= +y B (277) and the path is a straight line along a diagonal of the rectangle of Fig.. In this case. We saw that the x and y motions have the same frequency but are independent of each other. In any event.I (~ cos tS  ~) (274) Squaring Eqs. (269) and (273) and the trigonometric identity for cos (rot + (3). however. Eq.
214. 27 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 45 v 2 == X2 + y2 == A2 ro 2(sin 2 rot + cos 2 rot) == A 2ro 2 (279) Thus the particle P moves at uniform speed about a circular path. we calculated the absolute velocity of a point in a rigid body that is rotating about a fixed base point. however. the Inotion is periodic and retraces itself with a period equal to the least common multiple of the periods of the two component vibrations. We shall not. the vectors at the given points are parallel to the plane onto which they are projected. Suppose we define the velocity ry (281) where v and vA are the absolute velocities of the points P and A. Again. In case the motions in the x and y directions are of different frequencies.SEC. . unless the frequency ratio is a rational nUlnber. pursue this topic further. Then VPA is known as the relative velocity of P with respect x Fig . The acceleration is also constant in magnitude and. The velocity and acceleration vectors in the case of elliptical nlotion are found by projecting the corresponding vectors for the case of circular motion. (253). from Eq. For the case of simple harmonic motion. 214 where the base point A has a velocity vA relative to the inertial system XYZ. the two planes are orthogonal and the path reduces to a line. the body is rotating with an angular velocity co relative to this system. Also. 27. 213 but. 23. respectively. the curve does not close. then a different class of curves known as Lissajous figures is generated. Motion of a point in a rigid body. VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION OF A POINT IN A RIGID BODY z In Sec. For the case of rational frequency ratios. is (280) It is interesting to note that elliptical harmonic Inotion can be considered to be the projection of unifonn circular motion onto a plane that is not parallel to the circle. Hence it can be seen that the maxilnum velocity occurs at the ends of the Ininor axis and the maximunl acceleration occurs at the ends of the major axis. the motion relnains within the dashed rectangle of Fig. Now consider the case shown in Fig. In each of these two cases.
of course. we obtain from Eqs. obtaining p == CI) X P (285) which. we obtain from Eq. Proceeding in this fashion. its value would change and so would the value of VP~b in general. the base point A would have no velocity relative to the observer. denoting the acceleration v by aA. (281) and (282). Thus the velocity of point P relative to point A is identical for any nonrotating observer. namely. On the other hand. The velocity difference would. is identical with VPti obtained previously. 23 which apply to the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed point. from Eqs.) So. The velocities of points P and A as viewed by the translating observer would not be the same as in the previous case. Since p is of constant magnitude. be the same as before because the apparent velocities of the points P and A would each change by the same amount. An inertial or a nonrotating frame is assumed if none is stated explicitly. In this case. (283) with respect to time: v == VA + cO X P + CI) X P (284) To evalute p we recall that the time rate of change of a vector is the velocity of the tip of the vector when the origin remains fixed. by the negative of the observer's translational velocity. we can again use Eq. we note that it can also be considered to be the velocity of P as viewed by an observer on a non rotating system that is translating with A. 2 to A as viewed by an observer fixed in the XYZ system. and therefore we could use the results of Sec. we find that the absolute velocity of point P is v == VA + CI) X P (283) The acceleration of P is obtained by differentiating Eq. (25) that Vl'A == CI) X P (282) where p is the position vector of P relative to A and CI) is the absolute angular velocity of the body. (284) and (285) the absolute A acceleration of P. when the motion is viewed from various reference frames in relative rotational motion. in general. (25).46 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP •. a == aA + cO X P+ CI) X (CI) X p) (286) . Finally. Returning now to a consideration of the relative velocity vPA as viewed by a nonrotating observer. Hence a statement of the relative velocity of two points should also specify the reference frame. however. (Here we note that if CI) were measured relative to a rotating system. as we shall demonstrate. it is important to realize that the velocity of P relative to A will be different. Now suppose the observer is translating in an arbitrary fashion but is not rotating relative to X YZ.
+ A2e 2 + A 3 e3 == (J) X (AIel + A 2 e2 + A 3 e 3 ) == (J)X A (289) Therefore. 215) and also by another observer on a rotating system. written in terms of the unit vectors of the rotating system. and e 3 which is rotating with an angular velocity (J) relative to X YZ. (288). (287). The vector A relative to ordinate systems would provide a fixed and rotating reference frames. as viewed by an observer in the rotating system. since vector multiplication is distributive.+ 2 2 3 3 AIel + A 2 e2 + A 3 e3 (287) But the rate of change of A. (28). On the other hand. we find that the ab . (288) since the unit vectors are fixed in this system. 215. in general. is A == IS AIel + A e + A e . from Eqs. To clarify this point. check of one observation with the other. we see that AIel AIel + A 2 e2 + A 3 e3 == AI(J) X e l + A 2 (J) X e 2 + A 3 (J) X e3 or. The rotating systelTI is designated by the unit vector triad e 1 . recall from Eq. they would be viewing the same vector and a simple x coordinate conversion based upon the relative orientation of the coFig. as each observer views the vector A. Using Eq.y own system. not agree. Since A is considerz ed to be a free vector during the differentiation process. Nevertheless. even after performing the coordinate conversion used previously. e 2 .p::. Thus each observer would give a different set of components. Now let us consider the last three terms on the right side of Eq. the results would. if each observer were to calculate the time rate of change of A.SEC. Now. and (289). he might choose to express it in terms of the unit vectors of his . VECTOR DERIVATIVES IN ROTATING SYSTEMS Suppose that a vector A is viewed by an observer on a fixed system X YZ (Fig. no generality is lost by taking the point 0 as the common origin of the unit vector triad and also the vector A. (287). (138) that the absolute rate of change of A. 28 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 47 28.
where' W BA is the rotation rate of system B as viewed from system A. A turntable rotates with a constant angular velocity W about a perpendicular axis through o (Fig. v = t '= (t)r + lI) X r (293) But the velocity seen by an observer rotating with the turntable is just . Although we have referred to the coordinate systems in the preceding discussion as fixed or rotating. (..(. (290) was based upon mathematics rather than upon physical law. Since the result must be symmetrical with respect to the two systems.' 2 . 216). It is important to note that A can be any vector whatever. a more complicated situation would arise if. (290) has a wide application and should be studied carefully..~ c. Motion of a point that is moving on a turntable. . KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.:J J A = (A)r + W X A . Using Eq.48 .=U\ : (d?\ . On the other hand.b\ 5 L J( l 'dt j b· ~' (290) where (A)r is the rate of change of A as viewed from the rotating system and W is the absolute angular velocity of the rotating system. we see that the absolute velocity v is given by ·+x Fig. Thus Eq. (290). Solve for the absolute velocity and acceleration of P in terms of its motion relative to the turntable. If we call them system A and system B. as viewed from a third system that is rotating separately. A were the velocity of P relative to another point P'. we can write (291) . the derivation of Eq. 216. Therefore we need not consider either system as being more fundamental than the other.solute rate of change of A can be expressed in terms of its value relative to a rotating system as follows: . W AIJ = WllA and that A is the same when viewed from Example 21. for example. respectively. we could also write (292) where we note that either system. (290) would occur for the case where A is the position vector of a given point P relative to the common origin 0 of the fixed and rotating systems. A relatively simple application of Eq. The position of a point y P which is moving relative to the turntable is given by r=xi+yj where the unit vectors i and j are fixed in the turntable.
In Fig. Next. MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN A MOVING COORDINATE SYSTEM . and (297) we obtain that the absolute acceleration is a == (x . it is the time rate of change of the absolute velocity vector as viewed from the rotating system. (V)r == (x . both relative to point 0 in the fixed XYZ system. (294). To find the acceleration. Now we shall use the general result of Eq.yro)i + yru x j == . Suppose that r is the position vector of P and R is the position vector of 0'. ru x r == xru x i Therefore. the subscript after a differentiated (dotted) vector refers to the coordinate system from which the rate of change is viewed. assuming that the unit vectors are constant since they are viewed from the rotating systenl. giving ru X v == ro(y + xro)i + ro(x . a nonrotating reference frame is assumed.yro 2 + 2rox)j (298) 29. (294) with respect to time. Rather. the X YZ system is fixed in an inertial frame and the xyz system translates and rotates relative to it. from Eqs. (296). 217. v == (x . we again apply Eq. If the subscript is omitted. using the result given in Eq.Xro 2  2roy)i + (jj . the term ru X v is evaluated in a straightforward fashion.SEC. a == v == (v)r + ru X v (295) The term (v)r is found by differentiating Eq.yro)i + tv + xro)j (296) Note that (v)r is not the acceleration of P relative to the rotating system. (290) to obtain the equations for the absolute velocity and acceleration of a particle P that is in motion relative to a moving coordinate system. Then r == R +P (299) . this time to the absolute velocity vector.yro)j (297) Finally.. (295).yroi + Xro j (294) + (P + xro)j where we note that the absolute velocity v is expressed in terms of the unit vectors of the rotating systelll. In genera]. 29 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 49 Also. (290).
(290). The remaining term (P)r is the velocity of P relati. In other words. whether it be P' or 0'. It lSlrlteresting to note that (P)r can also be interpreted as the velocity of P relative to P'. is the same when viewed by an observer moving with the system. as view~d by an observer rotating with the xyz system. whether viewed from a rotating or nonrotating system. that is. The position vectors of a point P relative to a fixed system and a moving system.~Q!.50 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. using Eq. 2 z p. We see that Ii is the absolute velocity of 0' and that (j) X P is the velocity of P' relative to 0' as viewed by a nonrotating observer. Then from Eqs. w ~y X Fig. we obtain the absolute velocity v == t == R + P (2100) where both derivatives on the right are calculated from the viewpoint of a fixed observer. At the moment in question. the velocity of P relative to any point fixed in the xyz system. from Eq. let us define the point P' to be coincident with P at the time of observation but fixed in the xyz system. . as viewed by a nonrotating observer. Differentiating with respect to time. (290). the velocity of P relative to P' is the same.~__~o. P == (P)r + (I) X P (2101) where (I) is the absolute rotation rate of the xyz system. 217. where p is the position vector of P relative to 0'. p' . jl' = {P')r. (2102). of course. (2100) and (2101) we obtain v == Ii + (P)r + (I) X P (2102) In order to explain further the meaning of the terms on the right side of Eq.y. 3 Therefore the three terms on the right side of 3This result can be seen more clearly if we let p' be a vector drawn from P' to P. Thus Ii + (I) X P represents the absolute velocity of P'. Next we express p in terms of its value relative to the rotating xyz system. and therefore. at this pa rticular moment. Also. p' = 0. .
as viewed by a nonrotating observer.<?!l _ _ . as viewed by an observer moving with the xyz system. (2103). (2104) and (2105). Thus. /" L~ote alsQJ. [(.whereas thelast two terms give the a9celeration of P relative _!2. we obtain an expression for the absolute acceleration o~ P. (2105) represents the rate of change of the velocity (I) X P due to'a changing magnitude or direction of the position vector p relative to the moving system._Jh~. R is the absolute acceleration of 0'. 29 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 51 Eq. whereas the term (I) X «(I) X p) represents a centripetal acceleration "'since it is directed from P toward.cele. we obtain . (2. and (2105). d.. (27). a == R + OJ X P + m X (m X p) + (p)r + 2w X (P)r (2106) I i ' Now let us explain the nature of each of the terms.SEC. the axis of rotation through 0'. the velocity of P relative to P'. respectively.ofE.h(!tJbJ~_JastJ~o t~rms of Eq. The terms OJ X P and (I) X «(I) X p) together represent the acceleration of P' relative to 0'. The term in Eq. The term OJ X P is similar in nature to the tangential acceleration of Eq. _/ .9?) represent the aC~~!~!. the velocity of 0' relative to 0. (290). adding Eqs.o)r is known as the CarioUs acceleration.~.of change of each of the terms in Eq. (R) dt d· == R . all as viewed by an absolute or nonrotating observer.JlQ.T_huswecansummarize by saying that the fir~!JhIe~_terl}1Sgive the acceleration of P' . as viewed by a fixed observer. (2106) represent the absolute acceleration of P'. (2104). The fourth term (P)r is the acceleration of the point P relative to the xyz system. as viewe<LbY~~~__ n9nr9t~_ti. (2103) Using Eq. Thus the first three terms of Eq.!?serY~r. (2102). and the velocity of P' relative to 0'.~!!. __ sum. Eqs. of course~l~iIlKL1}_the absQlute ac. To obtain the absolute acceleration of P. we find the rate. of P relative to P'. Note that the Coriolis acceleration arises from two sources._ . (2102) are. The fifth term 2(1) X (. . and perpendicular to.t Also. that is..'J.U _ . (2104) is due to the changing direction in space of the velocity of P relative to the moving system..O)T) = (P)T + (l) X (P)T (2104) d dt ((I) X P) . namely. The term in Eq.J. X p == w +w +w X · p == OJ X P X (P)r + (2105) W X (w X p) Finally. using Eq. (2101).e_:_.Dg_Q.
then. (I) is the absolute angular velocity of the body. whose velocity is instantaneously zero. and p is the position vector of P relative to A. If a particle moves so that it remains in a single fixed plane. must be perpendicular to the plane of the motion. a different velocity. we see from Eq. each of which is drawn from some point in the lamina in a direction perpendicular to its velocity vector. Instantaneous Center. we recall that a differFig. it can be seen that VA (2108) == == (I) X PA. Furthermore.rotating at that moment. is known as the instan . Similarly. 2 210. if V and (I) are known. the motion of a lamina in its own plane (Fig. if it exists. So if we can find a base point location C whose velocity is zero.52 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. Similarly. In the latter case. the kinematical aspects of the motion are adequately described in terms of a lamina chosen such that its motion is confined to its own plane. The motion of a lamina in ent base point will. 218. VB (I) X Thus one concludes that the instantaneous center C is located at the intersection of two or more lines. have its own plane. Thus the line CP must be perpendicular to V and of length pp such that v == ropp Hence. the point C can be determined. in general. and about which the lamina appears to be. The point C. the angular velocity vector (I). (283) that V == (I) X pp (2107) where pp is the position vector of P relative to C. 218). PLANE MOTION . In Eq. (283). pn (2109) (2110) or. Let us consider. for another point B in the lamina. it is said to move with plane motion. For plane motion. plane motion of a rigid body requires that all points of the body move parallel to the same fixed plane. we found that the velocity of a point P in a rigid body is given by v == VA + (I) X P where VA is the velocity of the base point A.
provided that the motion is not that of pure translation (00 == 0). A and P for example. it should be noted that only certain velocity distributions are possible. Similarly. the rigidbody assumption requires that the velocities at all points on any given straight line in the lamina must have equal components along the line. (2111) Space and Body Centrodes. the instantaneous center does not retain the same position.suppose that. the space centrode Sand the body centro de B corresponding to a given motion are as shown in Fig. . 219.we note Fig. So if we choose any two points of the lamina.SEC. and therefore the instantaneous center is not particularly useful in performing acceleration calculations. Both curves are in the same plane. It should be emphasized. The instantaneous center is at a unique point for any given instant in time. In fact. but neither curve need be closed. Now . the velocity at each point being tangent to the locus.zero. In particular. at a given B moment. Also. the locus of the instantaneous centers relative to the moving lamina is known as the body centrode. 210 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 53 taneous center of the rotation. either in space or in the lamina. In the latter case. (2110) we see that the locus of all points having a given speed v n is a circle centered at C and with a radius pJJ == v 13/ 00. We have seen that the angular velocity (J) is perpendicular to the lamina and is not a function of position. The locus of the instantaneous centers forms a curve in space known as the space centrode. the instantaneous center is located at an infinite distance from the point in a direction perpendicular to the velocity. It may be located in the lamina or in an imaginary extension of it. In considering the velocity of various points in the lamina. that the acceleration of the instantaneous center is not necessarily . thereby providing a convenient means of calculating velocities for the case of plane lTIotion. instantaneous 5 center is a point common to both curves at this moment. The space centrode Sand that curve S is fixed in space and the body centro de B. Hence the _angular velocity of any line in the lamina is equal to the angular velocity of the lamina. however. of course. 219.r The . Furthermore. In general. from Eq. Using vector notation. Thus the velocity distribution has a circular symmetry about the instantaneous center. the angular velocity is found by taking the difference of the velocity components at A and P perpendicular to AP and dividing by the distance AP. a knowledge of the angular velocity and the location of theinstantaneous center is sufficient to determine the velocity of any point in the lamina.
Now let us take a more general view of the instantaneous center. 2  curve B is rotating with angular velocity ~. but when each becomes the instantaneous center of rotation. the instantaneous center relative to any two laminas A and B in plane motion is that point C which is instantaneously at rest. To avoid confusion. 220). Perhaps a source of confusion can be avoided if we emphasize again that. its velocity is zero at that instant. A further condition for rolling motion is that equal path lengths are traced by point C in curves Band S in any given time interval. (2107) to calculate the velocity of any point on the wheel. As an example of plane motion. then there is. Its magnitude is I j l ) . in general. The space centrode is the straight line on which the wheel is rolling. the curves Band S are tangent at C but ha've different curvatures at this. Assume that the wheel has a uniform angular velocity roo In this case.54 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. however. slipping would result and pure rolling motion would not occur. the point known as the instantaneous center has zero velocity. If more than two laminas are in plane motion. So if we consider a lamina A moving with plane motion and lamina B fixed in space. a separate instantaneous center for each pair. Thus. Hence the body centrode rolls on the space centrode. in a more general sense. But. The velocity of the center 0' is constant since its distance from C is constant and the rotation rate is assumed to be constant. Example 22. If this were not true. We saw in the case of the lamina of Fig. four laminas would have six instantaneous centers. whereas the body centrode is the circumference of the wheel. at a given moment. a succession of points on these curves are called the instantaneous center at succeeding instants of time. the in&tantaneous center is at the point of contact C. consider a wheel of radius a which is rolling along a straight line (Fig. in general. This allows for the instantaneous center C to proceed smoothly along curves Band C because of a finite rotation rate ro of the body centrode. there are no absolute systems from the viewpoint of kinematics.point. then the instantaneous center is fixed in both laminas at that moment. We may speak of the instantaneous center as moving along the curves Band S but. Each point on the space centrode is at rest at all times. 218 that the instantaneous center C is instantaneously fixed both in the lamina and in space. Considering the instantaneous center C at the given moment as a base point whose velocity is instantaneously zero. In general. more accurately. The points on the body centrode are in motion. we can use Eq. Therefore. we shall always assume that the instantaneous center for a given lamina is defined relative to a fixed frame unless a contrary statement is made. as we emphasized earlier. as viewed by observers on both A and B. But this is just the condition for rolling motion.
when P is diaFig. . . A bar of length I is constrained to move in the xy plane such that end A remains on the x axis and the other end B remains on the y aXIS._J.. The motion of a bar such that its ends remain on the cartesian axes.is_not zero when it coin~ides 'Y~Jh~. being at all times directed toward 0' for the case of unfform ro. Example 23. find y r~~*~x Fig.p .h~ acceleration Qf.. Pf course.Jn. .fact. At this point. Its speed along its path reaches a maximunl when pp is c a maximum. point of the cycloid.. the acceleration of P is of uniform magnitude Qro 2 . the velocity of P goes to zero when P coincides with C and pp = O.. the speed of a general point P is v = Pl'ro (2113) where pp is the distance froln C to P. The path in space of a point P on the circulnference can be shown to be a cycloid.~ . In tenns of the cycloidal motion. that is.. 210 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 55 v o' = Qro (2112) SiiniIarIy. this occurs when P is at the cusp of the cycloid and instantaneously at rest while reversing the direction of its motion. 220. 221.. A wheel rolling on a metrically opposite C and at the top straight line.. v = 2vol = 2Qro. On the other hand..SEC. . Assuming that the angular velocity roof the bar is constant._.
. at x == I sin f) y == I cos f) (2115) indicating that the space centro de is a circle of radius I since the distance OC is equal to Jx2+ .56 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. we obtain f) == rot (2:114) The instantaneous center of rotation of the bar is at the intersection of lines drawn perpendicular to the velocity vectors at two points on the bar. 2. the line OC makes an angle f) with the positive y axis and. Let the position of the bar be specified by the angle f) between the bar and y axis at B.from Eqs. 221. Therefore. as shown in Fig. Similarly.s around the space centrode at a uniform rate. Thus the instantaneous center C remains at a constant distance 1/2 from the midpoint of the rod but changes its position relative to the rod. the space and body centrodes and solve for the motion ofend A as a function of time. point A always moves along the x axis and point B along the y axis. from Eq. I i . it must make two complete circuits of the body centrode for every complete rotation of the bar. . So. we note that it moves along the x axis and has the same x coordinate as the instantaneous center. Therefore we conclude that the body centrode is a circle of radius 1/2 and centered at the midpoint of the rod. the instantaneous center C is located at the intersection of the dashed lines of Fig. Therefore point C moves completely around the space centrode during one complete rotation of the bar. We have seen that AB and OC are of equal length I and therefore they bisect each other at the center of the rectangle OA CR. Furthermore. we obtain x == I sin rot (2116) indicating that point A moves with simple harmonic motion along the x axis. point B moves with simple harmonic motion along the yaxIS. To find the motion of point A. the instantaneous center must traverse the same distance along the space and body centrodes. Since. the point C proceed. (2114). Choosing the end points. that is.V2 == I. (2114) and (2115). however. for example. If we measure time from the moment when point A is at the origin and moving in the positive sense along the x axis. The instantaneous center C· moves clockwise at the same angular rate as the bar rotates counterclockwise. 2~21.
rep2 . Let the rotating coordinate system be fixed in the disk such that the origins 0 and 0' coincide.. . aro 2 cb 2.SEC. the procedure IS straightforward . EXAMPLES Example 24. 222).aro •• (P)T ==  T 2 aro 2 2 cb0 (1 + sin rot) cos 2 rot e r SIn rot e T • 2ro X (. rep + . (2106). 4>0 (1 2 + sin wt) sin wt e". 222. noting that p == re r == ~ (1 + sin rot)e T m == ¢e z == we evaluate each of the terms. we obtain the components in' the e r and ecp directions as follows: Fig.2 sin rot 2 0 (1 acp ~ + SIn rot) cos 2 rot . Setting i == 0 since the motion is twodimensional. A particle P moves along a straight radial groove in a circular disk of radius a which is pivoted about a perpendicular axis through its center 0 (Fig.0) T == aro 2 epo cos 2 rot e</J In obtaining the foregoing results. ro X (m X p) == . A particle with radial harmonic motion relative to a harmonically oscillating disk. aro 2 aro 2 cb 2 aT == r . .ep == 2 0 (1 (2117) + sin rot) sin rot + aro cbo cos rot 2 2 Next let us solve the same problem using the general vector expression of Eq. roepo cos rot e z it == 0 wX p = . 211 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 57 211. First we shall solve the problem using the general acceleration equation in cylindrical coordinates. Eq. The particle moves relative to the disk such that r == ~ (1 + sin rot) and the disk rotates according to ep == epo sin rot Find the general expression for the absolute acceleration of P. Then. (223)..aw.
. Adding the components in the e r and e4> directions. ar == r . we find that (2121) and ciJxp==O (2122) sin (J eo Before evaluating the next term. The motion of a particle P having a velocity v relative to a sphere. The moving coordinate system is assumed to be fixed in the sphere and rotating with it at a constant rate (I). sin () + 2. find the absolute acceleration of P in terms of the spherical unit vectors en eo. (2117). where both a and 00 are constants.r8 2 . we note that (I) == 00 cos (J er  00 p == ae r . 223. Suppose that a particle P moves along a line of longitude on a sphere of radius a rotating at a constant angular velocity OJ about the polar axis. using Eq. Evaluating the first two terms. we obtain agreement with the results found previously in Eq. (233). Example 25. If its speed relative to the sphere is v == kt and if the center of the sphere is fixed. (2106). and ecf>' (Fig.r¢2 sin2 {j == . we obtain Fig. (2118) that (2120) Now let us solve this problem using Eq. assuming that er is constant since it is fixed in the rotating system.¢ sin () + 2r8¢ cos () aoo 2 sin cos () (2119) == 200kt cos () where we note from Eq. Here we differentiate the expression for p.. Also. 2 except for finding the derivatives of p as viewed from the rotating system. v {j .. Let (J (0) == (Jo.58 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.8 . First we note that r == a and ¢ == 00. _ v _ kt a a (2118) Evaluating the spherical components of the acceleration. One approach to the problem is to evaluate the acceleration directly in terms of spherical coordinates.aoo 2 sin 2 {j k'2 t 2 a (J ao == rO acf> == + 2. The origin 0' is at the center O.r¢2 sin (J cos {j == k rif. 223).
Our procedure will be to solve this example using the general vector equation given in Eq. dergoes plane motion. is just a circular path which is traversed at a constantly increasing speed.rg_. (254). From Eq. The moving system is fixed in the moving arm and its origin is at the hub 0'. we find that (2124) Also. I I Example 26. The position of P relative to the arm is given by the angle cp. The wheel is rotating clockwise at an angular rate ¢ relative to the arm but the arm rotates with an angular velocity 00 in a counterclockwise sense.. the moving system. Since the wheel is instantaneously rotating about C. 211 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 59 Therefore. (2121) to (2125). (2125) Adding the tenns given by Eqs. as shown. Find the acceleration of point P on the circumference of a wheel of radius '2 which is roll~ng on the inside of a fixed circular track of radius '1 (Fig. 224. (2106). Fig. Normal and tangential unit vectors will be used. A wheel rolling on the It can be seen that the wheel uninside of a fixed circular track. 224). Therefore the wheel rotates clockwise at an absolute angular velocity (¢ . An arm connecting the fixed point 0 and the wheel hub at 0' moves at a constant angular velocity m. we obtain the same resuIts as were obtained previously in Eq. (2119). (2123) It can be seen that the path of P relative to the sphere. The origin of the fixed system is taken at o. we see that so the CorioUs acceleration is 2(1) X (p) r == 2mk t cos (j eq.SEC.(0). First consider the velocity wfihwhlchihe hub· moves al()IigTfs·cIrc~iar path. that is. the absolute velocity of the hub is . en having the direction of the line from 0' to 0 and et being perpendicular. and since there is no slipping of the wheel on the track. (1) and X P == am sin f) eq. This enables us to obta~~_~_!:!_~~uation relating ¢ and~. the instantaneous center of rotation for the wheel is at the contact point C.
2 . is zero because the angular velocity (I) is constant. in accordance with Eq. (238). (253). so VO ' = (rl . as viewed by an observer on the moving coordinate system. Also.sin cp en) = r1 ro(cos cp et . The distance 00' is (rl .sin cp en) where we note again that an observer on the moving system sees point P moving in a circular path with a uniform speed r2¢' Thus we obtain . (2126) and (2127). In order to evaluate the term (I) X «(I) X p). (2130) which is a centripetal acceleration directed from P toward 0'.r2) and the arm rotates with an absolute angular velocity co. we note first that I I J where eb is a unit vector pointing out of the plane of the figure in accordance with Eq. The next term. The point P. We find that (2129) which is just the centripetal acceleration of 0' due to its uniform circular motion about 0. we obtain In order to evaluate the Coriolis acceleration term. being directed from P toward 0'. moves at a constant angular rate ¢ in a circle of radius r 2 • Thus we find that the acceleration due to this motion is again centripetal. (ji)r = . we obtain (2128) Now let us proceed with the evaluation of the absolute acceleration of P.r2) coe t (2127) From Eqs.60 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.r2¢2 (sin cp et + cos cp en) (2131) or. ro X p. (2128). Consequently. substituting from Eq. we first obtain the relative velocity (P)r = r2 ¢(cos cp et . (2126) But the velocity of the hub can also be calculated from the motion of the arm.
: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. this system should be chosen such that the calculations are made as simple as possible.. Synge. A. 3. Englewood Cliffs.r2 2  . the choice of unit vectors in expressing the result should be made for convenience. I. and B. Principles of Mechanics of Solids and FluidsParticle and RigidBody Mechanics.. provided that the angular velocity (J) is constant or varies in a simple fashion. Warsaw. Banach. If its angular velocity is given by m == at. Principles of Mechanics. solve for the acceleration of . . New y~)fk: McGrawHill. Engineering Mechanics..) I REFERENCES \"J v\ '. E. 1951. 1960. Systems~ Reading.1962. J.J. Abrams. L. trans. (2129) to (2132). A vertical wheel of radius a rons without slipping along a straight horizontal line. 211 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 61 (2132) which is directed radially outward in the direction 0' P. Shames. Griffith. In general.\ 1\\) X :: ) I( (J 1. adding the individual acceleration terms given in Eqs. Analytical Elements of MechanicsDynamics. 6. Halfman. H.SEC. 24.. 1961. 5.. DynamicsParticles. Rigid Bodies. 3rd ed. (2106) which is the general vector equation for the acceleration of a point in terms of its motion relative to a nl0ving coordinate system.~) 00 2 sin 1> et + [(2rl + (rl  .. S. ' !.!) en 00 2 COS 1> (2133) (2)00 ] The preceding exanlples have illustrated the application of Eq. Scott. and Mass. Inc. Yeh. Inc. and J. Kane.. Inc. L. we obtain a = (2rl '2  . the motion of P relative to the moving system should be of about the same complexity as the absolute motion of 0'. Mechanics. distributed by Hafner Publishing Co. T. H. '.. An unfortunate choice at this point can result in a large increase in the required effort. New York. Roughly speaking. Although this equation is valid for an arbitrary ITIotion of the moving coordinate system... R. they should form \1) orthogonal an • set. Inc' 2 1959.J . New York: McGrawHill. N.. R. J.!. PROBLEMS 21 . 2. Also. 4. Finally. Mathematical Monographs.. vol.: PrenticeHall. 1960. New York: Academic Press.
A water particle P moves outward along the impeller of a centrifugal pump with a constant tangential velocity of 60 ft/sec relative to the impeller. 26. 22. P21 point A in the lamina has an acceleration aA == aAi. A cyclist rides around a circular track (R == 100 ft) such that the point of contact of the wheel on the track moves at a constant speed of 30 ft/sec. Use cylindrical unit vectors in expressing the answer. Find the total acceleration of a point P at the tip of the propel1er. P25 'i: . OJ == rok. (264) and (269).25 ft radius) as it passes through the highest point of its path. Use cylindrical unit vectors and assume that the velocity of P relative to the airplane is vertically upward at t == O. assuming that its axis is always aligned with the flight path.62 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. A lamina undergoes general motion in its own xy plane. 23. An airplane flies with a constant speed v in a level turn to the left at a constant radius R. Sketch the result. II" 25. Find the position relative to A of a point P whose absolute acceleration is zero. Find the acceleration of the particle at the point where it leaves the impeller. . At a given instant. assuming that P is initially at the highest point of its path. 2. p z y Fig. Find the acceleration of a tack in the tire (1. . whereas a base Fig. a po~nt P on its rim. which is rotating at a uniform rate of 1200 rpm in the direction shown.:1 ! . P24 Fig. Iii . Express the result in terms of the unit vectors er and eo. The propeller is of radius a and rotates about its axis in a clockwise sense (as viewed from the rear) with a constant angular velocity fl. Solve for the hodograph of the twodimensional harmonic motion given by Eqs. He banks his bicycle at 15° with the vertical.. 24. its angular motion is given by (I) == rok.
find: . Assuming that 0 is fixed. The origin 0' of a moving coordinate system has a constant absolute velocity Vo'. R C Fig. and p is the position vector of P relative to 0'. 211 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 63 27.: (a) the observer is nonrotating. I . 210 . Tpe contact point 0' traverses the curve at a constant speed Vo. Express the result in terms of the unit vectors en and Ct29. P2. A wheel of radius a rolls along a general convex curve of varying radius of curvature R such that all motion is confined to a single plane. Find the absolute acceleration of a point P on the rim. Assume that ¢ is not constant. Consider the following cases. \. whereas the point P has a constant absolute velocity Vp. (b) the observer is rotating with the unprimed system. P27 Fig.SEC. A circular disk of radius r2 rolls in its plane on the inside of a fixed circular cylinder of radius r 1 • Find the acceleration of a point P on the wheel at a distance b from its hub 0'. solve for the velocity and acceleration of P' relative to P at the moment when P and P' have the least separation. Express the results In terms of the unit vectors en and et which rotate with the unprimed system.. The points P and P' are each located on the edge of separate circular disks which are in essentially the same plane and rotate at constant but unequal angular velocities co and co' about a perpendicular axis through the common center o. If the moving system rotates with a constant angular velocity (1). where the angle cp is measured between 0' P and the line of centers 0'0.8 I I ! I 28.
Find the acceleration of a point P on the rim using spherical unit vectors er . eo.y == . Assuming that the auto travels with a constant speed v around a circular path of radius R in a counterclockwise sense. (more exactly. is inclined at an angle a with the vertical. 2 / Fig. P210 Fig. Fig. The angle a is measured in the plane of the rim and specifies the location of P relative to a horizontal diameter through 0'. P211 211. P212 "I ) . The windshield wiper blade is of length I and oscillates according to the equation .yo sin fJt. solve for the acceleration of the point P at the tip of the wiper. The plane of the windshield of a certain auto. For what value of would you expect the largest force of the blade against the windshield? t 212.64 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. e4J. the point 0' traces out a circle of this radius). This axis maintains a constant angle (J with the vertical and precesses at a constant rate ¢. A gyroscope in the form of a wheel of radius a spins with a constant angular velocity a == n about its axis of symmetry.
x. nonlinear functions of the coordinates. z. y. y. exist. we studied some of the methods of kinematics which can be used to obtain the absolute acceleration of a particle. x. using cartesian coordinates. its differential equation of motion is mr == F{r. and i would be specified. (141). With the aid of modern electronic computers. From Eq. t) my == Fy{x. and time. knowing the acceleration and assuming a knowledge of its mass. and Fz are. thus the equations are hopelessly complex from the standpoint of obtaining an analytical solution. Any general analytical solution of Eq. y. and using approximate methods. f. i. the problem of calculating the nlotion of a particle from a knowledge of the external forces acting upon it. z. y. y. y. an analytic solution of this equation is impossible except in special cases. To see the difficulties more clearly. initial values of x. t) Fx{x. velocities. in general. Then. i.3 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE In Chapter 2. t) and the mass m are known. y. (32) will contain six arbitrary 6S . z. For example. we would like to solve for the position r as a function of time. z and also X. t) (31) Assuming that the function F{r. i. in fact. First consider the general case where the force acting on a particle is a function of its position and velocity and also the time. Unfortunately. So a solution to the problem does. mx == (32) I· I . y. namely. f. t) mz == Fz(x. it is possible to obtain solutions to the complete equations that are of sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes. one can use Newton's law of motion to determine the total external force acting on the particle. x. provided that the initial values of displacement and velocity are known. F y . let us write the vector equation in terms of its cartesian components. The force components Fx. it is the thesis of Newtonian mechanics that a complete knowledge of the external forces acting on a particle determines its motion. This chapte~ emphasizes the inverse problem. Nevertheless.
6) (33) where the a k are constants.. that is. then. One of the principal topics of advanced classical mechanics. and Fz are each constant. such as the limiting values of certain coordinates. and Z (34) directions are . In this chapter. (32) that mx = Fx my = Fy mz = Fz where Fx. if none is derivable from the others. t) = ak (k = 1. z. in principle. thereby giving us more insight into the nature of the motion.. 3· coefficients which are evaluated from the six initial conditions. motion. 31. thereby forming an important part of our treatment of the subject of dynamics.66 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. however. y. Even in cases where we do not solve completely for the motion. x. One method of obtaining the general solution is to look for integrals or constants of the . DIRECT INTEGRATION OF THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION Returning now to the general equation of motion as expressed in Eq. (34). Fy . Considering the cartesian components of the motion. 2. If the functions are all distinct. (32). y. let us consider several cases in which direct integration can be used to find the motion of the particle. . Case 1: Constant Acceleration. (31) or Eq. we see that the motions in the x. they may be solved for the displacement and the velocity of the particle as a function of time and the constants ak' I t is usually not possible to obtain all the ak by any direct process. these principles can be expanded to apply to systems of particles and to rigidbody motion. The simplest case is that in which the external force on the particle is constant in magnitUde and direction. y. From Eq. As will be seen in the following chapters. . we find from Eq. For example. is the study of coordinate transformations such that the solution for the constants in terms of the new coordinates is a straightforward process. that is. a constant of the motion might be the total energy or the angular momentum about a given point. to attempt to find six functions of the form fk(X. we shall discuss some of the simpler methods and principles to be used in solving for the motion of a particle. Sometimes the constants can be given a simple physical interpretation. a knowledge of some of the constants that are applicable to the given problem may aid in obtaining certain results. Z.
we find that \ ~ a==x==nl . . t ==  1 (v . Therefore. with the result: (310) I • . Of course.SEC. (39) An expression relating the speed and displacement can be obtained for this case of constant acceleration by eliminating t between Eqs. we obtain that v == Vo + at at 2 (36) (37) and X == Xo 1 + Vo t + 2 where Xo and Vo are the displacement and velocity at t == O. The trajectory of a particle ience that the particle is located at in a uniform gravitational field. respectively. 31 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 67 independent.. hence there is no y tendency for the particle to leave it. the velocity vector will change direction in the general case. similar equations would apply to motion in the direction of the y or z axes. and therefore there is no component of acceleration normal to the plane. (36) and (37) for t. L~~X opposite to the direction of the gravitational force. but it will always lie in the same plane. Let us choose the xy plane as the plane of motion with the y axis directed vertically upward. Denoting the velocity and acceleration by v and a. This follows from the fact that the force remains in this plane. by direct integration with respect to time. 31. let us consider the onedimensional case of motion parallel to the x axis. The motion of a particle in a uniform gravitational field is confined to the plane determined by the initial velocity vector of the particle and the gravitational force. (38) and (39). that is. The time required for the particle to attain a given speed v or displacement x is found by solving Eqs.vo) a (38) Also. Assume for convenFig. Motion of a Particle in a Uniform Gravitational Field.. Of course. Fx (35) and.
Y 2v~ cos 2 "I which is the equation of a vertical parabola. (36). (315). from Eqs. (318) and (320).~=. the displacement components are obtained from Eq.. as shown in Fig. = 2g sIn 2"I (318) and. votslnry  1 2 gt 2 (316) Solving for t from Eq. x = = vot cos "I (315) Y . Therefore.gt (313) (314) = Similarly. The time required to attain a given value of x is found from Eq. The initial values of the velocity components are x(O) = Vo Vo cos "I sin "I yeO) = ax (311) Noting that the acceleration components are =0 (312) and recalling again that the motion in the x and y directions proceeds independently. we obtain the velocity components from Eq. (317) and (318).. (315) and substituting into Eq. Vx Vy = Vo Vo cos "I sin "I . (316). we find that the time to reach the vertex is . t=Vo x cos ry (320) where we note that the velocity component in the x direction is constant. (37). Yv) is the vertex location. (319) where (xv. 3 the origin 0 at time t = 0 and is moving with velocity Vo at an angle "I above the horizontal. We obtain Xv V~ =g sIn "I cos "I • v~ .".. from Eqs. The vertex of the parabola occurs at the point of zero slope in this case and is found by differentiating Eq. we obtain the trajectory gx 2 (317) = x tan "I . 31. (317) with respect to x and setting the result equal to zero.68 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.
2v tan "I _0 gx + 2v 2 _0 y gx 2 1 == 0 (324) ... The value of this double root 0 ..2. 2 (322) and the time of flight is (323) It can be seen that the maximum range is achieved for "I == 45° and the maximum time of flight for "I == 90°. then there are two real roots of this quadratic equation in tan 1'. . the range is R V == 2x v ==. I If the point P is within range for a given initial velocity v o...x tan "I + y == + 0 or 2 tan 2 l' . 32.. corresponding to the angles 1'1 and "1 2 Complex roots result for the case where the point is out of range... y).. we can write Eq. The maximum range in a given direction is a point on the dashed envelope of Fig. Now let us calculate the initial flight path angle "I such that the particle passes through a given point P at the coodinates (x. this value is also obtained from Eq.... (317) in the forn1 y Envelope of possible trajectories for a given va / . sin 2N g I == o.. Noting that sec 2 1' == 1 + tan 2 1'.. (314) by setting For the case of a trajectory over a flat surface... 32 and corresponds to a double root... gx 2 Vo 2 (1 2 + tan2 'Y) .~ o~~~~x Fig.. 32.. 31 t v == g SIn Vo • N I DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 69 (321) Vy Of course..SEC.I . as shown in Fig. The required initial flight path angle l' in order that the trajectory pass through a given point P. .. .
( tan.. Example 31..gXe Xe . Y = v~/2g.:. = 0 will have at least one trajectory passing through it and will thereby be within the range of a projectile of initial velocity Vo. (327) by x. Ye + 1 or Xe 2 _ 2v~ g. (326). by using Eq. any point within the paraboloid formed by rotating the envelope about the vertical line x.( Ye  2g V~) (327) which is a parabola with the vertex located at x = 0. Assuming a given initial speed v o.1 = 0 The only root fitting the requirement that the end point (xe.70 DYNAMiCS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. from which we obtain that v2 tanry = _ 0 gXe (326) where ry is the initial flight path angle such that the trajectory just reaches a point (xe. Assuming that the azimuth angle (that is.y .. 3' \ ( can be found from Eq.2 tan ry .2gxe which. the direction of the horizontal velocity component) of the trajectory is arbitrary. Ye) on the envelope of possible trajectories for a given V o• From Eq.. (325) we obtain the equation of the envelope: v~ ( gXe )2 = 2v~ gx.... may be written in the form: .. Ye) lie above the horizontal is tanry=l+~ ~ tan 'Y) = 1 or . (3.2 tan 'Y (1 or tan 2 ry .2v tan ry + _ 0 Y + 1 = 0 _0 gx gx2 (325) .0 gx _0 V2 )2.tan = 2 2 2v2 ry . find the initial flight path angle ry such that maximum range is achieved in a direction 45° above the horizontal. Because the maximum range is obtained at 45° above the horizon. we obtain 1 2v~ (Ye V~) ... Dividing Eq. the trajectory must pass through a point Xe = Ye on the envelope.24) by the method of completing the square. that IS.
(326). (329).. For the case of motion parallel to the x axis. Again the general equation of motion can be written in terms of three independent equations giving orthogonal components of the motion.SEC. The slant range in this case is R == ~ Xe v2 == . In a similar fashion. Solve for the displacement of a particle which is subject to a force of constant magnitude P which is rotating at a uniform angular rate ro "in the xy plane such that Fx == P sin rot Fy == P cos rot Initially the particle is at the origin and has a velocity Vo in the direction of the positive x axis.cos rot) (331) Another integration results in the displacement x . one finds that the y components of the velocity and displacement are . (330). Another integration results in x = where Xo Xo + vot + ~ f: [[ Fx(Tt) dTt] dT2 (330) is the initial displacement.v'2) g where Xe is evaluated using Eq. rot sIn (332) in agreement with Eq. Now assume that the external force is a function of time only. x == Vo + ~ (1 mro  . the equation of motion is lnx == Fx (t) (328) which can be integrated directly to give the velocity v == where Vo Vo + 1 ft m Fx(T) dT (329) 0 is the initial velocity. First. == ( 'IJ o + P) t mro mro 2 p . we can solve for the velocity component parallel to the x axis from Eq. 31 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 71 . y == .£. Example 32. (333) (334) .cos rot) .. Y == . (2 . mro (1 . Case 2: F == F(t).SIn rot mro P 2 p. .
It can be seen that. we shall again consider only the x component of the motion. rot sIn mro (335) (336) y' == y == . The differential equation for the motion is (337) Because the force Fx is a function of the displacement rather than time. y' == P/mro 2 as shown in Fig. The path of the particle relative to a uniformly translating system. of general initial conditions.2 (1 . even in the case y' ~+~ _ _ _ _ _ X' 0' Fig. Case 3: F == F:lx)i + Fy(y)j + Fz(z)k. 33. This can be accomplished by making the substitution (338) X==V implying that . a uniformly translating coordinate system can always be found such that the motion of the particle relative to this system consists of uniform circular motion in a plane. It is interesting to note from Eqs. 33. the primed system is an inertial system since it is translating uniformly relative to the fixed xy system. 3 I . consider a primed coordinate system translating uniformly relative to the unprimed system such that the particle position in the primed system is x I == x  ( Vo + P) t == mro P 2 p . it is desirable to integrate with respect to x.cos rot) mro These equations represent a circular path of radius P /mro 2 centered at x' == 0.I .' 72 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. noting that similar results apply to the motion in the y and z directions. (332) and (334) that the path of the particle consists of a uniform circular motion plus a uniform translation. To see this more clearly. For this case. Of course.
(341). m ////// ~~~~//: Fig. Fx == kx (344) (345) or. solving for the velocit¥. we find that v= ~~ = [v. (337). Assuming onedimensional motion with no friction.. we obtain mv dv == Fx (x) d x . from Eq. . (337) and (339). v o. x) (342) from which one obtains a solution for x of the form x == g(xo.m Xo x 2 ~ x~) J 12 / dx (347) Evaluating the integral.x~) 2 (346) and. 31 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 73 . mx + kx == 0 Using Eq. (340) which can be integrated directly to give 1 2" m(v 2  v~) == IX Xo Fx(x) dx (341) This result is an application of the principle of work and kinetic energy which will be discussed in Sec. dv dv dx dv x == dt == dx dt == v dx (339) From Eqs.SEC. Equation (341) can be integrated again to give a solution of the form t == f(x o.! (x xnr 2  or t == I [ k (x v~ . 34. we obtain . we obtain 1 m(v2 2 v~) ==  IX Xo kx dx == ~ k(x 2 . In this example. solve for the displacement x as a function of time and the initial conditions. A massspring system. t) (343) Example 33. v o . 32. 34. A mass m and a linear spring of stiffness k are connected as shown in Fig.
J!H [sin! . 3 t = . one can solve for velocity as a function of the initial velocity and time: v = dx = g (va' t) dt (352) A second integration results in the displacement in the form x = f(x o..X o Now eliminate v from Eqs. Evaluating the integral. (353). we shall again consider just the x component of the motion because the form of the equation is such that the three component motions are each independent.J(m/k)v~ Xo (349) This is the solution for the free motion of a massspring system with arbitrary initial conditions and represents an example of onedimensional harmonic motion. in this case. k· x I sin'! . In the analysis of this case.J(m/k)v~ Xo + x~ ] or = "/(m/k)v~ + x~ sin a = sin..1 (J!!n t + a) '+ x~ (348) where .J(m/k)v~ + x~ x .74 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. The equation of motion can be written as m dt dv = ( Fx v) (350) from which we obtain t dv = m Vo Fx(v) J v (351) where. the velocity v is in the x direction. Case 4: F = Fx(x)i + Fy(y)j + Fz(i)k. Example 34.. va' t) as in Eq. Solve for the motion of a particle of mass m that is moving in a uniform gravitational field and is subject to a linear damping force. (351) and (355) and one again obtains Vo (355) x = f(x o. (350) in the form dv mv dx = Fx (v) (354) Integrating this equation results in v vdv m J Fx (v) = x . . va' t) (353) Another approach is to write Eq.
SEC. The trajectory of a linearlydamped particle which moves in a uniform gravitational field. So if we consider the motion to occur in the xy plane with gravity acting in the direction of the negative y axis. Now consider the motion· in the y direction. Another integration results in (362) where the constant of integration has been evaluated from initial conditions. 35. So the differential equations of motion are mx and + ex == 0 (359) (360) Eq. then the total force acting on the particle IS F == ev . (351) can be used my + cy == mg Consider first the motion in the directly in this case. 31 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 75 The force of the linear damper always acts in a direction opposite to the velocity vector and its magnitude is directly proportional to the velocity. Similarly.mgj Now the x component of the force is Fx == x (ev) == ex (356) v (357) since x/v is the cosine of the angle between the velocity vector and the x axis (Fig. resulting in " t == :(.0 x direction. 35). m m c JX dx _ c In (x) X xo (361) or where Xo is the x component of the initial velocity. Fy == y ey  mg (358) ~~~x Fig. Equation (360) can be integrated to obtain .
Since they contain no term in x or y. they are directly derivable from Newton's . Another point to notice is that the solutions for the motions in both the x and y directions involve a term of the form exp( . The exponent contains the ratio m rr=c which has the dimensions of time and is known as the time constant for the system. mg + Vy = rrg The solutions for the velocities given by Eqs. assuming an initial displacement Yo.c The physical interpretation of this last result is that the gravitational force mg and the friction force cy are of equal magnitude and opposite direction in the steady state. time constants are often associated with firstorder systems. (361) and (363) are typical of the form of the response of firstorder systems to an initial condition or to a constant forcing term. resulting in no net external force being applied to the particle. we note that the displacement in the x direction has a limiting value as t approaches infinity. however. 3.ect/m) C (364) From Eqs. namely.ct/m).Yo . Now.76 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. its limiting velocity being y= .c ct /m (363) Integrating again.n:: + (Yo + n::g ) _ mgt y . WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY We now present some general principles of particle mechanics. t = _m c fil Yo Y + (mg/c) g dy = _m c In[Y + (mg/c)] Yo + (mg/c) e or Y = . x = Xo mxo +c  On the other hand. Yo + mg)(l . For the cases where these principles apply. but Eqs. we obtain +C m (. they are also firstorder in the velocities Vx and Vy as may be observed by writing them in the form: rrvx + Vx = 0 rrvy . (359) and (360) are seen to be secondorder differential equations. (362) and (364). 32. the y displacement changes continuously in the negative direction for large t.
m 2 r VA d(V2) = ~ (~ . we see that JB mr •dr = A. J: F • dr = s: mr • dr (365) where dr is taken in a direction tangent to the curve at each point. as well as to define some of the terms.~) (366) where v A and VB are the velocities of the particle at points A and B. t)dt = ~d(V2) 2 dt 2 where it is assumed that the infinitesimal changes in position and velocity occur during the same time interval. consider a particle of mass m that Inoves from A to B under the action of an arbitrary external force F. The first of these principles to be presented is the principle of work and kinetic energy: The increase in the kinetic energy of a particle ill going from one point to another is equal to the work done by the external forces acting on the particle as it lnoves over the given interval. aid in the solution of many specific problems. 32 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 77 laws of motion. Thus. To illustrate the meaning of the principle. 36. The path of a particle moving under the action of an external force. respec . they promote further insight into particle dynamics and. Nevertheless. We note that r CD dr = ~!{(t.SEC. 36. the given path from A to B. by providing some integrals of the Inotion. Starting with z ef II m ~+y x Fig. as shown in Fig. and thus they contain no new information. Newton's law of motion in the form F =mr let us evaluate the line integral of each side of the equation over.
Thus. . Example 35. From Eqs. W= "fB AFedr The kinetic energy T of a particle relative to an inertial system is T (368) j = ~ mv 2 (369) where v is the speed of the particle relative to that system. even though the individual terms may vary with the reference frame. Initial conditions are ro(O) = roo and r(O) = ro' In order to use the principle of work and kinetic energy. the . in accordance with Newton's law of motion. ICLE CHAP. the general principle of work and kinetic energy is valid in any inertial frame. 37. Using energy methods. the right side of Eq. (365) and (366). . (367) in the form (370) It should be emphasized that calculations of work and kinetic energy are dependent upon which inertial system is used as a reference frame.78 DYNAMICS OF APAR. we must first determine the total external force acting on the particle. The string provides the only means for exerting an external force and therefore this force must be radial in nature. (367) represents the increase of kinetic energy in going from A to B. m Fig. 37) in such a manner that the radial component of velocity is small compared to the tangential component. A whirling particle of mass m is pulled slowly by a string toward a fixed center at 0 (Fig. A particle whirling about a fixed point. Nevertheless. (368) and (369). Therefore. 3 tively. 'f can be neglected relative to the centripetal acceleration. we obtain the result: f B F dr ED A 1 = 2 mV2 B   1 2 mV2 A (367) The integral on the left side of this equation is the work W which is done by the external force F as it moves along the path from A to B. Using Eqs. find the angular velocity ro as a function of r. of the path. Also. we can express the general result of Eq.
2m m2 r dr == mr2 m dm Rearranging and integrating in the interval ro to r. 33 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 79 acceleration of the particle is entirely radial. we obtain or 2In Solving for (i) (. dT == mm 2 r dr Therefore we obtain + mr2 m dm (374) dW== dT and. given particle has the following characteristics: (1) it is a function of position only. 36. )\~o mr~ (i) 0 (375) as a function of r. . we find that 6) (376) This final result can also be written in the form mr2 co == (377) which is in agreement with the principle of conservation of angular momentum to be developed in Sec. each increment of work done on the particle is accompanied by an equal increase in the kinetic energy. 36 let us suppose that the force F acting on the . (372) and (374). CONSERVATIVE SYSTEMS Referring again to Fig.== ~ mr 2m2 2 2 since we neglect the radial velocity. The kinetic energy is (373) T == ~ mv 2 .: is assumed to be negligible. From Eqs.J = In (:J = (. from Eqs. 33. (141) and (253). Since. (2) the line integral . corresponding to the angular rates mo and m. the path at any point is approximately circular and the acceleration is just the centripetal acceleration.SEC. Thus. the total external force is the radial force (371) The work done on the particle in an infinitesimal radial displacement dr is (372) dW == Fr dr == mm 2r dr But. by the principle of work and kinetic energy.
It applies to systems in which the only forces . from characteristic (1). and accelerations in reverse order. the increase in potential energy in moving the particle between two points is equal to the work done against the conservative field forces by the particle. If the work W. (370) and (381). is found to depend only upon the location of the end points. 3 . Practically speaking. it is also true for an integration along any two paths connecting A and B. we find that this sum is constant for a conservative system.I f: F • dr is a function of the end points only and is independent of the path taken between A and B.fB dV == A A VA  VlJ (381) Equation (381) states that the decrease in the potential energy V in moving the particle from A to B is equal to the work done on the particle by the conservative force field. then. Therefore we find that W == JE F • dr == . for a given particle. Therefore. this means that the force is not dissipative in nature and that any mechanical process taking place under its influence is reversible. a reversible mechanical process will retrace its former sequence of positions. as though time were running backwards. and from Eqs. following the same physical laws. at a certain moment. Conversely. But.I I \ 80 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. by characteristic (2). as given by Eq. (382) Equation (382) is a mathematical statement of the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. (368). The potential energy V is a scalar function of position only. (379) where the integral is taken around any closed path. A force with the characteristics just cited is said to be a conservative force. dr f BF • dr == . it forms a conservative force field.fA F •· A B (378) for the case where the line integral on the right is taken in the reverse direction along the same path. The property of reversibility can be clarified as follows: if. then the integrand must be an exact differential. The sum of the potential and kinetic energies is known as the total energy E. Now. that is. F • dr == dV (380) where the minus sign has been chosen for convenience in the statement of later results. the velocities of all moving parts are reversed.
(387) and therefore we find that the force exerted by a conservative force field acting on the particle is 1 F == VV (388) This means that the force is in the direction of the largest spatial rate of decrease of V and is equal in magnitude to that rate of decrease.SEC.. (380) is applicable for an arbitrary infinitesimal displacement.' . fixed constraints. The converse is not necessarily true. that is. . POTENTIAL ENERGY Let us consider again the potential energy V. we find that '. (383) must be equal to the negative of the corresponding coefficients in Eq. 34 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 81 I. Thus we can write F==Fi+FO+Fk== _oVi_oV._oV k x yJ z ax ay J OZ (386) Now the gradient of the scalar function V is VV== oV i ax + oV. I that do work on the particle are those arising from a conservative force field. . (388) may not be conservative. '. _". (380). we obtain Fx == y ox F == _oV oy (385) F == _oV z OZ since we note that Eq. dV == dx + dy + dz ox oy OZ Also. such as those due to frictionless. .. if we express the position of a particle in terms of .".. Note that workless forces." coordinates. + OV k oy J OZ. and dz in Eq. (384). and (384).". Therefore. oV oV oV (383) dr == dxi and therefore + dyj + dzk + Fy dy + Fz dz oV F • dr == Fx dx (384) From Eqs. '. '. dy. hence the coefficients of dx. (383).. We saw that V is a function of position only. as in the case of a timevarying field. do not change the applicability of the principle. a force derivable from a potential function V by using Eq. 1 .its cartesian .. for the case of a conservative force field. ... 34.
In the general case. it can be shown (Sec.OV . The force exerted by the attracting field is entirely radial and is equal to K FT . The most commonly encountered inversesquare force in the study of mechanics is the force of gravitational attraction. is made for convenience in solving the problem at hand. Assuming that the mass distribution of the earth is spherically symmetrical about the center. As an example of a potential energy calculation. For a general. That this is actually true is confirmed further by noting that the potential energy enters all computations as a potential energy d(fference. and as we have seen. the component of the force F in the direction of the unit vector e l is given by (389) where Xl is the linear displacement in the direction e l at the point under consideration. coordinate system. in which case the constant C cancels out. Inversesquare Attraction. (390) that the gravitational force on a particle of mass m outside the earth's surface is the radial force . 51) that the attractive force on an external particle is the same as if the entire mass of the earth were concentrated at its center. Now let us consider the particular case of gravitational attraction by the earth..82 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. acceleration. should be independent of the choice of C. As a result. (391). consider the case of an inversesquare attraction of a particle of mass m toward a fixed point.ation and therefore the gradient need not be expressed in terms of cartesian coordinates. the choice of the datum or reference point of zero potential energy. 1 . since the motion in a given situation is not arbitrary. that is. In the usual case of inversesquare attraction.I I Equation (388) is a general vector equ. implying that the potential energy is always negative and approaches zero as r approaches infinity. Hence we see from Eq. Gravitational Potential Energy.(390) or r2 where K is a constant and r is the distance of the particle from the attracting center. and so on. the corresponding gravitational potential must be of the form given by Eq. (390) directly to give K (391) V= .. the fact that the potential energy contains an arbitrary constant would seem to require that all measurable quantities of the motion such as velocity. the choice of C.+ C r where C is an arbitrary constant of integration. we choose C = 0. we can integrate Eq. Since the force is a function of r only.
13) that. that is. (r> R) and. The earth and a particle of mass m.1 + (h/R) For motion near the surface of the earth. (393) and (394). (397) that VmgoR . we obtain that (395) Therefore.SEC. the weight w of a particle is the force of the gravitational attraction of the earth on the particle. from Eq. assuming a nonrotating earth. from Eq. 38. the weight is also given by K (393) w == mgo (394) where go is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of a spherical nonrotating earth. measured at the earth's surface. From Eqs.A PARTICLE 83 Fr = ~ (r > R) (392) where R is the radius of the earth (Fig. this equation . (391). from the knowledge (Sec. 38). Thus w == Fr == R2 But. The constant K can be evaluated o Fig. (392). for h is approximated by « R. (396) (397) But we can also write the potential energy in terms of the height h above the earth's surface. in this instance. 34 DYNAMICS OF . Letting r==R+h (398) we find from Eq.
If the elonga ~x " .~) Now we eliminate the constant term mgoR by choosing the zero reference: for potential energy at the earth's surface.I ' tion x of the spring is measured from its unstressed position. Fig. As an example of elastic potential energy.~ kx ~ o k P dmdm.= kx OV ox (3101) Direct integration of Eq. Example 36. the direction of the gravitational force being as shown in Fig. the emphasis here is on the potential ability of the spring to do work on its surroundings. Hence we find that V = mgh (3100) Potential Energy of a Linear Spring~ Another commonly encountered form of potential energy is that due to elastic deformation. 3 V~ mgoR(I. in the preceding development.84 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. the force Fx is the force exerted by the spring on the particle and not the force of the opposite sign that is applied to the spring by the particle. results in V= i kx 2 (3102) Note again that. A particle of mass m is suspended vertically by a spring of stiffness k in the presence of a uniform gravitational field. In other words. and not vice versa. solve for y as a function of time... 39.. the gravitational field is essentially uniform and we use the symbol g for the local acceleration of gravity. 310.. . Then we obtain V ~ mgoh (h« R) (399) In the calculation of local trajectories near the earth's surface. the particle will experience a force Fx = . The interaction forces of a particle P and a linear spring . If the vertical displacement y of the mass is measured from its position when the spring is unstressed.. consider a particle P which is attached by a linear spring of stiffness k to a fixed point 0... as shown in Fig. In this case. choosing the zero reference for potential energy at x = 0. a reference frame is often chosen that is fixed in the earth and the value of the acceleration ~f gravity includes the effects at that point of the earth's rotation. The initial conditions are . (3101) with respect to x.WV'v.. 39.
311. (3105) results in . Using Newton's law of motion we can write my == or ky . t . are constants. 311. For the problem at hand. where we note that the spring force and the ky mg Fig. .  gravity force are the only forces acting on the particle. that is. where C and A. one assumes that the transient solution contains terms of the form Ce At . 310. 2This assumption is valid except' for the case of repeated roots. the substitution of y == CeAt into Eq. for this case of an ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients. a situation which will not be considered here.mg mg my + ky == (3103) Rather than solve this equation by direct integration in a fashion similar to Example 33. 34 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 85 Fig. The equation of ITIotion can be written with the aid of the freebody diagram shown in Fig. A Inass suspended by a linear spring.SEC.. since it retains the same variable part upon differentiation. A freebody diagranl showing the external forces which act on mass m. yeO) == Yo and yeO) == o. In general. (3104) y == Yt + Ys where the transient solution Yt (also called the complementary function) is the solution to the homogeneous equation my + ky == 0 (3105) and the steadystate solution Ys (also called the particular integral) is a solution which satisfies the complete differential equation. Also find the maximum values of kinetic energy and potential energy in the ensuing 1110tion. 2 The exponential function is chosen. we shall obtain the solution as the sum of two parts.
ekt .) Briefly. there must be as many arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation. and as we shall see. we use the general formula ei8 = cos f) + i sin f) (3109) to obtain Yt = (CI Now if we let + C2) cos f!fn t + i(C I + C2 and  C2 ) sin flfn t (3110) A = C} B = iCC} .2 = + if!fn (3107) where i = .mg and the steadystate solution is simply (3112) as may be verified by substitution into the differential equation. the constants are ultimately evaluated on the basis of initial conditions. In general.0 +k Since this result must hold for all values of time and we rule out the trivial case.J! t (3111) where A and B are arbitrary constants.v=I. In this particular case.C 2 ) we obtain the transient solution in the form Yt = A cos f!fn t + B sin .I. Therefore the total solution is of the form . however. C = 0. For the common case where the forcing function is represented by a constant or by terms of the form t n (n a positive integer). the method of undetermined coefficients is applicable. Thus \ve assume a transient solution of the form (3108) Substituting for the exponential functions in terms of sine and cosine functions. we obtain the socalled characteristic equation mI·} = 0 (3106) The roots are imaginary in this case: A. or by sums and products of these terms. the usual form of the steadystate solution consists of terms of the form of the forcing function plus terms containing any different variable parts obtainable by successive differentiations of the forcing function. The steadystate solution can be found by several methods. (See a standard textbook on differential equations for details of that method.86 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. 3 (m'A2 + k)Ce At = . the forcing function is the constant term . sin rot. cos rot.
which is the position of static equilibrium for the particle. the cOInplete solution is mg Y == T + ( Yo +m T g) cos IF Vm t (3115) It can be seen that the solution consists of a sinusoidal oscillation of the mass about the position Y == lng/k. it would actually show an amplitude which increases with time. From Eq. the steadystate solution could have a magnitude which increases or decreases with time. although in many instances the transient solution amplitude decreases exponentially with time and the steadystate solution persists with undiminished magnitude. (3100) and (3102). (3113) with respect to time and setting t == 0. since they are conservative in nature. Now let us calculate the kinetic and potential energies for this system. Upon evaluating Eq. we obtain yeO) == Yo == A . we have from Eqs. We are considering a conservative system and therefore the total energy E is a con . depending upon the nature of the forcing function. the kinetic energy is (3116) . the transient solution oscillates with constant amplitude. (369). Adding the individual potential energies to obtain the total.1 I! t The potential energy arises from both the gravitational force and the spring force. The terms transient and steadystate should not be taken literally as describing the nature of certain terms in the solution. For the case of a system with one or more roots with positive real parts.Y0 B==O J! B (3114) +k mg From Eqs. In this example. V == mgy 1 + 2 ky2 (3117) the reference point of zero potential energy being taken at y == O.SEC.~g Differentiating Eq. (3113) at t == 0. On the other hand. 34 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 87 Y == Yt + Ys == _lng k + A cos !k 'Vm t + B sin !k 'Vm t (3113) Now we find the constants A and B froln the two given initial conditions. (3113) and (3114). we have yeO) = 0 = Hence A .
. (3115) and (3124).: 123) even though the extreme values of V are not equal to the corresponding extreme values of T. (3122) Thus we see that (3.I = y + mg k (3124) From Eqs. Calling this vertical displacement z. l stant. From Eq."2 " = mgz = 0.2"" 1 m 2g 2 . Evaluating E from its initial value.. we see that (3119) and therefore (3120) On the other hand. 1 1 m 2 g2 V = mgz + 2" ky2 . we choose a constant such that V = 0 when z = O. we find that the complete solution can be written in the form Z = Zo cos /!fn t mg (3125) where Zo = Yo +k (3126) Now let us choose the zero reference for potential energy to be at z that is. + "2 k 1 ( z T mg)2 . Now let us consider the case where the displacement is measured from its equilibrium position. Then. we see by setting dV/dy Y = = 0 that Vmin occurs at T mg and is equal to (3121) Therefore. we can write Z . ":Ie obtain E= T+V= mgyo 1 + 2ky~ (3118) It can be seen that the kinetic energy is maximum when the potential energy is minimum and vice versa. (3116).88 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.
N ow let us integrate both sides of Eq. we obtain or oV oz 2 kz V == ~kZ2 in agreement with Eq. if we use the static equilibrium posItion as the zero reference for potential energy. LINEAR IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM In Sec. from Eq. provided that the reference for zero potential energy is again taken at the static equilibrium position. 12. 35. and (3130) In summary. Note that this expression includes the gravitational as well as the elastic potential energy. 35 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 89 which reduces to 1 V == _kZ2 2 (3127) Therefore. In this case. p == mv (3131) (3132) Thus Newton's law of motion can be written in the form F==p I". where it is assumed that the particle mass is constant and its velocity is measured relative to an inertial frame.kz and. it can be seen that the analysis is simplified by measuring displacements from the position of static equilibrium and setting the potential energy equal to zero at this point. we find that the total energy is E == _1 lni2 2 + _1 kZ2 2 == ~ kz~ 2 (3128) (3129) Also. the total force acting on the particle is . we saw that the linear momentum P of a particle is just the product of its mass and velocity. (388).SEC. (3132) over the time interval 11 to 12 • (3133) where PI and P2 are the values of the linear momentum vector at times 11 . (3127).
Equation (3135) can also be written in terms of its scalar components. The time integral of the force F is known as the impulse fl)T of the force. then the force is known as an impulsive force. but the position cannot change instantaneously for a finite impulse because the velocity remains finite. 3 and t 2 . we find that I ~ == J Fx dt == m(x)2 2 t m(x)l tl .. (3133) and (3134) we obtain a statement of the principle of linear impulse' and momentum: The change in the linear momentum of a particle during a given interval is equal to the total impulse of the external forces acting on the particle over the same interval.mV l . we assume that t2 > t 1 .90 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. in accordance with Eq. The effect of an impulsive force in changing the motion of a particle is expressed entirely by its total impulse $.PI == mV 2 . but the interval may approach zero. that is. fl)T == J F dt t 2 tl (3134) So. The length of time over which the integration proceeds does not influence the result. (3139) . from Eqs. Of course. (3135). respectively. (3135) . We see that the velocity changes instantaneously. but its amplitude becomes very Jarge in such a manner that the time integral of the force remains finite. It is convenient to express an impulsive force of total impUlse $ occurring at time t == T in the form (3136) F == :17 oCt .T) where o(t) is the Dirac delta function defined as follows: B( t) == { 00 o t t *° == 0 (3137) such that r~ t(t)dt = 1 It can be seen that the total impulse due to F is (3138) r~ F dt = fijT r~ t(t  T) dt = fijT in agreement with the original assumption. If the duration of the external force approaches zero. $ == P2 . Choosing an inertial cartesian system in which to express the motion of the particle.
SEC. whereas Eq. is independent of which inertial frame is chosen for viewing the motion of the particle. The vector equation is advantageous at times because it gives the direction as well as the lTIagnitude of the velocity. which equates the total impulse to the change of momentum. 312. as we have seen. which equates the work done on the particle to the change in kinetic energy. (3135) is a vector equation. On the other hand. This is the principle of conservation of linear momentum. (3132) we see that if the external force F equals zero. as shown in Fig. (370). If the force F is given as a function of time. Assuming that a known external z J~~y x Fig. and Eq. This is in contrast to the calculations of work and the change of kinetic energy which. we note from Eq. Similarly. respectively. (3135) or by integrating Eq. From Eq. (143) with respect to time. scalar equations are often easier to use. reveals some interesting qualitative differences. A particle moving over a fixed path under the action of an external force. are dependent upon a specific frame of reference. These equations are obtained directly from Eq. find a general method for calculating speed changes of the particle. (370) is a scalar equation. First. then the corresponding component of the momentunl is conserved during that interval. (3139) that if any component of F is zero for a certain interval of time. Example 37. and consequently the change i~ linear momentum. 35 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 91 where the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate that the evaluations of the given velocity components are to. but if F is given as a function of position. force F acts on the system. be made at II and 12 . Eq. then work and energy methods can be used to advantage. 312. . impulse and momentulTI methods are usually called for. A particle m slides along a frictionless wire that is fixed in inertial space. (3135). A comparison of Eq. Another point of interest is that the total impulse fl7. then the linear momentum p is constant.
of the external force F. If r is the position vector of the particle z x Fig. then the moment of momentum or angular momentum about 0 is given by . Now let us consider the momentum vector as a sliding vector whose line of action passes through the particle.92 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. 313. ds = ~ m(S)~ . We have seen that the linear momentum of a particle with respect to a fixed reference frame is the vector mY. (141) and (241) that Fs == ms (3140) where Fs is the component. Eq. respect to time.~ m(s)~ (3142) 36. can be applied directly. (367). Integrating Eq. Note that the frictionless constraint forces are normal to the path and do not contribute to Fs. we find from Eqs. where m is the mass of the particle and v is its absolute velocity. we obtain S Fs dt == m(s)2 t2 tl m(s)l (3141) Thus we obtain an essentially onedimensional or scalar version of the equation of impulse and momentum that applies to motion along a fixed curve In space. with respect to a fixed reference point 0. and s is the tangential component of the acceleration. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND ANGULAR IMPULSE Angular Momentum. along the tangential direction. the equation of work and kinetic energy. resulting in S: F. (3140) with. Of course. 313. 3 If at each instant we take components of force and acceleration along the path. A particle moving relative to a fixed point o. as shown in Fig.
we obtain (3146) (3147) M==H which is a statement of the important principle that the moment about a fixed point of the total external force applied to a particle is equal to the time rate of change of the angular momentum of the particle about the same fixed point. 36 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 93 H == r X mv (3143) Let us differentiate this equation with respect to time and note that v == r. Thus. We find that r X F == r X mr (3145) and ilnmediately identify the left side of the eGuation as the nloment M of the total external force F about the fixed point o. and (3146). In this case. one . each equation can be interpreted as relating the moment and the rate of change of angular momentum about the corresponding fixed axis passing through the point o. M==rxF Then. the angular momentum H must be constant in magnitude and direction. == F r X Inr (3144) Now let us consider again Newton's law of motion written in the form == mr and take the cross product of each side with the position vector r. from Eqs. of the components of M might vanish. choosing a fixed cartesian coordinate system.SEC. one obtains the scalar equations: Mx == Hx My == Hy Mz := (3148) Hz I When written in this manner. We see from Eq. This is known as the principle of conservation 0. the angular momentum is essentially scalar I . The general vector relationship given by Eq. this reduces to H .conserved . This would require the angular momentum about the corresponding axis to be. •A.( angular momentunl. (3147) that for the case where the external moment M is zero. 314). So we can see that even though the total angular momentum is not conserved in a given case. similar situation occurs when the motion of a particle is confined to a plane (Fig. since the cross product of a vector with itself is zero. (3147) can also be written in terms of its components.. (3144). We obtain o H == r X }}1r +t X tnt and. (3145)..
94 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. 314. (2) a re. is directed out of the page. Let us assume that the velocity of the particle m has radial and tangential components given by Vr V4> == f == rro (3149) where ro is the angular velocity of the radius vector as it moves in the plane of the particle motion. in accordance with the righthand rule. we obtain that (3151) where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the values of the variable at the arbitrary times t 1 and t 2. Returning briefly to a more general discussion of the angular momentum of a particle. Specifically. (3147) is based upon Newton's law of motion and also because t and v are assumed to be equal. in nature since its direction is fixed. respectively. The motion of a particle in a plane. The angular momentum is of magnitude H == mrv4> == mr2 (i) (3150) and. 3 . Fig. (3147). we can state that the reference frame must be inertial and the reference point must be fixed in that frame. Now let us assume that the particle is acted upon by radial forces only. regardless of the manner of their variation.ference point O? Eliminating at the outset the trivial case where the reference point 0 is chosen to coincide with the particle. the applied moment M will be zero at all times. Then. We note that H is independent of Vr since the line of action of the corresponding component of linear momentum passes through the reference point O. From Eq. and therefore the angular momentum will be conserved. (3150). These requirements arise because the derivation of Eq. ~ ) I . in the analysis of the general motion of a single particle. what constitutes a proper choice of (1) a reference frame for calculating the linear momentum vector. let us consider what latitude is permissible in the application of Eq.
(3152) Also.SEC. (3152) and (3153). we obtain the principle of angular ilnpulse and momentum: Jl't' == H2 . 315. then. In this example. the reference point being the same fixed point in each computation. Quite frequently. The equation of linear impulse and mOlnentuln was obtained by integrating Newton's equation of motion with respect to time. l f 2 Hdt • l. to the choice of a reference point fixed in an inertial frame. Example 38. starting with Eq. the proper choice of the reference point can greatly clarify the analysis of a problem and simplify its solution. one attempts to choose a reference point such that one or more components of the total angular lTIOmentum are conserved. In a similar fashion.HI (3154) This equation states that the change in the angular momentum of a particle over an arbitrary time interval is equal to the total angular impulse of the external forces acting on the particle during that interval. equating the righthand sides of Eqs. Nevertheless. (3147). M==H we can integrate each side with respect to time over an arbitrary interval tl to t 2 • The time integral of the moment M is called the angular impulse and is designated by vf't'. namely. 315). Angular Impulse. A particle of mass m slides along a frictionless horizontal track in the form of a logarithmic spiral If its initial speed is Vo when () == 0. I .HI (3153) So. == H2 . the only force acting on the particle is the track force F I 1 Fig . find the speed of the particle as a function of () and also the magnitude of the track force acting on the particle (Fig. A particle moving along a logarithmic spiral. 36 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 95 The question reduces.
from Eq. writing the result in terms of fj and of the curve.(jf Fig. we find from the equation of the spiral that rfj f . (3156) and the equation . (3147) that the moment of the track force about 0 must be constant. we obtain G. (3155). H == mrvo sin a and therefore . the speed along the track is constant: v == Vo Also. == a (3155) implying that the ratio of radial to transverse velocities is constant.96 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. (3157) and (3158). using Eq. 3. we obtain 2 F == mv sin a _0 r (3159) or. where 1 tan a == a (3156) as can be seen from Fig. Radial and transverse displacements in an infinitesimal interval ~t. 316. 1J t . Therefore. F which is normal to the direction of motion. Therefore the angle between the radial line from 0 and the tangent to the curve is constant. since fI about that point is constant. 316 and Eq. The moment is seen to be M == Fr cos a (3158) Equating the righthand sides of Eqs. I. Let this angle be a. The track force is calculated from the rate of change of angular momentum about O. rO.mv~ sin a cos a (3157) We see from Eq. (3140). fI == mfvo sin a == .
since the motion consists of pure translation in which all points in the Inass have identical values of velocity and acceleration. the analysis case gravity acts on the system in a direction parallel to the spring. The force cx.3 Writing the differential equation for Inotion in the x direction using Eq. 317. is dissipative in nature. 37 DYNAMICS OF A . (a) The nlassspringdamper system. where x is measured from the unstressed position of the spring.SEC. (143). m (0) (b) Fig. THE MASSSPRINGDAMPER SYSTEM Let us consider the oneditnensional motion of the system shown in Fig. In this case.PARTICLE 97 (3160) 37. 3 In . we obtain mx == cx or kx + F(t) (3161) mx + cx + kx == F(t) This secondorder linear differential equation with constant coefficients is quite important in the analysis of mechanical vibrations. the equations are unchanged but the term kx corresponds to the sum of the gravitational and spring forces "(see Example 36). We can treat the tnass m as though it were a particle in this case. 317(b). The spring force kx is directed opposite to the displacement x. and is due to a linear viscous damper with a damping coefficient c. then we can measure the displacement x from the equilibrium position. The forces acting on the mass are shown in Fig. 317(a). Even for the case of certain more complex systems. and undergo identical displacements relative to their initial positions. which is directed opposite to the velocity vector at all times. (b) A freebody diagram showing the forces acting on the mass m. Many simple vibrating systems can be adequately represented using only a single degree of freedom.
(3161). The roots of the characteristic equation are A. we obtain the homogeneous equation in the following form: x + 2~ronx + ro. (We shall assume throughout this discussion that ~ is zero or positive. Finally. We assume a solution of the form x == Ce At and substitute it into Eq. thereby obtaining the characteristic equation (3166) where we have omitted the common factor Ce At since it cannot be zero for cases of interest.98 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.) For the undamped case. 0 roots are 4 Note <~< 1. each with a single degree of freedom. the roots are A. Proceeding with the solution of Eq. we find for the underdamped case.2 == ~ron + ron. 3 can be accomplished in terms of the motion of independent vibrating systems. (3162) by m and using Eqs. .x == 0 (3165) The transient solution is obtained by using the same procedure that was used in Example 36.I 2 == J + iron (3169) The transient solution is of the form in agreement with the result found in Example 36. (3165). we first find the transient solution Xt which is the solution to the homogeneous equation (3162) mx + ex + kx == 0 It is convenient to introduce at this point the undamped natural frequency4 Cl)n = J!!n c (3163) and the damping ratio ~ == 2v'km (3164) Then. (3163) and (3164).v~2  1 (3167) (3168) and the transient solution is It is convenient to express the transient solution in different forms. More generally.l. that the that this is actually circular frequency and the units are radians per unit time. depending upon the value of the damping ratio. ~ == 0. the mathematical methods used here are readily extended to the more com· plicated linear systems to be considered later. Transient Solution. dividing Eq. as will be shown in Chapter 9.
>nt(C 1 cos ro n "v'1 .~2 t + C 2 sin ro n "v'1 . . For the critically damped case. Noting that the transient solution constitutes the entire solution for this case. 37 /\'1. we find in a similar manner that (0 I <~< 1) (3175) I and I (3176) /. From Eq.2 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 99 == . (3172). (3170) is (3171) where C and f) are the two arbitrary constants required in the solution of the secondorder equation.~2 is the damped natural. Let us assume general initial conditions x(O) == Xo and x(O) == Vo. the arbitrary constants can be evaluated immediately from the initial conditions. the roots are identical. ~ > 1. the transient solution for this case is of the form (3172) Finally. (3171) is used. a pair of negative real roots occurs.frequency rod. An alternative form of Eq.>n t (~> 1) (3173) For the case of free Inotion wherein F(t) == 0. (3170). (3167).SEC.ron According to the theory of ordinary differential equations.>nt + C2 e<tv12=T)c.~2 t) (0 <~< 1) (3170) The constant ron~ 1 .~ ron + iro n "v'1 . we obtain that the free motion of a critically damped system with arbitrary initial conditions is . The transient solution is of the form Xt == C 1 e(t+V~2=1)c.>nt(x cos ro o nV /1  y2 ~ t + Vo . /\'1.2 == . ~2 and the transient solution is Xl == etc. as shown in Eq. we can solve for C 1 and C 2 in Eq. ~ == I.vl~ronxo sin + _ ro n ~2 ro nV II  y2 ~ t) (3174) (0 <~< 1) If the alternative form of Eq. for the overdamped case.:. obtaining Then we can write X == etc.
On the other hand. =1 (b) x b> (c) 1 Fig.v ~2 . for ~ > 1. (3173) that x == e~6)nt {[('v'~2 2. we have seen that the transient response has the form of an oscillation whose envelope decreases exponentially.Vo e"'.   211'/ Wn 11 . (c) overdamped. the kinetic energy of the mass plus the potential energy of the spring.2 0<'<1 (0) +~t . for the free motion of an overdamped system.t} (s > 1) (3178) 'c \ 1 Typical plots showing the transient response of a massspringdamper system are shown in Fig.100 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.1 . that is. 318 for various values of the damping ratio ~. we obtain from Eq. Thus. must decrease or x ~~+~~~~t . 318..1 ~)xo . ~ ) I remain constant. 3 (3177) Similarly. (b) critically damped.f. For 0 < ~ < 1. The system is passive and therefore the total energy. a plot of the displacement versus time crosses the time axis at equal intervals for an indefinite period of time.~216)nt ron J + [(~S2  1 + s)xo + ::J ev't'l". Typical transient solutions for a massspringdamper system which is (a) underdamped. a similar plot .
Eq. (k . equivalently. it can never again pass through x == O. we can see from Eq. Now let us consider the steadystate response of a massspringdamper system which is being driven by the sinusoidal force F(t) == Fo cos rot (3180) In accordance with the method of undetermined coefficients (Example 36). For the underdan1ped case (0 < S < 1). is just the square of the amplitude ratio.vT=t2·~ is constant. or (3179) It is convenient to think of the logarithmic decreInent in tenns of the ratio of successive positive peak amplitudes. Ineasured at successive displacement n1aximums. After the mass stops and reverses its direction of motion. The natural logarithm of this amplitude ratio is called the iogarithnlic decrement S. that is. From the sin rot terms we obtain ). 37 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 101 can cross the time axis only once at the most.mro 2 ) cos (rot Expanding cos (rot that + ¢) . == A cos (rot + cP) (3181) where A and ¢ are the coefficients to be evaluated. then.moo 2 ) sin ¢ + Coo cos ¢] sin oot = ~o cos oot N ow we equate the coefficients of the same variable parts on the left and right sides of the equality. Therefore the ratio of total energies. It can be seen. we find [(kmro 2 ) cos cP . But we also recall that the total energy is proportional to x~lax since the kinetic energy is zero at these moments of zero velocity.SEC. we obtain A(k . Steadystate Solution for a Sinusoidal Input. that 20 is the natural logarithm of this energy ratio. (3161).Acro sin (rot + ¢) == Fo cos rot + ¢) and sin (rot + cp) and collecting terms. let us assume a solution of the form Xs == C 1 cos rot Xs + C 2 sin rot or.mro 2 ) sin cP + Cro cos cP == 0 I .[(k . by ~t == 27t/ron. (3174) that the ratio of the displacements at any two instants separated by one period ofJhe dan1ped vibration. Substituting into the differential equation of motion.Cro sin ¢] cos rot .
319 that the amplification factor is unity for 00 == 0.. when the forcing frequency ro is equal to the • 6~~~~r. 319..102 or DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. In a similar fashion.. 3 1> == tan.moo2)2 Fo + C2oo2 vI[1 . o (J)/W 2.. It can be seen from Fig. ~ "0 "\ .1 ( Coo ) k .: \.mro 2 == tan. we obtain from the cos oot terms that (k . 2 E 1 ~ '...(ro2/oo~)]2 (Folk) cos (oot + [2t(oo/OOn)]2 + 1» (3 184)  where 1> is given by Eq. 5 .. . 0 u 0 :.(ro2/ro~)]2 + [2t(oo/ro n)]2 From Eqs..: c: 0 3 u c::{ a. i . ~ It. Also..1 [ 2t(oo/OOn) ] 2 1 . The amplification factor is the ratio of the amplitude A of the steadystate solution to the static deflection Folk due to a constant force of magnitude Fo.. .(ro Ioo~) (3182) . we can write the steadystate solution: I : x s  ~[1 . Amplification factor versus frequency.m( 2) cos cp  em sin cp = ~o Folk (3183) or A == vI(k ..319 and 320.=0 4 0 . regardless of the damping ratio t..0 n Fig.. .. (3182).. (3181) and (3183). Plots of the amplification factor AI(Folk) and the phase angle 1> are shown in Figs.
regardless of the damping ratio t. The complete solution for the case of certain given initial conditions is .) (J) "2 7T Q . Furthermore. A ma. The result is (3185) It can be seen that a resonance or peaking effect occurs in all curves for t < 1/ ~ 2 .90° at (r) == (r)n.5 4 "'SQ.0 o~~~r~r.'' 0. the phase angle is zero and for W ~ Wm the phase angle is approximately . for any finite value of t. 37 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 103 undamped natural frequency rom the amplification factor is 1/(2t).SEC.5 1. In other words.180°.5 2.7 ( . (3183) with respect to W/wn and setting this derivative equal to zero. we can solve for the resonant frequency.0 1.0 2. = (~o) 2S~~=~2 (3186) Froln Eq. By differentiating Eq. the steadystate displacement lags the 3. The peak anlplitude is found from Eqs. 320 we note that the phase angle ¢ lies in the range 0 < ¢ < .) 'IT c 0 0 (J\ Q.r::. This can be used in vibration testing as . Steadystate phase angle versus frequency.. a sensitive criterion to determine the undamped natural frequency ron' It indicates that the velocity and the force are in phase and therefore that work is being done on the system throughout the cycle. (3183) and (3185). _3'IT 4 rr~ ____ ~ ____ ~ __ ~ ____ ~ ____ ~ ____ ~ Fig. (3182) or Fig. input force by from 0° to 180°. for W == 0. Of particular interest is the point that ¢ == . The resonant frequency Wr is the frequency of maximum amplification for a given value of t. 320.
3 the sum of the transient solution as given by Eq. 321. ( ! 1 ____~~f o (0) u(t) o ( b) Fig. The two arbitrary constants in the transient solution are evaluated from the initial conditions upon velocity and displacement which are applied to the complete solution. (3170). It can be seen that the steadystate solution in this case is simply u(t) ) ·C. For example. Let us consider next the response of a massspringdamper system to a force of unit magnitude applied at t = O. A unit step function and the corresponding response of an underdamped system.xs(O) = . 321(a). Unit Step and Unit Impulse Responses. They are just the negative of the steadystate values at t = O.k (3188) Xt(O) = xs(O) = 0 So we can write down the transient solution directly from results obtained previously. (3172). for t.he underdamped case.104 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. we find from Eq. we obtain 1 xtCO) = . we can immediately solve for the initial conditions on the transient portion of the solution. or (3173) and the steadystate solution of Eq. (3187) Assuming that the initial velocity and displacement are zero for the complete solution. (3'184). We use the notation F(t) = u(t) where the unit step function u(t) is plotted in Fig. (3 . In this particular example of a unit step forcing function.
vl . The velocity changes instantaneously because of the unit impulse. Now let us find the response to a unit impulse at t == 0. we can write V(/) = k [1  et".S2 t ) ] (0 < s< 1) (3190) For the critically dan1ped or overdalTIped cases. The transient and complete solutions are identical in this case because the steadystate solution is zero.v'klm. From Eqs. 321 (b). and noting that ron == . Then.. (3137) and (3138) that the delta function is a pulse of infinite alTIplitude and infinitesin1al width occurring at t == O. Hence the conditions immediately after the impulse are x(O+) == 0 x(O+ ) == 1. Perhaps the principal reason for introducing the unit step and unit impulse responses in the discussion of the massspring . that is.jl  S2 I  k. but the displacement is unc~anged since a finite time is required for the mass to move a finite distance. since the total impulse acting on the mass due to this force is unity.t (  k cos cvn. we again consider the underdamped case. the case where the forcing function is F(t) == oCt) Recall from Eqs..jl (0 1) S2 I ) (3189) < s< Adding Eqs. Note that it is identical in shape to the transient solution for the case of an initial displacen1ent. m (3191) These serve as initial conditions for the transient solution.j1 S_ S2 sin cvn.t (cos cvn". 37 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 105 174) that the transient solution is Xt = et".j/_ S2 sin cvn. Convolution Integral. the change in linear momentum must also be unity.. nalnely. we obtain the complete response. in accordance with Eq.SEC.. x == 11k. the complete solution Vet) is obtained in a similar Inanner.. we find that the response to a unit impulse at t == 0 is (3192) The response h(t) to a unit impulse input is known' as the weighting . Designating this response to a unit step function by V(t). (3187) and (3189).function for the system. (3135). As an example. The unit step response for the underdamped case is plotted in Fig.l  S2 I + . (3174) and (3191). but the oscillations occur about the new static equilibrium position..
. and so on. We consider F(t) to be composed of a sequence of infinitesimal impulses. xl(O) + )(2(0). 3 damper is that this system is an example of a linear system. Xl (0). Also. x Of course. the superposition principle can be extended to more than two inputs or forcing functions. or some combination of these. It is interesting to note that we have already applied the principle of superposition in obtaining the complete solution to a differential equation as the sum of the transient and steadystate solutions. and so on. displacement. and the various system parameters do not change with time.106 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. but could be a given velocity. assuming the initial conditions are xl(O) + xlO). Now let us apply the principle of superposition to the problem of finding the response of a linear timeinvariant system to an arbitrary forcing function F(t). and if x2(t) is the response of the same system to an input F 2(t) for initial conditions x 2(0). not by the absolute F(f) f o T t (a) F(t) ~ F(O) dT~ r+(fT) I I I f f o (b) Fig. The principle of superposition can be stated as follows: If Xt(t) is the response 0. and so on.T) since (t . The response of the system at time t due to a unit impulse at time T is just h(t . the response due to a given impulse is determined solely by the time interval since that impulse. In other words. and the principle of superposition applies. 2(0).( a linear system to an input FI(t) for initial conditions Xl (0). Quantities used in the convolution integral. that is. it is a system described by linear differential equations. 322.T) is the interval between the time of the impulse and the time of observation. and so on. then X1(t) + xlt) is the response of that system to the input Fl(t) + F 2(t). the input need not be a force.
Assuming that the initial conditions are all zero. An alternative forn1 of Eq. we obtain x(t) t > 0 with all = S: h(t . F(O) is determined in a similar manner.( . 37 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 107 time. assuming the actual initial conditions.r) F' (r) dr where the prime indicates differentiation of the function with respect to its argument.T)F' (T) dT I" where we use as the lower limit on the integral a small positive quantity € to emphasize that the value of F'(O) is normally finite and is measured to the right of any discontinuity of F(r) at the origin. the following integral results: (3193) For the COn11TIOn situation where the response is desired for initial conditions equal to zero. Considering the forcing function F(t) to be composed of a series of step functions applied in sequenceFig. (3194) the transient solution for F(t) == 0. Of course. (3. by the principle of superposition. is just the sUln of the individual responses.r)F(r) dr Now. Now we can write . considered as a series of impulses. the total response at tilne t due to the effect of all previous portions of the forcing function. 322(b).T)F(T) dT (3194) If the initial conditions are not all zero. 322a) is given by h(t . In the 1imiting case of infinitesilnal impulses. we superimpose the effects of all the infinitesimal step functions as previously giv"en and. we add to the convolution integral of Eq. Additional forms of the convolution integral can be obtained in terms of the unit step function response.T)dT (3195) where r is now interpreted as the interval between the impulse and the time of observation. Therefore the response of the system at time t due to an impulse of magnitude F(r) dr at tilne r (Fig. SEC.r). we can see that the response at time t due to a step functiQn of amplitude F'(r) dr applied at time r is U(t . The result is x(t) = S>(T)F(t . in addition.194) can be written by interchanging the roles of rand (t . The result is x(t) = F(O) U(t) + If! S: U(t . include the term F(O)U(t) which is the response at time t due to an initial step function of magnitude F(O).
we can use Eq. (3192) and the convolution integral in the form given by Eq. F(t) == u(t) Using the impulse response of Eq. (3137) and (3138) we see that the step function u(t) can be expressed as u(t) = (= O(T) dT (3198) t Differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to f. Continuing this discussion of the application of superposition methods to linear systems.108 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.... As an example of the use of the convolution integral. From the definition of the delta function given by Eqs. let us calculate the response of an underdamped massspringdamper system to' a unit step forcing function. First. that is.e. using the massspringdamper as an example.T) dT == k. (3195) to obtain U(t) =[ h(T)U(t .T) == 0 for T the form U (t) > t. But U(t) can also be written in (3201) == U (0) u( t) +.)nT sin ro ~ 1 .v'1 . we obtain du(t) == o(t) dt (3199) Now let us calculate the unit· impulse response of a system in terms of its unit step response. 3 x(t) An alternate form is = = F(O) U(t) + + f: U(t  ~)F' (T) dT T)dT (3196) x(t) F(O)U(t) s: U(T)F'(t  (3197) where T has the same meaning as in Eq.~2 n T dT Evaluating this integral.T) dT (3200) where we note that u(t .·t (cos Ct)n~l  S2 t + ~T ~t2 sin Ct)n~ 1 . let us consider further the unit step and unit impulse responses. noting that occurs in the upper limit of the integral. f 0 tdU d t (T) d T . (3195).)nT kJl _ ron S2 sin Ct)n~l . we obtain U(t) = f t 0 ro eS(.~2 ft 0 eS(.S2 t ) ] in agreement with the result obtained in Eq. the result is U(t) = ! [1 . (3190) by other methods. (3195).S2 T u(t .
where. it can be seen from Eq. 37 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 109 where we take dU t d (0) == hm d (e) £+0 . I n case there is a discontinuity in Vet) at t == 0.U(O)S(t) + ~~ (3203) This means that the unit impulse response is the time derivative of the unit step response. if x(t) is the response of a given system to an input F(t). or as a sequence of impulses.h(t) (3202) since h(r) is essentially constant in the infinitesilnal interval around r == t and the integrand is zero for r =I=. This last situation is not COlnnl0n in mechanical systems because it implies that the response magnitude does not drop off to zero in the limit for an increasingly high input frequency. Equating the righthand sides of Eqs. then x(t) is the response of the same system to an input F(t). Now. Find the steadystate response of an undamped massspring system to an input force which is a square wave of amplitude A and period T (see Fig. . (3138) that 5:' her) Set  r) dr . furthermore. (3199) that the derivative of a unit step function is a unit ilnpulse. we must include an impulse of magnitude U(O) to account for the sharp leading edge. that the unit impulse function is the time derivative of the unit step function. Since a general input or output function can be considered to be composed of a sequence of small superimposed step functions. dU t (e > 0) In order to avoid difficulties with discontinuities in the derivative at the onglll.t. we conclude that the differentiation of a general input to a linear system results in the differentiation of the output. We observe. then. and since the superposition principle applies to these linear systems. 323). Thus a differentiation of the input function has resulted in the differentiation of the response. (3200) and (3201) and differentiating with respect to tilne'l we obtain dU o her) oCt . Hence we obtain the important result: h(t) . that the unit ilnpulse response is the time derivative of the unit step response and. allowance is made for nonzero initial values of x(t) or F(t) in the manner previously described. of course. Example 39.r) dr == U(O) oCt) + di f oO where we recall from Eq.SEC. In other words. Our approach will be to represent the square wave by its Fourier series and to sum the steadystate responses to the individual terms in order to obtain the complete steadystate solution.
we obtain 2A an == . (3184) and setting ~ == 0.2. T ~ A I I 4 T T ! 3T t 4 4 Fig.. )] T (3206) where we note that the constant term is the average value of the function. For convenience we shall use the notation ro == T 27t Then. a periodic functionJ(t) of period T can be represented by the Fourier series (3204) where 2 an == T bn == T fT/2 T/2 fT/2 T/2 2n7tt J(t) cos . 1.[ 1 2 4 + 7t ( cos 27tt . 3 . 3... A square wave of amplitude A. 323.. we have taken the origin for the square wave such that it is an even function of time. In general.T dt J(t) • (n (n == 0.3. period T. ) (3205) 2 SIn .. we obtain the total response Xs == ~ [1 2k +.T dt 2n7tt == 1. obtaining the steadystate response for each term from Eq. (3205) that all the bn are zero.. ) Thus the Fourier series representation of the square wave is A F ( t) == .. Consequently. 2.1 cos 67tt T 3 T 1 + 5 107tt cos ..dt T/4 T == lA 2A sin n 7t n7t 2 (n == 0) (n == 1.. Solving for the an.~ n ~ 7t odd cos nrot ] 1 . . ) In this instance..(ro/ro n )2 (3207) The procedure used here to calculate the steadystate response of a massspring system to a square wave input can be extended to calculate the steadystate response of a more general linear timeinvariant system which is excited .2.. it can be seen from Eq. ..110 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. T fT/4 2n7tt cos ... F{t) .
L depends only upon the roughness of the sliding surfaces and the materials used. . like other frictional forces.SEC. As an illustration of Coulomb friction. assuming the positive directions for F f and Vr are the same. It is also dissipative because the force always opposes this relative motion. Thus we can state that (3208) where the coefficient of sliding . and thereby continuously absorbs energy so long as the relative velocity exists. but is independent of the contact area and the magnitude of the relative velocity. on block A has a component N which is normal to the flat contact surface and a component f. Now let us consider the force associated with Coulomb or sliding friction.. the function sgn (v r ) has the value + 1. 38 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 111 by a periodic function. but is not linear. A vr . 38.LN parallel to that surface and oppos~ng the relative motion. so long as sliding exists.is dissipative. 324. pN (b) Fig. 324(b) for the case of a constant normal force N.. as shown in Fig. suppose block A slides \vith a velocity Vr relative to block B. The case of Vr = 0. The force of block B acting F. case can have any nlagnitude less than that required to initiate sliding. that is. no sliding. · '. the sign of V r • The Coulomb friction force Ff is plotted against the relative velocity Vr in Fig. COULOMB FRICTION We have seen that a lumped viscous damper is a linear element. the actual magnitude normally being obtained from the equations of statics. One merely represents the input function by its Fourier series and sums the solutions resulting from the sinusoidal or constant input terms considered separately. the force which it exerts on the external system varies linearly with the relative velocity of its ends. in this case. the force required to initiate sliding is some . This sort of force. deserves some comment. th'at is. I v. The force of Coulomb friction.N PNtN (0) ". The force of friction in this. 324. 8 p. Actually. The classical law of sliding friction states that this' frictional force is directly proportional to the normal force N. depending upon the sign of its argument. Also.friction f..
We shall assume. however. .> . As an example of this approach. but aids in the analysis of more complicated situations. that the maximum frictional force magnitude is JLN. It can be seen (Fig. 324(b). a cone of semivertex angle cp whose symmetry axis is normal to the contact surface. consider the frictional moment arising from the flat end of a circular rotating shaft of radi us a being pressed against a plane surface with a total force N. or within. With these assumptions. the angle between this force and the normal is exactly cp. 325. Assuming a uniform normal pressure or compressive stress at the contact area A. 3 o. . it can be seen that the direction of the force of block B acting on block A must lie within an angle cp from the normal to the surface. For a more general case. (3209) Furthermore. when slipping actually occurs. we obtain a uniform frictional stress of magnitude 'T J == JL A N == 7ta 2 JLN which is everywhere in a direction normal to a radial line drawn from the center of the circular contact area. such as those involving curved contact surfaces or nonuniform pressure or velocity distributions. Frictional stresses on a rotating circular surface. as shown in Fig. such as sliding blocks. where tan 4> == JL .112 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. it is helpful to consider the force of sliding friction as arising from a frictional shear stress at the contact area that is equal to JL times the normal pressure.. 325) that the moment Fig.\ I what larger than that required to sustain it. This gives the same results for the simpler cases. since JL is the ratio of the tangential and normal components. ~ i I due to an annular element of width dr and area 27tr dr is dM == JLN 27tr2 dr 7ta 2 The total frictional moment is . Thus the force vector lies on.
in turn. we obtain or (3210) The distance d that A slides relative to B can be obtained by equating the change of kinetic energy during the sliding process to the work done against friction . + rnB)2f == JLrnAgd V (3211) where we note that the normal force at the contact surface is mAg. If /1.SEC. 326). the friction force is zero.2 rnA. == 0. and the relative Inotion consists of rolling motion at the contact points. The energy lost due to friction can be calculated by multiplying the frictional force on a given eleillental area by the relative velocity at that point and integrating over the contact area and over the required time interva1. Equating the total linear momenta before and after the sliding of A on B. the relative velocity at the point of contact is zero. It can be seen that no energy is dissipated in friction for either a perfectly smooth or a perfectly rough surface. since there is no net external force acting on the system consisting of the two blocks. If the initial velocities are vA(O) == Vo and v flO) == 0. Block A can slide relative to block B which. can slide on a perfectly sn100th horizontal plane (Fig. and inlplies that no slipping can occur.co. Both bodies must have the same velocity at any points of contact in the latter case.fectly rough surface corresponds to JL . On the other hand. in the latter case. find the final velocities of the two blocks and the distance that A slides relative to B. that is. 1 2 1( "2 rnA Vo . Solving . 326. Coulomb friction between sliding blocks.fectly smooth. The final velocity Vf is the same for both blocks and can be obtained by applying the principle of conservation of linear momentum. a per. 38 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 113 M == 211N _t""_ 2 a fa r2 dr == 2 3 0 JLNa indicating that the average Inoment arm is 2a/3. the contact surface is said to be per. Example 310. Fig. 1n the former case.
(3213) where XA is the absolute displacement of A during the sliding process. If the mass is released from a positive initial displacement x o. I 114 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.kxo is greater in magnitude than the friction force J.Lmg (x ~ I Although the Coulomb friction force is nonlinear in nature.Lg ~ [1 .. the corresponding equation is mx == J. the initial acceleration is negative. For block A.(1 + ::) v}] from Eq. 327(a). we obtain d  . (3210) and (3211). we obtain d == mA (  mA m~) + mB 2J. So long as the velocity x is negative. Example 311.(1 + mB/mA )] 1 m/lV~ 2J.Lg(m A + m/J) in agreement with Eq.2J. (3214) The displacement of A relative to B is. d Substituting for VI = XA  Xn = 2!g [v~ .Lmg.2J. There is Coulomb friction between the mass and the horizontal surface on which it slides. it can be seen that Eqs. (3215) and (3216) are both linear. (3212). Superposition does not apply to this system because the switching does not occur as an explicit function of time. the differential equation for the motion is mx + kx == Jlmg + kx (x < 0) > 0) (3215) (3216) Conversely.Lm A g . A massspring system is connected as shown in Fig. 3 \ I I for the distance d from Eqs. Assuming that the initial spring force .Lg(m A v~  rnBV~ + mB) (3212) Another approach to this problem is to use the principle of work and kinetic energy on each mass separately. if x is positive. from Eqs. (3210). (3213) and (3214). solve for x as a function of time. measured from the unstressed position of the spring. Thus. the work done by the friction force acting on block B is equated to the increase in its kinetic energy. but is deter I . we equate the work done against the friction force to the loss in kinetic energy. the nonlinearity consists of switching between the two linear equations" the choice being determined by the sign of x. Similarly.
the steadystate solutions) are x for x < or x > 0. 327.g) cos where COn <iJnt (0 < t < :J == . mined by the response. A massspring system with Coulomb damping. The solution can be obtained in the same manner as f9r an undamped massspring system that is excited by a constant force (see Example 36). 38 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 115 (0) x I I jtmg k I t k~mg i 'j' I I I I (b) Fig. respectively. (3215) and (3216).f. After a halfcycle the displacement is x ==  Xo + 2 fLmg k .L. Hence the solution for the first halfcycle is ° S == +fLmg  k (3217) x= f. depending upon the forcing function and initial conditions.g + (xo . except that the sign of the forcing function must be reversed after each halfcycle of the response. .SEC. We have seen that the response to a step function input consists of an oscillation about the static equilibrium position. we can see that the static equilibrium positions (in this case.L. From Eqs.vkim. Thus it could occur at various times.
It is clear.. consider a simple pendulum of length I whose mass m moves on a vertical circular path centered \ \ I \ \ I I \ \ '\ I / / ". This is in contrast to the exponential envelope that occurs with linear damping. that.Lmg == ..Lmg/k. Therefore a straight line can be drawn through successive positive (or negative) peaks of the oscillation.... regardless of JL..116 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP.. Another point of interest is that the period is Iron whenever oscillations occur. as given by X J. whereas the period for the case of a linear damper increases with the damping ratio..z. 27t 39. + I "... of course. We have assumed that Xo is positive..(2n . if Xo were negative. the solution for the succeeding halfcycles consists of oscillations about one or the other of the two dashed lines of Fig. however.. .z.1) f.. is found to be x = (_1)n1 f..Lm g 3 . If the latter inequality does not hold. the solution would proceed in a manner similar to the foregoing solution after the first halfcycle. for the nth halfcycle. 3.+ ( Xo  J.. . A simple pendulum showing the external forces acting on the particle of mass m. 327(b) and.) cos ron t (7t < t < 27t) ron ron In a similar fashion. (3217) that the oscillation amplitude decreases by 2JLmg/k per halfcycle.Umg/k. that Xo > l)J... It can" be seen from Eq.g + [x o . then the oscillation has stopped permanently at (3219) where n in this case is the total number of halfcycles which occur.28.L~g ] cos oon t [en ron1)7t < t < n7tJ ron (2n  (3218) provided..L./ mg Fig. THE SIMPLE PENDULUM As another important example of particle motion. 3 The second halfcycle is an oscillation about .
t o  ~ 2g IT fO 0 ~ cos () . 328).mg sin (j == mle or e + . (3220) directly. Rather than integrating Eq. let us consider the general case of motions of the simple pendulum where () is not necessarily small. The differential equation of Illotion can be obtained by applying Newton's law of motion in ternlS of the tangential components of force and acceleration. Fe == .to) (3222) where (3223) and where ()o is the amplitude of the oscillation and to is the time of a passage through () == 0 in the positive direction. separating the variables and integrating.2 ml 2 ()2  mgl cos () (3224) Again assuming that point. implying that (j Equation (3220) is linearized by this assumption and becomes e+~(j==o I (3221) This equation is of the familiar form associated with harmonic oscillators such as the undalnped massspring system discussed earlier (Example 36).K sin (j == 0 I Consider first the case of sman motion in which sin (j ~ (3220) 101« 1. The solution can be seen to be of the form (j == ()o sin ron (t . t t . ()o is the maximum value of (). (3224) and (3225). E .cos 00 d () (3227) . we can write ()2 . Next.SEC. we can evaluate E at this E == .cos ( 0 ) (3226) I i~ or.mgl cos ()o 2g (3225) Therefore. == T (cos 0 . the total energy is found to be 1 . obtaining . we can obtain the first integral of the motion by using the principle of conservation of energy. In this case. This system has one degree of freedom. taking point 0 as the reference level for potential energy. the corresponding coordinate () being the angular position of the mass m measured from the downward vertical through o. from Eqs. 39 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 117 at the fixed support point 0 (Fig.
ing value of ¢' depends upon maximum amplitude 00 which is expressed in terms of the modulus k.to == '\j g rr St/> v'1 0  d cp k 2 sin2 cp (3228) or t  to = /fF(</J. It can be seen that the time required to reach a certain angle 0. 0 d cp VI .2k2 2 and cos 0 == 1 .2 sin 2 00 == 1 .2 sin2 !L == 1 . (3227) in the following form: t . T == 4 (T S7t/2 Vg 0 VI  dcp = 4 (T K(k) k 2 sin 2 cp '\j g (3230) where K(k) = F(7(/2.k 2 sin2 cf> Hence we can write Eq. For example. This is approximately 18 per cent 'longer than the period 27tffg which applies for the case of small motion. the period increases for increasing 00 and becomes infinite for 00 = 7t.2k2 sin 2 cf> 2 we obtain by differentiation that dO = 2k cos ¢ d¢ v'1 . It ca be put in a standard form by making the substitutions k == sin 00 I 2 and sin cp == sin (0/2) sin (0 0 /2) Noting that cos 00 == 1 .k) where F(.to is the time interval from the passage through () = 0 in the tive direction until reaching the angle ().: I 118 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE I where t . resulting in a period T == 7.4164ffg.St/> '11. or its correspond.k 2 sin2 cP (3229) This integral is known as Legendre's elliptic integral of the first kind.8541. or from <p = 0 to ¢ = 7t /2.I. then k == 1/~ and we find from the tables that K == 1. In general. Equation (3228) can be expressed in the f9rm sin </J = sn fir (t  to) (3231) . k) is called the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. if 00 == 7t/2.. k) . The period T of the oscillation is four times the interval required for the movement from f) == 0 to 0 == 00 . This is an elliptic integral..
we see that Eq. .8~ 2  2g (1 . If k = 1. we obtain 12 2" ml · ()2 or  mgl cos () 12 == 2 ml· ()~ . from the principle of conservation of energy. results in y = sin ifJ = tanhfir (t .cos ()) I l()~ 2 == 8 (1 .mgl and. (3224).4? sin o !L) 2 (3235) We see from energy considerations that 8~ > 4g/I. we find that the total energy is E == 2 1 mI2()~ . Then. We obtain F == fY o 1  dy y2 == tanh . For the case k ~ 1. when substituted into Eq. 39 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 119 where the sn function is known as the Jacobian elliptic function of the first kind. (3231). Now we consider the case where the particle proceeds continuously around the circle in the same direction. (3231) and (3234). for small motion. from Eq. we obtain sin ifJ = ta = sin fir (t .to) in agreement with the expression given in Eq. (3222) for the linearized equations. the elliptic function becomes sn x = tanh x (3233) This equation can be checked by making the substitution y == sin <p in Eq. So let us define .1 Y which. using Eq. that is. This result can also be obtained directly from Eq. The previous solutions for the motion of a simple pendulum have assumed that 8 == 0 whenever () = +()o. corresponding to ()o = 7t. (3229) and evaluating the integral. (3227) by expanding the cosine functions and keeping the first two terms. (3233) applies.to) (3234) Comparing Eqs. It is periodic in its argument with a period 4K. corresponding to a total energy E > mgl. the shape of the function depending upon the modulus k. Suppose that 8 == 80 when () == 0 and t == to.mgl 82  . we can use the approximation sn x '""'' sin x (3232) and.SEC. (3228).
3 I k = 4? 2 10~ < 1 and cp = to I Then Eq. horizontal.to . F . . 4 4 T= . that is.around the circular path. . Nevertheless. (3232) and (3237). and the direction at another. VI 00 0  k2 SIn • _ 2 2 </>  .k = . This effect arises from two sources: (1) the 80 term in the denominator of the righthand side of Eq. (2238). (3235) can be written in the form 1>2 from which we obtain = t8~(1 d~ k 2 sin 2cp) _ 2 Jf/J t .mplete revolution is twice the time required for 0 to go from 0 to Hence. K(k) 80 2 80 ('It ) (3238) It can be seen that the period decreases continuously with increasing 80 if 8~ > 4g/1. EXAMPLES . (2) the inverse variation of k with 80 . Example 312. I I I o'"' 8 (t 0 to) indicating nearly uniform motion . (3236).. Its initial velocity is 500 ft/sec' and it lands at a point such that the trajectory makes an angle of 70° with respect to the .. from Eqs. What is its slant range. the modulus k approaches zero and. This is in contrast to the usual situation where co~plete initial conditions are given. we Ban proceed by first calculating the .' 310. the distance between the firing point arid the impact point? The principal difficulty encountered in the analysis of this problem is that the speed is given at one point of the trajectory. (3237) The period of a cO. Now let us consider several exa~ples whose solutions illustrate the application of various principles of particle' ~ynamics. causing the value of the complete elliptic integral K to decrease with increasing 80 • As 80 becomes very large. k) (3236) Thus the solution is again expressed in terms of elliptic integrals of the first kind. from Eq.120 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. A projectile is fired from the top of a cliff onto a level plain which is 1000 ft below. I I ) I [ 'It. 0 8 F(</>. Again we use the sn function to express the motion of the angle 0 as a function of thne.
g or.000 == 3.144 x 10 5 ft2/sec 2 == 560. 329. 310 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 121 t 1000 ft .SEC. 2 == 390 ft. We find that 2 • 2 2 ') 2 X2 _ Vo sIn ry x + Vi) cos 'Y Y == 0 g .28 X 10 3 x + 2.P Fig. 329..7 ft/sec and an initial angle 'Y == 70°. 5890 ft From Fig. x2 The roots are  6.40 sec . Thus. assuming g . we see that the kinetic energy at P is equal to the kinetic energy plus the potential energy at O. the total range is R== ~X2 + y2 == . we compute the vertex altitude and the corresponding time.28 X 106 == 0 Xl .2 ft/sec 2.7 ft/sec Now we can use the reversibility property of conservative systems and calculate the trajectory due to firing a projectile backwards from point P to o with an initial velocity Vo == 560. but after calculating V p . the smaller root corresponding to the other crossing of the line y == 1000 ft. (319) and (321). impact velocity at P (Fig. == Vo g sin'Y == 16. 329). ~ mv~. (317) by multiplying through by 2v~ cos 2'Y/g and setting y == 1000 ft. The trajectory of a projectile fired onto a lower target. using Eqs.v5890 2 + 10002 == 5980ft A second method of solution again involves the reverse trajectory from P to 0. Using the principle of conservation of energy and assuming that the reference level for potential energy is at P. it can be seen that the larger root is the one giving the horizontal distance of point 0 from point P. Finally. 32. = or V~> Vp 1000 mg + ~ m(500)2 == 2000g + 250. The result is Yv tv v2 == 2g sin 2 'Y == 4320 ft E. The horizontal range x can be obtained from Eq.
as shown in Fig. The only external force that works on the particle is the force of gravity and so we can use conservation' of energy principles in solving for its speed at any point.35 sec t Hence. (315). Since the track is fixed and frictionless. 330. 330(b). From Eq.122 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. we <?btain = t.1000 3320 ft. the force R which it exerts on the particle is I I \ (0) ( b) Fig. Find the minimum starting height h above the bottom of the loop in order that the particle will not leave the track at any point. from Eq.j2(Yv ~ 1000) = 14. normal to the direction of motion at that point and does no work. = . Choosing the reference level for potential energy at the bottom of the loop. the horizontal range is x = vot cos ry = 5890 ft in agreement with the previous result. Example 313.75 sec and. A particle of mass m starts from rest and slides on a frictionless track around a vertical circular loop of radius a. (39). the total time of flight is = tv + t2 = 30. we find that . 330(a). First consider the freebody diagram shown in Fig. 3 Next we calculate the time to fall from the vertex a distance of 4320 . A particle sliding around a smooth vertical loop.
that is. It may be seen that the centripetal acceleration at (j == 7t is just equal to the acceleration of gravity for the borderline case where R == 0 at this point.L between the particle and the belt. The borderline case occurs when the minimum value of R is zero. R 2 == mv + mg cos ()  a From Eqs. We assume that sliding occurs on the interior surface. (3239) and (3240). (3241) and (3242) that (j == 7t rad Hence the particle does not leave the track if h > 5a12. y) of the point where sliding stops. 310 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 123 mgh == 1 2" mv 2 + mga(1 . as shown in Fig. implying that R must be positive at all times when the particle is in contact with the track. There is a coefficient of sliding friction J. It is clear that the particle cannot leave on the straight portions and therefore we shall consider only the circular loop. (254).a + a cos (j) (3239) for any position on the loop.SEC. find the coordinates (x. Assuming that the particle first touches the belt ~t the origin of the fixed xy coordinate system and remains on the belt. 331(a). Also note from Eq. 1 I . Example 314. we see that mg cos (j  R == mar (3240) or. Next let us determine the conditions such that the particle will just fail to leave the track. (3241) that the minimum value of R always occurs at (j == 7t if the particle remains on the track. Hence the required conditions for the particle to leave the track are that R < 0 and R == O. Applying Newton's Jaw of motion to the radial component of the force and the acceleration. substituting for a r from Eq. when the conditions R == 0 and R == 0 occur simultaneously. we obtain R = 3mg cos f) + 2mg (: R == 3mg sin ()  1) (3241) and it follows that (3242) Setting Rand R equal to zero simultaneously we find from Eqs.cos (j) or V 2 == 2g(h . A particle having a mass m and a velocity Vm in the y direction is projected onto a horizontal belt that is moving with a uniform velocity Vb in the x direction.
3 y Belt (a) S topping point vm x' :4 vb (b) y Sliding stops Parabolic path tVm x (c) Fig. Because the frictional force depends upon the motion of the particle relative to the belt. The path of a particle sliding on a moving belt. the particle moves initially with a velocity component Vm in the positive y' direction and a component Vb in the negative x' direction. 331. 331 (b).124 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. In the analysis of this problem we first note that the fixed xy coordif!ate system and' also an x' y' coordinate system which translates uniformly with the belt are both inertial systems. The path of the particle relative to the belt is a straight line since the frictional force directly opposes the motion and there are no horizontal forces perpendicular to the path. As viewed by an observer riding with the belt. it is more convenient to consider first the motion relative to the x' y' system. Let us use the principle of work and kinetic energy to find the stopping . as shown in Fig.
It follows that the time required to stop sliding is just the original speed in the prilned systelTI divided by fLg. let us use the following equations: x == X' + Vbt Y y == V y' Evaluating these equations at the time when sliding stops. Thus we obtain that are the coordinates of the stopping point. a==1!. We have seen that the force of friction during sliding is fLlng. although its magnitude must be fLg as long as sliding continues.::' m + v~ to work entirely in the fixed xy frame.== Y dv dt and therefore I . Therefore. The work done against friction is equal to the loss of kinetic energy. the particle has a constant deceleration of Inagnitude fLg as it n10ves along its straight path. so we can write A. second method of solution is I ! _' 1 . == "2 m (v~ + 1 v~) where d is the stopping distance and the normal force IS Ing. however. we obtain X == _b 2 2fLg A/'v m V 2 + vb. == 2JLg ~ V v2 r.SEC. it is no longer obvious that the acceleration is constant in direction. The direction of the acceleration. t == _1 ~V2 fLg m + v2 b To convert the stopping position back to the fixed xy coordinate system. 310 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 125 point in the x'y' fraine. is always opposite to the relative velocity. Hence the stopping distance is I G == 211g (? + Vb?) vm L Assuming that the particle lTIoved onto the belt at the ongln of the x'y' system.I I (. or fL n1g d . From this viewpoint. we can take conlponents of d in the x' and y' directions to find the stopping point in the prilned systeln.
126 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. both the xy and x'y' systems are inertial. with the result that ay = . 3 or Integrating.of a reference frame can result in a considerable simplification in the analysis of a problem. it can be seen that the proper choice. the position of the particle is x = _1 ax t 2 = ~ ~V2m + v2 2 2J. and hence the direction of the . (37).Lg b 1 + Tayt 2 Y = vmt = 2J.v v2 J.2!!: V ay 1 /= .Lg + m v~  at which time the velocity Vx is which is just the belt velocity.J. From Eq. 331(c).. The time required for the velocity Vy to reach zero is t= .Lg .Jv~ + v~ thereby confirming that the acceleration is constant in direction.. So the sliding in the x and y directions stops simultaneously. This results from the fact that the force of sliding friction acts like a uniform force field in this case. but the motion relative to the belt. as shown in Fig. Comparing the two methods of solution. The path of the particle relative to the fixed xy system is parabolic while sliding occurs.. we obtain or Vx = CV y + Vb Evaluating the constant C from initial conditions we find that This allows the acceleration components to be evaluated. In this example.LgvVm Vm / 2 + Vb2 in agreement with our previous results.
vol. Principles of Mechanics. what is the vertical acceleration of the sphere when <p == 30°? Consider the mass of the sphere to be concentrated at its center. REFERENCES 1. P31 ~2ft m 1ft 1 x ~I~)~I~~l~/ Fig . 310 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 127 frictional force. 1951. 32.. Elastic and Fluid Bodies. Warsaw. Introduction to Theoretical Mechanics. J. 1959. New York: McGrawHill. which are inclined at an angle <p with the vertical... Mathematical Monographs. 3rd ed. Mechanics. A smooth sphere of mass m and radius r is squeezed between two massless levers. 1957. Theoretical Mechanics. Inc. D... Ames. Scott. Becker. Banach. Synge. 1959. 1954.2 . S. are much more easily visualized when viewed from the primed system. A. The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid. If a force P is applied between the ends of the levers.. distributed by Hafner Publishing Co. Inc. Inc. A tube rotates in the horizontal xy plane with a constant angular velocity (t) about the z axis.. J. PROBLEMS 31.. A. E. 3.SEC. R. Murnaghan. P3. New York: Dover Publications. each of length I. P33 ~ Fig. trans. L. New York: McGrawHill. New York. Griffith. 4. G. S. as shown. J. and F... 2. A. New York: Dover Publications. Webster.. 5. Inc. 24. and B. A particle of mass m is released from a radial distance of 1 ft when the tube is in the y Fig. 2nd ed.
and 6Fy/8z == 6Fz /6y in a given region. i(O) == ail. (b) the force in the wire. 313.(0) == 0. 37. Consider an underdamped massspringdamper system. Given that the force acting on a particle has the following components: Fx == x + y. A particle of mass m is projected vertically upward with an initial velocity Vo. If the tube is frictionless.128 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE CHAP. A particle of mass m is fastened to an inextensible wire of length I to form a spherical pendulum. . 312. 310. Suppose that the cartesian components of the force F acting upon a certain particle are each given as a function of its position (x. If the drag force of the air is bv 2 . where these partial derivatives are continuous functions. Find the initial values of: (a) the angular accelerations <f> and (j .y + y2. 34. Using a spherical coordinate system with its origin at the vertex of the cone. For each cycle of oscillation. A particle of mass m is supported by two elastic cords. find the maximum value of the distance r of the particle from the vertex. each having a nominal length I and tension T. \vhere k is the stiffness coefficient of each cord. Assuming that the rope does not slip relative to the cylinder. 38. find the direction and magnitude of the velocity of the particle as it leaves the tube. solve for the natural frequency of the transverse motion. 6Fx/6z == 6Fz /6x. Fz == O. then the force field is conservative. solve for I and the tensile force in the rope as functions of time. write a differential equation of motion for the particle in terms of the single dependen~variable I. Show that if 6Fx/6y == 8Fy/8x. Assuming that the transverse displacement y is much smaller than either I or T/k. 33. solve for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. A particle of mass m moves under the action of gravity on the inner surface of a smooth inverted right circular cone of vertex angle 20. assuming that == 30° and the initial conditions of the motion are r(O) == a. and 1>(0) == 4. 3 position shown. Using the weighting function and the method of convolution. A thin flexible rope of negligible mass is wrapped around a cylinder of radius a that is rotating with a constant angular velocity of il rad/sec. where b is constant. Assuming a friction coefficient JL between the mass and the floor. 37. Consider the free motion of an underdamped massspringdamper system such as that in Sec. Using spherical coordinates to describe the positio!l of the particle. the initial angular velocities are 80 and 1>0. e . find the steadystate response to the forcing function F(t) == Fo cos rot. At t == 0. Calculate the energy necessary to put a satellite of mass nl into a circular orbit at an altitude h above the earth's surface. Solve for the potential energy V. what is the interval between the time of maximum velocity and the time at which the displacement is zero? 36. where e is measured from the upward vertical.y. Assume a spherical earth of radius R and neglect the effects of atmospheric drag and the spin of the earth. 35. A mass m and a spring of stiffness k are connected in series and lie on a horizontal floor.z). If the initial conditions are 1(0) == 0. but can unwind such that a straight portion of length I is produced. Fy == x . 311.ygrii. the free end of the initially unstressed spring is moved at a constant speed Vo in a straight line directly away from the mass. 39. A particleof mass m is attached to the end of the rope. What is zmax? Assume v is positive. solve for the ~pward velocity v as a function of time. Also solve for v as a function of the vertical displacement z.
e Fig. all motion taking place in the same vertical plane. A particle of mass 111 is embedded at a distance . what is the steadystate speed of the particle? Let ry == 30° and assume that JL < 1/V3. and it slides because of gravity. The disk is released with zero velocity from the position shown and rolls because of gravity. P316 . Find: (a) the maximum velocity of the particle during the resulting motion. that is. 310 DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE 129 Fig. (b) the reaction force acting on the disk at the point of contact when it is at its lowest position. P313 Fig. A particle of Inass In slides down the tube under the action of gravity.SEC. the tube always makes an angle ry with the horizontal.}R from the center of a massless circular disk of radius R which can roll without slipping on the inside surface of a fixed circular cylinder of o radius 3R. A small fixed tube is shaped in the form of a vertical helix of radius a and helix angle ry. P314 314. Through what angular displacement does the particle move before it leaves the sphere? 315. If there is a coefficient of friction JL between the tube and the particle. A particle of mass 111 is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position at the top of a smooth fixed sphere of radius r. 316.
such as the collision and rocket propulsion problems. we discussed some of the more important principles and techniques to be used in the analysis of the motion of a single particle. one may still look at individual particles. The forces applied to a given particle may be classified as external or internal. of which three are shown in Fig.certaln'over:a:ll aspects of the motion of 'the system may be calculated without specifically solving for the individual motions. The forces acting on a system of particles. 130 . 41. but in adrlitloii. 41. When one considers the dynamics of a group of interacting particles. All interaction forces among the particles are known as internal forces and are designated by individual force vectors of the form fih where the first subscript indicates the particle on which the force acts and the second subscript indicates the acting particle. z ~y )( Fig. 41. It is with these extensions and generalizations of previously discussed principles that this chapter will be primarily' concerned. the chapter will discuss particular applications. according to their source.4 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES In the previous chapter. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION Consider first a system of_~_par~!g~s. In addition. The total force on the ith particle arising from sources external to the system of n particles is designated by Fi and is known as an external force.
the' trajectory of a bomb in a vacuum is sometimes used. obtaining n i=l n ~ mifi == n i=l ~ Fi + i=l ~ == 0 n n j=l ~ fii (43) But. (41). we see that n i=l i=l ~ ~ f ij (44) since the internal forces always occur in equal and opposite pairs. (41). these forces are assumed to be collinear. 41 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 131 From Newton's law of action and reaction. To illustrate this point. then the center of mass of all the fragments . n) (42) where mi is the mass of the ith particle and ri is its position vector relative to the fixed point O. (42) over all n particles. they act along the straight line connecting the particles. we note that the total mass m is (45) and the center of mass location is given by rc == m The total external force is 1 ~ miri i=l n (46) (47) Therefore Eq. Also. from Eq. we know that tion forces between any two particles are equal and opposite: ~he interac(41) Also. It indicates that the motion of the center of mass of a system of particles is the same_:as if the entire mass of the system were concentrated at the center of mass' and. . . (43) can be written in the form F == mfc (48) This result has the familiar form of a force being equal to the product of a mass and an acceleration. 2. that is. indicating the fact that a particle cannot exert a force on itself which affects its motion. Next we sum Eq. . were driven by the sum of all the forces external to the system. ' Now let us sum all the forces acting on the ith particle. If the bomb explodes. we can write the equation of motion in the form: mi f i == F i + ~ fii i=l n (i == 1. It can be seen that fit == 0 in agreement with Eq. Including both external and internal forces. .SEC.
Also. It is f JJc Ac F • drc == 2 mv~ 1 IlJc Ac (49) z . Then. a nonuniform gravitational field. in general. Position vectors of the center of mass and of a typical particle during an arbitrary displacement. then. \ a 42.m ~y x Fig.Be I I I I I J l!1 e c. for the case of certain conservative forces. (48) has general validity? the force F is calculated for the actual system of particles and not. thereby altering the path of the center of mass.132 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY We have seen that Eq. the external drag force would be vastly increased after the explosion. the total external force is altered by replacing a system of particles by a single particle at the center of mass and calculating the force on this particle. It is apparent. It is clear. 42. however. we obtain a result similar to that obtained previously in Eq. (367). that for the case of motion through the air. . Let us assume that the center of mass of the system moves from A e to Be under the action of the external forces Fi whose sum is F. for example. (46) is identical in mathematical form to the equation of motion for a single particle. that a set of principles similar to those for a single particle also applies to the motion of the center of mass of a system of particles. 4 \ continues on the same path as the bo~b w<?uld have taken had it not exploded. then. It should be emphasized. that although Eq. (48) over the path of the center of mass. taking the line integral of each side of Eq. This result is accurate if the total external force acting on particles of the bomb is riot changed by the explosion. on the basis of single particle of total mass m located at the center of mass.
!.~ cal~l:....j Thus we see that the total work can be considered as the sum of two parts: (1) the work done by the total external force acting through the displacement of the center of mass. (44) and (47).lJ'!. are not dependent upon the summation index i. external as well as internal. . we can express the position of the ith particle as the sum (411) where Pi is the position vector of the ith particle relative to the center of mass. With these changes. We note that r c and the limits of integration. Now. Note that the work expressed by the integral on the left side of Eq. (412) can be simplified by using Eqs. 1~. So. 42 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 133 where Vc is the absolute velocity of the center of mass. substituting Eq. for each particle. (2) the summation of the work done on all particles by both the external and internal forces on each particle acting through the displacement of that particle relative to the center of mass. __.m Ai to Bi is (410) But. Considering . The second integral cannot be simplified.ork done by all the forces.~. we obtain the total work or (412) where the limits on the second integral refer. the work done by all the forces acting on Ini as it moves f!9. we obtain (413) · ) ..SEC.es.___The first integral on the right side of Eq.. 42. in this case. !~~ftlW.J::l. as shown in Fig. (411) into (410) and summing over all n particles. nor is it even the total work of the external for<. since Pi is a function of i. to the position of the ith particle relative to the position of the center of mass of the system . This equation states that if one considers the sum of the external forces to be acting at the center of mass of the system. (49) does not include that work done by the internal 'forces.first the ith particle. then the work done by the total external force in moving over the path of the center of mass is equal to the change in the translational kinetic energy associated with the motion of the center of mass. the principle of work and kinetic energy applies. and therefore the summations can be carried out before the integration. To clarify this point. so we can write I t .
Summing over all particles. Also.C'I. I 4 . (417) that the total kinetic energy is 2 1 T == 2' mvc ~ 1 8" + i=1 2 miPi £. (414) reduces to (417) . we find that (414) where Pi is the relative velocity of mh as viewed by a nonrotating observer moving with the center of mass.+. \ Wi == '2 mifi 1 .l (419) Now Eq. or. Here we have used the notation: . 0 B ! £ A. of course...TA (418) in a manner similar to Eq. (370) which was derived for a single particle.. (417) represents the sum of the increases in kinetic energy of the individual particles.. + Pi Pi) .nsequently.134 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP.. In this case. (411). TA and TB represent the total kinetic energy of the system at the beginning and at the end. (46) that n 82 8 8 mrc == == i=l ~ mifi == n i=1 ~ mi(fc + Pi) n mfc + i=1 mipi ~ (415) and. respectively. where we have substituted for ft from Eq. we can write IlW == IlT . Thus we can write W == TB . of the line integrations. . fi A. .I Pi == Pi . . I == 2' mi(r Bf 1 . The righthand side of Eq. that in agreement with the original assumption that Pt is measured from the center of mass. It is apparent from Eq. (418) is valid for an arbitrary interval. in other words. cO. ' rC 2r . (416) and therefore Eq. the increase in the total kinetic energy of the system. Pi But we see from Eq. So if we consider the case where the work and the change in kinetic energy are evaluated during an infinitesimal time intervaillt. . Pi C .
that is. we can summarize the results of this section as follows: 1. Now let us extend this principle to apply to a system of particles. Therefore.SEC. then. I~_~_~_~~J<. and (417) that (421) Hence the work done by the external and internal forces in moving through displacements relative to the center of mass is equal to the increase in the kinetic energy of relative motion. CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY The principle of conservation of mechanical energy was developed in Sec. we find from Eqs. we obtain W==T . (48) that the motion of the center of mass is the same as though it were a particle with a mass equal to the total mass m and acted upon by the total external force F. The work done by the external plus the internal forces in moving through displacements relative to the center of mass is equal to the increase in the kinetic energy associated with the relative motions. 33 for the case of a single particle. if the total external force is derivable from a potential function involving the center of mass position only. Referring again to Eqs. (420) ' Thus the rate of increase of the total kinetic energy is equal to the rate at which work is done on the system. (49). by analogy to the results obtained previously for a single particle. and (421). First. The total kinetic energy is equal to that due to the total mass moving with velocity of the center of mass plus that due to the motions of the inoividual particles relative to the center of mass. (419). 43. recall from Eq. 3. (49). done by the external forces in moving through the displacement of the center of mass is equal to the increase in the kinetic energy due to The total mass moving with the velocity of the center of mass. 43 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 135 or. It is important to note that the relative velocity Pi can arise from rigid body rotations in which the particle separations do not change with time. as well as in the more obvious case of changing particle separations. . (413). Returning now to a further consideration of work and kinetic energy relationships. in the limit as At approaches zero. 2. (422) . the center of mass moves such that the energy Ee is constant. it is the instantaneous power associated with the external and internal forces.
(419). For the case where the internal as well as the external forces are conservative. In any event. that is. For the case of a system in which both conservative and nonconservative forces are acting. we find that the total energy E is conserved. Atwood's ma. and Ve is the potential energy associated with the position of the center of mass. It can be seen that it is possible for conservation of the energy Ee to occur even in the case of dissipative internal forces. T is the sum of the kinetic energies of the individual particles. 43. then the force Fk == _OV OXk (425) acts on the given particle in the direction of increasing Xk' This is the total force and includes. we find that if a small increase in Xk results in a small displacement of a certain particle in a given direction." Fig.. as in Eq. they are derivable from a potential function involving the coordinates only. where I E==T+V (423) In this case. one can use work and energy concepts in place of a strict ~r_T. both internal and external forces. Thus..136 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. in general. . the potential energy of n particles in a threedimensional space can be written in the form: (424) since we assume that the system may have as many as 3n degrees of freedom. as in Eq. or it can be considered to be the sum of the portion due to the motion of the center of mass plus the portion due to motion relative to the center of mass. The potential energy V is often just the sum of the potential energy due to gravity and that due to the deformations of elastic elements such as springs. (389).ch ine.! 4  \ Te is the kinetic energy due to the translational motion of the center of mass.
Atwood's Machine. 43 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 137 conservation of energy. if The tension T is found by substituting this result into the first equation of motion. the rope force T and the gravitational force. namely. inextensible rope which passes over a pulley. For example. we see that (427) Also. Let us use the coordinates Xl and X2 to designate the vertical displacements of m 1 and m 2 .ml)g dX I . (427) that Xl == X2' we obtain ' (m l or + m 2)XI == (m2 . Thus we can write mix i == T m 2X2 == T  mIg m2g Subtracting the second equation from the first and noting from Eq. using the principle of work and kinetic energy. Each mass has two forces acting on it. Neglecting the mass and the bearing friction of the pulley. as shown in Fig. yielding (429) Next. we see that the work done on the system in an infinitesimal displacement is dW == == (T ~ mIg) dXI + (T  m2g) dX2 (m2 .I . Assuming that m l and m2 comprise the system under consideration.ml)g (428) . let us solve for X}. if Wn represents the work done on the system by nonconservative internal and external forces in going from configuration A to configuration B. Since the rope is inextensible. the pulley exerts no inertial or frictional forces on the rope and therefore the tension T is uniform throughout its length. ': Example 41. respectively. then (426) where the total energies En and EA include potential energy terms corresponding to all the forces doing work on the system except for the nonconservative forces. nleasured froln some nominal position. Two masses m l and m 2 are connected by a massless. 43. find the acceleration of nl 1 and the tension in the rope as the system moves under the action of gravity. First we shall solve the problem using Newton's law of motion for each mass separately. SEC.
the potential energy function includes just those terms corresponding to gravitational forces when applying conservation of energy principles to Atwood's machine.ml)g = (ml + m2)x 1 in agreement with the previous result of Eq. One can always neglect the forces due to workless constraints when applying energy methods. the system Fig.138 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. A massspring system in rectilinear motion. Masses m l and m 2 are connected by a spring of stiffness k. For example. .m 2)gxl + ~ + m2)x~ = 0 in agreement with Eq. (428). assuming that the system started from rest. in general). Xl = X2' Thus the rope and pulley system constitute what is known as a workless constraint. It is interesting to note that the rope tension T does not enter into the expression for the work on the left side of Eq. Noting that the force (m2 . we can write I (430) where we recall that Xl = . Differentiating this ~quation with respe~t to time and dividing by Xl (which is not zero. 4 I since dX 1 = dx 2 • Now. the total work done by the rope is zero for any displacement consistent with the constraint that . or mlgx l + 1 ·2 m2gx 2 + Tmlxl 1 +2 m2x2 .2 == 0 Substituting X2 == Xl and X2 = Xh we obtain (ml (ml . 44. Although the rope does positive or negative work on ml and m2 individually.X2. If a constant force F is applied to m l at t == 0 as shown in Fig. (430). (430). Assuming that the system starts from rest at Xl = X2 == 0 and that the potential energy reference is chosen such that V = 0 initially. Example 42. solve for the displacement Xl as a function of time.ml)g is constant. the total work done in a certain displacement Xl is equal to the total kinetic energy of the system at the end of that interval. we see that the total energy is zero. we obtain (m2 . 44. Initially. and assuming that the masses can slide without friction on the horizontal surface.
Let the displacement of the center of mass of the system. (433) and (436).Xc) of' the halfspring of stiffness 2k. we divide Eq. be XC' (431) From Eq. (m! == m 2 . measured from its initial position. . from Eqs. the stiffness varies inversely with the unstressed length. F . \ SEC. we can interpret the term 2k(Xl .1 . (432) by 2 and subtract it from Eq. we see that the motion of the center of mass is the same as if the total force F were applied to a particle of mass 2m. (3115) or in Eq. 43 XI DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 139 starts from rest with == X2 == 0 and with the spring unstressed. if n similar springs of stiffness k are connected in parallel. whereas similar springs connected in parallel all have the same extension but the forces are additive. We obtain the equation (435) which is in the standard form of a massspring system being excited by a step function of magnitude iF.x 2 ) acting to the left on m l . These 'rules can be checked easily by noting that springs connected in series all have the same force applied but the extensions are additive. On the other hand. We can write down the solution immediately by analogy to the results previously obtained in Eq. (434).xc) in the last equation as being the force on m l due to the compression (Xl . we obtain \ . the overall stiffness is nk. substituting for X2 k(Xl  X2) == mXI from Eq.xc) == mX I (434) Assuming for convenience that the center of the spring coincides with the center of mass. Now let us write the equation of motion for mi. (3190). (37). (431).: == m. X c == F t 2 4m (433) in agreement with the general result previously given in Eq.) \ .cos J. (48). The spring force is k(Xl . Thus F == 2mxc (432) Integrating twice and evaluating the constants of integration from the initial conditions xc(O) == 0 and xlO) == 0. if we think of dividing springs or of connecting several similar springs in series. and so we obtain For. Xl Xc = ~ (1 . the solution for is seen to be lIn general. I Next.2k(Xl . \.~ t) Xl (436) Finally.
cos Jr: r t Therefore the total energy is E == T + F2 V == . we see that Vc . which agrees with Eq. From Eq. F == mrc Both sides of this equation can be integrated with respect to time over the interval tl to t 2.(1 4k cos J. 4 Xl F F == 4m t 2 + 4k (1  COS /V(fk t ) Iii (437) It is instructive to use the known solution for this example to illustrate some of the ideas which have been presented concerning work and energy. (433). 2 (fk 8mk SIn V t and from Eq. (3102).xc)2 = :~ (1 .cosJWtt) Therefore we see that W == E. == Xc == F t 2m F2 . (48) which relates the total external force to the motion of the center of mass. Let us evaluate the kinetic energy using Eq. (436). 1 V == 2" k(Xl . (426) for the present case where the initial total energy is zero. 44. (419).2k t ) m Now the work done by the external force F is just w= FXI = :~t2 + ~~(l .140 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. we obtain PI .P2 °2 _ °2 _ ( • • )2 _ Xl  Xc  m Thus the total kinetic energy is T == F2 t 2 4m' + F2 sin 2 12k t 8k Vm The potential energy of the spring is found by using Eq.X2)2 == 2k(XI . yielding (438) . LINEAR IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM Consider again Eq.t 2 4m F2 + .
47 and 48 where problems involving collisions and also rocket propulsion will be discussed. as in collision and explosion problems. Note that because the internal forces occur in equal and opposite pairs.SEC. . The total linear 1110mentum of a system of particles is just the vector sum of the individual n10n1enta. zc) is the center of mass location. The integral on the left is the total impulse fl7 of the external forces during the given interval. and hence have no influence on the total linear momentum of the system. then the total momentum is constant. (441) could have been written in terms of cartesian components as follows: (442) ~ == S Fz dt == m(.PI which is the principle of linear impulse and momentum for a system of particles. as we shall demonstrate. if there are no external forces acting on the system. respectively. It is particularly useful in the analysis of problems in which the internal forces are not accurately known. whatever the nature of the internal forces. It can be seen that if any component of the total impulse is zero. The right side of the equation represents the change in the total linear momentum P during the same interval. Equation (438) or Eq.zC2 tl t2 . 44 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 141 where VCI and VC2 are the velocities of the center of mass at times tl and t 2 . they do not contribute to the impulse fl7. we obtain the result: fliT == P2 . (438) and (440). (439) where Vi is the absolute velocity of mi.zCI) where (xc. (46). But from Eq. This is the principle of conservation of linear momentum as it applies to a system of particles. then the momentum is conserved in this direction. Furthermore. Examples of the use of linear impulse and momentum methods will be found in Sees. Yc. we see that n n mrc == and therefore ~ i=l mitt == ~ i=l m i Vi (440) (441) P == mvc From Eqs.
Fixed Reference Point. SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. 36. linear pairs. (3143).. opposite. Thus n i=1 n H == ~ Hi == ~ i=1 fi X miti (444) Now let us differentiate Eq. ANGULAR MOMENTUM In Sec. Therefore. and in doing so several possible reference points will be considered. • y • x Fig. we developed equations for the angular momentum of a single particle and also its time rate of change. (444) with respect to time. The equation of motion can be written for each particle. we extend this development to apply to a syste~ of particles. Using Eq. taking as a reference the fixed point 0. (42). Then. using a point fixed in inertial space as a reference. 45. as shown in Fig. substituting for each miri in terms of the applied forces. and col. In this section. 4 45. we obtain (446) We have assumed that the internal forces occur in equal.ular momentum of the particle mi is z c.m . as in Eq. Consider the total angular momentum of a system of n particles.142 DYNAMICS OF A. Position vectors for a system of particles. obtaining • n i=1 H == ~ fi X miri n + i=1 ti ~ n X miti (445) == ~ fi X miri i=1 since ti X ti == o. (443) The total angular momentum of the system is found by summing the angular momenta of the individual particles. . 45. we find that the ang.
and (448). we obtain M=H o of the external forces acting on the system. Hence the preceding expression for H can be written in the form: H or = fe X m fe + i=l Pi L n X miPi (450) (451) where n He = i=1 Pi L X mi Pi (452) Here we have the important result that the total angular momentum of a system of particles about a fixed point 0 is equal to the angular momentum of a particle of mass m moving with the velocity of the center of mass plus the angular momentum He about the center of mass. we obtain H = ~ n i=l (fe + Pi) X mi(i~e n + Pi) i=1 = fe X mfe + fe X i=l L miPi + ~ mipi X n fe + i=1 ~ Pi X miPi n From Eqs. for each fih there is an f ji = . we see that the two middle terms on the right are zero. (415) and (416). (452) that He is the angular momentum of the system with respect to the center of mass.f ij having the same line of action and therefore an equal and opposite moment about O. for a system of particles. the time rate of change of the angular momentum about a fixed point 0 is equal to the total moment about Reference Point at the Center of Mass. we see from Eq. which assume that Pi is measured from the center of mass. as viewed by a nonrotating observer moving with the center of mass. (449) Hence we see that. Now let us differentiate Eq. 45 n DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES n 143 L L fi £=1 j=1 X f ij = 0 (447) since. (444) for the angular momentum about the fixed point 0. (447). More explicitly.SEC. obtaining • H = fc X mie + i=1 Pi L n X miPi (453) . If we substitute fi = fe + Pi into the expression given in Eq. (446). The expression for the total moment about 0 due to the external forces acting on the system is thus reduced to M = i=l r i X L n Fi (448) From Eqs. (450) with respect to time.
It will be shown that this equation can apply to certain other reference points as well. So we can apply Eq. as stated in Eq.144 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. (457) we see that. So we can state that if the chosen reference point is either (1) fixed in inertial space or (2) at the center of mass of the system. then the time rate of change of the angular momentum of a system of particles about the given reference point is equal to the moment about that point of the external forces acting on the system. (455) and (456) that (457) where Me == ~ Pi i=l n X Fi (458) It is seen that Me is the moment of the external forces about the center of mass. Comparing Eqs. Of course. Mx == Hx My == Hy Mz == Hz where the cartesian reference frame either is fixed or is translating with the center of mass. He == ~ PiX miPi i=l • n (454) so Eq. but these are associated with rather special cases . (452). then the (459) . (449) or Eq. if the moment of the external forces about either a fixed point or about the center of mass is zero. F == mre and. (449). (449) and (457) we see that they are of identical form. from Eq. we can write (460) where the components are taken in the direction of an arbitrary unit vector ek that is fixed in space. The equation M := H implies equality of each of its components. and therefore we obtain from Eqs. (3148) to a system of particles. (453) can be written in the form H == fe M == ~ ri i=l X F n + He + Pi) X (455) The moment about 0 due to external forces is n X Fi == ~ (re i=l Fi (456) == re X F + i=l Pi ~ n X Fi But M == H. . 4 \' where again we have used the fact that all terms involving the cross product of a vector with itself are zero. From Eq. More generally.
then the translational and rotational (He) portions of the total motion are independent and can be calculated separately. Furthermore. it is a noninertial frame. 45 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 145 angular momentuln about the same point is conserved. Position vectors for a system of particles. It can be seen that the use of the center of mass as a reference point has some interesting and inlportant consequences. 46.m. I' SEC. and if the nl0lnent Me does not depend upon the motion of the center of mass. is frequently written with respect to a noninertial reference. M == H. Hence. the equation F == }nre does not contain explicit tenns in Pi or its derivatives. . 46 be fixed z c. in general. O~y x Fig.i. (421) for any motion relative to the center of nlass can be evaluated separately from that of Eq. Therefore. if a certain cOlnponent Mk remains zero. then the corresponding angular momentum about a fixed axis through the reference point and parallel to ek is conserved. Consider the angular momentum of a system of particles relative to an arbitrary point P. (454) and (458) any ternlS involving re or its derivatives. Similarly. . if in addition all forces are independent of the motion of the center of mass. Another interesting characteristic of the choice of a nonrotating reference frame which translates with the center of mass is that. using an arbitrary reference point. it can be seen that the rotational equation of motion. that is. Let the xyz frame of Fig. (49) for the Illotion of the center of mass. This is the principle of conservation 0. Arbitrary Reference Point.( angular InOlnentum as it applies to a system of particles. if the total force F does not depend upon the relative positions of the particles. as viewed by a nonrotating observer who is moving with P. We note that the equation Me == He does not involve in its detailed representation given by Eqs. Being able to use the center of mass as a reference point for the rotational equations simplifies considerably the analysis of rigidbody motion. then the work and kinetic energy relationship of Eq. as we shall see in Chapters 7 and 8. Similarly.
and therefore from (470) A comparison of this result with Eqs. X n (467) But the moment about 0 is i=1 F.pc X mpc + rc X mtc (466) where we recall that H is the angular momentum with respect to the fixed point O. Noting that the vectors Pi and pc originate at the reference point P. noting that (468) we obtain (469) Now. M = Eqs. (449) and (457) reveals that the . the center of mass location relative to P is pc = _. Differentiating with respect to time. the angular momentum 'about the reference point P can be written in the form: (465) From Eqs. In a similar fashion. arbitrary manner relative to this frame.1 (463) X miPi (464) Equation (451) expresses the angular momentum about 0 in terms of its value relative to the center of mass. (451) and (465).pc X m(fc . 4 I in inertial space and let the point P move in at). = rp X F + i=1 Pi ~ n X Fi or. we see that (461) ri = rp + Pi rc = rp ) I + pc n (462) Also.fp) + (rp + Pc) xmfc mrc and collecting terms. (467) and (469). we see that H. we find that H = Hp + rp X F + pc X mrp M = ~ 1. taking the origin 0 as the reference point. we obtain the following equation relating H andHp: H = Hp . ~ mtpi m i=l .146 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. and the angular momentum about P is Hp = ~ Pi i=l n . we obtain H = Hp .pc = X mpc + rc X mrc Noting that F = Hp .
and so on. If P is fixed or moves with constant velocity. This last case is not common but can be applied in certain situations. This rule applies to all calculations. such as in the rolling motion of a wheel. and collinear pairs. . Hence there is no motion relative to this frame and the particle is in static equilibrium. then pc = 0 and the term is zero. opposite. The arbitrary reference point P is also very convenient for certain problems. The physical interpretation of this term is that it is the moment about P of the inertial force mrp which arises because the nonrotating reference frame moving with P is not an inertial frame. including those of work. it is advisable to consider dynamics problems from the viewpoint of an observer fixed in an inertial frame and to include only the true external forces acting on a particle or set of particles when applying Newton's equation of motion. Choosing this point as the reference point . in agreement with our earlier results. if P is at the center of mass. Also. certain problems are made simpler by adopting the viewpoint of an accelerating observer. An important example of the latter is the choice of the center of mass as a reference point for the analysis of the rotational aspects of the motion. 45 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 147 choice of an arbitrary reference point has resulted in the additional term . We see. with the true external forces being balanced by the inertial force. we can use the standard form of the equation.SEC. if we include the inertial forces due to rm as well as the actual external forces. Thus. in calculating M. One example is the case' where the motion of a given point in the system is a known function of time. provided that the internal forces occur in equal. When should one choose an inertial frame and when should one choose a noninertial frame in solving for the motions of a system of particles? For the most part. the term again disappears. On the other hand. 15) can be viewed as the special case where the reference frame translates with the particle. the equation of motion F = mrc can be applied with respect to a nonrotating but accelerating frame if the inertial force . This applies to all systems of particles and to a general motion of the reference point P. Note that if pc and r p are parallel. the reference point being taken at the instantaneous center.mr p is included in F as an additional external force. kinetic energy. as in Eq. This inertial force can be considered as the resultant of individual inertial forces mirp acting at each of the particles. that the original introduction of inertial forces in connection with d' Alembert's principle (Sec.Pc X mr p. even for the case of an accelerating reference point. M = ii. (457). linear or angular momentum. Thus we are led to the following general rule: All the results and principles derivable from Newton's laws of motion relative to an inertial frame can be extended to apply to an accelerating but nonrotating frame if the inertial forces associated with the acceleration of the frame are considered as additional external forces acting on the system. In a similar fashion. then rp = 0 and the term is zero. for example.
For the case where P coincides with the center of mass. 1 ~ T .) + Pi • (. Referring to Fig. A massspring system as viewed from a reference frame translating with the center of mass. 4 P. (3) the scalar product of the linear momentum vector of a particle of mass m moving with P. 4.. one can calculate immediately the inertial forces mifpo Furthermore. 46. suppose we wish to calculate the total kinetic energy of a system of particles. using the arbitrary point P as a reference.=1 mipi + mrp ~ 02 " • pc • (471) Thus we have the theorem of Konig: The total kinetic energy of a system is equal to the sum of (1) the kinetic energy due to a particle of total mass m moving with the reference point P. and the velocity vector of the center of mass motion relative to P. (2) the kinetic energy due to the motion of the system relative to P. As a simple illustration. . . It is convenient to choose a reference point that is fixed in one member of the system and to specify the location of the various parts relative to this reference.rp + Pi 0 ) which can be simplified further using Eqs.7. rp . it can be seen that the kinetic energy is 1 ~ . (419). (45) and (463) to yield T = 1 "2 2 mrp 1 ~ + 2 '1. the external force acting at P has no moment about P and therefore it need not be determined in solving for the rotational motion. as they would appear to an observer riding with the vehicle at the reference point.148 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP.= "2 ~1 miri • r i = "2 t:l mi (. Another example is in the formulation of the dynamical equations for a space vehicle with moving parts. Pc = 0 and the expression for the total kinetic energy reduces to that of Eq. rm2 (Xl .Xc) ~F72 (0) ~z (b) Fig.
It' is connected to a second particle of mass m 2 by an inextensible string which passes through a small hole at point 0. we find that in agreement with Eq.Xc) given in Exalnple42. we need to analyze only onehalf of the system. If the second mass moves only along a vertical line through 0. Letting z == Xl . we see that a symmetrical situation results with respect to the center of mass position.cos ~ t) which is identical to the solution for (Xl . we can solve for z. 47(b). since the physical system and also the forces exhibit a symmetry about the center of mass. 0(0) == roo. using a noninertial reference frame which is translating with the center of mass. as shown in Fig. Using the results previously derived in Eq. Assume ml ==m2 == m and roro~ == gj3. horizontal plane. (3190) for a unit step response.. find the minimum value of r and the maximum force in the string during the ensuing motion.SEC. each mass has a resultant force of magnitude ~F applied to it and both forces are directed toward the center of mass. 48. Hence. 45 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 149 Example 43. as shown in Fig. If we measure the potential energy of m2 from its value when . Because we have chosen the center of mass as the reference. and if the initial conditions are reO) == ro. (431).2 + r 2 82 and the velocity of m2 is V 2 == r. the solution for directly from the solutions for Xl and Xc. Adding the external and the inertial forces on each mass. Let us solve for the motion of mass m1 relative to the center of mass in the system of Example 42. 47(a). First recall that the acceleration of the center of mass is equal to the total external force divided by the total mass. A particle of mass m l moves on a frictionless. as shown in Fig. reO) == 0. Therefore. X2 can be obtained Example 44. and also in accordance with the symmetry about this point. .Xc. so let us first find an expression for the total energy. Xc == 2m F Therefore the inertial force acting on each mass due to the acceleration of the reference frame is lnx c == ~F. we can immediately write the equation of motion mz+2kz iF corresponding to a simple massspring system with spring stiffness 2k and with a constant force of magnitude iF applied at t == o. obtaining z = ~ (1 . This system is conservative. The velocity of mass in l is given by vi == . that is.
. we obtain (475) To find the minimum value of r. (474). (472) and (473) and substituting for iJ from Eq. using the principle of conservation of angular momentum. This results because the total external force acting on ml arises from the string tension.. A system consisting of two particles connected by an inextensible string.r) I p m2 Fig.. r = 0. we see that 122 E = 'I'mro(i)o + mgro (473) Also. we set f = 0.. we can write the total energy in the form: E = T + V 1 . . 4. Hence. . = mf2 + mr2 ()2 + mgr 2 (472) But. 48... ~~m1 O~r I ..PARTICLES CHAP •. .150 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM.. OF . () = (r)2 # (i)o (474) Equating the righthand sides of Eqs. and its line of action passes through O.. from the initial conditions. we can write from which we obtain .... and after collecting and rearranging terms. one particle moving on a horizontal plane and the other along a vertical axis..( r o 4 2 + ro(i)o2) r2 + ro(i)o2 = 2g 2g ° . the angular momentum of m 1 about 0 is constant since the total moment M about 0 is zero. the roots are found from r3 . I I I 1(1.
2: mg + mroOOo 2r 3 42 It is clear that P is a maximum for a minimum length r. the internal forces occur in equal. == 2r3 4 2 roooo  2"g 1 Now. 46 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 151 i I' Dividing out the known factor (r . . ANGULAR IMPULSE An equation relating the change in the angular momentum to the total angular impulse can be derived for the case of a system of particles in a manner similar to that used in obtaining Eq. since it is given that f r == r0 initially.SEC. the vertical acceleration of m2 is r. corresponding to r min in this case. in which case rmin == roo To find the maximum force in the string. opposite. _ oo~ r~ ( rmin  4g 1 + V 1 + oo~ro . substituting r == ~ro into the foregoing expression.ro). (449) and (457) that M==H applies to a system of particles when the reference point is fixed or is at the center of mass. We have seen from Eqs. and collinear pairs. we obtain P . Integration of this equation with respect to time over the interval tl to t2 results in the principle of angular impulse and momentum: (476) where the total angular impulse acting on the system due to external forces is v#/ == f t2 Mdt (477) tl As we have seen.2" ro / 8g ) _ 1 If the initial values of rand iJ are such that ro oo~ > g. let us differentiate Eq. and therefore from Newton's law of motion. we obtain P max ==""6 mg 11 46. (3154) for a single particle. and therefore they cancel out in this calculation. we obtain == 0 and r2 _ OOoro 2 2 2g r _ OOoro == 0 2g 2 3 which has a single positive root.. Therefore. (475) with respect to time and solve for r.mg _ 1 == mr or P . the preceding general expression is valid but corresponds to r max . The result is r .
that is. the velocities being relative to an inertial frame. the analysis of this case will involve many of the important concepts used in the solution of more complex problems. Before impact After impact Fig. In other words. let us assume that the spheres move in the same plane before impact. So let f!jf be . . COLLISIONS One of the important types of interactions between two bodies occurs during a collision. 49. the forces are very large compared to other forces acting at the same time and are of very short duration. 47. I Let us assume that the forces between the colliding spheres at the moment of impact are impulsive in nature. Nevertheless. Consider. the interaction forces are normal to the common tangent plane at the first point of contact. we obtain (478) The integral on the right can be interpreted as the angular impulse about P due to the inertial forces arising from the acceleration of the reference frame translating with P.Eq. and therefore the line of action of these forces is coincident with the line of centers. In order to be able to treat the colliding bodies as particles. then. Vn represents a velocity component along the line of centers just before impact. the velocity vectors and the line of centers at impact all lie in the same plane. the case of two smooth spheres whose centers of mass coincide with their geometrical centers. The normal and tangential components of velocity of colliding spheres. (470). and Vt represents a velocity component perpendicular to the line of centers. specifying their total impulse rather than by making any attempt to give their variation with time. 4 If we perform a similar integration on. As shown in Fig. Hence no rotational motion is introduced and the problem reduces to one of particle motion. Furthermore. we shall consider the special case of impact between smooth spheres.152 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. At the moment of impact. 49. Thus they are best described by. .
during the longer time interval before and after impact. The other forces can be neglected because their total impulse during the infinitesimal interval of impact is itself infinitesimal. in general. we shall consider the coefficient of restitution to be a constant for a given pair of substances. they cannot be neglected. (480). we see that :i7 == m 1(Vnl  V~l) == m2(v~2 . and impact velocities. (479) and (481) that the normal and tangential components of the linear momentum are conserved during impact and therefore the total linear momentum of the system is conserved. (479).m l nl  mt  + m2 em2 v nl + (1 + e)m2 v ml + m2 n2 (483) . Solving for V~l and V~2 from Eqs. Eqs.vn2 ) (479) or where the primes refer to velocities after impact. to some extent. Another equation. we obtain v' . since there are no external forces acting on the system. size. is required in addition to Eq. (480). There is no impulse on the spheres in the tangential direction. Vtl   V tl Vt2   . upon their shape.SEC. It acts to the left on m l and to the right on m 2 . in each case being normal to the common tangent plane at the point of contact. This result is to be expected. . The tangential components are given by Eq. For the case where other forces are acting on the system. For our purposes. however. and (481) still apply. (479) and (482). It is V~2 V~l I } == e(Vnl  vn2 ) (0 < e < 1) (482) I where e is known as the coefficient of restitution. Of course. provided that these other forces are not impulsive forces applied at the instant of impact. In order to solve for the motion of the system. (479) in order to be able to solve for both V~l and V~2' This additional equation relates the normal components of the relative velocities of approach and separation. we must solve for the two tangential and the two normal components of the velocity after impact. Vt2 (480) Hence we obtain that (481) We see from Eqs. and therefore the velocity components in this direction are unchanged. The coefficient of restitution depends upon the c~mposition of the bodies and also. Using the equation of linear impulse and momentum on each particle. 47 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 153 the total impulse at the moment of impact in this case.
substituting Eq. We assume that no external forces are acting on the system of two colliding spheres and therefore the center of mass moves in a straight line at constant speed throughout the collision. On the other hand. Because we have taken the center of mass as the reference. we obtain (485) Of course. we find that ( (484) Then. is the kinetic energy due to the tangential components of the velocity relative to the center of mass. This loss in the total mechanical energy appears as heat resulting from plastic deformations or as internal vibrations that are not included in the analysis and are finally dissipated as heat due to internal friction losses. however. Therefore. for the case of inelastic impact (e = 0). If e = 1. For all cases except perfectly elastic collisions. hence the total kinetic energy relative to a fixed system is also unchanged by the collision. We have seen that the tot~llinear momentum is conserved during impact. there is a loss of kinetic energy. there is no change in the velocity of the center of mass. T t . in accordance with Eq. the normal velocities after impact are equal and the collision is said to be inelastic. the normal velocity components are reversed in direction but unchanged in magnitude. the relative velocities of approach and separation have the same magnitude. for perfectly elastic collisions (e = 1). It is interesting to view the collision process from the standpoint of an inertial observer translating with the center of mass. (482). the tangential components are unchanged In accordance with Eq. and Tn is the kinetic energy due to the normal .154 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. it is clear that. (480). as can be seen by referring to Eq. Therefore. we can write the total kinetic energy of two colliding spheres in the form (486) where Tc is the kinetic energy due to the motion of the center of mass. 4 If e = 0. Furthermore. In general. (419). we obtain V~l = V~2 = O. we see that the kinetic energy due to normal velocity components relative to the center of mass is entirely lost as a result of the collision. then. This case is known as perfectly elastic impact. (483). there is no loss of kinetic energy associated with motion relative to the center of mass. From this point of view. (484) into Eq.
e2Tn Another approach which gives a better insight into the physical nature of the collision process is obtained by considering the impact to occur in two phases. But upon further study. An example of such a reference frame is one which translates with the center of mass. At this point. it becomes apparent that the original requirement was not necessary since an inertial reference can always be found such that the initial velocities and the line of centers at impact all lie in the same plane. A ball is dropped from a height of 10 ft onto a level floor. the second or restitution phase begins and lasts until the spheres separate. I I r . 47 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 155 components of the velocity relative to the center of mass. Hence the entire motion takes place within the given plane.9. Thus the results. how long will it take the oall to come to rest? What is the total distance traveled by the ball? Let us use the notation that Vn is the speed with which the ball hits the floor on the nth bounce. Furthermore. Example 45. we conclude from Eq. The floor is assumed to have zero velocity at all times. If the coefficient of restitution e = 0. which we have obtained are valid for the general case of colliding spheres if we choose a proper reference frame from which to view the motion.. We saw from the results of the analysis that no forces are produced during the collision which would cause the motion to deviate from that plane . therefore. a portion of the total collision impulse fljT which is applied to a given sphere occurs during the compression phase and the remainder occurs during the restitution. during which elastic deformations of the spheres occur and the relative normal velocity is reduced to zero. Using primes to indicate the corresponding quantities after the collision. from Eq. (482). since the change in the velocity of a given mass is directly proportional to the applied impulse. Now. Another example is a reference frame which translates with the initial velocity of one of the spheres..' we see that (488) All impulses on a given sphere occur in the same direction (nonnal to the common tangent plane). we find that T~ = Tc T~ = Tt (487) T 'n . We assumed originally that both spheres move in the same plane before impact. respectively. (485) that (489) Thus we could equally well define the coefficient of restitution as the ratio of the restitution impulse to the compression impulse. Calling these impulses fli!c and f#i. First is the compression phase.SEC. so we need to consider only their magnitudes. .
.. Example 46.. since.. Next. ) = ftG ~ :) = h n  15.or the ball to stop momentarily at the peak height after rebounding with a speed ev n • Now. If all three particles are of equal mass m.) == h (11 + e .. == 10(1 + 2e + 2e 2 + . Mass m. no external forces act on the system. All particles can move without friction on the horizontal xy plane.2g 2 + 1)st bounce is 2h n . infinite. we notice that the total linear momentum of the system of three particles is conserved.e 2 2 ) = 95. == h (1 + 2e2 + 2e 4 + . moving along the x axis with velocity v. even though the total time and. First. distance are finite...j"2iJi Thus the total time required for the ball to come to rest is t == to + tl + t2 + .. massless rod. to=~ and the speed at t~e first impact is Vl = gt 0 = .0 sec The distance traveled between the nth and (n h n is the rebound height after the nth bounce. (39).. hits m2 and sticks to it (Fig. from Eq. The time interval between the nth and (n + 1)st bounce is t 2Vn+l _ 2evn ngg since it is twice the time requi~ed f. as shown. 410).3 ft Note that the number of bounces is. where So we see that the total distance traveled along the path is s == h + 2h 1 + 2h 2 + . find the motion of the particles after impact.. 4 since the speed with which the· ball hits the floor on a given bounce is just the speed with which it rebounded from the previous bounce.156 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. and if m 2 and m3 are connected by a rigid. in theory. the time required to hit the floor the first time after being dropped from a height h is. we . Vn+l _ 2 e2 Vn 2g ..
massless rod m1 ()=4. This follows. ( 1 . and mass J?12 moves with a transverse velocity 11m.. In this case. I ! . . because a point mass has no means of resisting with an equal and opposite inertial moment.. we find that the equation of momentum conservation in the transverse direction is mv . Next consider a unit transverse impulse applied at m 2 • In this case.v'2 V Similarly. masses m 2 and m3 move in the axial direction with velo. 47 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 157 y Rigid.. the rod exerts no forces at the instant of the impulse.. we can write the equation for conservation of the axial component of linear momentum. 410. We can apply these observations by writing expressions for the axial and transverse components of the linear momentum. The lack of bending moments at either end requires that no shear forces or bending moments occur in the rod. Calling this velocity v~...x m2 Fig.SEC. Impact of a partially constrained system.v'2 = 3mVa ' or . Va = 3.1 . We note that the velocity component along the rod after impact is the same for all three masses.v'2 = 2mVt' .\ l see that the rod can transmit axial forces only. obtaining mv ..cities equal to 112m.. Now consider the inertial properties of the system consisting of masses m 2 and m3 and the rod.. Suppose a unit axial Jmpu!~e is applied at m 2 in a direction along the rod. It is impossible for bending moments to occur at either end of the rod because a moment cannot be applied to a point mass.. as though the impulse were applied to a single particle of mass 2m.
ro = 2J2 I v Note that the total angular momentum about the center of mass is constant throughout the problem.. Its magnitude is ..  Path of c.. Using the equation of linear impulse and ~omentum... Throughout the whole problem. Eq. After impa. the system rotates at a constant angular rate ro which is found by dividing the difference in the transverse components of velocity at the two ends by the rod length I. 411.  . we can solve for the velocities of the three masses immediately after impact in terms of gr.ct.. ~r~~x (m1 + m 2) Fig. The velocities of (ml + m2) and mg immediately after impact are as shown in Fig. we see that the velocity of ml after .. If we designate the magnitude of this impulse by gr. since it receives an impulse in this direction through the rod. mvl H=3~ Example 47. Velocity components immediately after impact. it is along the x axis.. the center of mass of the system moves with a constant velocity vl3 in the direction of the positive x axis along a line y = 113~. In this case.m. 4 Vt=2~ . Solve Example 46 for the case of perfectly elastic impact between ml and m 2 • We assume that the spheres m l and m 2 are perfectly smooth... (441)..158 or DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. that is. Therefore the impulse occurring during impact must be normal to the tangent plane at the point of contact. 411. after impact.. The velocity of mg just after impact is entirely axial. v where v~ is the transverse component of the velocity of m l and m 2 immediately after impact. . that is. and y )10. before.... during.
I Vi 1 == .SEC. we find that the transverse velocity of m 2 is Vt . we obtain ~+ ~VI==V Va . 412.v2 m $f' since the effective mass resisting this impulse is 2m. impact is .. Velocity components after elastic impact. Taking axial and transverse components of the total impulse fljr which is acting on (m2 + m 3). Now we use Eq.'7 V. Va == :ifr V  == 2. (482). 412. I or 1 ( 4 from which we obtain $f' 1 + 2 + 1  )ff == 2v m == '7 mv 4 8 Therefore. In a similar ma\flner. Vt . I Va == 7~V. . VI m as shown in Fig. the defining equation for the coefficient of restitution in terms of normal velocity components. 47 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 159 Fig. Setting e == 1. we find that the axial component of velocity for m 2 and m3 is . corresponding to perfectly elastic impact. == ~m ff since the effective mass in this case is m.
insofar as it affects m 1 during the collision. thereby illustrating once again that energy is conserved in a perfectly elastic collision. v1 . Now. More generally.160 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. respectively. Using Eq. the velocity changes in the direction of the impulse due to the axial and transverse components of the impulse are additive. We see that the total kinetic energy T' is equal to the original kinetic energy. Therefore. we obtain . respectively. and noting that the effective mass is inversely proportional to the velocity change in the direction of the impulse. The factors cos 2 a and sin 2 a occur because first the axial or transverse components of the impulse are used. Hence we might expect the effective mass in this case to lie somewhere between these values. and T~.mmeffV m + meff  from which we obtain merr 4 == 3 m for this case in which the impact occurs at 45° from the axis of the· rod. we find that _1__ cos 2 a ma + sin 2 a mt (490) where ma and mt are the effective masses for axial and transverse impulses. We have seen that the effective mass for an axial collision is 2m. we find that . (483) and letting e == 1. T~. we find that ' T2  1 T m ('2 + Vt12) Va _ 20mv 49 2 2 T3' == gIvIng 1. 4 Let us calculate the total kinetic energy ~fter impact. An interesting aspect of this example is the calculation of the effective mass of the system composed of m 2 and m 3 . Designating the. In this particular case where a == 45°. mva == 4mv 2 49 '2 T' == T~ + T~ + Ti == 2 mv 2 . 1 . and then components of the corresponding velocities must be taken in the direction of the impulse. and m3 by T~. whereas the effective mass for a transverse collision is m. kinetic energy of masses mh m2. we can think of a unit impulse being applied to m 2 . assuming that the impulse occurs at an angle a measured from the axial direction.
~13. that is. As a simplified example of the rocket problem. in general. we see that the equation of linear impulse and momentum can be written in the form fljI =J t2 tJ F dl n = i=l mivi It2 ~ (492) tl where it is understood that the system must consist of the same set of particles throughout the interval from 11 to 12 . An important application of the dynamical principles which we have obtained for a system of particles is in the analysis of rocket propulsion. consider the system shown in Fig. From Eqs. It should be emphasized again that the effective mass of the system composed of m 2 and n13 refers to its effect on m i during a collision. We think of the distributed mass as a large number . and (~41). (43) and (44). In this respect. but. Of particular importance in this analysis are two equations: the equation of motion and the equation of linear impulse and mon1entum.bt (493) where b is the rate at which fuel is burned and ejected from the rocket. Assume that the rocket is operating in a vacuum in the absence of gravitational forces. (~38). THE ROCKET PROBLEM Particle Mechanics Approach. II/neff) resembles an input impedance of electrical circuit theory. b = PeAeve (494) where pe is the average density of the discharged gases at the exit area Ae. Note that the actual mass 2m is used in calculations of the change in the velocity of the center of mass of m 2 and m 3 • ~8. The area of the nozzle exit is Ae and the average pressure of the exhaust gases at this area is Pee The average exit velocity of the exhaust gases relative to the rocket is Vee Assume also that the mass of the unburned fuel plus the rocket structure is given by m = mo . from Eqs. Let us take as the system of particles under consideration the total mass m of the rocket at time t. 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 161 meff 1 1 3 _ = l + l1 = _ 2m m 4m in agreement with our previous results. The burning rate b is normally assumed to be constant during the burning interval. it (or the reciprocal. (439). we can write the equation of motion in the form n n F = . propulsion by means of reaction forces due to the ejection of mass. t=l ~ Fi = i=l ~ mivi (491) Also.SEC.
Although the mass of the unburned fuel is decreasing. we assume that this is due entirely to the ejection of mass.v e ) where the positive direction is to the right.) The total momentum of the system at time t is mv. The rocket system at successive instants of time... the total momentum at time t + ilt is (m . 4 At time (0) t v +.mv ... some of these particles are ejected through the nozzle..dv At time I + ill (b) mbilt . 413.b ilt)(v which simplifies to + ilv) + b ilt(v .. when we consider the same system again after an intervalilt. The first term in this last expression is the momentum of the rocket structure and unburned fuel and the second term is the momentum of the mass b ilt which has been ejected during the intervalilt and which has an absolute velocity v ...162 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. Thus.. Now let us use the equation of impulse and momentum to calculate the change in the rocket velocity. the masses of the individual particles remaining constant throughout the burning process. ) Fig. we obtain Pe Ae ilt == (m .b ilt )(v + ilv) + b ilt(v ....Vee Therefore.. equating the total impulse ff to the change in the total linear momentum in that direction. of discrete particles.v e) .. On the other hand. the pressure Pe exists because the exhaust gases are not fully expanded at the exit of the nozzle. we must include the mass b ilt which has been ejected during that interval. (Although the rocket is moving in a vacuum. The total impulse acting to the right on the system during the intervalilt is of m_~gnitude :F == PeAe ilt (495) since the only external force on the system is due to the pressure Pe acting at the exit area.. As the fuel burns.
the only momentum is that of the exhaust gases. 414. The forces acting on a rocket in a test stand. 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 163 (496) Dividing by Llt and taking the limit as fl. as shown in Fig. Equation (497) can also be written in the form Fs == miJ where FB is known as the static thrust of the rocket. Although this assumption is not strictly true. total external force acting on the system is (Fs . Note that we have again been careful to include the same particles in the system at the beginning and at the end of the interval fl. it is accurate enough for most purposes. . 413 is held fixed by a test stand. as viewed by an observer traveling with the rocket. we have assumed a situation of steady internal flow relative to the rocket. (496) has been neglected because Llv approaches zero as ill approaches zero. In this case. The rocket itself has no momentum. Fs == PeAe (498) (499) +.SEC. we have assumed that the total momentum of the gases inside the rocket is constant. we have previously considered Fs == PeAe + . we obtain or bVe in agreement with Eq.t approaches zero. In our discussion of the rocket problem.bVe To see that this is actually the static thrust. suppose that the rocket of Fig. In other words. Also. (499). if we use the principle of linear impulse and momentum. The static thrust Fs is the force that is transmitted by the test stand to the earth and is also the force on the rocket that is required to keep it stationary. So.PeAe) in a rearward direction.t. we find that (497) where the last term of Eq. 414. the Fig. Hence we have represented changes in the linear momentum of the total mass contained within the rocket as changes in the product mv.
then Pe can be viewed as the average gauge pressure at the exit. . can be included in the analysis by adding the corresponding force components to the right side of Eq. The principal precaution to be taken here is to remember that a is the acceleration of the center of mass of the particles composing the system at the given instant.ditional external forces due to aerodynamic drag. In case it is moving in the atmosphere. it can be seen that the static thrust Fs is the total force acting on the mass of the rocket structure and unburned fuel for the original case of free flight in a vacuum. (498). T~is is true even though the system consists of a slightly different set of particles at successive instants of time due.164 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. Hence Newton's equation of motion F == ma applies instantaneously to a group of particles of total mass m whose center of mass has an absolute acceleration a. 415. It is not necessarily equal to i\. This total force Fs consists of the exit pressure force pe A e and the jet reaction force bve • Thus we see that the total force is equal to the product of the instantaneous mass and the corresponding absolute acceleration. (497). gravity. Returning now to a consideration of Eq. . Any a9. A general control volume showing a mass element pdVand a surface element dA. 4 that the rocket is moving in a vacuum. and so on. since the position vector fc may change z EiJ~ pdV Control volume ~y x Fig. in this particular case. even for the case of a system \vhose mass is changing. to the expulsion of mass from the rocket.
tem is p = LpvdV (4100) where p and v are the mass density and the absolute velocity.SEC. we calculate the momentum of all particles within the control volume at t + at. the momentum of the original set of particles is [f pv V dV] t+At +' at f A pV(Vr· dA) where the second integral accounts for the momentum of the particles entering or leaving the control volume in the interval at. we can use Eq. 4·15). relative to the surface. This integral is over the entire surface of the control volume. Thus p(vr • dA) Ilt represents the mass crossing the surface element . More generally. 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 165 because different particles compose the system at different times. the problem is to express the time rate of change of the linear momentum of the material within the control volume in terms of the external forces acting on it. and subtract the momentum of all the "foreign" particles that entered during the same intervaL Therefore. So. remembering that it applies instantaneously to any system so long as the summations of external forces and momenta are over the same set of particles. In this rather general approach. in general. of the particles that are entering or leaving. of the material within the volume element dV. Now. respectively. there is a mass flow through its surface. The control volume may move or change its shape and. at time t + Ilt. The total linear momentum of this sys. The vector Vr is the velocity. Another approach to the derivation of the rocket acceleration equation is provided by an analysis of the material within a control volume bounded by a closed mathematical surface (Fig. The integral is taken over the entire control volume V. As the system under consideration. if we evaluate the same integral at time t + ilt. but does not apply to systems whose total mass is changing because particles are continuously entering or leaving the system. It should be noted in passing that the equation d F == (my) dt applies to systems whose particles have a changing mass due to relativistic effects. For example. Control Volume Approach. in order to follow the original set of particles. and then we must add the momentum of all the "native" particles that left the control volume in the infinitesimal interval at. we find that a slightly different set of particles is within the control volume. let us take the material within the control volume at time t. (491). dA being a surface element whose orientation is specified by the outwardpointing normal vector. the center of mass of a rocket on a test stand may move without the rocket itself moving.
416. Now let us apply Eq. Therefore we see that F == dd t f v pvdV + f pv(vr . ' I ______________________ J1 Fig.[tpVdV1+ At Lpv(vr· dA) Dividing this expression by At and taking the limit as At approaches zero. do not enter the problem. as shown in Fig. by Newton's law of motion.. Thus we see that the change in the linear momentum of the original system of particles in the interval At is given by Ap = [t pVdV LL\/ . 416. M ultiplying each mass element crossing the boundary surface by its absolute velocity v and integrating over all elements. We take a control volume which includes the rocket and moves with it. referring to entering foreign particles.. Changes in v or Vr during this interval can be neglected. Internal forces.It • dA) (4101) The volume integral may be interpreted from the Eulerian viewpoint of considering v (or pv) as a vector field which is a function of position and time. This result. except possibly as a cause of external contact forces at the boundary...1 Control volume PeAe~ Vr '. (4101) to the rocket problem which we analyzed previously by the particle mechanics approach.. This momentum may change because of changes in the flow field or changes in the control volume. or both. dA. . I ~ : I . however. 4 dA in theint~rval At. The integration is taken over the control volume at each instant without following the path of any particular particle as time proceeds. such as those due to viscosity and internal pressures. must equal the total external force F applied to the mass within the control volume.. we obtain the time rate of change of the total linear momentum of the particles included within the control volume at the given time t. A control volume enclosing the rocket. Note r. with a positive Vr e dA referring to leaving native particles and a negative vr .. thereby simplifying the analysis. Note that th~ force F may include field forces as well as contact forces so long as the source is external to the control volume. the control volume is chosen such that certain aspects of the flow are steady. Thus the integral represents the instantaneous value of the total linear momentum of all material within the control volume.. we obtain a correction term which can be interpreted as the net momentum outflow from the control volume during the interval At. .... m )! eo 1 V . Generally.166 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP.
ve)]ea F == I pv d. Thus we need to know the acceleration of all particles within the control volume instead of being able to integrate the velocity or momentum distribution over the control volume first and then differentiate with respect to time.I " SEC. we obtain Ca. (497). Therefore.ve)e a (4104) Now we can evaluate Eq. The total external force acting on the material within the control volume is due to the exit pressure Pe acting over the flat exit area A e' Hence. (494).ve)veAee a = b(v .V v (4106) where v is the absolute acceleration of the mass in the given volume element. In the language of fluid mechanics. let us calculate the acceleration of . Again we neglect changes in the momentum of the jet relative to the rocket as it flows within the control volume. 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 167 that the exit area of the rocket is a portion of the surface of the control volume. we find that I pv(v A r • dA) = Pe(v . it is a substantial derivative. (493). Another approach to this probleln which again makes use of the control volume concept is obtained directly from the equation of motion fora system of particles.bv)c a (4103) I. obtaining + b(v . we can replace the summation by an integration for this case of distributed mass. corresponding to an absolute velocity v . where m is evaluated from Eq. (4101). (4101). their relative velocity being Ve to the left. (4101). (4106). The jet exhaust furnishes the only particles crossing the surface of the control volume. (491). but is frequently more difficult to apply because the integral involves an acceleration field rather than a velocity field. This result appears to be more simple than Eq.Ve to the right. (4102) where the force acts to the right in the direction of the unit vector ing the other terms of Eq.bv or (4105) in agreement with Eq. Evaluat Iv pv dV or d dt = mvea I v pv dV == (mv + mv)ca == (mv . as given by Eq. obtaining PeAeea == [mv . using Eq. To illustrate the use of Eq. Taking the system to consist of all the material within the control volume at the given instant.
vT is the velocity relative to the control volume of the mass element p dV. in this case of a control volume of constant dimensions. is steady as viewed by an observer in this frame. dV = (mil . but assuming that the internal flow is steady. This relative acceleration is zero everywhere except for those gas particles which are being accelerated rearward until they achieve the relative velocity .bve)ea (4107) miJ == PeAe + bV e in agreement with our earlier results. we obtain . the acceleration if of any particle is equal to the acceleration of the rocket plus the acceleration of the particle relative to the rocket. from Eqs. and We see that f pR dV v == miJe a (4109) Also. in effect. using the same control volume. (2106) and obtain v == R + OJ X P +W X (00 X p) + 2(1) X (p).bV e and the entire integral becomes f Hence we again obtain v pi. where. or a portion of it. as well as translating.r + (P)r (4108) The expression for v is then integrated term by term in order to evaluate the volume integral of Eq. Therefore. Again choosing the rocket problem as an example. (4101) and (4106). we can use the notation of Eq. We have seen that it might be convenient for the absolute acceleration v to be written in terms of an acceleration relative to a noninertial reference frame such as the rocket body. (4106). The reason for choosing such a reference frame is that the flow. Again we obtain that the total external force is F == PeAeea Now. But. 416. the integral of the relative acceleration term is .168 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP~ 4 the rocket of Fig. Then (I) == 0. a mass b being accelerated from zero relative velocity to . Regardless of the precise acceleration history of a certain gas particle. there is.Ve at the exit of the nozzle.Ve during each unit of time. suppose we let the moving frame and the control volume be fixed in the rocket. For a general noninertial franle which is rotating at an angular rate (I).
as viewed by a nonrotating observer translating with P. we can obtain the rotational counterpart of Eq. 417). Example 48. we obtain Mp . we obtain (4112) where Mp is the total moment about P due to external forces acting on the mass within the control volume. we once again find that In1j = PeAe + bVe Now let us extend the control volume approach to rotational motion about an arbitrary point P. equating the external force F to the sum of the expressions obtained in Eqs.holds for a general vector field v and does not require that the reference frame be inertial. (464) and refers to the total angular momentulTI about P of the material within the control volume. ap may be expressed in terms of a general vector equation such as Eq. Also. p is the position vector of the mass element relative to P. we can apply it to the case of the relative velocity v" obtaining (4111) = peAev~ea = bvee a where the volume integral on the right is constant for this case of st~ady flow and hence its time derivative is zero. In case the flow is more easily observed by a rotating observer.Pc X mr p = f v PP X ap dV (4113) where a p is the acceleration relative to P of the particle at the position p. (470) in an integral fornl analogous to that of Eq. Water of density p enters a pipe along a vertical transverse axis through 0. The water leaves with a relative velocity Ve through a nozzle . vr refers to the velocity relative to the surface element dA of the particles crossing it. pc is the position vector of the center of mass relative to P. (4109) and (4111). Writing Eq. Thus. Note that pc X r p is zero if we choose a fixed point or the center of mass as the reference point P. as viewed by a nonrotating observer. The angular momentum Hp is defined in the nlanner of Eq. (4106).SEC. In a similar fashion. Therefore. and vp is velocity relative to P of a particle at the position p. Again choosing al) arbitrary reference point P. about which the pipe rotates at a constant angular rate co (Fig. (4108). 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 169 f pvdV = dd f v t v pvdV + f A pV(V r CD dA) (4110) This equality. We assume that the control volullle can lTIOVe and change shape. As before. (4101).
Since the flow is steady relative to the pipe. since the surface integral is zero elsewhere.170 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. It leaves the control volume through the nozzle exit. 4 . Let us apply Eq. it is directed vertically at all times. integrating over the nozzle exit only. choosing as a reference point the fixed point O. we obtain X vpdV= 0 p X Vp == l(v e sin a + lro)e z where ez == er X et. If the nozzle axis is horizontal and at an angle a from the radial direction. p X Vpo We see that only transverse components of Vp contribute to this vector product. Furthermore. Let us return now to the differential . Consider first the term. find the moment M applied to the system. A pipe and nozzle whirling in the horizontal plane about a vertical axis through O. then we find that the steadystate rotation rate is ro == Ve sin a I Integration of the Rocket Equation. Therefore. Hence an evaluation of Eq. fp == 0 because the reference point is fixed. we find that SA PP X Vp(V r • dA) = PVeAel(ve sin a + lro)e z Of course. 417. The control volume includes the pipe and nozzle and rotates with them. ~t _ \/"er o Fig. of exit area A e at a distance I from the axis at O. We assume that the water enters the control volume with no angular momentum about O. (4112). (4112) yields the following result: M == pVeAe1(ve sin a + lro)e z In case the external moment is zero. we see that :t Lpp At the nozzle.
equation for rocket flight in a vacuum with no gravitational forces. assuming that Fs/b is constant. Usually. The coefficient Fs/b has the units of impulse per unit mass. It can be seen that if the pressure force is small compared to F s . as the corresponding designations. We found in Eqs. (498) and (499) that mv == PeAe + bVe == Fs where the thrust Fs is assumed to be constant. From Eqs. we see that the velocity change.SEC.Vo is independent of the burning time for a given mass ratio mo/mf. respectively. We wish to integrate with respect to mass rather than time. it is specified in terms of the specific impulse 1 sp == bg Fs (4117) which is the total impulse per pound of propellant. so let us make the substitution dv dvdm ~ m==m==bmdt dm dt dm which changes the differential equation to the following form: dv Fs dm . at any time during burning. the velocity v and mass m are related by' the equation: . written in terms of the specific impulse is Vf Vo == Ispg In mo (4118) mf Similarly.bIn (4114) Now we integrate between the initial and final (usually burnout) conditions. Thus. Typical values of the specific impulse of chemical propellants are in the range from 200 to 350 sec. the weight being measured at the earth's surface.I i . using the subscripts 0 and J. 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 171 .. then ~ 1sp= Ve g indicating that the specific impulse is a measure of the effective exhaust velocity. vr dv == __s smr dm F _ (4115) S Vo b mo m or VI Vo mo == FSI n b (4116) mf It can be seen for this case in which no gravitational or aerodynamic forces are acting that the velocity gain Vf . (4116) and (4117).
individually. we let m == m f and the equation remains valid for this case also. the total weight of the first stage being 360 lb and that of the second stage be. ( f 30lb 10Ib + 80lb fuel 40lb + 320 Ib fuel Fig. . has a mass ratio equal to 9. find the maximum altitude reached by the second stage plus instruments. After burnout. (4119) since we are concerned with a linear differential equation. The burning time is assumed to be very short and the change in the acceleration of gravity is neglected during the coasting period before secondstage ignition. Thus we obtain (4120) which applies for any time during burning. A twostage sounding rocket is to be fired vertically from the earth (Fig. Each stage. the effect of the gravitational force can be superimposed upon the solution of Eq. Assuming that an instrument package weighing 30 lb is mounted atop the second stage and that a 20sec coasting period occurs between firststage burnout and the ignition of the second stage. Example 49.ing 90 lb. Assume a nonrotating earth and neglect atmospheric drag.. 418). A twostage rocket and payload.. The specific impulse of the propellant is Isp == 250 sec. 4. 4 (4119) F or the case in which the rocket is fired vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field.18.172 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP.
40 where we assume that the first stage is detached before the second stage is ignited.056 ft/sec. this velocity has increased to 8206 + 8850 == 17.1] == 6•030 5. we find that the velocity gained per stage is vj  Vo  (250)(32.3 160 .706 X 105 (32.2) (3960) (5280) == .77 x 10 5 ft or 33. (4118). the maximum height would have been calculated to be only 890 miles. Now we can find the Inaxilnuln altitude by using conservation of energy.2) In 3 == 8850 ft/sec From Eqs.2)(3960)(5280) . Note also that the coasting before secondstage ignition resulte~ in a delay of 20 sec in obtaining the velocity increase due to this second stage.223 X 108 ft2/sec 2 where we have assumed that the earth's radius R == 3960 miles. we see that the velocity and altitude after the 20sec coasting period are v h == 8850 . of course. and thereby we are able to solve for the maximum altitude. Thus the coasting to a higher altitude with its lower atmospheric density before igniting the second stage actually results in smaller losses than if the stages were fired in quick succession.2) (20)2 == 170. In the practical case.5.2 ft/sec 2 had been used throughout.2) (20) == 8206 ft/sec == (8850) (20) .223 X 108 X 10 6 ft ~ 1140 mi  It is interesting to note that if a constant acceleration of gravity g == 32. the velocity was 8850 ft/sec lower than it could have been for a period of 20 sec.5 miles. From Eqs. (369) and (397). 48 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 173 It can be seen that the effective Inass ratio for each stage is the same. h max == (3960)(5280) [(32. (397) again for the case where the kinetic energy is zero.706) x I 2 8 10  [1 + (3960) (5280) ]1 1. namely. m0 _ mj  480 _ 120 . atmospheric drag forces which are strongly dependent upon velocity would occur.600 ft After secondstage burnout. we set the potential energy per unit mass equal to the total energy per unit mass previously calculated.SEC. (36) and (37). Therefore the maximum altitude was reduced by 1. So the variation of the gravitational force with altitude has a significant effect in this example. .(32. that is.~ (32. Using Eq. Using Eq. we see that the total energy per unit mass is "2 (1.
we see from Eq. Find (a) the velocities of m l . (e) the final motion of mI. This example is onedimensional in nature and no external forces act on the system in this direction. as viewed from three inertial reference frames.. Because e == 0. EXAMPLES Example 410. (b) the maximum kinetic energy of m 3 . m 2 . ... V/4 V/4 V/4 ~ Fig. 419(a).. Mass m l hits m 2 with inelastic impact (e == 0) while sliding horizontally with velocity v along the common line of centers of the three equal massesFig. (c) the minimum kinetic energy of m2~ (d) the maxi mum com pression of the spring. and m3 imme (0) (b) (c) //J777~//71l/7. Initially. masses m 2 and m3 are stationary and the spring is unstressed.:77~77~7//J77 (d) . diately after impact.. Therefore linear momentum is conserved throughout the problem. 419.I I 174 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. (482) that masses m 1 and m 2 will move at the same velocity immediately after impact. result.. An inelastic collision and subsequent motion.. 4 49.
or X 2 == X 3 • Therefore. when the accelerations are zero. At all times after the impact. respectively. 49 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 175 ing in the equivalent system shown in Fig. setting X 2 == X3 and substituting for V 2 in the energy equation. we obtain mV2 + 2 1 2 1 2: mV3 + 2: k (X2 . zero. Also. So.V3 )2 1 1 + 2: V32 == TV 2 == 0 from which we obtain the roots Now. we see that 2mv2 + mV3 == mv from which we obtain Because the total energy is conserved. writing the general expression for the total energy and setting it equal to the kinetic energy just after impact. So. we note that these values occur when the individual velocities reach extreme values. the total energy is conserved. to find the extreme values of the kinetic energy associated with the individual particles. 419(b). It is equal to the kinetic energy just after impact. But this occurs for a zero spring force. we can use the principle of conservation of linear momentum to obtain lnv == 2mv~ or where m is the mass of each particle. using the principle of conservation of linear momentum and assuming that m! and m 2 continue to move together.SEC. we find that 1 T (v or V3 (3V3 . since no potential energy is stored in the spring at this time.X3 &)2 == mv 4 2 where V2 and V3 are the velocities of (m} + m2) and m 3. that is. it can be seen that the extreme values of the kinetic energy of the individual particles occur when .2v) . Mass m3 does not move at the time of impact because the spring is initially unstressed and therefore (m! + m 2) must move through a finite displacement before any force acts on m3. that is. This occurs when X 2 == X 3 . the total kinetic energy will be maximum when the potential energy is minimum. corresponding to an unstressed spring. Calling this velocity v~.
. then. in which case all three particles are moving with the same velocity. at the first instant in which m 2 accelerates to the right. we recall that m 1 hit m2 inelastically. Meanwhile. as can be seen from momentum considerations. Again. V2 = V3 = 3"" V Now we substitute these values into the general energy equation. and since the initial separation occurs at the moment of (V 2)min and (v 3)max.176 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. the center of mass of m2 and m3 translates uniformly at a velocity 5vj12. This occurs when m 2 accelerates from its minimum velocity vJ6. these extremes are never exceeded. that is. At this time. Masses m 2 and m3continue to oscillate relative to their center of mass. So. that the maximum kinetic energy of ma occurs for Va = 2v/3. we use the conservation of linear momentum to solve for the common velocity at this time. but this does not imply that they move together indefinitely. we see that (V 2)min occurs at the same time as (vg)max. m 1 and m 2 will separate. (Ts}Il1'x =~ m C3 V ) 2 =~ mv 2 Because the total linear momentum is conserved. m 1 moves at a constant velocity v/6. In order to solve for the final motion of m 1. obtaining m ( V )2 3 1 + 2 m ( V )2 3 1 + 2 k(X2  X3)2 2 = mv  4 from which we find that the maximum spring compression is (X2 XS)max = ~v We have omitted the other sign on the square root because it implies tension in the spring. In fact. m 1 cannot accelerate to the right. It is clear. since we assume that m 2 cannot exert a pull on it. From this time onward. the total momentum is 2m(v 2)min or 2 + rmv = mv v (V 2)min = 6 The corresponding kinetic energy of m2 is (T )min = 2 ~ m( ~)2 = ~~2 The maximum compression of the spring occurs when the relative velocity of its two ends is zero. for the largest root. So m 1 is left behind permanently. 4 the total kinetic energy is maximum.
each with the natural frequency (On == V'3k/2m. the system immediately after impact appears as shown in Fig. We see that m 2 and m3 oscillate at a frequency (On == . The separation of the two masses is (/0 + x). After reaching the steadystate motion.SEC. the initial velocities being as shown in Fig. the situation at the time of separation appears as shown in Fig. whereas the other mass has a transverse velocity Vo. Initially.v'2k/m. Thus the motion of each mass relative to the center of mass is sin usoidal in nature. But we have seen that only one halfcycle of this motion occurs before m 1 and m 2 separate. 420. 49 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 177 ~ I Before leaving this example. ~ 19(c). Meanwhile. the coordinate x being the extension of the spring from its unstressed length 1 . In this case. 419(c). In each case. The initial motion of the system of Example 4. Example 411. note that it could have been solved by considering the whole process from the viewpoint of an observer translating uniformly with the center of mass of the system. we see that the center of mass divides the spring into two portions with the spring constant of each being inversely proportional to its unstressed length. Solve for vo. as shown in Fig. we might choose an inertial reference which translates uniformly with the center of mass of ff12 and ma. 420. From this reference frame.fl. 0 x == 0. 419( d). and one mass is motionless. Furthermore. it can be seen that two massspring systems are formed. absolute velocities are found by adding the velocity of the reference frame. . The center of mass is fixed in this system and is located at onethird of the distance between (ml + m 2 ) and m3' Using a procedure similar to that of Example 42. m l is being left behind with an average separation velocity of v/4. we find that the spring has stretched to twice its original length. After this separation. as a function of the other system parameters and compute the fraction of the original energy Fig. Two equal masses slide on a smooth horizontal plane and are connected by a parallel springdamper combination. x == 0.
x == 0 and x == 1 • From Eq. taking the center of mass as the reference. Consider the masses as particles. we see 0 that the steadystate value of ro is IDs== Vo 4/0 But in the steady state the spring force is equal to the mass times the centripetal acceleration. we see that the total angular momentum of the system is H == m(/o 2 + X)2 ro == m1ovo 2 where the constant term on the right was evaluated from initial conditions. (4122). (253) and (3101).178 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. we note from Eq. So. . we calculate first the initial energy E£ of the system. we see that Ei == 1 2 mv5 8k 15 since all the energy is associated with one 'particle as kinetic energy. First. Using a fixed reference frame. The final potential energy stored in the spring is Vr = ~ kl~ The final kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energy due to the motion of the center of mass and that due to the motion relative to the center of mass. 4 which has been dissipated in the damper. So. We can solve for the angular rotation rate as a function of x by writing the equation of conservation of angular momentum about the center of mass. Hence we find that (4122) It can be seen that the damper is dissipating energy except when x == o. we see that 2 mvo kl m1 oOOs == 16/ == 0 0 2 Therefore. in the steadystate motion. From Eqs. Vo = 410 f!!n == To find the energy loss in the damper. (443) that the angular momentum of a single particle in plane motion is (4121) where ro is the absolute angular rate with which the particle moves about the reference point and r is its radial distance from that point.
namely.: mx (a) (b) Fig.SEC. The angular momentum about 0 is . the magnitude of the energy loss is the same. then the fractional energy loss would have been greater. 421(b). We shall analyze this problem from the point of view of an observer in a noni~ertial reference frame which translates with the support point o.Er _ 5 Ei . Example 412. Using the principles discussed in Sec.mx in addition to the usual external forces. i. Find the differential equation of motion. H = m/ 2 8 and therefore . Now we consider the point 0 to be fixed and solve the dynamical problem shown in Fig. 421(a)]. we see that we must introduce a horizontal inertial force . however. ence point.. = 5kl~ 11 2 Vr = 2" kl 0 Therefore the final energy is . Er = Tr The fractional loss of energy is Ei . The point of support 0 of a simple pendulum of length / moves with a horizontal displacement \ x = A sin rot I in the plane of the motion in (j [see Fig. A simple pendulum with a moving support. 45 for the case of an arbitrary refer I x =. 49 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 179 Tf = m( ~ r + + ml~ro. 421.16 It is interesting to note that if an inertial frame had been chosen which translates with the center of mass.A sin wt o o m +. For either reference frame.
REFERENCES 1... G. H. 4.cos () sin rot Note that the foregoing procedure is equivalent to using Eq. and J. Princeton. Hudson. 421(b) is M = mil cos () . 1962. What is the minimum spring compression 8 necessary to cause m 2 to leave the floor after m 1 is suddenly released with zero velocity? Measure B from i(LO) k / Fig. Shames. Principles of Mechanics of Solids and FluidsParticle and RigidBody Mechanics. Englewood Cliffs. N. Inc. Van Nostrand Co. Mass. New York: McGrawHill. P42 .: PrenticeHall. Yeh. 1960. Dynamics. Inc. 3.. (470) directly. E. 1960. 1954. Abrams.. 4.180 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. PROBLEMS 41.J.. DynamicsParticles.. 1959.. Reading. 2nd ed.. New York: McGrawHill.. Applied Mechanics. I. H. : AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Introduction to Theoretical Mechanics.. W. Engineering Mechanics. Halfman R. N. the moment due to the gravitational and inertial forces shown in Fig. I. fI = ml 2 8 where the positive direction for H is taken out of the page.mgl sin () = ml(Aro 2 cos () sin rot . Housner. Inc. P41 Fig. Rigid Bodies. Inc. 2. Also. L. and D. 5.J. and Systems. A.g sin () Now we set M = iI and obtain the differential equation: .: D. Becker R.. g () + T Aro 2 sin () = 1.
A baH is thrown with an initial velocity Vo at an angle ryo above the horizontal. 49 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 181 the unstressed length of the spring and assume that all motion is in the vertical direction. where a > j. It hits a smooth vertical wall at a horizontal distance sand rebounds to the point from which it was thrown. . The initial angular velocity is roo· 44. solve for the required angle ryo' 46.90. A smooth sphere A of mass m. B2 is motionless and y x Fig. If there is a coefficient of friction /L between the chain and the table top.7 . If such a ball of mass m is lying motionless on a horizontal concrete surface. find the velocities of A and B after impact.. where Fig. and neglecting all forces exerted by the air. traveling with velocity v == voi. P46 Fig. hits a similar sphere B such that the angle between the line of centers and the negative x axis is 45°. 42. A tennis ball bouncing on a concrete surface is found to have a coefficient of restitution e == 0. 43.LL/(l + /L). 47. P4. find the velocity of the chain as it leaves the table. Solve for the radial interaction force between the particles which will cause their distance m from the axis to vary according to the formula. P43 A < '0. Initially. A system consists of two particles of equal mass m which slide on a rigid massless rod that rotates freely about a vertical axis at o.SEC. == '0 + A sin f3t. The initial overhang is 0. assuming that it is released from the position shown. and the chain is guided without friction around the corner. Assuming a coefficient of restitution e at the wall. A chain of length L and mass m rests on a horizontal table. Bodies BI and B2 each consist of two small spheres of equal mass m connected by a rigid massless rod of length I. Assuming that the coefficient of restitution is e == 0.90. 45. what downward impulse must be applied to it by a racket to cause it to rise one foot into the air? Give assumptions.
assuming that the masses are equal and can be considered as particles. as shown. A coiled flexible rope of uniform mass p per unit length lies on ahorizontal surface. P49 Fig. At t == 0. Find the force F which is required to lift the end of the rope. Masses m 2 and ms are initially at rest and the spring of length 10 is unstressed. If the particle m is initially at the origin and if an attractive force of magnitude K/r 2 exists between the two particles. solve for the velocity of the system when the bouncing stops.00 to x == 00. are connected by a string of length I. 49. Then.182 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES WI CHAP. causing it to hit the sphere repeatedly. Consider the spheres as particles. P410 410. . A flexible rope of mass p per unit length and total length I is suspended so that its upper end is at a height h above a horizontal floor. A particle of mass m can slide without friction along a fixed horizontal wire coinciding with the x axis. Assuming a coefficient of restitution e == 0. hits m 2 inelastically and sticks to it. where r is their separation. as shown in the figure.8 Fig. 4 BI is moving such that == 0 and the velocity of its mass center is Vo == voi.00 with velocity v == Vo and both particles can slide freely along their respective wires which are separated by a distance h. Then m 2 is given a horizontal impulse of magnitude ~ == m2vO in a direction perpendicular to the string. a constant horizontal force F is applied to the block. the particles are separated by a distance I and are motionless on a smooth horizontal plane. 48. where h /" I. 414. Another particle of mass mo moves with a constant speed Vo along the line y == h from x == . Solve for the motion of the systenl and the tension in the string. T 1 lo F + rzi 3m e=O. Solve for the maximum speed of particle m in problem 411 if mo starts at x == . Then mass m 1 . Initially. 411. solve for the maximum speed of m. A block of mass 3m and a sphere of mass m are initially motionless and are separated by a distance I on a smooth horizontal plane. Two particles of mass m 1 and m 2 . In the ensuing motion the spring stretches to a maximum length 3/00 Solve for Vo.8 for collisions between the b10ck and the sphere. one end is raised vertically with a constant velocity v. 413. with their line of centers at 45° to each rod during impact. solve for the linear and angular velocities of Bland B 2 immediately after inlpact. at t == 0. 412. respectively. traveling with velocity Vo in a direction perpendicular to the spring. Assuming that all motion takes place in a plane and the coefficient of restitution is e == 0.5. Two of the smooth spheres hit.
49 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 183 Suddenly it is released. Find the force on the floor as a function of time. the water leaves with a zero horizontal component of velocity relative to the block. 418.10. a~suming a coefficient of friction f. and if the coefficient of restiI . Each stage has mass ratio of 10 (exclusive of payload). Fig. 419.L == 0. . Spheres A and B are slightly separated and move to the right with velocity v. lsp == 250 sec and the earth radius R == 3960 miles. that is. moves horizontally and hits a block of mass m inelastically. solve for the maximum accelerations of the rocket systems of parts (a) and (b). A particle of mass m strikes a horizontal floor while traveling with velocity Vo at an angle of 45° from the vertical. Sphere C moves to the left with velocity v along the common line of centers. P416 416.SEC. find the steadystate speed v of the belt motion. Find the terminal velocity of the block. and absolute velocity vo.. If each sphere has the same mass m. P4. at which point it falls off. 417.15 Fig. (a) Assuming a specific impulse. 415. as shown. and if the material is put on the belt at a distance I from where it falls off. It sticks to the belt until it reaches a small pulley at B. what is the minimum total weight in this case? (c) If we now assume a 10 sec burning time for each rocket. A jet of water of crosssection A. Assuming that the coefficient of restitution for normal impact is e == 1 and the coefficient of friction is f. (b) Suppose that a twostage rocket is used to accomplish the same result. and assume a very short burning time. A rocket of mass ratio 10 (exclusive of payload) is used to carry a 50 lb. find the minimum total weight· necessary to accomplish this result.L between the block and the horizontal plane upon which it slides. The pulleys are frictionless. payload to an altitude R/4 above the earth's surface. Material is fed at a rate bg Ib/sec and with essentially zero absolute velocity from a hopper onto a belt of total mass 111. density p. Neglect the effects of atmospheric drag and the earth's rotation. Assuming that the stages are fired in quick succession and the first stage is five times as heavy as the second. If the belt is inclined at 30° to the horizontal. find: (a) the rebound angle and speed immediately after the first bounce and (b) the position and motion of the particle after a long time. hitting the floor inelastically.
(b) A and B are connected by a short inelastic string of negligible mass . What Fig. v ) v v 00 A 8 o c Fig. and C after all impacts have occurred for the following cases: (a) A and B are not connected . Suppose that the support point 0 of the simple pendulum in the previous problem is given a constant m horizontal acceleration a == 2g. find the limits on 0 in the ensuing motion. . x(o) == 0. Consider again the gyroscope of. Suppose that the coefficient of restitution e for the system is defined as the ratio of the speed of the center of mass as the system moves away from the wall compared to its approach speed Vo' Solve for e for the cases where the coefficient of restitution e' for a single mass is: (a) zero.184 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES CHAP. A system consisting of two equal spherical masses connected by a spring is sliding on a smooth horizontal floor with velocity Vo along its line of centers. 0(0) == 0. If the initial conditions are 0(0) == 0. Assuming that a == J3g. P420 Fig. 4210 The support point 0 of a o x simple pendulum of mass m and length 1 is given a uniform horizontal acceleration x == a. each of mass m. P419 420. P421 is the angular velocity when the pendulum first becomes horizontal? 423. solve for the period of the motion. find the velocities of A. 424. problem 212. Particles m 1 and m 2 . (b) unity. find for the ensuing motion: (a) the maximum distance of m) from the nail . solve for the uniform precession rate ~ under the influence of gravity by using d'Alembert's prin~iple and equating the magnitudes of the inertial and gravitational moments about O. Initially. (b) the minimum tensile force in the string. and the string can slide freely on the nail. are connected by an inextensible weightless string of length 4/. each particle is sliding with velocity v along parallel paths separated by a distance 41 on a smoothrhorizontal floor. 4 tution for collisions between spheres is unity. Assuming that the particles proceed to whirl in opposite directions without colliding. B. (c) A and B are connected by a rigid massless rod. Assuming that the rotor mass m is uniformly distributed along the rim. 422. It hits a vertical wall and rebounds along its path of approach. Suddenly a point on the string at a distance 1 from particle m 1 strikes a fixed vertical nail of negligible diameter that projects from the floor.
The first two laws were published in 1609 and the third in 1619. KEPLER'S LAWS AND NEWTON'S LAW OF GRAVITATION \ Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. 31. Johannes Kepler. Thus. These are Kepler's laws.1 1 I I j \ I \ This chapter is primarily concerned with the calculation of some of the important characteristics of the path in space followed by a particle as it moves in a gravitational field. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. As the chapter proceeds. found that he could predict the motions of the planets if he assumed the following laws: I. As a matter of fact.h ). The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of the semimajor axes of their respective orbits. they preceded Newton's laws of motion by nearly seventy years. Although the development of the subject is made in the context of particle motion. III. We studied the motion of a particle in a uniform gravitationaJ field in Sec. Newton deduced the law of gravitation from Kepler's laws and his own laws of motion. 1 51. The principal factors affecting the gravitational force on a body were originally discovered by studying planetary motions. For locally homogeneous fields. Here we shall emphasize the path or orbit of a particle which experiences an inversesquare attraction toward a point. the results are applicable to many cases of translational motion of extended bodies of arbitrary shape. it follows directly from Eq. The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet sweeps over equal areas in equal times. (48) that the translational motion is the same as though the entire mass were concentrated at the mass center. we shall obtain Kepler's laws as a natural result of our analysis of the twobody problem and indicate the reasons 185 . after a careful analysis of the observational data of Tycho Brahe. 1 5 ORBITAL MOTION 1 . II. the principal restriction being that the external gravitational field be essentially uniform in the region occupied by the body at any given moment.
186 ORBIT AL MOTION CHAP. for the foregoing case of the gravitational attraction between two particles. In fact. The force at each point is a measure of the intensity of the gravitational field due to m2 and is called the gravitational field strength. Gravitational Potential and Potential Energy.r2 2 r  (54) where e r is a unit vector directed from m 2 toward the unit mass.K/r 2 . the vector f can be evaluated ~t all points in space (except at m 2 ). (51) that the force can be written in the form Gm e f . and G is a universal constant which is independent of the nature of the masses or their location in space. that is. we find that (53) Now let us consider the force acting on a unit mass due to the presence of a second mass m 2 • Setting m 1 = 1. We saw from Eq. then the potential energy is of the form K v= r (52) where we have chosen the zero reference for potential energy at r = 00. Newton's Law of Gravitation. We note that the dimensions of f are those of force per unit mass. we see from Eq.S ft 4 /1bsec 4 The minus sign signifies that Fr is an attracting force. One of Newton's principal contributions to the development of mechanics is his law of gravitation which may be stated as follows: Any two particles attract each other with a force which acts along the line joining them and which has a magnitude that. 5 .s cm 3 /gmsec 2 == 3. f is just the absolute acceleration which the unit mass would have if it .67 x 10. for the small inaccuracies which occur when they are applied to the planetary orbits of the solar system.44 x 10. for an infinite separation of the particles. The quantitative aspects of the law of gravitation may be stated in the form of the equation: (51) where ml and m 2 are the masses of the particles. In terms of commonly used units.. By moving the unit mass. is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. or acceleration. G == 6. So. r is their separation. (391) that if the force acting on a body is given by .
SEC. The potential energy. We saw in Eq. for the case of two particles. (388) that the force exerted by a conservative force field is F == VV It is clear. the potential energy is given by 'I. we see that (57) where fi is the force on the unit mass due to mi. For any two particles. rather than performing the vector additions directly according to Eq. for m 1 == 1. If we wish to find the force on a unit mass due to the presence of n other particles. then. and is known as the gravitational potential. So in this case. find that the tQtal potential at a given point due to the n particles is (58) where cf>i is the potential due to mi at a distance rio Since the potential <p is a scalar function of position. (57). we. it is often preferable to calculate the field strength f due to several particles by first calculating cp as the sum of the <Pi and then finding f as the negative gradient of cp. 33). For example. To clarify this point. Note that the forces act independently and no shielding or other effects occur whereby the interaction of one pair of masses is influenced by the presence of other masses. let us calculate the total potential energy of a system of n particles. (54). Earlier. In a similar fashion. that is. we can write f== Vcf> where (55) (56) This expression represents the potential energy per unit mass. however. L . the potential cp is just the work done against the field in bringing a unit mass from infinity to the given point. mi and mj. we defined the potential cp at a given point as ~he potential energy per unit mass. 51 ORBITAL MOTION 187 were released at the given point. Note that it does not include the work required to assemble the 11 masses in their given positions and hence is not directly related to the total potential energy of the system. if ri is the position vector of the unit mass relative to mb then.I 'J I . Hence it can be considered as the acceleration of gravity at that point. then we sum the individual forces. that for this case in which m1 == 1. can also be considered as the work required to move the system from a standard configuration to the given one (Sec. from Eq.
. 51. Consider.a) ] where we choose the upper sign for r > a and the lower sign for r < o. The Gravitational Field of a Sphere. or . (58). we can obtain the potential for the case of a sphere by superimposing the results for shells whose radii vary from zero to the radius of the sphere.2ar cos () and integrating over the entire shell. we obtain the total potential energy of the system: V =~ 2 i=l j=l ±f V ij = Q 2 i=l j=l ±± mimj rij (i *j) (510) where the factor i occurs because the double summation includes each term twice.. ·5 V ij = . If we calculate first the potential due to a thin spherical shell.  f ~a + r2 ~ 2ar cos 7r: 27l'a2 G(j sin 0 dO 2 0 f) = . The total mass m of the shell is the surface density (j times the area. (58) and (510) are quite different. It can be seen that the expressions given in Eqs.Gmimj rij (59) where r ij is the distance between mi and m j.. + (r. we see that all points on the ring are a constant distance / from a point P lying on its axis of symmetry. A spherical shell. Summing over all pairs of particles. showing an area element used in calculating the potential at P. we find that the potential at P due to the ring is Gdm / Noting that /2 = a 2 + r2 . a thin spherical shell (Fig.27t~G(f' [ a + r. that is. Taking an area element in the form of a ring of width a d () and mass ~~~~r~P dm = 27l'a 2(j sin () d() Fig. we obtain an expreSSIon for the potential at P in the following form: cp . Now let us find the gravitational field due to a sphere whose mass is distribut~d with spherical symmetry. then. from Eq. 51) having a radius a and a constant mass (j per unit area. Therefore.188 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. the density depends only upon the distance from the center and is essentially constant over a thin spherical shell whose center coincides with that of the sphere.
We have seen that the force of a sphere on an external particle is identical to that exerted by the mass of the sphere concentrated at its center. the shell exerts no gravitational force on a particle which is located at any point within the shell. we see that the gravitational force per unit mass is f == .Gm == .2 Gm (r> a) (515) I \ I I l. Then it decreases as the inverse square of the distance. Assuming a uniform density p.SEC. the gravitational field strength increases linearly with distance until the surface of the sphere is reached. For a point P inside an isolated homogeneous sphere. 51 ORBITAL MOTION 189 Therefore the potential due to a thin shell is 1> I == . Cr .. (r > < a) (511) (512) 1 \ 1> (r a) I Using Eq. On the other hand. (55). Hence we find that the external gravitational field of a thin spherical shell is the same as if its entire mass were concentrated at the center. the potential 1> external to the sphere can be written in the form 1> == . If we consider a solid sphere to be composed of concentric spherical shells. we find that this mass is t m == "37tpr3 and therefore f == 4 4 "3 1tGprcr (r < a) (516) Hence. In other words. Gm r (r> a) (514) where m is the total mass of the sphere and r is the distance from the center to the given point. The corresponding gravitational field strength is f == ..Gm a . By the . as one proceeds radially outward from the center of a homogeneous sphere. we see that the gravitational field is due to that portion of the mass which lies inside a spherical surface through P..Cr Gm r2 (r> a) (513) for points outside the shell and f == 0 for all points inside the shell. then it can be seen that the external field is just that due to the sum of the masses of the shells concentrated at their common center. where er is a radial unit vector.
because of the gravitational attraction. more spheres are calculated by considering the mass of each to be concentrated at its center. cp == _ fa o a2 2Gm 1 r_ d~ == _ 2Gm 1 (. A circular disk of mass ml with a particle m 2 on its axis of symmetry. of course. 52). Example 51. 5 IO'~ z Fig. the force of the particle on the sphere can be calculated in the same fashion. Thus it follows that the interaction forces between two or. but they ultimately collide.since all points on the ring are at the same distance fiom m 2 and we assume a uniform surface density (J" == mdna 2 • Integrating. 52..I) (517) So we find that the initial potential energy is cpm2' or 1 V = .2G:: 0 m 2 (VI a2 . . Assume a ~ I. we obtain the potential on the axis of symmetry at a distance I from the disk. This is true.190 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. even for the case of close spacing in which the distance between centers is not much greater than the sum of the radii. Find the relative velocity at the time of collision. First let uS calculate the potential cp at m2' The potential due to a circular ring of radius r and width dr is dcp ==  v?+ ·{2 Gdm 2Gm 1 r dr a2~r2 + /2 . + [2  /) lWe do not consider the potential energy of the disk itself since it undergoes no changes in this example. Initially both are motionless in free space. law of action and reaction.y' a2 Jr2+ /2 a2 + 12 . Given a thin homogeneous disk of radius a and mass mI' A particle of mass m 2 is placed at a distance I from the disk on its axis of symmetry (Fig.
the impact must occur at the center of the disk. Let us consider the. Therefore. since there are no external forces dn the system. mutual gravitational attraction between two spherical masses m t and m2 We shall assume that the mass distributions are spherically symmetric and therefore that each can be considered as a particle in calculating the motiens of their centers. but only on their sum. we obtain i or m l vi (1 + ::) = Gmlm2 (~ . 52 ORBITAL MOTION 191 The final potential energy Vb occurring just before impact.. r.:.. the total 1inear momentum is conserved. ..V2 = (1 + ::) VI = [ 2G (ml + m2) (~  +) J'2 Note that this relative velocity does not depend upon the magnitude of the individual masses.Vb that is. THE TWOBODY PROBLEM Absolute and Relative Motions.SEC.. V == _2Gm t m 2 f a We assumed that a ~ I and therefore we can expand the square root in powers of a 2 /12 to obtain the approximation V./ _ o == Gm 1 m 2 1 Hence the change in potential energy is Vo . 52. Also. is found by setting 1 == 0 in the foregoing expression. or Substituting this expression for V2 V2 1 == . from symmetry considerations.!::.:.Vf = Gm l m2 (~  + ) (518) From the principle of conservation of energy. we see that the total kinetic energy just before impact is equal to Vo .+) m2 [ 2G m1 Vi _  + (2 _1 m2 a I )J 1 2 / So the relative velocity at impact is Vrel = VI . since. q . 0 ~ .VI m m2 into the energy equation..
41 that internal forces of repulsion are considered to be positive. it is apparent that.. " . (521) and (523) that the force on each mass varies inversely as the square of its distance from the center of mass. ~~ '._ _ _ •• ~ . relative to the rI center of mass (Fig.. respectively.. 5 Fig. ._ •• ~~ M ...~.. let us assume an isolated system.. (520) and therefore the force on m 1 can be written in the form: I 1 112 where = . Furthermore.~ _ • • .Kl ri (521) (522) Similarly. But the center of mass is fixed in an inertial frame. 53. we see that the mutual force between m 1 and m2 is (519) where we use the convention of Fig. 53). A twobody system showing position vectors.. __ ~_ • _____ . ' Using Newton's law of gravitation. Therefore the_twobody . (523) where (524) It can be seen from Eqs.192 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. Let r 1 and r 2 be the position vectors of m 1 and m2... implying that we can choose an inertial frame of reference which translates with the center of mass. Since r 1 and r2 are measured from the center of mass.
. Assuming that m l and m2~. Now let us calculate the kinetic energy of the system relative to an inertial frame moving with the center of mass.2 m2) ='2 (ml . 52 ORBITAL MOTION 193 problem reduces to the problem of finding the motion of a particle which is attracted by an inversesquare force toward a fixed point.1 m2) Therefore the kinetic energy can be expressed as follows: (531) T == . result as follows: The motion of m l relative to m 2 is the same as if m2 were fixed and m1 were replaced by a reduced mass (529) the force f12 being. (520) we obtain . Usually we solve for the motion of the smaller mass relative to the larger. we find that (530) Using Eq. (529). (519) and Newtop's equation of motion. So let the position vector of m l relative to m 2 be (525) Now. (525) and (526) we have i == il  l2 ==  G(ml r3 + m 2) r (527) and therefore we obtain (528) We can interpret this. we see that (526) From Eqs. ='I + '2 ='I (ml . using Eq.l m~ (f2 + r26)2) 2 (532) where mf 'is the reduced mass given by Eq.ach. move about the center of mass at an angular rate 6). Another approach which is often convenient is to solve for the motion of one mass relative to the other. This result shows that the correct kinetic energy is obtained by assuming m 2 is fixed and using the reduced mass mi in place of m1 in the . unchanged.SEC.
the proper angular momentum is obtained by using these assumptions. 54. . What has been accomplished in the foregoing development is to perform the analysis with respect to a l10ninertial frame translating with m2' It can be seen that the same relative motion could have been obtained by changing the system parameters in several other ways if that were the only objective. F Using polar coordinates. We assume that standard methods are used. FT == maT == m(. hence the acceleration also is in this plane at all times.8 2) (535) (536) and Fe == mae == m (r8 + ·2. and the conservation of energy and angular momentum. (533) r r where (534) Hence.. motion in terms of the rand () components of force and acceleration. respectively.. as shown in Fig. . we insure that the energy relationships are preserved as well.8) . if we assume that m2 is fixed and replace the masses m 1 and m 2 by mf and m~. we can write the equation of fixed a ttracting focus F. 5 standard equation for the kinetic energy. m First we notice that the motion ~is confined to the plane described by the radius vector and the velocity vector of the particle. such as Newton's laws of motion and gravitation. Also. So let us consider the case of a particle of mass m being attracted to a fixed attracting focus F. relative motions. the reason being that the only force on the particle is in the negative radial direction. however. and energies of the system will be correct. where r is measured from a fixed focus and () Fig. The polar coordinates of a particle m which undergoes an inis measured from a fixed reference versesquare attraction toward a line. we see that the potential energy is v == _ Gm 1 m 2 == Gm~m. 54. The Orbit Equation.. since the work done by gravity involves a relative displacement. Furthermore.ar~_ force to a fixed point.194 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. We have shown that the twobody problem can be reduced to the problem of a mass being attracted by an inversesq1J. then the calculation of the forces. By making the additional requirement that the gravitational force be unchanged.
L is a positive constant. equivalently. we see from Eq. we find that . From Eqs. (535) and (537). It can be seen from Eq.0 or. (536) that rO + 2. Thus we can write (537) where J. Note that Eq. hence Eq. == . 52 ORBITAL MOTION 195 It is convenient to consider the force per unit mass. (539) is a nonlinear differential equation as it stands. (540) Equations (539) and (540) are the differential equations of motion for the particle m.l du 2 and 2 u dO dt dO == _ h du df) (544) r. (3150) that h is the angular momentum per unit mass. let us make the substitution r == 1 ' u (542) and note from Eq. the independent variable is time. we obtain (541) where h is a constant. we obtain (539) Since Fo == 0.L could be obtained in a similar fashion for the cases of the motion of m 1 or of m 2 about their common center of mass.. It can be seen from Eq. (541) states that the angular momentum of the particle with respect to the attracting focus F is conserved. (538) The value of J. for the case of the twobody problem in which m2 is considered to be fixed. By integrating Eq. . Also. (540) directly. (534) that.  == 0 d dt (r 2 0) == 0 . == _hd u dO df)2 dt == h2 d u u d02 2 2 (545) Making these substitutions Into Eq. In order to avoid these difficulties.SEC. (539) we obtain . (541) that (543) In addition. whereas we would prefer to solve for r directly as a function of O.
Now e and h are independent of the particle position in a given orbit and are known as the dynamical constants of the orbit.r2 82 2 _ 1 fL e . So let us set 80 == 0 for convenience. . therefore the to tal energy e per unit mass is e == . 5 or (546) This differential equation has the same mathematical form as the equation for an undamped massspring system with a constant forcing term. that the choice of 80 specifies the direction of the reference line from which (j is measured.2 h2( h2 1 . Hence the general solution can be written immediately."here we arbitrarily choose the positive square root. It is U == t + C cos (8  (jo) (547) \vhere C and ()o are constants. we find that (549) .196 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. we obtain + C )2  fL ( h2 + C ) fL == ~ h2 C2 _ J.L2 2 2h2 Solving for C. (544) and (547). since any further sign changes can be handled by the choice of 80 • It is apparent. however. therefore 8 is measured from a line drawn from F to the closest point of the orbit. such as we discussed in Example 36. (547). It can be seen that. r ==  1 2 h 2 u2  fLU (548) Substituting for u from Eq.  ~ II.. The constants can be evaluated by considering the system when 8 == 80 • From Eqs. Then we obtain the orbit equation (550) or (551) Note that r == rmin when 8 == 0. we see that f == 0 at this time.
stating that the areal velocity of each planet is constant. (550) or (551) is the polar coordinate representation of a class of curves known as conic sections. Then. with this background.L. The equation of a general conic section. It can be seen that Z/e rl€ Directrix ~2a~~ Fig. 53 ORBITAL MOTION 197 for a given gravitational coefficient j. we shall present the geometrical characteristics of conic sections that are most important for our purposes.SEC. written in terms of polar coordinates. we shall be able to correlate the geometrical characteristics of the various possible orbits with the dynamical constants e and h. This socalled areal velocity is 1 1 A· == _r2{j. == h 2 2 (552) and is constant for any given orbit. It is interesting to calculate the rate at which the line from the attracting center to the particle sweeps out area. is equivalent to the statement that the angular momentum due to the orbital motion of each planet about the sun is constant. 53. . An ellipse. the size and shape of an orbit are entirely determined by these two constants. First. Hence Kepler's second law. is I (553) r == ::: 1 + € cos e where I is the semilatus rectum and € is the eccentricity. THE GEOMETRY OF CONIC SECTIONS The equation for the orbit given in Eq. 55.
E :::: ~_ . 1 == ~.. "":.::.:: cos 0 (560) This is the equation ~:<: an elli~ and E.£"/erage ds:. "7'" ra) (557) indicating the reason \\hy a is ~:fTIctimes known as the mean distance. the to be tnaXimU111 "~lue of r. as given in Eq. is found ra == 1 ~~ 2 ==a(1 + €) (556) From Eqs. (553) and Fig. ·~3. On the other hand. 1. can E2) r .~ obtain that the minimum value of r. the eccentricity € determines its shape..' d that  I : . 3 Also.l:TI: 1~ ~  (559) ellipse. (We consider the circle as the special case for \vhich € == 0. (555) and (556) \ve a == 'S~. (55~) 0f (556) \l~ 7.€) 1  (555) In a similar fashion.. the apogee distance.n. 55 \.2.: : ~ and therefore the gene. (553). 55 that the semiminor axis b is related to the S('l1:i111ajor axis a by the equation < (554) From Eq... . =terms of its· geometrical constants a 2We shall use the te.. that is."§">!~ with reference to general orbits.:: ~ equatillr :f. is a constant length 2a which is also the length of the Inajor axis.) An ellipse can be defined as the locus of points whose distance fl"<. 3Note that a is no! !it: . we obtain fron1 :hoe equ:'l: i .~ _:Jerigee ani ~"""'1. liith respect to time.:1 also be written in the :"::l2vwing t.~ == a(l .cs :In expression for the eccentricity €. Strictly. Ellipse. 55).t ~.:. €2) . they apply only to orbjs r:i~~rt the es. the perigee distal1tt\ ~ is ro . The distance between the foci is just € times the length of the tnajor axis.1:. F and F'. The ellipse is a conic section for which 0 € < 1. It can also be defined as the locus of points such that the sum of the distances to two foci. It can be seen from Fig.::.. 5 I is the parameter govern i ng the size of the· conic section and represents the value of r for 0 == + 7t /2. that is..  r p) (558) From either Eq..198 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP.)l11 a given point F is a constant factor € multiplied by its distance fro 111 a ~traight line known as· the directrix (Fig. as we will show.
A parabola. 5. the resulting curve is a hyperbola. .7. and the conic section has the form of a parabola. Setting € == 1 in Eq. the semimajor axis a approaches infinity. in accordance with Eq.SEC. Also. 53 ORBITAL MOTION 199 The area of an ellipse can be calculated by noting that it is just the projected area of a circle of radius a onto a nonparallel plane. (553). (555) that. In the limit. For a given perigee distance rp. as the eccentricity € of an ellipse approaches unity. resulting in a foreshortening ratio bla for all lines parallel to the minor axis. as shown in Fig. The Fig. \ I (562) Directrix where. (555). we can see from Eq. in this case. Hyperbola. € == 1. the vacant focus pi recedes toward infinity. 57. I == 2r p (563) Fig. (553). 56. The principal geometrical parameters are shown in Fig. 56. If we set € > 1 in Eq.. Hence the total area of the ellipse is A = 7ta 2 (~ ) = 7tab (561) Parabola. A hyperbola. we see that the equation of the parabola is r r == 1 + cos () 1".
1) 1 + e cos f) (568) We should note that if F is the attracting focus. 5 hyperbola can be defined as the locus of points such that the difference of their distances from two fixed foci F and F' is a constant length 2a where. measured in a direction perpendicular to the major axis. 57. vVeround {nat a conic section can be ex:. (551) and (553) and finet that (569) . (551) that the size and shap~__Q. 54. we see that b == a tan ¢ == a.yf e2  1 (565) Also. pressed In terms of the geometrical constants a and e.f the orbit are determined by the ~namt~~l constants e and h. Now let us determine how the dynamical and geometrical constants are related.. (553). On the oth~ halla.I ~ e (564) as we can verify by noting that the magnitude of r approaches infinity as f) approaches COSI( lie). we obtain rp == 1 I +e == a(e  1) (566) Therefore (567) and hence the general equation of the hyperbola can be written in the form: r == a(€2 . where ¢ == cos. The two branches approach asymptotes making an angle ¢ with the major axis. and a line of this length joining the vertices is known as the major axis. with the result that the hyperbola has two parts or branches. These branches are separated by a distance 2a.. then the actual path of a particle will be along the nearer branch of the hyperbola.. as in the case of an ellipse. ORBITAL RELATIONSHIPS Dynamical and Geometrical Constants. The semiminor axis b is defined as the distance from the vertex to an asymptote. setting f) == 0 in Eq. We saw as a result of Eq. the particle moves along the other branch. For the case of Inversesquare repulsion by the same focus. It can be seen that the denominator of the righthand side of Eq.200 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. the separation of the foci is 2ae. First we compare Eqs. (553) can change sign. From Fig.
(559). For the borderline case of a parabolic orbit. e == 0 and the particle has zero velocity at infinity. (567) and (570) that the semimajor axis can be written in the form h2 (571) a == + fL(l _ €2) or. the semilatus rectun1 I is a function of the angular momentum only. Notice that for a certain mass m and a given gravitational coefficient fL. From Eqs. e is positive and the particle retains a finite speed at infinity and therefore escapes from the influence of the attracting center. It indicates a remarkable fact. On the other hand. Therefore we see from Eq. . (572) and (573). For the hyperbolic case. a == + ~ 2e (572) where the choice of sign refers to the elliptic and hyperbolic cases. We have defined a and fL to be positive quantities. Incidentally. regardless of the direction in which the particle is moving. this sign convention will be continued throughout this chapter. respectively.+a (574) This result. which is known as the vis viva integral. then the semimajor axis of its orbit is the same. 54 ORBITAL MOTION 201 and (570) Also. and the semimajor axis a is a function of the total energy only. that if a particle at a distance r from the focus F has a certain speed v. we see from Eqs. e is negative in the case of an elliptic orbit. (572) that the total energy must be negative for an elliptic orbit and positive for a hyperbolic orbit. substituting for € from Eq. (569).1) . namely. the total energy is zero. we obtain the following equation: v2 ==fL (2 . It can be seen that energy is conserved.SEC. that is. In general. the total energy per unit mass is just the sum of the kinetic and potential energies: (573) where v is the speed of the particle in orbit. the upper sign refers to an elliptic orbit and the lower sign refers to a hyperbolic orbit. therefore e can be considered as the residual kinetic energy as r approaches infinity. For the parabolic case. is essentially a statement of the conservation of energy. and the particle cannot escape because the kinetic energy must be positive or zero at all times.
when we consider the solar system. Hence. (571) we see that h= €2 v'fLa(1  €2) and therefore the period is (579) This is a statement of Kepler's third law. But for the twobody problem in which the motion of m 1 is calculated relative to m2 . (577). (552). (573). we find that r = rp(l + €) I + € cos () . the period depends to some extent upon the mass m1of.202 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. the sun's mass is many times larger than that of any of the planets. (574) that (€ = a. its magnitude being the distance from F to the vertex of the second branch.. (555). and obtain = 0) (575) and from Eq. 5 For the particular case of a circular orbit. and (566). . the planet. We note that it applies exactly for the case of a particle being attracted to a fixed point by an inversesquare force. (577) this equation being valid for both the elliptic and hyperbolic cases. (578) Note that ra is negative for the hyperbolic case. The period T of the motion in an elliptical orbit is found by dividing the total area by the areal velocity. This dependence turns out to be quite small because m 2 ~ m 1 . we find that T = 7tab = 27ta 2 v'1 A h But from Eq. Now let us define r a as the value of r corresponding to () = 7t. 2r (€ = 0) (576) Finally. (553). . 'fe note that r from Eq. Orbital Period. e= _l!:. it is convenient at times to write the equation for the general conic in terms of rp' From Eqs. we obtain ra~~ _ rp(l + €) 1 € or €== ra . and (5~61). that is. we recall that fL = G(ml + m 2 ). From Eq. From Eqs.rp ra + rp . (554).
resulting in a foreshortening factor b/ a .€2 sin () 1 + € cos () (581) . Reversing this process. we find that the point P on the ellipse corresponds to PIon the auxiliary circle.SEC. True and eccentric anomalies. (560). using the general equation for an ellipse given in Eq. 58 by noting that AP == ~AP' a aV'l  where b/a is the foreshortening ratio. Fig. for all lines parallel to the minor axis. 58). An equation relating E and (j is found from Fig. 54 ORBITAL MOTION 203 ". When one introduces the time element into the analysis. Recall that an ellipse can be considered as the projection of a circle of radius a onto a nonparallel plane. either to find the position as function of time or vice versa. then the calculations are aided by introducing another geometrical parameter E known as the eccentric anomaly (Fig. the familiar angle (j giving the actual position P. giving the position of pI relative to the perigee. as seen from the focus F. we obtain V'l . On the other hand. is known as the eccentric anomaly. 58. Eccentric Anomaly. Hence r sin (j == ~ (a sin E) == a sin E == €2 sin E (580) and. is known as the true anomaly. The angle E measured at the center 0. We have discussed some of the most important factors influencing the form and size of the various orbits associated with an inversesquare attracting force.
we obtain the orbi. 58 that r cos () = a(cos E . (579). (582) and (583). + cos () 1 + € cos () € (584) 1 Finally. Now let us obtain an expression relating the time to the position in an elliptical orbit. that is. This is known as Kepler's equation. another equation relating E and () is obtained.204 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. as we have seen. or 7ta 2 t/T. t 2 • a 2 E . (581) and (584). r = a(l  € cos E) (583) \ From Eqs. (580) and (582) and add. First.. TIME AND POSITION Elliptic Orbit. So the area swept over by FP' is the total area multiplied by the fractional period since perigee passage.1 a 2 € sIn E 2 = J~ (E  € sin E) (586) This equation can also be written in the form M = 27tt = E T € sin E (587) where the mean anomaly M is the angular displacement from perigee of a line moving at the average angular rate 27t IT. tan E 2 = 1 + cos E sin E = /r~ tan ~ V'1 + € 2 (585) 55. we see from Fig. we recall from Kepler's second law that the radius vector FP of Fig. if we square Eqs.t equation in terms of the eccentric anomaly. we merely evaluate t 2 t 1. We shall use the convention that time t is measured from the instant of perigee passage.€) (582) Now. So we can write 7ta1 T t = 2 or. we obtain cos E = ~::. using Eq. But this area is just the area of a sector of vertex angle E minus the area of the triangle 0 FP'. from Eqs. In order to calculate the time required between any two points (}l and (}2 in an elliptical orbit. FP is the projection of FP' onto the orbital plane and all areas are reduced by the constant factor b/a as a result of this projection. the line FP' sweeps over equal areas in equal times since. 5 Also. Similarly. where t 1 and t 2 are the . 58 sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
It involves solving Kepler's equation for the eccentric anomaly when the mean anomaly is given. (588) with respect to time and multiplying by r2. An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics (2nd rev. we obtain r2 iJ sin (j == 2r pi But we recall from Eqs. New York: The Macmillan Company. The reverse problem. is more difficult. The computation is often accomplished by a method of successive approximations. we obtain t = J2J(tan ~ + +tan n (592) F ! . ed. 160ff. Moulton. (562) and (563) that cos f) ==2rp . 1914). we note from Eq. namely. For a parabolic orbit. f) SIn P == '\j!2Yv r• . R. then the time is obtained from Kepler's equation. 55 ORBITAL MOTION 205 corresponding times since perigee. . a knowledge of the perigee distance rp and either r or I is sufficient to establish the true anomaly f) at that time.. that of finding the position if the time since perigee is given.y 1 If So cos d8 (8j2) 0 4 3 Evaluating this integral. 4For a discussion of the solution of Kepler's equation. This is accomplished in each case by first evaluating the eccentric anomaly E from a knowledge of € and f). To obtain the time since perigee for a parabolic orbit.: (589) and therefore (590) Hence we obtain tan ~ == sin 8 2 1 + cos f) rO I (591) indicating that (j can also be found from a knowledge of the distance' rand the radial and transverse components of velocity. (541). (563). . and this requires the solution of a transcendental equation..SEC.1 r (588) Differentiating Eq. see F. (589) and the general equation of the parabola that dO = dt ~J jL 2 ~ 2r~ (1 + COS 0)2 or t == '2.. pp. 4 Parabolic Orbit. and (570) that h == r2 iJ == :V'2r pfL . This can be seen by noting from Eqs..
L rp J. we obtain t ~ . 1 is not satisfactory because the period T becomes very large and the mean anomaly M becomes very' small.) tan3~  ~ tan 5 n l (593) where (594) This equation gives results with less than 1 per cent error if . Note that it applies to both the hyperbolic and elliptic cases. derivation for hyperbolic orbits.2 < 0 < 0. a b CORRESPONDING QUANTITIES Elliptic Orbit Hyperbolic Orbit a ib e r t E e r t E rp J. This similarity applies to the time equations as well.__ bolic orbits are usually quite similar to those for elliptic orbits.. 5· Of course. We have seen that the equations applying to hyper. On the other hand.. the use of Eq. (586) in calculating times for elliptical orbits where € . TABLE 51. product.2 and (7(/2) < e < (7(/2). corresponding to Eq. Corresponding to Eq. Hyperbolic Orbit. So rather than presenting an explicit.. Using Eq. These difficulties can be largely avoided if we expand Eq. (586) in terms of the deviation 0 of the eccentricity from unity and the true anomaly e. an exactly parabolic orbit will not exist in practice.206 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. (586). (585). we shall transform the results obt~ined previously for the elliptical case. using Table 51 which lists corresponding quantities. (585) and neglecting terms of order 02 or higher. [(1 + ~) tan ~ + ~ (1 .0.3. resulting in an inaccurate ..j2~.jSi1 tan€ + 1 2 (595) and. the time since perigee is found to be . we obtain tan F 2 h e = .L e h v e h v iF E First we define an auxiliary variable F which is analogous to the eccentric anomaly for elliptic orbits..
the reduced mass in this case is just the satellite mass. corresponding to Eq. (595) and (596). 56 t ORBITAL MOTION 207 = .1) (597) The time equations for hyperbolic orbits can also be written in terms of circular functions.[ € tan H  In tan ( : + ~) ] (5100) Also. we shall review previously derived material in the context of earth orbits and restate some of the equations in terms of dimensionless ratios which are particularly applicable to this case. corresponding to Eq. (597) we obtain r = a (co: H . Another approach is to express J.~ (€ sinh F . (529).1) (5101) 56. Circular Orbit. we obtain from Eqo (537) that . then we use a gravitational coefficient (5102) where me is the mass of the earth and ms is the mass of the satellite. In this brief treatment of the subject. (583). it can be shown that tan H == 2 . using Eqs. We recall from Eq.jSil tane + (j 1 2 (599) and t = ~. we obtain r == a(e cosh F .L in terms of the acceleration of gravity goat the surface of a spherical nonrotating earth. (538) that if the motion of a satellite is desired relative to the earth. Also.j.F) (596) Also. however. For the case of artificial satellites. then. Note. that the results of this section can also be used for orbits about the other planets or the sun if proper adjustments are made in the numerical values of various coefficients. we see that ms «me and therefore we can neglect ms in calculating J. If we let sinh F == tan H (598) where H is another auxiliary variable. SATELLITE ORBITS ABOUT THE EARTH In recent years. Setting the gravitational force per unit mass equal to the acceleration at the earth's surface.SEC. as can be seen from Eq.L. the advent of artificial satellites has greatly increased the interest in orbits about the earth.
v 2 _ f1. we obtain from Kepler's third law that the period is \ _ ( r )3/2 Tc (5108) T. It is e Rv~ _ goR2 .v c R or vc==~goR (5104) where Vc is the speed of a body in a circular orbit at the earth's surface.407 x 10 16 ft 3/sec 2 == 1.239 x 1012miles3 /hr2 R .2r . (575). using Eqs. .950 ft/sec == 17. (5104) and (5105)'.IX or. (576) and (5105).208 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP.. we obtain 2 _ g0 .690 miles/hr From Eqs. Vc == 25. the speed v is found by equating the magnitudes of the gravitational and centrifugal forces per unit mass.407 hr .20.91 X Now suppose that a satellite is in a circular orbit at the earth's surface. Thus.R . for a general circular orbit about the earth. Noting that the gravitational attraction per unit mass is equal to the centripetal acceleration. we obtain v = vc f~.2r (5107) The period of a circular orbit at the earth's surface is T c == 27t R == 1. 5  or JL == goR2 (5103) where R is the radius of the earth.2 ft/sec 2 == 7.. (5103) and (5104) we obtain JL in terms of Vce JL == Rv~ (5105) Similarly.84. in accordance with Eq.4 min Vc ' ' ' 1 ! For a general circular orbit of radius r. 106 ft == 3960 miles go == 32.= R /if (5106) The totalenergy is found from Eqs. assuming no atmospheric drag.90 x 104 miles/hr 2 JL == 1.
59 that .e 2 )  1] (Sl1SJ .~r cos2 ry (S114) Hence we have computed the dynamical constants hand e and also the geometrical constants a and € from a knowledge of f. f() (5110) Also. We will show that a knowledge of f. Another parameter of importance is the true anomaly or. 56 ORBITAL MOTION 209 General Orbit. and ry . equivalently. Suppose that an earth satellite has a speed v and a flight path angle ry at a certain point in its orbit. (5112) where the upper and lower signs again refer to elliptic and hyperbolic orbits. The flight path angle of an earth satellite. The angle ry is measured positive upward from the local horizontal to the velocity vector v.jsin2ry + (1 . The result is (5113) or e = . (569) by substituting the foregoing expressions for e and h. == fV cos ry (5109) where we see from Fig. First we note that the angular momentum per unit mass is h Fig. (5105). we obtain an expression for the semimajor axis. as shown in Fig.at a given time. The eccentricity € is found from Eq. respectively. 59. v. (572).SEC. (573) and (5105) we observe that e= ~lfc[(:J2_2~J (5111) Now from Eqs. tan ry == .. namely. v. we obtain cos () =+ [ + ~ (1 . and ry at a given instant is sufficient to calculate the principal parameters of the orbit. and (5111). the location of perigee. From the equation for the general conic. such information being obtained from tracking data in a practical case. from Eqs. 59. aside from the orientation of the orbital plane in space.
€2) ~ er f) (5116) Dividing Eq.= v p /3. 5 which can be differentiated with respect to. From Eqs.2v Rv~ .v a ~V~ = 2 2 2 p fp ra Solving this equation for f p.e2 ) _ 1 tan ry But. and a. e. . we find that . 1 we obtain . in the absence of other bodies. we obtain from Eq. it is convenient to write the expression for orbital speed in terms of dimensionless ratios. time to yield sin () = + ~ (1 .210 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. from Eqs. since the angular momentum is conserved.r + (a/r) (1 . Determine rp. we see that a + _ (1  r (V)2 cos' ~ Vc ry COS ry I ry' 2 and therefore t an () SIn = 2 COS ry  ~ r (Vc)2 v (5117) Finally. we find that the escape velocity is Ve = ~vc (5119) Its numerical value is Ve = 36. so we obtain from Eq. we obtain (5118) It is interesting to calculate the minimum speed which is required at the earth's surface in order to escape permanently from its attraction. (5116) by (5115) and noting that tan ry tan ()  = f/rf). An earth satellite has a perigee speed Vp and an apogee speed Va . Setting a = 00 and r = ~ in Eq. ra. (5109) that or rp _ ra . (5118). ~ _ ± (a/r) (1 _ e2) e2 ) = .3" Also. the total energy is the same at perigee and apogee.700 ft/sec = 25. (574) and (5105). (5112) and (5113).000 miles/hr Example 52. First we note that ry = 0 at perigee and apogee. (5111) that 1 1 e = . Therefore.
000 _ tanry . The trajectory of a rocket. at which the rocket returns to earth.3 rad/sec Y where the reference frame is an inertial system with its origin at the earth's center (Fig. . First. v ~ro~~~~~~~81 Impact Fig. R 2 (V )2 _c Vp Vp and.000 ft/sec iJ == 1. we calculate the initial flight path angle ry from Eq. 510). (5110).18 x 106 ft f == 12. Find the apogee distance Ya and the time.. 5. obtaining _ f _ 12.10. of course. Y == 3yp == ~R (Vc)2 a 2 The eccentricity is found from Eq.0. the following data are received concerning its motion: == 4200 miles == 22. or ry == 21.410 X 10.0° .384 y8 . measured from burnout.SEC.31 270 .. Immediately after the laststage burnout of a rocket. (578) : € == Ya Ya + Yp Yp == "2" 1 The semimajor axis is just a == ~ (r a + Y p) == 2r p == 3R ( V c ) 2 2 Vp Example 53. 56 Yp ORBITAL MOTION 211 3 == .
5 The burnout velocity is v = ~f2 + r 2(}2 = 33. we can solve for ()2 from Eq. we obtain t2 = 13.8° = 6. from Eq. (5113) we obtain € = ~1 .~~~ = a(1 18. (586) that.712 x 108 ft In order to calculate the total time.095 = 47.0.50 x 107 ft Hence the apogee distance is fa = + €) = 32.400 miles = 1.132 hr ) · Next. at burnout. (586).1 466 or El = 16.053 rad and.000 miles = 9. (585) and find that E2 = 346.If.291 rad Therefore we find from Eq.53 hr .7° = 0.1 1. (5115) by noting that r We obtain cos ()2 = 0. (5117). taking the value of ()2 in the fourth quadrant. from Eq. MOTION CHAP..785 = R at impact.6° The corresponding eccentric anomaly is obtained by using Eq.212 ORBITAL. we need first to obtain the angles fJ 1 and fJ 2 • From Eq. the time since perigee is t1 = . El tanT = !1=€ fJ 1 YT+€ t an2" = 0 .500 = 1 291 Vc 25. and. (E1  € sin E 1 = 0. the result is ()2 = 321.801 We note that € < 1 and therefore the orbit is an ellipse. a = ~.7° S1'"1 \ Again we use Eq. we find that fJ 1 = tan. (5112). (585). The semimajor axis is obtained from Eq.359 = 0.950 · f 4200 R = 3960 = 1.500 ft/sec We find that ~ = 33.061 Thus.
"I. fJ.. In later chapters.SEC.. the ideas and procedures of perturbation theory are widely used. and a == a o + oa. We recall from Eq. ) about a reference value Fo(a o fJo. We assume that the independent variables are the values of r. such as time. let us calculate the sensitivity of the semimajor axis a and the period T of an elliptical orbit about the earth to small deviations in the burnout velocity. 57 ORBITAL MOTION 213 Finally.. we shall use the same theory in the analysis of other types of motion. and neglecting all terms involving products of these small quantities. "10.. (5120) where the zero subscript refers to the reference value of the variable. are small. we shall be concerned with small deviations from a reference solution. ] + ./ + . and so on.v~ [2(R/r) . v. fJ == /30 + 0/3. and "I at burnout. these coefficients are implicit functions of another variable. . 0/3.. 2 ( [(02F) oa2 (oa) + 2 oa 0/3 02F ) oa 0/3 + (02F) ° (0/3) ofJ2 0 2 + .40 hr 57... we obtain (5121) where the partial derivatives are coefficients expressing the sensitivity of function F to small changes in the variables. 2Rv _ 2a 2 v OV ... and so on.. derivatives of all orders everywhere in this region.. ELEMENTARY PERTURBATION THEORY I n the analysis of dynamical systems with respect to the stability of the motion and the sensitivity of the solution to small disturbances and parameter variations. the total time of flight from burnout until impact at the earth's surface is t == t2  tl == 13. . making the assumption that the deviations oa. we can write F =Fo 1 + 2! + of = 0 Fo + (~~)o oa + (~~)o 0/3 + (~~)o 0. In some instances. In general.(V/vc)2]2 ./L (5122) . Sp let us consider first the expansion of a function F(a. ). Hence they need not be constant. As an illustrative example. Assuming that the function has . (5112) that R Hence oa _ . We shall present in this section a few of these basic ideas and illustrate their application to the calculation of orbits. Now.
Now let us consider the case of small perturbations from a circular reference orbit by looking at the differential equations of motion. fo '0 roiJ~ + ro + or . we obtain where points along the reference orbit and therefore •• ro Also. 5 where we note from Eq. we obtain fo =0 (5129) oiJ + 2iJo of =0 . at perigee. (5124) applies at all F = fo 0'2 0 JL + ro = 2 0 (5126) . noting that iJ o and fo are zero. But Eq. we obtain (5127) of  30~ or .2r 0 80 08 = 0 (5128) In a similar fashion. (5125) and (5127). = oT oa oa ov = 67ta5/2 JL3/2 v = 3aTv JL (5123) ( Comparing the results of Eqs. from Eqs. f.214 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. we see that a given small change in orbital speed will· cause a percentage change in the period that is larger than the percentage change in a by a factor t. (5122) and (5123). (5120) and neglecting the higherorder terms. 0 = 00 + oiJ.(iJ~ + 2~) or . Thus from Eq. as we might have shown directly from Kepler's third law. So we see that a change in orbital speed is most effective in changing the' semimajor axis if it occurs at the point of maximum speed. We consider the differential equation itself as the function which undergoes small perturbations in its variables. (5105) that JL = Rv~. hence ro0'2 0 2 JL ro So. = 0 for this case of a circular orbit. (579) that T= and therefore oT ov 27t~ la 3 JL.2roOo 00 = 0 (5125) ~ ro r = ro + or. iJ) =r riJ 2 + r =0 ~ (5124) Then. we find from Eq. using Eq. that is. (540) that the second equation of motion is . (539) we can write I F(r. and so on. Next we see from Eq. riJ + 2fiJ = 0 and the corresponding perturbation equation is ro oiJ + iJ o or + 2fo 08 + 2ilo or or.
.. Solving for ro 00 from Eq..4 cos ()ot) ' . Using a procedure similar to that of Example 36... 00(0) == ~v ro Then. 511. There we found that the perturbation in the semimajor axis is oa == (oa) OV 0 ov == 2a v ~v == 2r~Oo Llv 2 JL JL or.(1 . substituting for JL from Eq.. (5128) and (5129) for the case where there is a perturbation in the initial velocity.. remembering that r == ro f = + or 8 == 00 + 08 f) :it (or) = of ro 08 . ' (5133) Fig.. 2 !lv/Oo• Hence the two methods give identical results for this calculation.SEC. .. 511. (5132). The the value of result is \~...v (5131) This has the familiar form of the harmonic oscillator equation with a step input... (5130) found in Eq. (5128) and obtain or + 8g or == 28 1l. (5129) with respect to time. == Llv Yo (3 . (5127). v{) ~. let us assume that the initial conditions are or(O) == 0.dv \ I \ \ or " "'. In other words. Now let us compare this result with that obtained previously in Eq. 511. from Eq. The change in the period can be obtained by substituting into Eq... 57 ORBITAL MOTION 215 We wish to solve Eqs. namely. we is just half of the maximum see that amplitude of or. we substitute into Eq. (5132) == . obtaining + 28 0 or == ~v 0 (5130) where the integration constant is evaluated from the initial conditions. (5130). we obtain oa == 2~v ()o Perturbed orbit But. (5122). The change in an orbit due to a small increase in speed.'7 . _ :::. (5132) and Fig..cos ()o t) or {)o The reference and perturbed orbits are shown in Fig. / / / oa O· " ~~ II o Circular reference orbit + . the solution is found to be 2~v . we integrate Eq.. == dt (00) == of) d· ... 01(0) == 0..
and JL == rg8~.. the integral involving the cosine is of order t1v oT because the in~erval of integration deviates by oT from corresponding to exactly one cycle of the cosine function.. Find the frequency of small deviations in () from this reference value. A spherical pendulum..a¢2 sin () cos () The 1> equation IS == . .. v == r 0 80 . we obtain 3 t1v .. + .. Therefore.". + fio oT == 0 or (5134) We see that this agrees with the result of Eq. 512).216 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP... Let us choose 1> and () as ~oordinates..g sin ()... (5133) that the angle () drifts slowly relative to the reference value.= f (0 0 + SO) dt = (0 0  3~V) (To + ST) + fT 4 t1v cos 80t dt o ro But 80To == 27t Also. (5135) a statement of the Fig.. or / \ ..To ro . A spherical pendulum of length a undergoes conical motion with () == ()o (Fig. then the orbit is regarded as stable. (5132) has the form of a small undamped sinusoidal oscillation. /' Example 54.. but this is due to a small change in orbital frequency and is not considered to be an instability.g sin () .. 512. Hence we can write I alJ . where 1> is the usual wherical coordinate and () is measured from the downward vertical. The differential equation for the () motion can be obtained by setting the acceleration in the () direction equal to . Notice from Eq. (5123) for this case of a circular reference orbit where a == ro._l_ '.. 5 The period T can be found from 2n. if we omit all terms of order higher than 1 in the small quantities. If an infinitesimal disturbance results in an infinitesimal change in the orbit. It is interesting to note that the solution for given in Eq. Hence the deviation of the perturbed orbit from the reference orbit remains small. in accordance with Newton's law of motion.
we obtain from Eq.SEC. we obtain aoO + [a1>~(sin20o + 3cos2 ( 0) + gcosOo]Df) ° (5140) Finally. (5137) the approximate result that (5143) where terms of order higher than O~ have been neglected. we obtain from Eq. we see that Eq. (5121) and (5135). Using series representations of the trigonometric functions. (5137) into Eq. sin f)o tan ( 0 ) DO 1 DB I I i + ~ (4 cos f)o + a == 0 (5141) which is the differential equation corresponding to harmonic motion. setting == 0. == 0 (5136) or sin 2 01> In the reference condition. (5138) and (5139). and obtain the following differential equation: of a De + [a1>~ (sin2 00  cos 2 ( 0) + g cos 00 ] 00 . substituting the value of we see that 1>5 from Eq.  d dt (ma 2 sin 2 0 cfJ) . we' use Eqs. (5142) can be approximated by (5144) Hence there are about two cycles of the motion in of) for every revolution . (5140). (5135) that ~2 _ a cos 00 (5137) Noting that the equations of motion apply to the reference and the per·· turbed conditions. 57 ORBITAL MOTION 217 conservation of angular momentum about the vertical axis through the point of support. The angular frequency co of the small oscillations of Df:) is given by g + SIn co == [ a (4 cos 0 0 . therefore we see from Eq. (5136) that 2 cos 00 1>0 DO + sin f)o Dci> == 0 (5139) Eliminating D1> between Eqs.2a1>o sin 00 cos f)o D1> == ° == (5138) Similarly. f)o tan ( 0 ) J / 12 I ~ (5142) ! I It is interesting to consider the case where 00 ~ 1. == sin2 00 1>o g 0 == 'VO  0. In a similar fashion.
in this time. therefore the total energy is positive.. The shape of the resulting orbit is shown in Fig. Solve for the value of b such that the actual orbit is tangent to the earth's surface.. 1> moves through slightly more than one revolution... it can be seen that the time required for two cycles of the motion in 00 is tl == ro = 47l' . 513.2 /a (1 7l' ~ g O~) +8 But. 513.... . we note that the velocity is not zero at infinity. What is the eccentricity of this orbit? (Assume a fixed earth.  ~ .. Fig. Now.) First.. An approximately circular orbit of a spherical pendulum for the case where 0 ~ 1... 1> moves through an angle CPl = ¢otl ~ 27t (1 + 3[0) In other words.218 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. 58. I / / \ ~Circular \ reference orbit ~ '. causing the major axis of the nearly elliptical orbit to precess slowly in the direction of the rotation. EXAMPLES Example 55. 514). we can equate the initial kinetic energy to the ./ e in the nearly circular orbit. A particle approaches the earth from a great distance with an initial velocity Voo == Vc which is directed along a line missing the center of the earth by a distance b (Fig. 5 I' I . corresponding to a hyperbolic orbit. Designating the 'velocity at perigee byvp .
we obtain "2 Voo == "2 R2 VOO or 1 2  Vc (5147) In this particular case. (5~113) at perigee. we have T 1 2 _ Voo  T 1 2 Vp  R fL _ "2 Vp 1 2 2  Vc (5145) But. (5145) and (5146). The distance b given by Eq. (5105). we note that Vp == J3v c . 514. but at perigee it moves in a direction perpendicular to the major axis.SEC. total energy at perigee. it is the radius of a gravitationless sphere which would be equally effective in intercepting particles having the given velocity Vooo This . An orbit tangent to the surface of the earth. concept can be useful in calculating the accuracy required to hit the moon or one of the planets. (5147) is known as the effective collision radius. Voo == v c. using conservation of angular momentum about the earth's center. Using Eq. As a first 'approximation. we consider the center of the attracting body to be translating uniformly and hence it is fixed in an inertial . and therefore b == V'3 R The eccentricity of the orbit is found by evaluating Eq. From Eq. hence we find that It can be seen that the particle moves initially along the asymptote. we see that bv oo == Rvp 1 b2 2 2 (5146) From Eqs. Thus its velocity vector rotates through an angle 7t/2 .1 (l/e) == 7t/6 during its approach.cp == 7t/2 .cos. corresponding to an effective collision radius b. (5146). that is. 58 ORBITAL MOTION 219 Fig.
. are connected by a massless rod of length I. Example 56. Two particles. Then Voo is taken as the relative velocity of the particle at the time when it comes within effective gravitational range of the attracting body_ It can be seen that the effective collision radius is larger than the actual radius. 515 (a). 515. each of mass m. 5 (a) m ~112 m (b) Fig. The center of mass of this system is in a circular orbit of radius r about the earthFig. frame.220 ORBITAL MQTION CHAP . Assume that I ~ rand 'cp I ~ 1. Calculate the frequency of small oscillations of the coordinate cp in the plane of the orbit. showing the difference between the center of mass and the center of gravity. the difference decreasing with increasing Voo. . Our general plan of attack on this problem is to choose the center of mass as the reference point for applying the equation Me = Heo But first let . A dumbbell satellite.
.mg oR2 _ 1  ri  r2 + + mg o R2 (/2/4) .. 12 •• f) .mgoR21r ( . we see that the force on ml is of magnitude F .2 r~ r~ N~xt 1 1). Now let us differentiate Eq. These forces are not quite equal in magnitude and direction because the gravitational field is nonuniform. (5151) where r 1 and r2 are evaluated by using the cosine law. applying the sine law.. 1. (5149) 4r2 + [2 'P which we note is of second order in the small ratio I/r.. D _ . . The gravitational field is a central force field. (537) and (5103). obtaining ..rl cos cp.SEC. where r1 and r2 are again evaluated from the cosine law. Hence we see that 181~1<i>1· Now consider the external forces acting on m l and n12' From Eqs.'2  mg 0 R2 r~ _ r2 )". Assuming cos cp . To show this. we obtain the approximations: . we note that (5~152) and. SIn cp (5155) we expand r13 and r2 3 in powers of I/r. we obtain (5153) (5154) Therefore we find that M c. +2 m1 2 (0 • + cp) • (5148) where we note that (0 + ¢) is the absolute rotation rate of the system. Hence H is constant. mg0 R2 (/2/4) + rl cos cp (5150) Similarly. Thus from Eq. (451). Hence it is possible for a gravitational moment to exist relative to the center of mass.. US 58 ORBITAL MOTION 221 consider the angular momentum H about the center of the earth. and therefore it exerts no moment about the attracting center O.1..A. We recall that the total angular momentum is the sum of that due to the motion of the center of mass plus the angular momentum due to motion relative to the center of mass. we see that H == 2mr2() . (5148) with respect to time and solve for 8. .
assuming sin 4> . "'0  •. In order to specify the exact location of the center of gravity along the line of action of . the orbital period is longer than the period of the oscillation in ¢ by a factor V'3. ~ r 1(1 + 2r 3/)  Then. 't' (5156) But. This resultant gravitational force has the same moment about any reference point as the actual system of gravitational forces.4>. We recall from Eq. V .. (5148).the .. if we set Me == fIe and neglect (j relative to <1>. On the other hand.3mg oR2/2 e 2 r3 A.J3 r3R go 2 (5158) The angular rate roo of the satellite in its circular orbit around the earth is found from Eq. 5 . (46) that the position of the center of mass is a function of just the positions and masses of the particles.3 cf> = 0 (5157) The frequency of the small oscillations in cp is Ii) = . but also upon the nature of the external gravitational field acting upon the system. The center of gravity is a point through which the total gravitational force is assumed to act. (5106).'\ fJ== HR2 0  r r3 Hence we obtain the interesting result that ro == V'3 ro 0 that is. we obtain or 3mg oR2/2 2r3 ¢ + 3g.222 ORBITAL MOTION ':"3 r1 CHAP. the location of the center of gravity of a system depends not only upon its configuration. Therefore. in obtaining Eq. we find that M :::::::: . 3 .. This example provides a good illustration of the difference between the center of mass and the center of gravity. we saw that the angular momentum about the center of mass is He = mr (& + ¢) ¢T¢ R2 _ m/ 2 .
this resultant force must be directed toward the center of the earth. equating the moment of FI + F2 about the center of mass with that obtained previously in Eq.2 :::= 2mgoR2 2 r 3/ 2 h ==4r and therefore (5159) indicating that h is smaller than the particle separation 1 by an order of magnitude. On the other hand. They each have initial velocities Vo == (Gm/cy/2 in the direction shown in Fig.. Thus the assumption implicit in the moment equation. ! Example 57. one can think of giving the system an infinitesimal rigidbody rotation. What is the period? . But 1 + F. A general set of forces requires at least a force plus a couple as an adequate representation. Assuming that the only forces acting are due to gravity. we find that (FI + F 2)hcj> F = _3m~oJ212 q. cos ({31 + fJ2) . the center of gravity is at a distance h from the center of massFig. . . the center of gravity does not exist for the more general case of a gravitational field which arises from many sources. . 515(b)such that the correct gravitational moment is obtained if the total force is considered to act through that point.SEC. that the line of action of Fl + F2 is parallel to the position vector r. So. (5156). It should be pointed out that the center of mass and the center of gravity coincide for the case of a uniform gravitational field. each individual force passed through point 0 (see Sec. that is. is valid. 1. 58 ORBITAL MOTION 223 resultant gravitational force. namely. 710). since the original force system was concurrent at this point. we note first that 1> is assumed to be small and therefore we find from Eqs. solve for rmin and r max in the ensuing JUotion.~) ¢ ~ ~ ¢ rl r2 r Also. (5153) and (5154) that {31 + {32 r r (~ . To calculate h. 516. Three particles of equal mass m are initially located at the corners of an equilateral triangle with a mutual separation c. Then the center of gravity is that point about which one can make an arbitrary infinitesimal rotation of the system without changing the line of action of the resultant gravitational force. In this particular case. This is so because a single resultant force can be obtained only for a concurrent force system or the special case of parallel forces. and the vector sum of the gravitational forces acting on the system is of magnitude FI + F 2 • Furthermore.
and consequently the rotation rate iJ will vary in a manner such that the angular mome~tum is conserved about the center of mass.[ . we.) == Gm 2 2c 2 (~ r  2. (510).) c Vo and rearranging. But the total angular momentum about the center of mass Therefore. substituting the value of 2. therefore the total energy is conserved.. Gm 2 3 r2{)2) . f == O.. m(f2 2 3 + . H == 3mr2(} == 2.~ r + c2 12 == 0 . obtain () == 2~ r2 . notit. Three mutuallyattracting particles in symmetrical motion. however.. we find that in general.~ . V== . r2 . 5 Fig. 516. So. _. r (5160) The total kinetic energy is 33· T == "2" mv 2 == "2" m (f2 + r2{)2) (5161) No external forces act on the system. 3Gm 2 _ It is apparent that because of the symmetry of the initial configuration and velocities.224 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. cVo (5164) When r is a maximum or a minimum. So. ~ (5163) where the term on the right is determined from initial conditions.mvo c . evaluating the total energy from initial conditions. From Eq. The separation [ will change.== mvg r 2 3c IS Gm 2 (5162) constant.lg. we obtain from Eqs. Solving for 8. the particles will always be located at the corners of an equilateral triangle.that! == ~ r. First letus calculate the total energy of the system. at this time. we find that the potential energy is ~Gm2  . (5162) and (5164) that mv~ (£ 8r 2 or.
Synge. Jr.. 1914. 1. Makemson. and S. 1959. I . 2nd rev. Principles of Mechanics. W.077e rmax Now let us consider the forces acting on the particles. Inc. Introduction to Space Dynamics. Mass. we find that the period is REFERENCES 1. M. Space Flight.. A.. Hence we find from Eqs. Griffith. Inc. 1960. R. K. (579). F. L. Van Nostrand Co.J. Moulton. R.. we find that the resultant force on each particle is in the radial direction. Using Eqs.: D. Baker. 1961. Inc. 1961. McCuskey.. W. 3rd ed. An Introduction to A strodynamics. An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. 6. New York: John Wiley & Sons.SEC. (425) and (5160). and B. 5.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. M. Since a change in r results in work being done on all three particles.~) = (J3 + ~) = O. (537) and (5165) that the effective gravitational coefficient is JL == Gm/J:f Each particle moves in an elliptical orbit with the semimajor axis equal to rmin a== + 'max 2 V3 _ c From Eq. (5165) Thus each particle is attracted by a force which varies inversely as the square of the distance from the center of mass.. T. 1960. V. Reading. ed.. Princeton. J. Ehricke.077e l. 3. and M. New York: McGrawHill. New York: Academic Press. 58 ORBITAL MOTION 225 Solving for the roots. N. Thomson. W. we obtain rml n =e = e (Jr . Basic Physics of the Solar System.. A..\ PROBLEMS 51. Vol. 2. Assuming that the orbit of the earth about the sun is circular with a radius of 93 x 106 miles. New York: The Macmillan Company. calculate the absolute velocity at the earth's surface necessary J . Blanco... 4.
59. (b) the speed is equal to that of a particle in a circular orbit at the same distance. Two satellites. . What is the minimum velocity relative to the moon that a missile must have in order to hit the earth? Assume a lunar orbit of 239. and neglect the gravitational attraction of the moon..k~ masses connected by a rigid rod of negligible . Assuming that the mass of the satellite is constant. What is the oscillation period of a ball of mass m which is dropped into the shaft from the surface. each of mass m. Use an inertial coordinate system fixed at the center of the sun and neglect the gravitational attraction of all other planets except the earth.226 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. 52. 53. Their centers are separated by a distance 5R I « R./ m """ mass. find the separation I of their centers which results in the force in the rod being zero. what is the mean drag force? Show how this drag force actually permits the tangential speed of the satellite to increase.000 miles? Neglect the attraction of the moon. A massless wire of length R connects the two satellites and they move together about the earth while remaining in the given orbits. What is the longest possible time required for a satellite to travel from the surface of the earth to the moon's orbit which is assumed to be circular with a radius of 239.5 miles per day at this time. Consider a particle which is moving in an elliptical orbit about a fixed focus due to an inversesquare law of attraction. l. A satellite consists of two equal spherical //. Fig.. are in coplanar circular orbits about the earth. 5S. P59 T L . where R is the radius of the earth. 510. Find the common m period and the force in the wire. Then a thrust of constant magnitude F = mg0/8 is applied to the satellite. The inner orbit is of radius 3R and the outer orbit is of radius 4R. solvefor (&€/8v) in terms of the burnout conditions and the geometrical constants a and €. Suppose a straight shaft is bored through the center of the earth. 5 to escape from the solar system. 56... For a given rand . always being directed toward the center of the earth./. A satellite of mass m is in a circular orbit of radius 2R about the earth. If the satellite is losing altitude at the rate of 0. A satellite weighing 1000 lbs is in a nearly circular orbit at an altitude of 100 miles above the surface of the earth. The satellite moves in a circular orbit of radius 5R about the earth and the rod is always aligned with the radial direction. . Consider the sensitivity of the eccentricity of an elliptical orbit to errors in the burnout velocity. assuming a spherical nonrotating earth? Calculate the fractional change in the period if one now assumes a frictionless shaft whose ends are at a latitude angle A on a rotating earth. where R is the earth's radius. 54. Find the points in the orbit at which (a) the radial velocity r is maximum.000 miles radius which is centered at the earth. . 55. If the mass of each sphere is m = 1 slug. find its minimum distance from the earth and the maximum velocity in the resulting motion. 57.
Then a constant thrust of magnitude 10. find: (a) the required flight path angle ry of the missile at burnout. A missile is fired from the earth with a burnout velocity of 27. where R is the radius of the earth. Suppose a rocket is fired into a hyperbolic orbit at the earth's surface and it has a burnout velocity v(O) == 2v c • Solve for the initial flight path angle ry such that its final direction of motion is 30° above the horizon. Suppose that P and E each ineasure the motion of the satellite when it is midway from the north pole to the equator and is located in the plane of the observers and the earth's is i I I 1 I t r I . where K is a positive constant. (c) the period of the orbit. 512. 58 ORBITAL MOTION 227 511. An observer P views the satellite 'from the north pole while another observer E views it from a point on the equator. A satellite of mass m is initially in a circular orbit of radius 2R about the earth. (b) the values of rmax and rmin. that is. 514.' Solve for the fractional change in the speed and radial distance of the satellite between the beginning and the end of the thrust interval. What is the eccentricity of the orbit? Assume a nonrotating earth. A satellite is in a circular orbit which passes over the earth's poles and has a period of three hours. 516. A particle of mass m is attracted to a fixed point 0 by a force that varies directly with its distance r. Find: (a) the differential equation for r.' . 517. P516 Fig. an infinitesimal disturbance will result in an infinitesimal change in the shape of the orbit. It undergoes orbital motion according to the initial conditions r(O) == I.kr. A satellite is in a circular orbit at a height R above the earth's surface. Use perturbation theory to show that a stable circular orbit is possible for all cases in which 11 < 3. r(O) == f.8(0) == 0. to a fixed point. 515.K/r n. Fig. that is. 513. 0(0) == Vk/m. Show that the hodograph of its motion a circle of radius /L/h with the origin at a distance €/L/h from the center of the circle. Fr == .v'k/m. A particle moves in an elliptical orbit under the influence of an inversesquare attraction. P517 .SEC. A particle is attracted to a fixed point according to the law Fr == .000 ft/sec and intercepts the satellite "headon." Assuming that the missile has a short burning time and that all motion takes place in the same plane about a nonrotating earth. using tin1e as the independent variable.4 mg0 is applied in the eo direction for exactly one orbital revolution. (b) the time at which the missile must be fired compared to the appearance of the satellite over the horizon.
228 ORBITAL MOTION CHAP. (b) translating about the earth in a circular orbit above the atmosphere . if any.f . Suppose you are inside a windowless box that is moving in one of the following ways: (a) translating with uniform velocity in a gravityfree region. 51S.(b) the reference frames do not rotate but translate with each observer. 5 center o. can you perform inside the box to determine your actual motion? i . (c) falling freely in a uniform gravitational field of l'l1agnitude go. What mechanical experiments. Evaluate the velocity and acceleration 9f the satellite relative to each observer for the following cases: (a) the observers' reference frames are fixed in the earth and rotate with h.
Also. Conversely. and if there are m independent equations of constraint relating these. In this case there are as many degrees of freedom as there are coordinates. then there are (n . DEGREES OF FREEDOM An important concept in the description of a dynamical system is that of degrees of freedom. we can solve for the motions. It will be shown that this method circumvents to some extent the difficulties found in the direct application of Newton's laws of motion to complicated systems. if one chooses n coordinates to define the configuration of a system.m) degrees of freedom. the use of Lagrange's equations presents the equations of motion in a standard convenient form. coordinates. If we are given the motions of a set of particles. The principal reasons are that the equations are vectorial in nature and the forces and accelerations are often difficult to determine. 61. If its position is specified by the cartesian coordi229 1 . we can deduce the forces acting. In this chapter.6 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 1 I 1I I I Thus far in the study of the dynamics of particles. we shall present the Lagrangian approach to the formulation of the equations of motion. at least in theory. For example. The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of coordinates which are used to specify the configuration of the system minus the number of independent equations of constraint. given the forces. Consider the example of a particle which moves on the surface of a fixed sphere of radius R. the direct application of Newton's laws of motion becomes increasingly difficult. we have depended upon a rather direct application of Newton's laws of motion. This is particularly true of any forces required to maintain constraints on the motions of particles in the system. it is possible to find a set of independent coordinates which describe the con~ figuration and which can vary freely without violating the constraints. Quite frequently. As one analyzes more complicated systems. Furthermore. each problem seems to require its own particular insights and there are no general procedures for obtaining the differential equations of motion.
. So we see that there are five degrees of freedom. then no additional coordinates would have been needed. the configuration of this system could have been specified by giving the position (xo. The requirement that the motion be confined to' the surface of the sphere implies that r == R and therefore r is not a variable. Thus there are three coordinates and one equation of constraint. zo). It is interesting to note that if we had chosen the origin of the coordinate 'system at the center of the sphere and had used the ordinary spherical coordinates () and 1>. On the other hand.Z2)2 == /2 In this case there are six coordinates (n == 6) and one equation of constraint (m == 1). As another example consider two particles ml and m2 that are cO. we see immediately t~at these coordinates are not independent. massless rod of length /.== [i2 where the center of the sphere is located at (xo. . 6. resulting in two degrees of freedom.XO)2 + (y . J I ~y I x Fig. and represent in an effective manner the two degrees of freedom of the system. The free motion of this system in space can be described in terms of the cartesian coordinates (Xl' Yb Zl) of m l and the corresponding coordinates (X2. Yo. y. z). Yo.nnected by a rigid.230 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. conform to the constraints of the problem. Y2.X2)2 + (YI . as shown in Fig. In fact.YO)2 + (z . zo) of a certain point on the rod. The rod causes the separation between the particles to be a constant distance /. since n . nates (x. 61. Z2) of m 2.m == 5. Hence the coordinates () and 1> are independent.Y2)2 + (Zl . 61.ZO)2. they are connected by the equation' of constraint (x . Two particles connected by a rigid rod.. z m1 I (x1• Y1' Z1) I • I I ~: " ' . and therefore the equation of constraint is (Xl .
it will become apparent that in many instances the mathematical analysis of a dynamical . they would specify the configuration of the system. GENERALIZED COORDINATES We have seen that the configuration of a given system may be expressed in terms of various sets of coordinates. _wAich. that we express the configuration of a system of particles by giving the cartesian coordinates of each of the particles.'Considered as coordinates in a more general sense. and thus could be .. '"  . 3N coordinates would be required for N particles. As we proceed to a discu'ssion of Lagrange's equations. In other words. Hence no specific set of coordinates is uniquely suited to the analysis of a given mechanical system.. .'f' r SEC. But. in fact.lriables. one system can vary. there are no equations of constraint. On the other hand. The process of obtaining one set of numbers from the other is known as a coordinate transformation. and then using the spherical coordinates () and <p to indicate the orientation of the rod in space. ~ such as the ceriter of mass. . the number (n .serve to specify the configuration of a system are examples q(generalized coordinates."" '''. whereas the choice of coordinates influences nand m. . NbW . "Any set of numbe!. For systems in motion. 62. if the positions of the particles were expressed in terms of spherical coordinates.m) is fixed for a given system. '. Note that the term generalized coordinates can refer to any of the commonly used coordinate systems.. At any instant. the number of coordinates used in any. Many coordinate systems are possible. It is important to realize that the number of degrees of freedom is a characteristic of the system itself and does not depend upon the particular set of coordinates used to describe its configuration.suppose .""the number of coordinates is equal to the number "of degrees o["fie'eCi'om'pius 'the nUlnber of independent equations ~'ofc6nstrain t~ ""'~""'"""''''~'' . there is an infinite number. Since each of these coordinates can vary freely without violating any constraints. these numbers vary with time and are treated as algebraic vC.... In this case. so~rQpg'asihere'are"aTle'asias many co~~dinates as there are degrees . Nevertheless. the values of these coordinates could be expressed as a set of 3N numbers.lYidely. then another set of 3N numbers would be used to express the configuration of the same system at the given time. Furthermore. in "'any case. 62 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 231 \. This would require a total of five coordinates corresponding to the five degrees of freedom.. but it can also refer to any of an infinite variety of other sets of parameters which serve to specify the configuration of a system. Now we can conceive of certain transformations which might result in a set of numbers that do not have a discernible geometrical significance.~. ~(·Treedom." '".. .
suppose there are I equations of constraint relating the x's and m equations of constraint relating the q's. then.. Now let us take a closer look at the problem of representing and classifying constraints. as we shall see in Sec~ 67. The transformation equations are of the form Xl == !t(qh q2. thereby retaining only as many generalized coordinates as there are degrees of freedom.m (62) 63. In this case. 6· ~ system is simplified by choosing a set of independent generalized coordinates.232 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. . equating the number of degrees of freedom in each case. Sometimes it is not feasible or even desirable to do this.qn. . . the requi~ed ~·I ! \ . Each system of coordinates may have a set of constraint equations associated with it. t.. t) Xk == !k(qb q2. Suppose there are m constraint equa tions of the form (63) Constraints of this form are known as holonomic constraints. More frequently.. For example.... . one searches for a set of generalized coordinates which can assume arbitrary values without violating the constraints. In these instances one can use an approach such as the Lagrange multiplier method. qn. thereby permitting a complete description of the configuration of the system without the use of auxiliary equations of constraint..l1ence there are no equations of constraint. CONSTRAINTS Holonomic Constraints. one could use these equations to solve for m coordinates in terms of the (n .. qn. a straIghtforward procedure exists for obtaining the equations of motion in terms of the generalized coordinates. q2. Consider a system described by n generalized coordinates ql. . and if the ~quations of constraint for each set are independent. t) X2 == !2(qb q2. we find th~t k .I == n . In theory. Furthermore. qn. . t) where the x's are ordinary coordinates and the q's are generalized coordinates. .m) remaining coordinates and time. If the configuration of the system is completely specified by each set of coordinates. Further... more. .he number of generalized coord!nates is equal to the number of degrees ofJreed0111. Consider now a transformation from a set of k ordinary coordinates to a set of n generalized coordinates. for a large class of systems.
the angles 01 and O2 . suppose that a free particle is contained within a fixed sphere of radius a which is centered .SEC.X1 )2 + (Y2 . Other choices could also have been made. it is possible to find a set of independent generalized coordinates such that there are the same number of coordinates as degrees of freedom.Yl)2 == I~ . 62.\ I': r. we have used four coordinates to express the configuration of a system with only two degrees of freedom. when a set of particles is contained within a given closed surface. depending upon whether or not it contains any constraints which are explicit functions of time. such as defining f)2 as the angle of rod 12 relative to rod II' Notice that the double pendulum constitutes a conservative system. These particular holonomic constraints are also classified as scleronomic because they do not depend explicitly upon time. A double pendulum. It is usually true that frictionless systems with scleronomic constraints are also conservative. If we choose the coordinates (x]. xi+YI==1I (X2 . for example. In this particular example. respectively. Now consider an equation of constraint which is of the form I (64) This sort of a constraint can occur. the system is pivoted at m I and at 0 such that the motion is confined to a single vertical plane. a given system is classified as rheonomic or scleronomic. 62. Also. As an example of holonomic constraints. The rods of length 11 and 12 are considered to be rigid and massless. For example. moving constraints. consider the double pendulum of Fig. 63 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 233 number of generalized coordinates in this case is equal to the number of degrees of freedom. then the constraint equations are of the form ~x y Fig. could have been used as generalized coordinates. But since the constraints are holonomic in nature. Yl) and (X2' Y2) to represent the positions of particles m I and m 2 . Any constraints which are explicit functions of time are' known as rheonomic constraints. Similarly. ) ~ J expressing the fact that the lengths of the rods are constant. As an illustration. that is. representing the angles which the rods make with the vertical.
234 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. The requirement of rolling without slipping implies that ~1 I dx .of its motion at this instant. 2. As an example of a nonholonomic constraint.r cos a dcp == 0 (66) since r d cp represents a differential element ds along the path traced by the point of contact. For example. For this case there are only two degrees of freedom. in general. . Furthermore.a 2 < 0 So long as the particle is in a position such that the inequality holds.xy plane. 6 at the origin of a cartesian system. As a result of not being able to integrate Eq. this differential expression_i~ characterized byberngnoTiniegrabTe'li~an be seen that. Therefore we find that systems containing nonholonomic constraints always require more coordinates for their description than there are degrees of freedom. using x. y) of the point of contact. Now let us consider constraints which cannot be expressed in the form of Eqs. and the angle a between the plane of the disk and the yz plane. then the particle slides pn the sphere if it moves at all. Let us choose as coordinates the location (x.. therefore.r sin a d cp == 0 dy . one might give the coefficient of restitution for collisions between the particle and the sphere. if it were integr~l?le. 63. then the particle is touching the sphere and one must specify the conditions . if the equality holds for an extended period of time. ~ the constraint is nonholonomic. and this infinitesimal line segment ds makes an angle . as shown in Fig. m) (65) where the a's are. . Nonholonomic Constraints. Constraints of this type are known as nonholonomic constraints and are written in the form ~ a ji dqi i=l n +a jt dt == 0 (j == 1. that the analysis proceeds as for a holonomic system during the period between bounces. Then. (63) or (64) but must be expressed in terms of differentials of the coordinates and possibly time. It can be seen. it moves inside the sphere as a free particle with three degrees of freedom. and z as the coordinates of the particle. the equation of constraint is x 2 + y2 + Z2 .. one cannot eliminate coordinates by using the equations of constraint. On the other hand. the integrated r<)rmof the constraint equation would be the same as that givefi. the angle of rotation cp of the disk about a perpendicular axis through its center. On the other hand. (65). y. functions of the q' s and time.a 2 == 0 at a given time. consider a vertical disk of radius r which rolls without slipping on ~he horizontal. but again the solution proceeds as for a holonomic system. the coefficient of restitution providing the means of calculating the initial conditions for a given period of the motion from the final conditions of the previous period.inEq~6=3)~ and we have previously classed constraints of this type as holonomic. if x 2 + y2 + Z2 .
neither of the expressions on the lefthand side is' an exact differential of the form dF(x. 6. Consider a system of N particles whose configuration is specified in terms of the cartesian coordinates Xl. The small displacements are called virtual displacements because they are 'imaginary in the sense that they are assumed to occur without the passage of.3. . time. </» == ox dx of z '~y + 0y o</> of dy x + of da oa + of d¢ == 0 i ! \ 1 I nor can they be made exact through multiplication by an integrating Fig. it is nevertheless impossible to specify <p because its value depends upon the length of the path followed in reaching that location. . ••• .. the system is given arbitrary small displacements oX b OX2.. F3N are applied ~t the corresponding coordinates in the direction of the increasing coordinate in each case.OX3N of the corresponding coordinates.. In other words. a. at a given instant. In geometrical terms. that if the disk is at a given point (x. (66) are not integrable. X 2 . X3N where. 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 235 a with the direction of the y axis. . • • • .. 64. we find that the system has only two degrees of freedom. VIRTUAL WORK Virtual Displacements and Virtual Work. Suppose that the forces F1 . The work done by the applied forces is oW == ~ 3N Fjox j (67) j=l and is known as the virtual work. we see horizontal plane. Now let us imagine that. y) on the plane and if the tangent to its path makes a certain angle a with the y axis. y. three coordinates are required to specify the position of each particle. Note particularly that the constraint equations given in Eq. Thus. of course. A vertical disk rolling on a factor. since there are four coordinates and two equations of constraint.1 SEC. F 2 . These two equations of constraint are independent. the applied forces remaining constant.
m) (610) 3 which were obtained by setting d CPk = 0 and replacing the dx's by ox's. however. 6 Also. Note that we take = 0 because the time remains constant during a virtual displacement. assuming that any moving constraints are stopped for that instant. the ox's are no longer completely arbitrary but are related by the m equations f OCPk ox! ~ t' UX l ~ + OCPk OX 2 + .nonholonomic constraints. . In the usual case. they may not conform to either the kinematic or dynamic restrictions on the motion. We have been discussing the virtual work of the external forces applied to the system. there exists another set which is obtained by reversing each of the original virtual displacements. we find from Eq. Whenever cartesian coordinates are used in the succeeding development. 2 . the virtual displacements conform to the kinematic constraints which apply at that moment. the ox's are restricted by equations of the form ot (~11) Since Eqs.1 ••• .. On the other hand constraints expressed by inequalities. If the system is subject to constraints. This vector formulation serves to emphasize that the concept of virtual work is not associated with a particular coordinate system. + UX N OX3N ~ UX2 t' t. (610) and (611) are of the same form. ••• . An alternate form of the expression for the virtual work of the applied forces is .236 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. Hence the virtual displacement is designated by ox to distinguish it from the corresponding real displacement dx which occurs during the time interval dt. for any set of virtual displacements consistent with the constraints. Now consider the case where the ordinary coordinates Xb x 2 . Constraints associated with ~quations of this form are known as bilateral constraints since.:I i I oW = N i=l ~ Fi • Ofi (68) where Fi is the force applied to the particle whose position vector is fi. Hence we see that the concept of virtual work applies equally well to scleronomic and rheonomic systems. X3N are subject to the holonomic constraints (69) For a virtual displacement consistent with the constraints. ·1 j Constraint Forces. In a similar fashion.\ I I I t t'   0 (k . the motivation is convenience rather than necessity. (64). as in Eq. . we find that nonholonomic constraints also can be considered in using the idea of virtual work. are known as unilateral constraints. (65) that in a virtual displacement consistent with one or more ...
we find that R Bs is normal to the surface at that point. First of all. (613). whereas any virtual displacement must be tangent to it. and (614). in accordance with Eq.~ro if the virtual displacement is consistent with the constraints. and R2 is the constraint force on m 2 . we can write the virtual work of the constraint forces in the form of Eq. . As we have seen previously. ~umming. then I (612) where e r is a unit vector directed from m l toward m 2 • Assuming virtual displacements Of 1 and Of 2. (68). and collinear since this is a typical case of mechanical interaction between particles. we find that I oW == (R2 . Therefore. it is clear that no work can be done on the surface S because its particles cannot move.at the virtual work done by the constraint forces acting betweeii····any two particles is ~. So if we assume that Rl is the constraint force on m1 . Let us consider the work done by some common types of constraint forces as the system undergoes a virtual displacement consistent with the constraints. 64(b). 64(a).. (68). (613) But the displacement components along the rigid rod must be equal. First. obtaining · .. the forces transmitted by the rod to the particles must be equal. consider two particles connected by a rigid.over all possible combinations of particle pairs.. opposite. ··Now let us calculate the virtual work of the constraint forces for the case of a body B which slides without friction along a fixed surface SFig. we conclude that the total virtual work of the i'ntern~l constraint forces is zero for any rigid body displacement.R 2 )e r CD Of 2 == 0 indicating that the virtual work of the constraint forces is zero. If we think of a rigid body as consisting of a large number of particles which are rigidly interconnected. When \ve consider the work done by the constraint force RBs in a virtual displacement of B. (612). and therefore the surface would be considered to be fixed at the instant of the virtual displacement. we again find that the virtual work of the constraint forces is zero for a virtual displacement consistent with the constraints. therefore the constraint equation can be written in the form (614) So from Eqs.Fig.SEC. This follows from the assumption that time stands still during a virtual displacement. we can see tp. Note that the virtual work would have been zero even if the surface were moving as an explicit function of time. massless rod. 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 237 then additional forces are applied to the particles of the system in order to enforce the constraint conditions.
. Again we find that there can be no work done by forces acting on the fixed surface.~f'il1J:g_g!'l the system is zero for any reverslii{evfrlualdis. The virtual work due to R f can be shown to be of order (of))3. constraint _ such. it can be seen that the virtual work due to Rn is zero from symmetry considerations. we can define a workless constraint as follows: A workles~_ c01J~tra:in(js any scleronomic.. we assume no slipping. Fig. This force is composed of a frictional component R f acting tangent to the surface and a normal component Rn.238 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. the virtual work of the constraint forces is zero for all virtual displacements consistent with the constraints. These are examples of workless constraints. of higher order and can be neglected... In fact. 64(c). 6 Next consid~r the work done by the constraint forces in a virtual displacement involving a body which rolls on a fixed ~urface. We see that the force of the surface (0) acting on the disk passes through the instantaneous center C.~ I I I I ~l j . Examples of workless concerning the reactions acting on the constraints. we take the case of a vertical circular disk rolling along a straight path on a horizontal plane.. a similar argument Fig. '. More generally. We have shown that for several commonly occurring constraints. Therefore the work of the constraint (b) force acting on point C in an infinitesimal displacement of) must be an infinitesimal . Since. 64. instantaneous center would apply to any case of the rolling contact of a body on a fixed surface. As an example. if we consider the work on a particle which is at C at the midpoint of the virtual displacement of). Hence the virtual work of the constraint forces is zero for this case of a rolling constraint. that the_ virtual work of the ~~nstraint forces. however. Now consider the work of the constraint forces acting on the disk. Although we (c) have discussed the particular case of a disk rolling on a plane. the particle in the disk at C is instantaneously at rest when the constraint force is applied to it.  .
Now let us consider the conditions required for the static equilibrium of a system of particles. It should be realized that workless constraint forces may actually do work on certain particles within the system. in general. As the chapter proceeds. 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 239 placement which is consistent with the constraints. r \. This energy is transferred by Ineans of constraint forces. (616) and (617). the virtual work of these constraint forces Inay be nonzero in instances where the virtual displacements cannot be reversed. such as moving surfaces. Suppose we separate the total force acting on a given particle 1ni into a constraint force Ri and an applied force Fi where Ri is required to enforce the constraints and Fi includes all other forces. Hence we see that the condition of static equilibrium implies that each particle has zero velocity and acceleration relative to the inertial reference frame.SEC. A system is said to be in static equilihriunl with respect to an inertial fraIne if all particles of the system are motionless in that frame and if the vector sum of the forces acting on each particle is equal to zero. a particle on the riIll of a rolling circular disk moves with a changing speed. thereby simplifying the analysis. will. both in the analysis of the conditions for static equilibrium and in the solution of dynamics problems by energy methods. If a system of N particles is in static equilibrium. we consider only reversible virtual displacements because. pivots. Here we specify that the constraints rheonomic constraints. Also. 'II N ~ i=1 Ri It Ofi == 0 (617) From Eqs. then for each particle. then the virtual work of the constraint forces is zero. In either case. we shall find that the concept of workless constraints is important. and hence may transfer energy from one part of a system to another even though they do no work on the system as a whole. For example. mustbescleronomici)ecau'se a The Principle of Virtual Work. it often enables one to avoid calculating the constraint forces. Fi + Ri == 0 (615) Therefore the virtual work of all the forces as a result of the virtual displacements Ofi is N N N ~ i=1 (Fi + R i ) It Ofi == ~ i=l Fi It Ofi + ~ i=l Ri It Ofi == 0 (616) Now if we assume that the constraints are workless and the Ofi are reversible virtual displacements consistent with those constraints. do work on the system in an actual displacement even though they are considered to be fixed during virtual displacement. and so on. and therefore a changing kinetic energy. as we shall see later for the case of unilateral constraints. we copclude that .
We shall use virtual work methods frequently in this and succeeding chapters. 6 oW == ~ Fi • orf. If we consider systems which allow only reversible virtual displacements. the virtual work of the applied forces moving through the specified virtual displacements is positive. In this case.f an . (617) applies. it simplifies the analysis of a wide variety of problems in mechanics. then the virtual work of the applied forces is zero for any reversible virtual displacement which is consistent with the constraints. if one uses d' Alembert's principle. Now consider a system of particles with wor~less constraints which is initially motionless but is not in equilibrium. any motion must be compatible with the constraints and so we can always choose a virtual displacement in the direction of the net force at each point. Then one or more of the particles must have a net force applied to it. initially motionless system which is subject to workless bilateral constraints is that zero virtual work be done by the applied forces in moving through an arbitrary virtual displacement satisfying the constraints. Now consider a system of N particles in which all the applied f~rces are conservative. that is. N oW== ~ F i i=1 • ori>O (620) In other words. then it is always possible to find a set of virtual displacements consistent with the constraints for which the virtual work of the applied forces is positive. By providing a relatively simple criterion for the equilibrium of a large and important class of systems and by avoiding the necessity of calculating constraint forces in many instances. it will tend to move in the direction of that force. i=1 ~ Fi • N ori + i=1 Ri • ori > ~ N 0 (619) But again the constraints are workless and Eq. Using cartesian coordinates to define the position of each of the particles. The principle of virtual work is of fundamental importance in the study of statics and.240 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS N CHAP. then the above results can be summarized in the principle of virtual work: \\) The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium o. we can write the potential energy function in the form (621) . that is. and in accordance with Newton's law. ~ 0 i=1 (618) We have shown that if a system of particles with workless constraints is in static equilibrium. ' for this system. if the given system is not in equilibrium. can be extended to dynamical systems as well. Of course. the virtual work is positive. Therefore.
~V = 0 _ qn (627) But these are the conditions that the potential energy V have a stationary value. we find that the necessary and sufficient condition for a static equilibrium configuration of a conservative system with bilateral constraints is that oV == 0 (625) for every virtual displacement consistent with the constraints.SEC.__ . + ~ (~2~)O (Oql)2 + (628) where the oq's represent infinitesimal displacements from the reference . . Next let us consider briefly the question of the stability of this system at a position of static equilibrium. Then. If we express the potential energy in terms of the generalized coordinates QI. since at an equilibrium configuration oV ::. we find that (626) Now assume that a set of independent generalized coordinates can be found implying that the constraints are holonomic. If we expand V in a Taylor series about a reference value Vo..... that is... +. using the principle of virtual work.._ .'OQ2 = 0.0 for an arbitrary choice of oq's. Therefore we conclude that an equilibrium configuration of a conservative system with bilateral holonomic constraints must occur at a position where the potential energy has a stationary value.Q2.qn.. the coefficients must be zero.'" . BV = 0 BV OqI . we see that the component of the applied force in the direction of Xi is (622) Hence the virtual work of the applied forces in a virtual displacement which is consistent with the constraints is oW == ~l Fi 3N OXi ==  ~l 3N oV OXi OXi (623) But the first variation in the potential energy due to an arbitrary virtual displacement is just (624) Therefore. . 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 241 Using Eq.. we obtain V = Vo + (~~)o oql + (~~)o Oq2 + . (425).
242 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS  CHAP.. V == O. taking terms of order oq. In this case.T must equal or exceed zero in order for any displacement to occur. Therefore.. On the other hand. then the reference position is one of minimum potential energy corresponding to stable equilibrium. V is the change in the potential energy from its value at equilibrium. implies that other equilibrium positions exist in the neighborhood of the reference configuration. This is the case of neutral stability. V rather than 0V to indicate that higherorder terms are included.. Bu~ it is quite possible from the viewpoint of energy conservation for motion to occur near a configuration of unstable equilibrium because there are other positions in the immediate vicinity with negative potential energy. then the equilibrium position is said to be unstable. if a set of oq's can be found such that D. A third possibility is that D.. in which case we can set Vo == O. (627) all the coefficients of linear terms in the oq's are zero. So let us consider the higherorder terms. we see that ~ V cannot exceed zero. It turns out that an infinite time is required for a finite displacement from equilibrium in those cases where it is possible... Looking at the question of stability from the point of view of conserva. then the total energy is zero. V > 0 for every virtual displacement except those for which D. a  . but there is no position in this neighborhood which allows a positive kinetic energy. neutral stability. Therefore the potential energy expression consists of terms of at least second order in the small displacements. V == 2" (0oqi 1 2 0 ( 0V ) (Oql)2 + Oql Oq2 Oql Oq2 1 V) + 2" (0oq~ (Oq2) + 2 0 2 2 0 (629) where D. We can write V) D. V > 0 for every virtual displacement in which one or more of the oq's is nonzero. for an arbitrary infinitesimal displacement. Here we use D. 6 position. we might consider the system to be initially in equilibrium but ~ubject to small random disturbances. Note that we have not been concerned with the time required for a given small displacement but rather with the question whether a displacement is possible from an energy standpoint. Hence a system in stable equilibrium cannot move from that position without the addition of energy to the system. If D... V < 0. the potential is zero. tion of energy we see that if the system is initially motionless at the equilibrium position. (630) Since D. We have seen that. Now assume that the equilibrium. Taking a more practical view. But from Eq.: configuration is taken as the reference position. The third possibility. Now consider a virtual displacement from the equilibrium position.
Suppose we assume that the frictional force at each sliding surface opposes the relative motion and is of maximum magnitude. So. and only if. it equals the coefficient of friction JL times the normal force. constraints expressed as an inequality. since the virtual work of all forces must be zero at a position of static equilibrium. however. We note that viscous damping and other frictional forces which are proportional to a positive power of the velocity do not influence the position of static equilibrium. Next let us consider the case of a system with unilateral constraints. statically indeterminate forces are more likely with friction present. thereby losing much of the advantage of the virtual work approach. a frictionless system with bilateral constraints requires only an infinitesimal change in an applied force in order to cause the system to move from an equilib~ium position. if we consider the actual (rather than the maximum) friction forces to be applied forces. however. then the principle of virtual work is valid in its usual form given in Eq. we assume that the constraints are frictionless and scleronomic. This implies . Then. Furthermore. the virtual work of the applied forces. we find that an initially motionless system is in static equilibrium if. It should be noted that. frequently influences the possible configurations of static equilibrium. for an initially motionless system with frictionless scleronomic constraints. although the virtual work appears to be easy to calculate. a system with neutral stability will drift slowly but remain essentially in equilibrium. (618). In this case. it may be necessary to evaluate the constraint forces before the friction forces can be obtained. we have assuJned that the constraints are workless and bilateral. considering the friction force as an applied force. Either approach.SEC. namely. hence they do no work in a virtual displacement. it can be seen that. often involves calculating constraint forces. First let us assume that damping is associated with the constraints. a finite additional force is required to cause a system with Coulomb friction to break free of an equilibrium condition and start to move. So let us consider the consequences of other assumptions. Also. oW<O (631) for all virtual displacements consistent with the constraints. Then. it is possible for the virtual work of the constraint forces to be positive. in general. In contrast. Coulomb friction. we find that the virtual work of the applied forces may be negative. 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 243 stable system will remain near the reference position. and is not restricted to such systems. however. The idea of virtual work is quite general. This follows from the fact that all such forces are zero when the system is stationary. In our discussion of the principle of virtual work. and an unstable system will move away from the reference position with an increasing velocity. the necessary . that is.that. Also.
· find that Jl V > 0 for all possible virtual displacements in the twodimensional case. we see that Eqs. 6 and sufficient condition for static equilibrium is that the virtual work of the applied forces be equal to or less than zero.v2. 6:5). It is interesting to calculate the virtual work of the constraint forces for this system. consider a small cube of Fig. that is. A system with unilateral mass m which is resting at a corner constraints. corresponding to stable equilibrium. As an example of a unilateral constraint. Hence the system is in static equilibrium in accordance with Eq. The same result applies even if the cube is allowed unconstrained motion in the X3 direction which is perpendicular to the X 1X2 plane. 65. The type of static equilibrium can be determined by the criteria developed previously for the bilateral holonomic case. Assuming that Xl and X2 are measured from the corner. and OX3 does not appear in the expression for oW. (632).244 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. that is. formed by frictionless. Jl V == 0 if a virtual displacement is made in the X3 direction. On the other hand.(ox i + OX 2) < 0 (635) since the ox's must be positive or zero when Xl == X 2 == O. So there is neutral equilibrium in the threedimensional case... Note that 8 V/8x 1 and 8 V/8x 2 are not zero at equilibrium. F3 and R3 are zero. We. (635) and (636) are compatible.j":2 mg mg (634) Therefore the virtual work of the applied force is oW == . mutually perpendicular planes (Fig. oW<O (632) for all virtual displacements consistent with the constraints . The principle of virtual work can also be used to calculate the constraint forces RI and R 2 • The procedure followed is to set the total virtual work of all forces equal to zero. In this case.. Since the virtual work· of all forces is zero. the constraint equations for this system are Xl > 0. ~'I ( .. X2 > 0 (633) The only applied force is due to gravity and it has the components FI == F2 == . We obtain oWe == Rl OX I + R2 OX 2 > 0 (636) where RI and R2 are assumed to be constant during the virtual displacement..
Thus. Hence each coefficient in Eq.SEC. 67. The system of part (a) has workless holonomic constraints if we assume that the masses do not leave the wall or floor. we shall find another . equating the total differential of this expression to zero. (b) For the case where F2 == 0. Example 61. 66. in order to solve for constraint forces by virtual work methods. the equation of constraint states that the length of the bar is constant. as shown in Fig. (a) If all surfaces are frictionless. 1 . illustration of the general rule that. . ~ Fig. (a X I )2 + (a + X2)2 == 2a 2 or. Measuring the displacements Xl and X2 from the initial configuration. 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 245 (637) Here we assume that the ox'S are not constrained and are therefore completely independent. solve for the force F2 required for static equilibrium of the system. 66.J" 2 mg In the discussion of Lagrange multipliers in Sec. A system which is constrained to move in a vertical plane. Two equal masses are connected by a rigid massless bar... the corresponding constraint equation in terms of coordinates is eliminated and is replaced in the analysis by the addition of the constraint forces. we find that (638) I I ~ l.L between m 2 and the floor such that no sliding occurs? The system is initially motionless. what is the minimum friction coefficient J. (637) must be zero and we obtain R) == R2 == .
F2 == mg Consider next the case wqere there is friction between m 2 and the floor and assume that F2 == O. counting the force /LN2 as an applied force. 67. from Eq. then. since any virtual displacement must be consistent with the constraint of Eq. 6 The applied forces are the force' F2 and those due to gravity.L == !.2mg == 0 or N2 == 2mg Hence the frictional force on m 2 is /L N 2 == 2/Lmg Now we again apply the principle of virtual work. Three particles. The gravitational force mg acts on m2 in a direction perpendicular to DX2 and hence does no work in a virtual displacement. Summing the vertical forces on the system as a whole and equating this sum to zero. In other words. Hence we confirm that. for static equilibrium is that mg DX 1 + F2 DX2 == 0 (6~9) But DX 1 == DX2. The result is DW == mg DX 1  2/Lmg DX 2 == 0 (640) But DX 1 == DX 2 and therefore the minimum coefficient of friction for static stability is /LllIin == ""2 1 Note that if /L is larger than this minimum value. are located at the pin joints' between four massless rods" as shown in Fig. if a virtual displacement is taken such that px 1 and DX2 are both negative and the direction of the force of friction. by setting DW == 0 in Eq. we find that the virtual work is negative. all other forces are constraint forces. Also. The system hangs . (638). We need first to calculate the normal force N2 in order to find the friction force for incipient slipping. (640). LAGRANGE'S EQUAT10NS CHAP. each of mass m. is reversed.246 . then the virtual work is oW == mg DX + 2/Lmg DX2 == (2/L + 1 l)mg DX 1 We see that 8 W is negative for the assumed displacement. we are analyzing a virtual displacement in a~cordance with the actual mode of slipping. j ox I Example 62. if J. we obtain N2 . Therefore. the only motion of the system which requires no additional energy input and satisfies the constraints is that motion for which I and DX 2 are positive. (640). Now we apply the principle of virtual work and find that the condition.
Since this system is conservative. corresponding to a minimum value of V.2° O == 136. (641). 64 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 247 I 1. 67. Solve for the angles ()I and ()2 corresponding to a condition of static equilibrium.SEC.1 from support points which have a horizontal separation 2/. we find that .9° 2 This is a position of stable equilibrium.1° 2 . there is symmetry about a vertical line through the central particle. Taking the supports as the reference level for the gravitational potential. to find a stationary value of this function. (641) that O2 is a function of 0 1 . dV . 3 sIn 01 or 3 tan ()1 == (tan O 2 Finally. recalling from Eq. sIn 0 2 d0 ) == 0 dOl Evaluating d()2/dOl from Eq.1 + + 2 sin ( 2 ) ==.8° O == 43. we find that (642) v == mgl(3 cos 0 1 + cos ( 2) Now. (641) and (643). we set its total derivative with respect to 0 1 equal to zero. we obtain 2 0 1 == 17. 0 1 == 162. (625) that the static equilibrium configuration occurs at a stationary value of the potential energy. we know from Eq. ~olving  sin O cos 0 1 . we can write an equation for the separation of the support points in the form 1(2 sin 01 I ~~~21~.0 2 0cos 2 (643) for 01 and O from Eqs.21 m or sin 01 sin O2 == 1 (641 ) Fig. It is interesting to note that another solution is . Three particles of mass m which are supported by four massless rods connected by pin joints. dOl == mg1(3 SIn 0 1 + 2 . This is an equation of holonomic constraint. hence we need to consider only the two coordinates 01 and O2 . From the geometry. Thus. It is apparent that in the equilibrium condition.
aO mg ma (}2 + a¢2 sin {} cos 0) 00 ... and if we denote the linear momentum of this particle by (645) then we can use the principle of virtual work to obtain another statement of d' Alembert's principle: N ~ i=l (FiPi) • Of i =0 (646) where Ofi is a virtual displacement of mi satisfying the constraints. Suppose we consider a system of N particles which may have workless bilateral constraints. "" ~ / rna.. 15. We can verify' this last statement by evaluating d 2 VjdOi. (644) can be interpreted as stating that a summation of forces is zero.. . Since we can equate each coefficient to zero. namely. indicating a maximum value of potential energy at this configuration.. Assuming a total external force F.ma oJ cosO ~ . I .ma was considered as an additional force on the particle.ma = 0 (644) where the term .. d' Alembert's principle was stated for the case of a particle of mass m and absolute acceleration a. 68.. It turns out to be negative. If Fi is the applied force acting on mi. Thus we use the methods of statics to obtain the equations of motion for a dynamical system. In Sec.. A more general form of d' Alembert's principle uses another criterion of static equilibrium. Note that the constraint forces are omitted from the expression for virtual work. 6 which is a position of unstable equilibrium. t \~ 2. in obtaining the required equations of motion. we ma 4>2 sine find that . in the manner of an equation of static equilibrium. Hence the result given in Eq. ma[( . let us write the equations of motion for a spherical pendulum of length a.. . Assuming arbitrary virtual displacements 00 and ocp.a sin O(ci) sin 0 o.::::'. we found that F . the method of virtual work. The applied and inertial forces are shown in Fig. As an example of the use of d' Alembert's principle. 68. D' Alembert's Principle.g sin {} .248 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. that is.fo sin () .. obtaining + 20¢ cos fJ) ocp] = 0 o(} and ocp are independent. an inertial force.[11a.. The inertial and applied forces acting on a spherical pendulum .or Fig.
It can be seen that Fj is the virtual work per unit displacement of Xj when all the other x's are held at zero. then the virtual work of these forces in an arbitrary virtual displacement consistent with the constraints is oW = k ~ Fj j=l OXj (647) in agreement with Eq. Now let us suppose that the ordinary coordinates Xl.{ . 65. = . Then we can write Eq. Jf_!~~...tf case.g sin () and <ii sin 2 0 + Th~se 2&¢ sin () cos () = 0 are seen to be the differential equations of motion.SEC. and if their direction is positive in each case. (61) . X2. GENERALIZED FORCES Consider a system of particles whose positions are specified by the cartesian coordinates Xb X 2 .(:l. n/) j=1 uqi (651) Note that the expressions for the virtual work given in Eqs. 2..we see that the generalized force Qt is equal ! I . .. They are essentially the same as Eqs..~ }~ l Qi . 65 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 249 aO . we ob~ain oW i: uqi ~Xj [..: and setting = 0. Fk are applied at the corre~pon~j~R_ c~_~Egi}).lrt l i Oqi (j = 1. we 0 btain }{7:~~/ ot J~t.~~sFl' F 2 . In a similar ~~shion.. (5135) and (5136) obtained earlier. . since we are considering a virtual displacement in eachl~! . (649) in the form (650) where the generalized force Qi associated with the generalized coordinate q i is given by . (o. Differentiating Eq.1.t~s. (61).. OXj (6~49) Let us change the order of summation.=1 l=l Fj ~ Oqi ~ ~ uqi k n . • • • .. • • • . ••• . (67) . OXj = l=1 where we see that the coefficients OXj/Oqi are functions of the q's and time . Then we can express small virtual displacements of the x's in terms of a set of corresponding virtual displacements of the q's.!.t.}:.l FOx) (0 . Xk.• . (647) and (650) are of the same mathematical form.' "\. .\i~ Substituting this expression for OXj into Eq. Xk are related to the generalized coordinates by equations of the form of Eq.2.a¢2 sin 0 cos 0 = . (647).~. k) (648)\\.
69. let us choose transformation equations as follows: 3 Xl == Tql + q2 + 2"q3 (652) 1 X2 == ql .250 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. So if qi corresponds to a linear displacement. the coefficients can be chosen in any fashion such that the q's are independent. No further constraints are assumed. For example. Alternatively. Suppose that three independent generalized coordinates ql. if qi is an angle. We see that the x's are a special case of generalized coordinates.qg 3 . or [FL]. and so there are three degrees of freedom. then these constraints should be ignored in making the virtual displacement. Let the ordinary coordinates Xb X 2 . As an example of a generalized force calculation.q2 + 2"q3 1 '/ j For our present purposes. On the other hand. The particles are connected by an elastic string and are constrained such that only transverse motions in a single plane are permitted. an ordinary force Fj is a special case of a generalized force. Coordinates and forces associated with the plane transverse motions of a loaded elastic string. we find that the corresponding virtual work expressions are equal to the magnitude of the generalized forces: i ~tt a t t rtf i Xi 4I Ql == 4Fl 1 3 + F2 + 4 3 F3 (653) Q2 == Fl . The geometrical significance of each generalized coordinate can be shown by letting it vary separately. (61). if we let qb q2. but in case there are equations of constraint relating the generalized coordinates. In accordance with the form of Eq. (651).F3 Qg == 2Fl ~ F2 1 + "2F3 F2 1 Fig. then Qi is a moment. 6 numerically to the virtual work done per unit displacement of qi by the forces acting on the system when the other generalized coordinates remain at zero. 69. Usually the generalized coordinates are chosen to be independent. Similarly. Hence all results which apply to generalized forces and displacements are valid for ordinary forces and displacements as well. if only q 1 is allowed to . Now we can calculate the generalized forces directly from Eq. Xg designate the transverse displacements of the particles. and qg undergo a unit virtual displacement in sequence. . the generalized force has the dimensions of force. The dimensions of a generalized force depend upon the dimensions of the corresponding coordinate. consider the system shown in Fig. . q2.qg are used to describe the same system. X3 == Tql . In all cases Qi Oqi must have the dimensions'" of work.
the superposition of these deflection forms in the same ratio as the values of the corresponding generalized coordinates will make possible any configuration that could be described in terms of ordinary coordinates. Deflection forms corresponding to generalized coordinates. vary. as is shown in Fig. we see from Eq. (652) that the ordinary coordinates take on values according to the ratio 3 3 Xl : X 2 : X3 == 4: 1 : ""4 A ·similar procedure can be used to obtain ratios corresponding to q2 and Q3' Thus each generalized coordinate may have associated with it a deflection form that can be specified in terms of ratios of the ordinary coordinates. 65 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 251 x1=~ 4 (0) i  (b) \ (c) Fig. Nevertheless. 610. 610 for this particular example.SEC. Generalized .
66. 6 coordinates of this sort find wide application in the study of linear vibration problems with several degrees of freedom and will be consIdered in more detail in Chapter 9. In other words. we find that the kinetic energy can be written in the form . either coordinate system permits the same number of degrees of freedom. (650) that if 0 W == 0 for an arbitrary virtual displacement of independent q's. We can use the concept of generalized forces to express the conditions required for static equilibrium. Using' the transformation equations of the form of Eq. functions of the q's. (61) and differentiating with respect to time. DERIVATION OF LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS Let us consider a system of N particles whose positions are gIven by the cartesian coordinates Xl. (655) and (656).252 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. we find that x· • _ I } qi t=10qi £.J ~ OXj • +OXj 8t (655) where the n generalized coordinates are chosen such that the allowable motions of the system are unchanged. Hence we see that the x's are. Hence we can use the principle of virtual work to show that the necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of an initially motionless system which is subject to workless bilateral constraints is that all generalized forces corresponding to the independent generalized coordinates be zero. (656) Using Eqs. ••• . and time. To see this. in general. namely. Constraint forces do not enter directly in this case because the q's are assumed to be independent and hence unconstrained. For example. x 6 ) for the second particle. X 2. Now let us obtain an expression for the kinetic energy of the system in 1 terms of generalized coordinates. X3N. those ~ terms containing the squares of the three cartesian velocity components o f l that particle. Thus we find that the total kinetic energy of the system is (654) Note that the mass of a given particle appears in three terms. and so on. we might use (Xb X 2. (Xh X 5 . we note from Eq. x 3) as the coordinates of the first particle. although both the x's and the q's may have constraints associated with them. q's. then all the generalized forces must be zero.
Now consider Pq. which is seen to be the component of the total linear momentum in the direction of the x axis. 'ocf> mr2 sin2 () cp This expression can be recognized as the vertical or ~ component of the total angular momentum. Thus we see that the kinetic energy is a function of the q's. q's. Angular momentum rather than linear momentum occurs here because the coordinate ¢ involves angular displacement. Its kinetic energy is The momentum conjugate to the coordinate x is Px == ox· == aT mx . consider a single particle whose position is expressed by cartesian coordinates. we find that Pi is not always a momentum component as we have defined the term.SEC.)2 . ox jf 0 t is zero and we find that the kinetic energy is a homogeneous quadratic function of the q's. for the case in which "the position of the particle is expressed in terms of spherical coordinates. Pi is just the con1ponent of the momentum vector in the direction of the coordinate qi' As an example. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 253 T == 2 1 ~ 3N mj (n ox. which is the Y component of the total linear momentum. In the case of a nonorthogonal coordinate system. Furthermore. ~ _J j=l i=1 Oqi _J ot (657) \ where OXjfOqi and oXjfot are functions of the q's and time. Now let us define the generalized momentum Pi associated with the generalized coordinate qi by the equation Pi == ~ uqi aT (658) Note that Pi is a scalar quantity. . Similarly. == oT == .2 + r2iJ2 + r2¢2 sin 2 0) 2 and therefore Pr == 0. and time. rather it is the . == aT my . qi + OX.system. For the case of relatively simple coordinate systems. For the particular case of a scleronomic . the coefficients being functions of the q's. we see from the differentiation process that the result must have the dimensions of energy divided by angular velocity. we find that T == ~m(.
£. (654) and (658) that (659) But from Eq. Pi has no easily expressed physical significance.~ mjx)_ £. )=1 mix) Oqi • OXj (663) We can find OX)/Oqi from Eq. OX) dt )=1 Oqi +oT Oqi (666) Now let us consider the forces acting on a typical particle of the system. let us use Eq. we see that  dpi . (663) and (664).J . £. in general. For even more general coordinates.. 6 projection of the total momentum onto the qi.k=1 Oqi Oqk qk ± + 02X) oqi. we find that  8T . ~xis.J .J dt ) = 1 ) J Oqi + )=1 ~ m·x· d (OX)) .. . £. an explicit function of all the q's and time. (662) and (665).J • 8qi j=1 k=l Oqi Oqk 2 + 0 2 Xj ) Oqi ot (665) Comparing Eqs..J J ) dt Oqi But d (OX)) _ 02X) .k=1 Oqi Oqk qk Oqi ot (664) From Eqs. (655) we obtain (660) and therefore 3N • ox) Pi.~ miX) (~ 0 X) qk _ £. (6':"'55) in a straightforward manner if we take the precaution of changing the ~ummation index from i to k.. (654) to obtain oT Oqi . 02 X) ) (662) Next. dt Oqi .. we see from Eqs. dpi _ ~ m·x· ox) . Returning now to the system of N particles. ~ • Ux) _ n L u X) ~2 • + u X) ~2 8qi .~ miX) ~ dt )=1 uqi + miX) k=1 0 qi 0 qk qk + miX) 0 qi ot ~ = ~ 3N . The total force acting on the particle in the X j direction is the sum of the force jj due to workless constraints and the applied force F j which includes .254 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. Therefore we obtain the result: dPi _ 3N ( •• 0X) . ot since OX)/Oqi is. = ~ miX) )=1 Oqi (661) Now let us find the time rate of change of the generalized momentum.. n 02X)..
In accordance with Eq. that is. we can use Eqs.irement: There must be exactly as many q's as _~~~~f!. (617) we obtain . Thus F j includes externally applied forces.t'i In a (670) oWe = i=1 ~ jj Oqi Oqi = 0. and forces due to moving constraints. Applying Newton's law of motion. assuming that the q's are independent. ~ _J j=1 n 3N oX. then the generalized constraint forces as given by Eq. and these forces must be included in the calculation of the Qi' So. coupled with the previous assumption that there are at least as many q's as there are degrees of freedom. frictional forces. Fj_J j=1 Oqi (669) In a similar fashion. results in the following requ.SEC.o. dt ~his = Qi + aT Oqi (672) or. substituting for Pi from Eq. are degrees of freedom if the generalized forces due to the workless also implies that the system must be holonomic if the calculation of constraint forces is to be avoided. (651) that the first term on the right of the equality is the generalized force Qi due to the applied forces. is a generalized force resulting from the workless constraint forces. we obtain lnjXj = F j + jj (667) Now we substitute this expression for dpi dt nljXj into Eq. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 255 all other forces. In case the generalized coordinates are chosen such that they are not independent and hence there are equations of constraint relating the q's. dpi . hence ~ 3N jj:_J j=1 Oqi ox. then the coefficient of each Oqi in Eq. Suppose we calculate the work done by the constraint forces virtual displacement. (666) and obtain j = f j=l F j OXj Oqi + ~ jj oX + oT j=1 Oqi Oqi (668) It is apparent from Eq. (668) to the form constraints are to vanish. If the oq's can be chosen independently. the virtuaJ work of the workless constraints is zero. (670) must be zer. (671) are not zero. the term jj uXj ~ j=1 oq1. for any set of oq's conforming to the constraints of the system. Qi = ~ 3N ~ 3N ox. in general.' = 0 (671) This assumption that the oq's' are independent. (669) and (671) to simplify Eq. (658). . So at this point we assume that the q's are unconstrained.
and therefore the system can be considered to be conservative in calculating the virtual work. (674). Substituting this expression for Qi into Eq...~~ Ql (i = 1. . 6 ~ (~D .. We find that a == mrf)2 . Thus (675) Since the oq's are assumed to be arbitrary. To see this last point more clearly.. t) as follows: Qi ==  oV Oqi (674) We see that this equation applies to systems with timevarying potential functions as well as to conservative systems where V is a function of position only. The physical meaning of Lagrange's equations can best be seen from Eq.. (650) that the virtual work of the generalized forces in an arbitrary virtual displacement is oW == ~ i=l n Qi Oqi But time is held fixed during a virtual displacement. n) (673) These n equations are known as Lagrange's equations and are written here in 'one of their principal forms. . 2. qn. ' . whereas the second term is the r conIponent of the centrifugal force resulting fr9m motion in cpo . .T· + or mr . consider again the example of a particle whose kinetic energy is expressed in terms of spherical coordinates../ Another form of Lagrange's equations of motion can be obtained for systems in which all the Q's are derivable from a potential function V == V(qh q2. (673)... To clarify this point. .256 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. (672) which states that the time rate of change of the scalar generalized momentum Pi is equal to the generalized force Qi due to the applied forces plus the term oT/oqiwhich is an inertial generalized force due to motion in the other generalized coordinates..... we find that ~ (aT) dt Oqi _ aT __ oV Oqi aqi (676) N ow let us define the Lagrangian function L as follows: . we can equate coefficients and obtain in agreement with Eq. sin 2 f) cp2 The first term on the right is the centrifugal force due to the (j motion. note from Eq. .
t) is known as a velocitydependent potential. . the Lagrangian method of obtaining the equations of motion is more systematic and frequently easier to apply than Newton's laws. but it may be more convenient to write Lagrange's equation in the form d (~ ~) . however. iJl' . These equations are equivalent to the equations of motion which would have been obtained by a direct application of Newton's laws. Now let us consider a system in which the generalized forces are not wholly derivable from a potential function.. If a function U can be found such that the Qi are given by it (~~) . and thereby the need for intricate kinematical calculation is often avoided.== 1. Eq. . n) Oqi (678) This is the most common form of Lagrange's equation. hence they do not contain new and independent physical principles. As before. in general. the procedures for obtaining the equations of motion are quite straightforward. 2. 67). An example of such a system is one involving charged particles moving in an electromagnetic field. . (677) and will not concern ourselves further with velocitydependent potentials. We shall assume. Of course. . Nevertheless. 2. No accelerations are required. .~ L == Q~ d t uqi uqi (i == 1... Only velocities and displacements enter into the Lagrangian function. that the Lagrangian function L is given by Eq.. . In this section. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 257 L==TV (677) dt 0 iJi d (OL) . We have seen that system having n degrees of freedom will. Examples of typical Q' forces are frictional forces. qn.. suppose we let L==TU where U == U(q}. using the concept of virtual work and expressing the results by means of generalized coordinates and generalized forces. qn. and nonholon()mic constraint" forces (Sec. . It is interesting to note that this form of Lagrange's equation is applicable to a more general system than was assulned in its derivation..SEC.. we have derived Lagrange's equations from Newton's laws of motion.oL == 0 (1. For example. then it is apparent that Eq. timevariant forcing functions. (678) applies to this system. be described by n secondorder ordinary differential equations.~~ = Qj for all generalized coordinates. n) (679) 6i where the Q~ are those generalized forces not derivable from a potential function. the other forces are obtained from the Lagrangian fun"ci!on L. a .. (673) is always applicable. Once L is found.
This analytical approach to mechanics can also be formulated using variational procedures. or mr mr8 2 f)  mg cos 8 Therefore the equation of motion associated with the coordinate r is mr¢2 sin 2 f) + mg cos f) . .. Write the differential equations of motion for a particle in a uniform gravitational field using spherical coordinates. + r28 2 + r2 sin 2 f) cp2) . In more advanced treatments of mechanics.. 0. == mr 2 8 == 0 (683) In a similar manner. We shall indicate the position of the particle with the usual spherical coordinates r.mgr cos f) (682) Using the standard form of Lagrange's equations given in Eq. . V == mgr cos .'2 . in fact. the Lagrangian function L. Lagrange's equations can be derived in this manner. (678). Example 63. .V == 2:m(. The emphasis upon energies rather than forces and accelerations enables one to be concerned primarily with scalgr quantities. these equations tend to have a convenient form. . == mr 2 8 of) oL .~ . these variational or minimization principles are used as a starting point for writing the equations of motion and. == mr. I I !£ (oL) dt or == mr I t o== m(r{)2 + r sin 2 f) ¢2) L· . It is a remarkable fact that the Lagrange approach enables one to obtain the equations of motion for a broad class of problems from a single scalar function. the equations show a symmetry in the coefficients which might not be apparent in the Newtonian formulation. and particularly in the case of linear systems. . The kinetic and the potential energies are T = ~ m(f2 + r2{)2 + r 2 sin 2 () ¢2)  (680) (681) ~.258 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP.  dt d (oL) . cp. 6 Furthermore. . . we obtain oL or Also.1 ~ and therefore the Lagrangian function is L == T . of) • + 2mrrO• and ~~ resulting in = mr21>2 sin (}cos () + mgr sin () . where f) is measured from the vertical. the equation is found from .
mr2 ~2 sin () cos () . ' .. we see that they are identical. ()  dt d (OL).  mgl cos () By setting r equal to a constant. The Lagrangian function L can be obtained by substituting r == / into Eq. mr2~ sin 2 (j + 2mr. We can obtain the differential equations for the (} and cp motions by setting r == I in Eqs. If we divide out the common factors in each equation.¢ sin () + 2rli¢ cos () == 0 I i.mgl sin () . we have eliminated it as coordinate.r0 2 .¢ sin 2 () + 2mr28¢ SIn () cos () oL == 0 8</> Therefore.0  r~2 sin () cos () == g sin (} (686) + 2. (684).m12¢2 sin () cos () . (682). and (685) are the differential equations of motion for the particle. Let us use spherical coordinates again as we did in Example 63.mgr sin () == 0 (684) The cp equation is obtained as follows: .~ sin 2 () + 2m~21i¢ sin () cos () == 0 (685) . assuming that neither r nor () is zero.. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 259 · ' mr2 {j + 2mr. 0 m/2¢ sin2 () + 2mI2!J¢ sin (} cos (} == 0 (687) Fig..r¢2 sin 2 () == . sin . 611 . i I Comparing the left side of each of these equations with the corresponding acceleration component in spherical coordinates. (684) and (685) . and therefore only two degrees of freedom remain.1i . Example 64~ Find the differential equations of motion for the spherical pendulum of length / shown in Fig. The last equation could have been written in the form 1\ spherical pen . j \ Equations (683). == mr2 sin 2 8L 04> () cp. we obtain f . given previously in Eq. 611.SEC. + 2mr. The result is 1· L == 2 m (/2 (j2 + /2 sin 2 () cp2) . dulum. . (233).g cos () rO r¢ sin () + 2. m1 2{) . == mr 2cp 04>  2 .
It can be seen that the square of the velocity of m 2 is just the sum of the squares of the vertical and horizontal components. First we note that the system has two degrees of freedom. solve for the acceleration of mI. and if the position of m2 relative to ml is given by X2. can slide on a frictionless. Also.~. 612(a). Hence we can use the coordinates Xl and X 2 in'the Lagrange formulation of the equations of motion. can slide on ml which. (679).. 6 dt ~ (m1 2 sin2 () 1» = 0:' ~ (688) which is just a statement of the conservation of angular momentum about a vertical axis through the' point of suspension. or m2 Example'65'~ Block (689) / (0) . Assume that J. We shall use Eq. ! (b) Fig. in turn. 612. the two coordinates Xl and X 2 can vary freely without violating the constraints of the system. . Fig. If the absolute position of ml is given by Xl. since the gravitational forces are derivable from a potential function but the frictional forces are not. A system of sliding blocks.260 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP.L < 1. horizontal surface.
So we turn to the freebody diagram shown in Fig.. Therefore. Unfortunately.) (692) dt Oqi .) The Lagrangian function is '2 L == 1"' .. 612(b).:"  Q~ = fLN = Using Lagrange's equations in the form :. We find that _ d (0 L )' == mlXl a dt O X I ' . and the Lagrangian approach does not indicate the value of this force. these forces depend upon the normal constraint force at the sliding surface.. . that a virtual displacement DX 2 does involve virtual work of the forces of friction.. yX22 ) Xl 1' . we use d' Alembert's principle and include the inertial forces as well as the real external forces. + m 2 ( .?:.SEC. (Note that changing Xl does not influence the potef}tial energy. . X I X2 + m gx J2 2 (691) N ow we must calculate Q~ and Q~. ($  x. we obtain or N ==~ m2 ( g  Xl "" ) Now we can evaluate the virtual work of the frictional forces.Oqi == Qi let us first obtain the Xl d (oL) oL / equation. however. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 261 The potential energy is I· I i (690) if we take a reference such that V == 0 when X 2 == o..V == 21 mlxI ~ j 2m2 Xl 1 ( '2 + x2 "2  2 1'2"') v. We do this by considering the virtual work of the frictional forces. Since the bodies are in motion at the time of the virtual displacement. Hence Qi == 0 It is apparent. First we note that a virtual displacement of Xl alone does not involve any virtual work because no sliding occurs between blocks and therefore the frictional forces do no work. Summing force components normal to the sliding surface.
613. Fig. A particle in a From Eqs.suming that iJ is positive in the initial motion. where <po is a constant. V2 XI m2 •• oX 2 = ".. two holonomic constraints are applied. we see that dt 8x 2 = m 2 X 2 d(8L) 8L m2 •• . 613. (693) This equation states that the rate of change of the horizontal component of the total linear momentum is zero. (693) and (694) to solve for Xl. aS. (680) and (681) we see that whirling tube. ) Xl (694) Now we can use Eqs. namely. the workless scleronomic 'constraint r = a and the working rheonomic constraint 1> = rot + <Po.Lm 2 ( g  . and therefore the horizontal momentum is conserved.. .L)g 2m. as shown in Fig. In obtaining the X 2 equation. the result being .J. The tube rotates about a vertical diameter at a constant rate of ro rad/sec.2~2 m2g and therefore the second equation of motion is m2X 2 or .262 LAGRANGE'S' EQUATIONS CHAP. Hence we see that there is only one degree of freedom and () is the corresponding unrestricted coordinate.. In this case. 6 Therefore.  J2 XI m2 g  = :y"2 J. Xl  in 2 (1 . find the position of maximum kinetic energy and the position of maximum iJ.L) (6 95)  Example /66:" A particle of mass m can slide without friction on the inside of a small tube bent in the form of a circle of radius a. Write the differential equation of motion. + m 2 (1 . Once again we shall use spherical coordinates in describing the configuration.J. If the particle is disturbed slightly from its unstable equilibrium position at () = 0.
ma 26)2 sin 2 fJ + mga (1 . This follows from the fact that only gravitational forces do work in a virtual displacement and therefore Q~ is zero._m(a 2(j2 2 1 . .SEC. We can find an expression for (j as a function of 0 by an integration of the equation of motion.ma 26)2 sin (j cos e (699) In order to find the value of e corresponding to the maximum value of the kinetic energy. + a 26)2 sin 2 e) (696) (697) v \ ==. ofJ ~. instead of its being expressed as a function of both Ii and e. we obtain se oL .mga cos (j and therefore L ==. (678) although the system has a working constraint and is not conservative. (699).0 with the result: ~~ = 2ma 2 (j)2 sin () cos () + mga sin () or = 0 . we set dTjde ==. ==6)2 sin 2 0 + 2g .O. we obtain odO = ()2 ((j)2 sin () cos () + ~ sin ()) d(} which can be integrated directly to yield . Making the substitution (}==(}  .0 and therefore the differential equation of motion is ma 2{j.ma 2f) . ==. Hence we obtain f~om Eqs.cos 0) (6100) where the constant of integration has been evaluated from the initial condi. we need to express T as a function of e alone.T . (696) and (6100) that T ==. dO dfJ in Eq. however. Note.cos 0) (6101) To find the maximum value of T.tion that () ==.(1 a .V == T 1 ma2 ()2 . + 2111a 26)2 sin 2 () . Evaluating the required terms. 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS· 263 T ==.1  mga cos (j (698) We use the standard fonn of Lagrange's equation given in Eq. that work is done on the system by means of a nonzero Q~.ma 2 e 00 = ma 2 (j)2 sin () cos () + mga sin () mga sin (j==.0 when 0 ==. ' dt d (OL) (){j ==.
let us consider this problem from another viewpoint. (6101). we might have supposed that the kinetic and potential energies were' 1 . We have seen that the Lagrangian function L completely determines the equations of motion for systems in which the generalized forces are obtained from a potential function. Tmax occurs at 0 = 7t or at cos () = . COS 1  ( ~ g 2aro 2 i) The first possibility. we see that Tmax =::i . (6100) reveals that fjrnax  = O. (6100) with respect to () and setting the result equal to zero. Thus the position of maximum 8 is located at one of the following: 8= 7t . () = 0. 2 (6102) (6103) This corresponds to a conservative system with one degree of freedom. We can write !!.7t. T' = _ma 2 fj2 . I ! I . clearly corresponds to Tmin since T = 0 at this configuration. cos 1 (_L) aro 2 since we found that &= 0 at () . as viewed by an observer rotating with the circular tube. depending upon whether ro 2 is less than or greater than g/2a.. since we note that . Had we been given the Lagrangian function of Eq.g/2aro 2 .(8 dO 2) = 2ro 2 sin () cos () + 2g sin () = 0 a since 8 and 82 reach a maximum amplitude together.0 . The function V' includes the actual gravitational potential energy plus another term which . Eq.  2 Olllax  . . 6 1. It can be seen that T' is the kinetic energy of the particle. Substituting into Eq. (698) without specifying the system. T' is a quadratic function of &and V'is a function of· " position only. 2mga ( ro >~) 2a 2 The position of maximum &is found by differentiating Eq. A substitution of these values into . F2+ ro g )a  g a + 22 g2 a co Now . () .264 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP..
the sign of iJ will not change duri!1g the motion. To find Vl~lin we write dV' df) == 0 == mga sin f)  ma 2 ro 2 sin f) cos f) from which we obtain f) == 0 . On the other hand. Now let us consider the quantity E' == T' + V' (6104) which is a fictitious total energy. because E' is conserved. then the solution is an oscillation about () == COSI( . where n is any integer. however. In all cases. evaluating the total energy from initial conditions.glar( 2). We note. == ro 2 sin 2 f) + 2g (1 a . the turning points of the motion occur at positions where E' ~ V'.mga < E' < mga. Therefore. if £' < . 66 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 265 accounts for the centrifugal force due to the rotation rate ro about the vertical axis.cos f) in agreement with the result obtained previously in Eq. Again the results agree with those obtained previously. Example '67'. Thus. we find that E' 1 2 fj2 == ma · + mga cos f) 2  1 _ma 2 (f)2 sin 2 f) 2 == mga or 1 I (j2 . We have seen that this system with one degree ('If freedom is conservative. To find iJ max we look for TI~laX' and this occurs at the same position as Vl~lin since E' is conserved. 614. the coordinate f) moves as though the whirling motion were stopped and the inertial forces due to whirling were considered to originate from a potential function. V. the first two solutions represent local maxima of V' and the third solution is V~in' as shown in Fig. If ru 2 < gla. Note that we have obtained an expression for iJ in this case without the necessity of integrating. the magnitude of iJ must show the same symmetry.lIin occurs at f) == 7t. So. (6100). the differential equation of motion. implying that iJ == o. Thus if E' > mga.mga and ro 2 > g/ a.1 (  aru 2 L) If ru 2 > gla. If . It is interesting to note that V'is symmetric about f) == n7t. 7t .' The point of support 0 of a simple pendulum of length I moves with 'a"horizontal displacement x == A sin rut (6105) . or even finding. cos. the solution will consist of an oscillation about () == 7t. that both T' and V' are fictitious in the sense that the reference frame is noninertial.SEC.
First we note that this problem involves ___~_ movin.int force acts through the support point 0 and therefore does not contribute to Qe. In order to obtain the kinetic energy we calculate first the absolute velocity v of mass m by the vector addition of the velocities due to x and ().266 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. Thus we can use the standard form of Lagrange's equation. 615a). In other words. 6 v' e o mga . This example is identical to that solved previously as Example 412. Find the differential equation of motion. in the plane of the motion in () (Fig. Here we shall use the Lagrangian approach rather than the vectorial approach. 615.tI _ mgo{~ + O(2) ___________ I _________ _ 2 aw 2 9 Fig. The gravitational plus centrifugal potential energy for the case where m2 > g/a. A simple pendulum with a moving support. it is apparent that the constr~. h~~~~ the system is not conservative. . the total velocity is equal to the velocity of 0 plus the velocity x = A sin wf tro~ (0) (b) Fig.g const!aillt. Nevertheless. 614.
SEC.
67
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
267
of mass m relative to
o. Using the cosine law, we see from Fig. 615(b) that
v2
== x 2 + 12{)2 + 21x{) cos 8
(6106)
Evaluating x from Eq. (6105), we find that 1 m . . T ==  mv 2 ==  (A 2ro 2 cos 2 rot + 12f)2 + 2Alro8 cos (j cos rot)
2
2
The potential energy is
v == mgl cos 8
where the support point is taken as the reference. Noting again that L == T  V, we see that
(6107)
:it (~~) = ml
2
{) 
mAl ro 2 cos 0 sin rot  mAl roO sin 0 cos rot
~ = mAlroO sin 0 cos rot  mgl sin 0
Therefore, using Eq. (678), we find that the equation of motion is ml2t}  mAlm 2cos (j sin rot + mgl sin (j == 0 (6108) in agreement with the result of Example 412. A third method of solving this problem is by a direct application of Newton's law of motion. The difficulty of this method depends upon the precise approach; in general, however, the method requires more computation or more insight than the Lagrangian approach. Taking vertical and horizontal forces and accelerations necessitates solving for the force in the supporting wire. On the other hand, if we consider force and acceleration components normal to the wire at any instant, an application of NewtoJ?'s law results in or
\
m(lt)
+i
cos (j) == mg sin (j
mit)  mAm 2cos () sin mt == mg sin 8
which is equivalent to Eq. (6108).
67~.
LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS
In the derivation of Lagrange's equations of motion in Sec. 66 we found that, even for a conservative system, there must be no more generalized coordinates used in the analysis than there are degrees of freedom if we are to be able to write the equations of motion in the standard form of Eq. (678). Otherwise, generalized force terms representing the constraint forces must appear in the equations. Also, we saw that the nonintegr~ble nature of the equations of constraint in the case of nonholonomic systems
268
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
CHAP.
6
makes it necessary to have more coordinates' than degrees of freedom. Therefore it follows that we must include the constraint forces due to nonholonomic constraints when we write the eguations of motion for these systems. In this section, we introduce the method of Lagrange multi piers to allow us to solve for the constraint forces. This method will be found to be applicable to holonomic as well as nonholonomic constraints. Recall from Eq. (65) that the general nonholonomic constraint equations are of the form
~
i=l
J I I
I i
I
i
)
. I
\'
n
aji dqi
+ ajl dt == 0
(j
== 1, 2, . . . , m)
whereas we found in Eq. (63) that holonomic constraints are written in the form (j
== 1, 2, . . . , m)
Note, however, that a holonomic constraint equation can also be written in the differential form of Eq. (65). This can be seen by writing the total differential of <Ph namely,
d~ == 0<pj dql +
'/:')
0
oq 1
and noting that if we let
aOi
)
== Bpj and
Oqi
(6109)
,I
I
I
I
I
\
then the form is identic,al to Eq. (65). In general, however, the holonomic constraints would not be written in this form unless one desires to solve for the constraint forces. To illustrate the method of Lagrange multipliers, consider a system with frictionless constraints which may be either holonomic or nonholonomic. At any instant of time, the variations of the individual generalized coordinates in a virtual displacement must' meet the conditions
~
i=l
I
1
, I
I
I
n
aji Oqi == 0
(j
== 1, 2, . . . , m)
(6110)
is zero in a virtual disin accordance with Eq. (65), where we recall that placement. In other words, the virtual displacement is consistent with the instantaneous constraints of the systenl. We have assumed that the constraints are frictionless; therefore no work is done by the constraint forces in any virtual displacement permitted by Eq. (6110). So if we let Ci be the generalized constraintforce corresponding to qi, then (6111) for any set of oq's satisfying Eq. (6110).
ot
\ I
SEC.
67
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
269
Now let us multiply Eq. (6110) by a factor Aj known as a Lagrange multiplier, obtaining
Aj
£=1
L
n
aji
Oqi == 0
(j
==
1, 2, ... , m)
(6112)
where we note that a separate equation is written for each of the 112 constraints. Next we subtract the sum of the m equations of the form of Eq. (6112) from Eq. (6111) and, interchanging the order of summation, we obtain (6113) So far the values of the A'S have been considered to be arbitrary, and the Sq's have been restricted in accordance with the constraints of Eq. (6110). But if we choose the A'S such that each of the coefficients of the oq's are zero in Eq. (6113), then this equation will apply for any values of the oq's, that is, they can be chosen independently. As we shall see, the A'S can be chosen to accomplish this result. So now let us assume that the A'S have values such that
m
Ci == ~
j=1
Ajaji
(6114)
and, as a result, the q's are considered to be independent. Then, writing Lagrange's equations in the general form of Eq. (679), we obtain
 .   == dt Oqi Oqi
d (OL) oL
~ ~jaji
j=1
m
(i
==
1, 2, ... , n)
(6115)
where, from Eq. (6114), we see that the righthand side is just the constraint force Ct. What has been accomplished by this procedure is the representation of the constraints in terms of the corresponding constraint forces acting on a system of n independent coordinates. At this point,we have n equations of motion but (n + m) unknowns, namely, the n q's and the m A's. The required m additional equations are obtained by writing Eq. (65) in the form
n
i=1
~
ajiqt
+ ajt
== 0
(j
==
1, 2, . . . , m)
(6116)
Using Eqs. (6115) and (6116), a solution for the A's as well as the q's can be obtained. The constraint forces vary with time, even for the case of fixed constraints, and therefore the A'S will, in general, be functions of time also. Hence, considering Eqs. (6115) and (6116) together, we have replaced a system having (n  m) unknowns by one with (n + m) unknowns, considering the A's as additional variables. This may not seem like progress, but quite often this procedure results in simpler equations. Also, the symmetry of the problem is preserved, since there are no preferred cpordinates while others
270
t
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
CHAP.
6
are eliminated. In addition, of course, one obtains the constraint forces in the process of obtaining the solution. .J The derivation given here has assumed frictionless constraints. In case the constraints also involve dissipative forces, such as sliding friction, t h e n ! these generalized forces are written as separate terms involving the C i and possibly other variables of the system.
Example 68. Mass m2 slides relative to ml which, in turn, slides relative to a horizontal surface, Fig. 616(a). Assuming first that all surfaces are frictionless, write the differential equations of motion for the system and solve for Xl and the constraint force acting between the blocks. Then solve the problem for the case where Coulomb friction is present, again using the Lagrange multiplier method. The system under consideration is identical with that of Example 65. We are asked, however, to solve for the constraint force and therefore we include a new coordinate X3 which cannot vary freely without violating the constraint in question. First consider the case where J.L == O. In order to obtain the Lagrangian function L, we must write an expression for the total kinetic energy. Taking horizontal and vertical components of the velocity of m2, we obtain
(6117)
I
i I
where we note that potential energy is
X3
is considered at this point to be freely variable. The
~X1
~
c,
N
(0)
(b)
Fig. 6..16. The coordinates and forces used in the analysis of the sliding block problem.
,!
SEC.
67
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
271,.
m2g V == J2 ( X3

X2
)
(6118)
and therefore the Lagrangian function is
L
1 . 1 == 2 (ml + m 2) Xl2 + 2m2 [X·22 +
X3 
0
2
V
(2" (x 2 +
0
X3 XI
0
)
•
]
(6119)
Next we evaluate some of the terms which will be needed in writing the equations of motion.
t,
dt dt
d(0 L) == (m
oX
I
l
+
.0
m2
).
Xl ••
m •• V2 (.. + X3 ) , X2
2
d(OL) == m x d (OL) " dt == m x
OX
2
2 2 
V2" X}, V2" X],
m2
••
m2
OX
.0
OX
2
3 
3
oL == ,y'2m g oL ==  ,y'2m g
2
2
2
OX
3
The equation of constraint, written in the form of Eq. (6116), is (6120) and therefore
all == 0
a 12 == 0 a 13 == 1
Note that this constraint is actually holonomic even though we are using the differential form of the constraint equation. Since there is only one equation of constraint, only one Lagrange multiplier is needed and we omit the subscript. From Eq. (6114), we see that the constraint forces can be written in terms of this Lagrange multiplier as follows:
CI C2
C3
== 0 == 0 == '"
(6121)
where the positive directions of the generalized constraint forces are shown in Fig. 616(b). The differential equations of motion are written in the form of Eqo (6115).
(ml
+
m 2) Xl
o.
~V2" X 2
m2
••

~2 X3 ==
m2
••
0
(6122)
272
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
CHAP.
6
Noting from Eq. (6120) that
xa = 0, we can solve for XI
.. _ xI ='"""
and A., obtaining
m2g 2ml + m 2
.
and
A.= Ca =
~ m l m2g
2ml
+
m2
which agrees with the results of Example 65 for the case where J.L is zero. N ow consider the case in which Coulomb friction exists between the two blocks. We need to include the generalized forces due to friction, so let us write Lagrange's equations in the form
(i
=
1, 2, ... , n)
(6123)
where the F i friction force Furthermore, force Ca and we find that
are generalized friction forces. In this case, we see that the does work only in the case where m 2 slides relative to mI' this friction force is equal to the product of J.L and the normal opposes the relative motion. So if we assume that x2 > 0,
FI = 0
F2
= J.LC a = J.LA.
(6124)
Fa = 0 Using Eq. (6123), we obtain the differential equations of motion:
(ml .. m2 ,y' 2m 2 •• ,y'2 Xa
0
+ m2 ) Xl
••

X2 
=
(6125)

~XI
m2 ..
+
.. m 2g m2 x 3 + ,v2
=
"'\
/\J
Again we set
xa = 0 and solve for Xl,
.. _
Xl 
obtaining
m2g(1  J.L) 2ml + m2(1  J.L)
in agreement with the previous result of Example 65. Note that we have assumed that Eq. (6114) applies, even for the case of constraints with friction. With this assumption, the total generalized constraint force corresponding to qi is t~e sum of Ci and Fi rather than Ci alone.
Example 69. Two wheels are connected by a straight axle of length I. They roll without slipping on the horizontal xy plane. Assume that the total mass is concentrated in two particles of mass m each, which are located at
SEC.
67
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
273,
I·
the hub of each wheel, as shown in z Fig. 617. The coordinates (x, y) give the location of the center of mass; the angle cp, measured from a line parallel to the y axis, gives the orientation of the axle. Write the ~y equations of motion for this system and solve for the path followed by the center of mass. Initially, the center of mass is at the origin and moving with velocity Vo in the direction of the positive x axis. Also, ¢(O) == co and 4>(0) == O. x This is a conservative system with a nonholonomic constraint. Fig. 617. Two wheels, connected by The wheels roll without slipping and a common axle and rolling on the therefore the center of Inass must horizontal xy plane. move in a direction perpendicular to the axle. Considering a differential displacement ds along the path followed by the center of mass, we note that the x and y components of ds are
dx == cos 4> ds dy == sin 4> ds
and therefore we obtain sin cp dx  cos 4> dy == 0 which is the differential equation of constraint. If we write the constraint equation in terms of velocities using the form of Eq. (6116), the result is sin cp icos 4> y == 0
(6126)
The center of mass of the system cannot change its vertical position and therefore the potential energy is constant. Let V == O. The total kinetic energy is found by adding the portion due to the motion of the center of mass and that due to the motion relative to the center of mass. Hence we find that the Lagrangian function is (6127) L == T == m(i 2 +' y2) + im12¢2 Using Lagrange's equations in the form of Eq. (6115), we obtain the following differential equations of motion:
== A, sin 4> 2my ==  A, cos 4> !mI2¢ == 0
2mx
.(6128) (6129) (6130)
Equation (6130) can be integrated to give the angular velocity
274
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
CHAP.
6
(6131) where the constant of integration is obtained from the initial conditions. Another integration yields
cp
;
.
= rot
A.
(6132)
since cp(O) = O. Now we substitute this expression for cp into Eqs. (6128) and (6129) and obtain
x
..
I
i
I
=  SIn rot 2m
A
Y =  2m cos rot
..
I
I ,
I
I
i
From these expressions and Eq. (6126) we fiRd that A is constant; hence
. x
=
A 2 cos rot mro
+ +
A1
B
1
(6133) (6134)
. A. Y =  2 SIn rot mro
where A 1 and Blare constants. Since y(O) = 0, we see immediately that B 1 = o. Also, x(O) = v o, and therefore
Al
A = Vo +2mro
(6135)
,\
confirming that the Lagrange multiplier A is constant. We have noted that the system is conservative and the potential energy is constant. It follows that the kinetic energy is constant and, in fact, the translational kinetic energy must also be constant since 4> was found to be constant in Eq. (6131). So we can write
I
..\
I
I
x2+ y2 = V5
Substituting the values of x and
y from
Eqs. (6133) and (6134), we obtain
A)2  AAI cos rot ( 2. mro mro
+
A2 1
2 = Vo
All terms except the cosine term are evidently constant; therefore Al = 0 since it is clear that A cannot be zero because this would imply a uniform translational motion in the same direction. So we conclude from Eq. (6135) that
A
[
I
I
=
2mvoro
(6136)
Now we integrate Eqs. (6133) and (6134), noting that x(O) and thus we obtain the path of the center of mass:
x = Vo
= y(O) = 0,
(6137)
ro
• SIn
rot
PROBLEMS
I '
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
275
Y=
Vo
00
(1  cos oot)
(6138)
It can be seen from Eqs. (6137) and (6138) that (6139) indicating that the path is a circle of radius vo/OO with its center at x = 0, Y = vo/OO. That the path of the center of mass is circular could also have been seen directly from the fact that its velocity Vo changes direction at a constant angular rate 00. Hence the nonholonomic constraint force is a constant centripetal force, and from Eq. (6136), its magnitude is seen to be that of the Lagrange multiplier A..
REFERENCES
1. Banach, S., Mechanics, E. J. Scott, trans. Mathematical Monographs, vol. 24, Warsaw, 1951; distributed by Hafner Publishing Co., New York. 2. Corben, H. C., and P. Stehle, Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960. 3. Goldstein, H., Classical Mechanics. Reading, Mass.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1950. 4. Lanczos, C., The Variational Principles of Mechanics. Toronto: University of . Toronto Press, 1949. 5. Whittaker, E. T., A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, 4th ed. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1944.
PROBLEMS
64) A fixed smooth rod makes an angle of 30 degrees with the floor. A small ring of mass m can slide on the rod and supports a string which has one end connected to a point on the floor; the other end is attached to a particle of mass 3m. Using the principle of virtual work, solve for the angle '0/ between the two segments of the string at the static equilibrium position, assuming that the string and the rod lie in the same vertical plane
6@ A thin uniform rod of mass m
and length 2a rests in a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius a. Assuming that the bowl is fixed and its rim is
/
Fig. P61
276
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
CHAP.
6
.,
.'
horizontal, find the lengt~ of that portion of the rod which remains outside the bowl in the static equilibrium p o s i t i o n . ' , . 6/3.) One end of a thin uniform rod of mass m and length 31 rests against a smoo~ vertical wall. The other end is attached by a string of length I to a fixed point 0 which is located at a distance 21 from the wall. Assuming that the rod and
~21~~/
Fig. P63
e
the string remain in the same. vertical plane perpendicular to the wall, find the angle between the rod and the wall at the position of static equilibrium. 6f4:) A double pendulum consists of two massWss rods of length I and two particles of mass m which can move in a given vertical plane, as shown. Assuming frictionless joints, and using and cp as coordinates, obtain the differential equations of motion. What are the linearized equations for'small and cp? , 65. A particle of mass m is attached by a massless string of, length 1 to a point on the fT1 circumference of a horizontal wheel of radius a' which is rotating with a constant angular Fig. P64 velocity ro about a fixed vertical axis through its center. Write the differential equation of motion for the particle, using as a coordinate the angl~ between the string and a radial line from the center through the attachment point of the string to the wheel. Assume all motion is in the horizontal plane and  (7t /2) < 8 < (7t /2). 66. The support point 0' of a simple pendulum of length 1 and mass m moves with constant speed in a circular path of radius a centered at the fixed point O. Find the differential equation for 8, assuming that all motion is confined to the vertical plane and cp = rot. 67. A box of mass supports a simple pendulum of mass m and length I. A spring of stiffness k forms a horizontal massspring system with the box which can slide without friction on a fixed horizontal surface. Find the differential equations of motion of the system, taking x as the translational displacement of the box and eas the angle of the pendulum from the vertical. What are the linearized equations, assuming that x and are small ?
e
e
.
{
I
e
mo
e
For the case where m l == m2 = m. as shown." LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 277 m . the motion of m1 being confined to a fixed frictionless circular track of radius R. . x(O) == 0. yeO) == O.. P69 Particles m 1 and m 2 are constrained by frictionless constraints to move in the vertical xy plane such that m 1 remains on the horizontal x axis and m 2 remains on the vertical y axis. each of mass m. Particles m1 and m 2 . What is the period of the motion in B? 610. A massless circular disk of radius r has a particle of mass m embedded at a distance I from the center O. ~ . The initial conditions on m 1 are x(O) == I. P66 Fig. Fig. find the differential equations of motion. P67 68.. y +~x Fig. and the corresponding initial conditions on m 2 are yeO) == 0. write the differential equation of motion for the system. P68 Fig. Assuming that the disk can roll without slipping on a horizontal plane. These particles move on a frictionless horizontal plane... solve for the tension P in the string as a function of the angle B. are connected by a massless rod of length I. The particles are connected by a massless inextensible string of length I. Denoting the positions of the particles by the angles Band 4>.PROBLEMS \ ' !.
. write the differential equations of motion for the system. that is. P613 . reach the position r == O? 613. exclusive of the sliding particle. If the particle is released with the initial conditions reO) == ro. 6 Fig.jgro/2. y) as a function of time. find rmin. P610 the system of Fig. and 4>(0) == ~Given e friction in a tube which is rigidly attached at a constant angle == 60° to a vertical shaft which rotates at a· constant rate ro == . x(O) == 0. In addition.j2g/ro. The x axis remains horizontal and the y axis is inclined at a constant angle cp with the horizontal. Find the maximum value of If the initial conditions are 8(0) == 71:/2. the xy plane translates vertically such that the height of the x axis above a gi~en reference level is h == A sin rot. the rotation angle being cpo Assuming a moment of inertia 1== ma 2 for the tube.. j{O) == 0. 613. P612 Fig.LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. except that the circular tube can rotate freely about the fixed ve~tical axis. ~ A particle of mass m can slide without 2~. 0(0) == 0. What is the minimum magnitude and sign of the initial radial velocity reO) such that the particle will hit the shaft. e :1 Fig. A particle of mass m is constrained to move without friction in the xy plane. reO) == . If the particle has the initial conditions yeO) == Yo. solve for its position (x. x(O) == v o.
the tube everywhere makes an angle '1 with the horizontal. m .~~~~x 2. find the differential equations of motion. How would the motion of the system differ if the ~al of X(O) and y(O) were not zero? es . and 1>(0) == 1 rad/sec. max for the case in which a == 30° and the initial conditions are: r(O) = G. (b) Suppose the initial conditions are . Suppose the particle has a steady circular motion on the inside of the cone at r == G. The configuration is given by the cartesian coordinates (x. that is. (a) Using the spherical coordinates (r. as shown. Suppose a set of impulses $fj are applied simultaneously at the corresponding x j.(0) = 0. what are the angular acceleration of the helix and the vertical acceleration of the particle? ~ Three masses are connected by two rigid massless rods. Write the differential equation for small perturbations in r and solve for the circular frequency of this motion. 1>(0) == ( ~ . assuming that I'. What is the motion of the system 0 after a long time.. 6~A particle of n1ass m moves on the smooth inner surface of a fixed inverted circular cone having a vertex angle 2a. 8(0) == 3n:/4 . .18 6{j) . (a) Using the angle ~ about the vertical axis of symmetry and the distance r measured along the cone from the vertex as generalized coordinates. 2.PROBLEMS LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS 279 614. Show that the resulting change in the generalized momentum Pi is given by I \' 1 where the righthand side of the equation can be considered to be the generalized impulse associated with qi.y g/I. If the initial conditions are 8(0) == n: /2.. obtain the differential equations of motion. The system can slide on a smooth horizontal plane.y) of the center of mass of the system and the angles 8 and ~.~) to express the position of the particle. w~ich are hinged at point B. . A particle of mass m slides without friction in the tube. k. (b) Find . each of length I. Assume that the spring is unstressed when . 8(0) == 1 rad/sec.II ~ I and neglecting air friction? Fig. A small tube of mass mo is bent to form a vertical helix of radius ro and pitch angle '1. Consider a system whose configuration is given by the ordinary coordinates Xj where j' == 1. P6. y 19 A particle of mass m is supporte by a spring of stiffness k and a dashpot with a damping coefficient c connected in parallel to form a spherical pendulum. . Write the differential equations of motion for the case where the center of mass remains stationary. == I. 6@ Consider again the system of problem 615.. . If the helix rotates freely about its vertical axis but does not translate. find the minimum value of 8 in the ensuing motion.(0) == 0. 1>(0) = 4ygra. 8.(0) == I. where 8 is measured from the upward vertical. thO) == 0.
A castered wheel at C allows its motion in any direction consistent with the other constraints. x(O) == 0. The wheels at A and B revolve about a common axle AB and permit the motion of these two particles in 'a direction perpendicular to AB. solve for the angular velocity and the constraint force. y(O) == Vo. lie in a horizontal plane at the corners of an equilateral triangle. The particles are 'rigidly conriected by massless rods and the whole system can roll without slipping on a horizontal floor. each as a function of 8.Three particles. each of mass y m.y) to specify the location of the mass center. Using the cartesian coo~~~~x ordinates (x. 8(0) == 0. and letting 8 be the Fig. P620 angle between the x axis and the plane of the wheel at A or B.280 LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS CHAP. obtain the differential equations of motion using the Lagrange multiplier method~ Assuming the initial conditions x(O) == y(O) == 0. What is the nature of the final motion? @ I ( t· . 6 .
but the particles are otherwise free to move. we shall further extend the mathematical and kinematical background and then apply some of the principles of particle dynamics to the analysis of rigid body motion in a plane. but there are also three additional independent constraint equations specifying the lengths of the three additional rods required to attach the fourth particle rigidly to the original three. consider. In the limit. 61. So we find that this system has nine coordinates and three independent equations of constraint. a system of three unconstrained particles. we found that the number of degrees of freedom associated with a given mechanical system is equal to the number of coordinates used to describe its configuration minus the number of independent equations of constraint. its position can be specified by three additional coordinates. we have developed some of the kinematical tools and dynamical principles that are available for the solution of the problems of particle dynamics. J • 71. . It can be shown by similar reasoning that the rigid attachment of further particles does not change the number of degrees of freedom. giving the constant length of each of the three rods in terms of the coordinates of the particles. the system of parti281 f . making nine independent coordinates in all. as the number of particles becomes very large. Three independent equations of constraint can be written. In this chapter.7 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS OF RIGID BODY MOTION I I In the previous chapters. DEGREES OF FREEDOM OF A RIGID BODY In Sec. Three cartesian coordinates could be used to describe the position of each particle. So a system of four rigidly connected particles also has six degrees of freedom. Hence this system has nine degrees of freedom. As an example. Distributed masses have been avoided and the limited discussions of rigid body motion have been confined to kinematical aspects. Now suppose that the three particles are placed at the corners of a triangle whose sides are formed by three rigid rods. resulting in six degrees of freedom~ If a fourth particle is rigidly attached to this system.
these equations are seen to apply to rigid bodies. m9tion about ' ' the center of mass. three being considered as translational and three as rotational degrees of freedom. But let us recall that the number of degrees of freedom . The first was the translational equation of motion given by Eq. this group of three particles has six degrees of freedom.! ' 282 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHA:p. I . These motions correspond to changes in the orientation of the body and hence are described by the rotational equation of motion. For example. Furthermore. Since we can consider that the rigidity is obtained by massless rods connecting each pair of particles. opposite. and act along the line connecting the· particles. we observe that the center of mass moves as though the entire mass m of the rigid body were concentrated in a particle located at this point and all the external forces acted on this particle. position of the center of mass is fixed. In the discussion. including those in which the particles are in motion relative to each other. as does the rigid body of which they are a part. the only restriction being that the forces betw~en any two particles be equal. we chose the center of mass as the reference point or base point of the body and separated the total motion into' (1) " translational motion of the center of mass and (2) rotational. it can be seen that the location and orientation of the rigid body are completely specified by a knowledge of the location of any three noncollinear points in that rigid body. In the discussion of the dynamics of a system of particles in Chapter 4. I. and the constraint forces consist ' of axial forces in the rods. we derived two equations of particular importance. in general. It can be seen that the location of the center of mass can be given using three independent coordinates.:1 1 .Ience we conclude that a rigid body has. six degrees of freedom. The remaining three degrees of freedom are associated with the possible motions of the rigid body. Considering the translational equation of motion. assuming that the . As we have seen. We have found that a rigid body possesses a total of six degrees of freedom. The second equation was the rotational equation of motion given by Eq. 7 cles can be considered as a rigid body. (48): F = mrc (71). (449) or (457) which states that M = Ii (72) where the reference point for calculating the applied moment M and the angular momentum H is either (1) fixed in an inertial frame or (2) at the center of mass of the system. We saw that these equations apply to any system of particles. This equation states that the vector sum of the external forces acting on a system is equal to the total mass of the system times the absolute acceleration of the center of mass. Hence there are three translational degrees offreedonl. we might think of these points as the locations of any three of the particles that were used in forming the approximation.
Therefore we see from Eq. if an arbitrary reference point were chosen. where the scalar p is the mass density at that point. (464). 72 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 283 of a system is a kinematical property and does not depend upon the location of the center of mass. MOMENTS OF INERTIA . acceleration rp of the reference point and the translational equation would contain a term involving the angular acceleration. Now let us consider some aspects of the rotational motion of a rigid body. Now let us assume that the reference point is at the origin 0 of a cartesian coordinate system (Fig~' 71). is normally chosen as the reference point for dynamical reasons. considering a volume element at (x. Assuming that P is fixed in the body. however. Therefore any other point in the body c'ould equally well have been chosen as the reference point if kinematics alone governed the choice. z). (285) that Pi == aJ X Pi (74) where aJ is the absolute angular velocity of the body. (73) and (74) we obtain (75) For the case of a rigid body with a continuous mass distribution. whereas. Then. we can write . independent) translational and rotational motions.: as viewed by a nonrotating observer translating with P. Note that Pi is the velocity of mi . So let us calculate H for the particular case of a rigid body rotating about a reference point P. we let the particle mass mi be the mass p dV of a small volume element dV. we obtain the integral Hp = Lpp X (m X p)dV (76) where p is the position vector of the volume element dV. The center of mass. Summing over the whole volume of the rigid body for the limiting case of infinitesimal volume elements. 72.SEC. we see that the angular momentum relative to the point P is (73) where Pi is the position vector of a particle n1i relative to the reference point P and the summation is over all particles. y. Equations (71) and (72) which result from this choice allow for dynamically uncoupled (that is. The rotational equation of motion for a system of particles involves the rate of change of the angular momentum H. the magnitudes of all the Pi are constant. the rotational equation would contain a term involving the . Hence from Eqs. Referring to Eq.
= (zro y  y z yroz)i  + (xro z  zrox)j + 1 y (yro x xro y ) k k In a similar fashion. the angular velocity of the body in terms of its cartesian components is Cd = ro~J + royj + rozk (78) JII:+y In order to evaluate m X p we use the determinant form of the cross product and obtain i j k x Fig. we find that i p X (m X p) = (zro y x  z (yro x  yro z) (xro z . (76) and (79). we obtain p X (m X p) = [(y2 + Z2)ro x . we can write the angular momentum in the form .71. expanding the determinant and collecting terms.zro x ) xro y ) and.zyro y + (X2 + y2)ro z]k y  (79) Let us define the moments of inertia as follows:' Ixx = = = fVp(y2 f V p(X2 f V p(X2 + z2)dV + Z2) dV + y2) dV (710) Iyy I zz Also. 7 z p = xi + yj + zk (77) Also.xyro xZroz]i + [.zXro x .yz~z]j + [.284 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. A typical volume element in a rotating rigid body.. let us define the products of inertia to be Ixy Ixz Iyz = = Iyx Izx Izy = fvpxydV fvpxZdV fvpyzdV (711) = = = Using these definitions and Eqs.yxro x + (X2 + Z2)ro y .
namely. . the expression for H given in Eq . 72 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 285 H = (Ixx(i)x + Ixy(i)y + Ixz(i)z)i + (Iyx(i)x + Iyy(i)y + Iyz(i)z)j + (Izx(i)x + Izy(i)y + Izz(i)z)k (712) or (713) where Hx Hy Hz = Ixx(i)x + = lyx(i)x + = Izx(j)x + Ixz(i)z Iyy(i)y + Iyz(j)z + Izy(j)y + Izz(j)z Ixy(i)y (714) These equations may be written more compactly using summation notation.SEC. (717) .. such 'as Eq. The angular momentum is (715) " . .It can be seen that each expression for the moment of inertia given in Eq. Notice that minus signs have been used in the definitions of the products of inertia given in Eq. applies to this case. The subscript p has been dropped from the H vector for convenience. j. (712) is valid. and k in this case of a cartesian system. i.and the corresponding components are given by Hi = }: j Iij(j)j (716) J •• '\ . each multiplied by the square of its distance from the x axis. (470) which was derived for a general system of particles. the rotational equation of motion has the form of Eq. For example.! I 'where the ei are an orthogonal set of unit vectors. . where m is the total mass of the rigid body. (72). but it is assumed in all cases that the reference point remains at the origin of the xyz system. (710) is just the second moment of the mass distribution with respect to a cartesian axis. Ixx is the integral or summation of the mass elements p dV. regardless of its location. (712) or (716) could be written with positive signs. Thus we can define the radius of gyration corresponding to In by _ kj ~ m JJ . But.t.. (711).~ . This convention was chosen so that equations . and thus . The effective (or rootmeansquare) value of this distance for a certain body is known as its radius of gyration with respect to the given axis. In the general case of an arbitrary reference point. . This reference point is usually chosen to be either fixed in space or at the center of mass in order that the rotational equation will be of the simple form of Eq.
in general. making a total of six parameters whose values specify the inertial properties of a rigid body with regard to its rotational motion.. uniform rod of mass m. Hence. We recall that (f) is the absolute angular velocity of the rigid body. which is needed to solve for the translational motion. A thin. Example 71. 72. Hence the moments and products of inertia. If the rod makes an angle a with the positive x axis. A thin rod which is rotating about the y axis. as well as (i)x. (i)y. No assumptions have been made concerning the rotational motion of this coordinate system. we shall show how matrix notation can be used to specify the inertial properties of a rigid body in rotational motion. (710) and (7'11) that there are three moments of inertia and three independent products of inertia. (i)y. we can write an expression for an infinitesimal mass element in the form ) I Also. (710) can be evaluated to give . 72. solve for the moments and products of inertia with respect to this cartesian system. we often choose an xyz system that is fixed in the rigid body and rotates with it. the integrals of Eq. as shown in Fig. Such a coordinate system is known as a bodyaxis system and will be discussed further in Chapter 8 when we study the Euler equations of motion and the general rotational equations. and (i)z are the instantaneous projections of (f) onto the corresponding cartesian axes. In order to avoid the difficulties arising from timevarying moments and products of inertia. 73. length llies in the xy plane with its center at the origin. the mass. functions of time. ~_L. 7 We see from Eqs. and (i)z are. (712). we find that the origin 0 of the xyz system is located at the reference point for H. an arbitrary rotation about 0 can occur. I j z=o Fig. Solve for H for the case where the angular velocity is directed along the positive y axis. and in fact. ____ X x= Y a = 'rJ sin a 'rJ cos .286 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. Taking 'rJ as a position variable y along the rod. This is in contrast to the single inertial parameter. for points along the rod. If we review again the assumptions that have been made in deriving the expression for the angular mom_entum H given by Eq. and the components (i)x. In Sec.
as can be seen from Eq. the moment of inertia' about any perpendicular axis is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about the other two axes which lie in the plane of the body and pass through the same point. it turns out that the magnitude II is equal to the moment of inertia m[2/12 about a transverse axis through 0. then all products of inertia involving an axis perpendicular to the plane of symmetry are zero if the other two axes lie in the plane of . if a threedimensional body has a plane of symmetry such that the mass distribution on one side of the plane is a mirror image of th. In general. 72 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 287 I I I . First. I I \ \ 5 Ixx = T l/2 1J2 m l 2 / • S1n 2 a d1J = 2 ml 2 sin 2 a 12 2 Iyy I zz J ml = T l/2 1J2 COs a d1J = m J ml = T l/2 1J2 d1J = 12 m l 2 / l 2 / 2 COs 2 12 a (718) In a similar fashion. In fact. in which the origin 0 lies in the plane. and (719). At this point. is perpendicular to the rod. Also. (711).I SEC. we note first that w = wj Then. and makes an angle a with the direction of w. we obtain H = w(Ixyi \ = I I + Iyyj + Izyk) m/2~~os a (sin a i + cos aj) Thus H lies in the xy plane. I zz = Ixx + Iyy regardless of the value of the angle a. we notice that for plane bodies such as this. m Ixy = I I Jl l2 1J2 sin a cos a d1J l/2 = ml 2 sin a cos a 12 (719) Ixz = 0 I yz = 0 To solve for H. (718). This result occurs in this case because the axial component of (that is. those products of inertia involving a coordinate axis which is perpendicular to that plane are zero. from Eqs. (718). we might notice a few properties of the moments and products of inertia. the products of inertia are obtained from Eq. the component along the rod) is zero as aconsequence of the moment of inertia being zero about this axis. In this particular case. multiplied by the component of w perpendicular to the rod. (712).at on the other side.
288
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
CHAP.
7
symmetry. For example, if the xy plane is the plane of symmetry, then rJ;Z and I yz must be zero since, for every mass element at (x, y, z), there exists another at the image point (x, y,  z) whose contribution to these products of inertia is equal and opposite. Furthermore, if one of the coordinate axes is the symmetry axis of a body of revolution, then all products of inertia are zero. This follows from the fact that two of the three coordinate planes are planes of symmetry in this instance.
73. MATRIX NOTATION
In Sec. 11, we found that scalar and vector quantities can be considered as particular examples of tensors. In the context of this chapter, we might consider some properties of a rigid body moving in space. The mass m is a scalar. quantity or zeroorder tensor and is expressible as a single, real number. The angular momentum is a vector quantity or firstorder tensor which can be expressed in terms of its components H x, H y , and Hz; that is, a typical element has a single subscript and the complete set of components is often written as a row or column of numbers. When we consider the rotational inertia of a rigid body, we find that two sUbscripts are necessary to specify a typical element I ij • The moments and products of inertia are . conveniently written as a 3 x 3 array of numbers, the position in the array being determined by the subscripts. Furthermore, the properties of the moments and products of inertia under a coordinate transformation are such that they qualify as secondorder tensors. We shall consider coordinate transformations later in this chapter. It turns out that the equations of Newtonian mechanics do not involve tensors of higher than the second order; hence the principal parameters in the analysis can be expressed rather concisely using no more complicated notation than twodimensional arrays of numbers. This circumstance allows many of the equations involving coordinate transformations and rigidbody motion to be written conveniently using matrix notation.
Dejinitio!'. lJ/ a M~tr!~. A matrix is a set of numbers (real or complex) whichare arranged in rows and columns and which obey. certain rules of addition and multiplication. In our use of matrices in the study of dynamics, we shall confine ourselves to real matrices, that is, matrices with real numbers as elements, and the discussion of matrix algebra will be based on this assumption. A rectangular matrix of order m x n has m rows and n columns and is written in the form
SEC.
73
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
289
j
[a]
==
(720)
!
\
t
where we note that a typical element aij is located at the intersection of the ith row and the jth column. The actual matrix on the right can be represented in abbreviated form by the symbol [a]. A vector can be expressed as a row matrix or as a column matrix, that is, m == 1 or n == 1. For example, consider the angular momentum vector
H
== Hxi + Hyj + Hzk
Assuming that the directions of the unit vectors are known, the essential information concerning can be conveyed by writing the x, y, and z components in a systematic form. Representing H by a column matrix, we can write
{H} =
1I z:
(721)
In general, column matrices will be designated by braces { }, whether or not the individual elements are written out. On the other hand, another vector, such as the force F, might be represented by the matrix
(722)
where we adopt the halfbrackets l J to designate a r6w matrix. A matrix having an equal number of rows and columns iscalled a square matrix _ A typical example is the inertia matrix
(723)
giving the moments and products of inertia of a rigid body_ A diagonal matrix is a square matrix such that the elements aij == 0 for i * j and not all the au are zero. In other words, the only nonzero elements must lie along the principal diagonal which runs between the upper left and lower right corners. A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix in which au == a, that is, all elements along the principal diagonal are equal.
290
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
CHAP.
7
A unit matrix is a scalar matrix whose diagonal elements are equal to unity. For example, a 3 x 3 unit matrix is written' as follows:
, [1 0 0]
[IJ =
~ ~ ~
(724)
I
I
A null matrix or zero matrix is a matrix whose elements are 'all zero. It is designated by [0], {O}, and so on, depending upon the type 9f matrix involved. Equality of Matrices. Two matrices [a] and [b] are equal if aij = hij for all i andj, that is, if each element of [a] is equal to the corresponding element of [h]. Thus we see that the equality of two matrices requires that they be of the same order.
Transpose of a Matrix. The transpose of a matrix is formed by interchanging rows and columns and is designated by the superscript T. Thus if aij is an element of the matrix [a], then aji is placed at that location in i t s ' transpose [a ]T. For a 3 x 3 matrix we see that
all
[alT
=
[
a 21
a 31
au a22
a 32
a l3
all
T ]
a 23
a 33
==
[
a l2
a l3
(725)
A column or row matrix can be transposed in a similar n1anner. For example, using a column matrix for Cd, the transpose is
(726) It can be seen that the transpose of [alT is [a]. A symmetric matrix is a square matrix for which aij == aji, that is, [a] is symmetric if
[a] == [a]T
.(727)
A skewsymmetric matrix is a square matrix for which aij == aji' 'This requires that the elements au on the principal diagonal be zero. Addition and Subtraction of Matrices. The sum of two matrices [a] and [b] is found by adding corresponding elements. Thus,
[c] == [a]
+ [h]
(728) (729)
if for all i and j. Of course, this requires that [a] and [b] be of the same order. From Eq. (729), we see that
SEC.
73
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
291
(730) or
[b] = [c]  [a]
(731)
Hence the subtraction of matrices involves the subtraction of corresponding elements. It can be seen that the associative and commutative laws of addition which apply to the scalar elements must apply to matrices as well; that is, the grouping and the order of performing additions and subtractions is immaterial.
Multiplication of Matrices. First consider the multiplication of a matrix [b] by a scalar k. The result is a matrix
[a] = k[b] = [b]k
where
aij
= kb ij
Hence multiplication of a matrix by a scalar k results in multiplication of each of its elements by k. Note that multiplication by a scalar is commutative. The multiplication of two matrices is defined only when they are conformable, .that is, the number of columns in the first matrix is equal to the number of rows in the second. If the matrices [a] and [b] are of orders in X n and n x q, respectively, and if
Cij
= k=l aikbk,j ~
n
(732) (733)
then we define
[c]
= [a][b]
where [c] is of order m x q. As an example of matrix multiplication, suppose that .
Then
[c] = [a][b] = [(allb ll + a 12 b21 + a13 b31) (a ll b12 + a 12 b22 + a 13 b32 )] (a 21 b ll + a22 b21 + a23 b31) , (a 21 b12 + a22 b22 + a23 b 32) where we have placed each element of the product within parentheses for clarity. In this example, we say that [b] is premultiplied by [a] or that [a] is postmultiplied by [b]. It can be seen that matrices which are conformable for a given order of mUltiplication are not necessarily conformable when multiplied in the opposite order. In the foregoing example, the matrices would be conforma
I
292
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
CHAP.
7
ble when multiplied in the opposite order only if m == q. But even if· two given matrices are conformable when multiplied in either order, the product matrices are hot equal, in general. In other words, matrix multiplication is not commutative in the usual case. For those cases where [a][b] == [b][a], the matrices are said to commute or to be permutable. A unit matrix or, in fact, any scalar matrix commutes with an arbitrary square matrix of the same .order. For example, (734) [a][l] == [l][a]  [a] and (735) [a][O] == [O][a] == [0] Now let us consider continued products of matrices. It can be ')een that
(736)
I.
!
I
'I
since the summations may be performed in either order. Hence one can indicate these muJtiplications without specifying which is to be performed first. Similarly, for the product of more than, three matrices, the grouping is unimportant so long as the order is unchanged. Therefore matrix multiplication obeys the associative law. Of course, all pairs of adjacent matrices in a continued product must be conformable. The product .matrix will have as many rows as the first matrix and as many columns as the last. If [a] is a square matrix, the product of n identical matr~ces is indicated by [a]n. FrOIn the definition of matrix multiplication given in Eq. (732) and the fact that the scalar elements obey the distributive law of multiplication, we see that matrix multiplication is also distributive:
[a] [[b]
+ [c]] =
[a][b]
+
[a][c]
(737)
In summary, it can be seen that all the ordinary laws of algebra apply to matrices, except that matrix multiplication is not commutative. The physical meaning .of matrix multiplication can be seen in the case of two examples associated with rigidbody motion. First consider the product of a row matrix and a column matrix:
:~..
f
j
This prod~ct is a single number, that is, it is a scalar. Furthermore, it is equal to the scalar product of (I) and H.
I
j
1
H Note that the colu~n matrix must be 'premultiplied by the row matrix if a scalar is to result. The scalar product in this particular case tutrts out to be equal to twice the rotational kinetic energy, as we shall s~e in Sec. 74.
(IJ •
LmJ fH} ==
SEC.
73 .
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
293
As another example, consider the set of linear algebraic equations for the components of H, as given by Eq. (714). The matrix form of this set of equations is
{H} = [/] { (j) }
(738)
where the inertia matrix [I] is given by Eq. (723). Here \ve see that the inertia matrix consists of an orderly tabulation of the coefficients of the components of (f) in Eq. (714). Performing the indicated operations, we' find that a column matrix, when premultiplied by a square matrix, results in another column matrix. In other words, the multiplication by [I] transforms the vector (f) into another vector H which, in general, has a different magnitude and direction. The preceding result could also have been obtained by using vector notation and representing the moments and products of inertia in the form of an inertia dyadic and again treating the matrix multiplication as equivalent to the dot product. We shall not, however, use dyadic notation in our treatment of dynamics and the reader is referred to other sources for information on this subject. 1
Determinant of a Matrix. The determinant of a square matrix [a] is denoted by Ia I and is equal to a single number, namely, the value of the determinant formed from the elements of [a] in their given positions. Only square matrices have determinants, since a determinant always applies to a square array of numbers. Of course, all the usual rules for determinants are valid. In particular, the determinant of a matrix is equal to the determinant of its transpose. The minor Mij corresponding to the element Qij is defined to be the determinant obtained by omitting the ith row and the jth column of Ia \. The cofactor of aij is given by
Aij
=
(l)i+j Mij
(739)
A determinant can be expanded in terms of the elements of the ith row as follows:
(740)
If the cofactors are taken from any other row, however, then the result is zero.
~ aijA kj
j
=
0 (i =1= k)
(741)
Similarly, if one expands using the elements of the jth column, the result is
~ aijA ik '=
i
o {\ a I
ifj=l=k of' k
1 ]
=
(742)
lSee H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics (Reading, Mass.: AddisonWesley, Publishing Company, 1950), pp. 146ff.
294
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
CHAP.
7
Equations "(740), (741), and (742) can be' summarized by the matrix equation [a][A]T == [A]T[a] = Ia I[1] (743) where [A]T is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors and is known as the adjoint matrix of [a]. It can be seen that the right side of the equation is a scalar matrix whose nonzero terms are each equal to the determinant Ia I.
The Inverse Matrix. The inverse matrix of the square matrix [a] is denoted by [a]l and is defined such that
[a][a]l
(,
== [a]l [a] == [1]
(744)
That this definition is consistent can be shown by premultiplying or postmultiplying Eq. (743) by [a]l, and using Eq. (734), we obtain
[a]l [a] [A]T
== [A]T = Ia I[a]l
== [A]T
or, alternatively,
[A]T[a] [a]l
= 1a I [a]l
(745)
In either case, we find that the inverse matrix is given by
[a]l
=
[A]T
lal
Since a determinant can be evaluated only for a square array of numbers, we see that an inverse matrix exists only for the case of a square matrix. If the determinant Ia I is zero, then the matrix is singular and again no inverse exists. The solution of a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations is a problem of matrix inversion. For example, if
{x} == [a] {yJ
one can solve for {y} by premultiplying both sides of the equation by [a]l, with the result that [a]l {x}
== [a]l"[a] (y} == {y}
The requirement that the matrix be square in order that an inverse exist is essentially a requirement that there be as many equations as unknowns when solving a set of simultaneous algebraic equations. The requirement that [a] be nonsingular, that is,1 a I =1= 0, specifies the independence of the equations.
The Transpose and Inverse of a Product Matrix. It can be seen by 'expanding the product of two matrices that the transpose of the product is equal to the product of the transposed matrices taken in the reverse order; that is,
(746)
SEC"
74
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
295
A similar rule applies to inverse matrices; that is, the inverse of the product of two matrices is equal to the product of the inverse matrices taken in the reverse order. For example, suppose
[a][b] == [c]
Then, premultiplying by [a]1 and [b]1 and postmultiplying by [C]I, we see that But since
[a]I[a]
we find that or
==
[b]I[b]
==
[C][C]1 == [1]
(747) The results of Eqs. (746) and (747)' can be extended by induction to the product of more than two matrices. v / 74. KINETIC ENERGY In Sec. 42, we obtained an expression for the total kinetic energy of a system of n particles, namely,
1 2 T == 2 mvc 1 ~ + 2 2.=1 miPi .k.!.
"2
(748)
where Vc is the speed of the center of mass of the system and Pi is the velocity of the ith particle as viewed by a nonrotating observer at the center of mass. For the case of a rigid set of particles rotating with an angular velocity (I), we found in Eq. (74) that and hence
Pi == Pi • Pi == Pi • (J) X Pi Now the first term on the right in Eq. (748) is called the transiatiqnai kinetic energy and the remaining sum constitutes the rotational kinetic energy of this rigid system. So, noting from Eq. (130) that a cyclic permutation of the. vectors in a scalar triple product does not al_ter its value, we obtain the following expression for the rotational kinetic energy:
T,rot
"2
"',,
"
1 ~ "2 == 2 i=1 miPi k.!.
== 2
1 ~
k.!. (J) •
£=1
Pi .X mipi
.
(749)
For the case of a rigid body with a continuous mass distribution? the summation of Eq. (749) is replaced by an integral, resulting in
296
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
CHAP.
7
(750)
where p is the position vector of the volume· element dV relative to the center of mass and p is the density. We recall that Cd is not a function of position in a rigid body. Therefore from Eqs. (73) and (749) or from Eqs. (76) and (750), we find that
1 Trot = 2: Cd H
«I
(751)
where H is found with respect to the center of mass. If the rigid body rotates about a fixed point, H may be calculated with respect to this point, in which case Eq. (751) yields the total kinetic energy. Equation (751) can be written conveniently using matrix notation, for example,
Trot =
i
lcoj {H}
=
i
{COlT {H}
(752)
Another form is obtained by substituting for {H} from Eq. (738), obtaining
Trot =
or, writing the matrices in detail,
i {CO}T[l] {co}
(753)
Ixy Ixz] ({)x ) /yy /YZ COy I zy Izz ({)z where the origin of the xyz coordinate system is at the center of mass. Performing the matrix multiplications, we obtain
Trot
=
i
1
({)x)T [Ixx COy /YX ({)z Izx
1
T.rot
1[ 2 1[ 2 1[ 2 =""2 xx({)x + ""2 yy({)y + 2: zz({)z + I xy({)x({)y
(754)
or
(755)
It can be seen that if Cd has the same direction as one of the axes at a given moment, then the expression for Trot reduces to a single term. Hence we can write
(756)
where I is the moment of inertia about the instantaneous axis of rotation and co is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid body. ) /
SEC.
75
BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS
297
75. TRANSLATION OF COORDINATE AXES
The defining equations for the moments and products of inertia, as given by Eqs. (710) and (711), do not require that the origin of the cartesian coordinate system be taken at the center of mass. So let us calculate the moments and products of inertia for a given body with respect to a set of parallel axes that do not pass through the center of mass. Consider the body shown in Fig. 73. The center of mass is located at the origin 0' of the primed system and at the point (xc, Yc, zc) in the unprimed system. Let us take an infinitesimal volume element dV which is located at (x, y, z) in the unprimed system and at (x', y', z') in the primed system. These coordinates are related by the equations:
+ Xc y == y' + Yc z == z' + Zc
x == x'
(757)
The moment of inertia about the x axis can be written in terms of primed coordinates by using Eqs. (710) and (757).
z
Z'
~+~Y'
~~~~y
Fig. 73. A rigid body, showing the location of parallel coordinate axes and a typical volume element.
Xc f py' dV . ROTATION OF COORDINATE AXES Now consider the case shown in Fig. [xv =  f V p(x' + xc)(y' + yc) dV = Ix'11' . Since the origin of the primed coordinate system was chosen to be at the center of mass. The products of inertia are obtained in a similar manner. A similar procedure can be followed to obtain Iyy and Izz. + m(x~ Ixx Izz = Iz.z. using Eqs. . 74 where the origins of the primed and unprimed systems are at the same point 0 but none of the axes coincide.Yc f px' dV V V mxcyc ! Again we see from Eq. 7 Ixx = Iv p[(y' + YC)2 + (Z' + zcy]dV f V = Ix'x' + 2yc py' dV + 2zc f V pz' dV + m(y~ + z~) (758) where m is the total mass. This is the parallelaxis theorem. it can be seen that a translation of axes away from the center of mass always results in an increase in the moments of inertia.298 BASIC CONCEPTS AND. (760) and (762). The other products of inertia can be calculated in a similar manner and the results written as follows: lxy /xz ·Iyz i I = = Ix'y' Ix'z'  = Iy. (711) and (757). the results are summarized as follows: = Ix'x' + m(y~ Iyy = Iy.y. On the other hand. (759) that the two integrals on the right drop out. in general.z. KINEMATICS CHAP. we see that (759) and therefore the two integrals on the right side of Eq. + m(x~ + z~) + z~) + y~) (760) or. (7~58) are zero. (761) where d IS the distance between a given un primed axis and a parallel primed axis passing through the center of mass. 76. the products of inertia may increase or decrease. depending upon the particular case.  mxcyc mxc Zc myczc (762) From Eqs.
these nine cosines have different values. we obtain r == (Ix'xx + IXlyy + Ix. (765) and (766)./.zi' + + + /Y'zj' + I · ' + Iz'x k' Y'xJ Iy'yJ0' + IZ. its component in the direction of a given primed axis is just the cosine of the angle between positive portions of the two axes. that the primed and un primed == /x'xx + /x'y~ + /x'zz == /y'Xx + Iylyy + /Y'Zz == /z. where the I's are the cosines of the angles between the axes indicated by the subscripts. k == lx. using matrix notation.y k' Iz'zk' (764) Fig. From Eqs. Because each unit vector is of unit length and is directed along an unprimed axis. SEC.yy + IY'zz)j' (/z. Two cartesian coordinate systems with a common origin and an arbitrary orientation relative to each other.zz)i' + + r (Iy'xx + /y. They completely specify the relative orientation of the two coordinate systems and are known as direction cosines.x x + /z. 76 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 299 An arbitrary vector r drawn from o can be expressed in terms of the unprimed coordinates and unit vectors in the form r == xi + yj + zk (763) Now let us write expressions for each of these unit vectors in terms of their components in the primed system. In general. (763) and (764). Ix'yl0.x l 0. t I.yy + /z'zz (767) lXIZ] /ylZ lz'z !I x Y (768) z .yy + /z.zz)k' (765) But r can be expressed directly in terms of primed components as follows: == x'i' + y'j' + z'k' s~e (766) By comparing Eqs. we coordinates are related by x' y' z' or.xx + /z. Hence we can write · I == J == o Xl X Ix. 74.
resulting in a different vector rf. using Eq. we shall consider other applications of the rotation of coordinate systems. . system has been rotated relative to the unprimed system. where the primed. Equation (768) can be written using a more abbreviated notation as follows: . It is apparent that the rotational kinetic energy is independent of the coordinate system used in its calculation since the absolute angular velocity Q) is used in either case...'. (753) that . 1 Trot = 2" {ro}T[I] fro} and. that is.. (753) and (773). A rotating rigid body. Thus we can equate the expressions given in Eqs.·:··'···. 75. Trot ·11 = .. On the other hand. .. . provided that both matrices are evaluated in the same system.l {rof}T[If] {ro f} 2 (770) Now the vector Q) transforms in the same way as the vector r of Eq. 75 is rotating with an absolute angular velocity Q).. Hence we can write z fro'} = [I] fro} or.·'·······1· . 711. k~ ~. the same transformation equations could apply equally well to the case where the coordinate system is fixed and the vector r is rotated in the opposite direction. in terms of the primed quantities. for example.~ {rf} = [I] {r} (769) We have considered the {rf} matrix to consist of the components of the vector r in the primed system. we obtain from Eq.300 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. This approach will be discussed in Sec . We can calculate the rotational kinetic energy at any given time by using the [I] and {ro} matrices evaluated at that time. The common origin for the primed and unprimed systems is chosen at the center of mass. (771) {rof}T = {ro)T [/lT (772) Therefore. Thus the vector is considered to be fixed and the coordinate system is rotated. and (772) that Trot = i {ooY[lY[I'][l] {oo} (773) ~==:::~' y X' Y' X Fig. (771). .. (770). Either the primed or unprimed axes may be used. but for the present. (746). . we obtain from Eqs. Using the unprimed system.. (769). . Now let us suppose that the rigid body of Fig. 7 .
(778).y + + (ly'x Iz'y + lz. (778) and (779) to yield [I'] = [I] [I] [/]T (780) . (774) or (775) actually represents nine equations of nine terms each. from the definition of an inverse matrix. A typical equation might be written in the form: /Xy = Ix'x Ix'y/x'x' r I + Iy. we find that [I] = [I'] = [1] (776) since all products of inertia vanish because of the spherical symmetry of the mass distribution. post~ultiplying Eq. we see that [/][/]1 = [1] [/]T = [/]1 (778) So. The result is .SEC. that is. we obtain (779) Matrices having ~he property that the inverse matrix is equal to the transposed matrix are known as orthogonal matrices. Then. From Eqs. (777) by [/]1 and using Eq. 76 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 301 ~ {Ii) }T[I]{Ii)} = ~ {Ii)Y[l]T[I'][l] {Ii)} for any {ru}. we obtain (777) But. choosing the center as the common origin for the primed and unprimed coordinate systems. (744). [I] [I] [/]T = [I] [I]T[I'] [I] [1]T which can be simplified by using Eqs.x Iy'y) Iy'z' Iz'x Ix'Y) Ix'z' r . (774) to the special case of a homogeneous sphere having a unit moment of inertia about any axis through its center. we see that Eq. [I] = [/]T[/'] [I j (774) This is the transformation equation for the inertia matrix. given in Eq. Therefore. (774) by [I] and postmultiply by [1]T. Now let us pre multiply Eq. ! I I" where we note that each inertia matrix is symmetric. It can be written in summation notation as follows: I I (775) Since each of the indices can assume three different values. (774) and (776). It is interesting to apply Eq.x IY'yly'y' + Iz'x IZ'ylz'z' + (Ix'x Iy'y + Iy'x /x'Y) Ix'y' + (Ix'x /z. Ix'y' = ly'x" and so on. Thus the direction cosine matrix [I] is an orthogonal matrix.
For convenience.'302 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. (710) that the moments of inertia cannot be negative. An expansion of Eq. otherwise it is o. PRINCIPAL AXES Let us consider again the changes in the moments and products of inertia of a rigid body due to a rotation of coordinate axes. I I i 1 '\ 77. essentially. we see once again that there are 9 . the transformation being an arbitrary rotation about the common origin. is a symbol whose value is 1 if the subscripts are equal. . An example of an orthogonal transformation is the coordinate rotation of Eq. (781). of which six are independent. it is a theorem of matrix theory that the trace of any square matrix is invariant under an or~hogonal transformation. (777) results in nine equations. therefore the sum of the moments of inertia is invariant with respect to a coordinate system rotation. First we note from the definitions of the moments of inertia given in Eq.. the sum of the moments of inertia is just the sum of the elements on the principal diagonal of the inertia matrix and is known as the trace of that matrix. So the trace of the inertia matrix is unchanged by a coordinate rotation. although it need not be taken at the center of mass. Because there are nine direction cosines and six independent equations of constraint of the form of Eq. I I I Ixx + Iyy + Izz = 2 r2 fv pr2 dV (782) where the square of the distance from the origin 0 is given by = x 2 + y2 + Z2 (783) Now the distance r corresponding to any mass element p d V of the rigid body does not change with a rotation of axes . In terms of matrix notation.6 = 3 rotational degrees of freedom for a set of orthogonal coordinate axes or. 7 :/ Equations (774) and (780) constitute the matrix equations for calculating the moments and products of inertia when the coordinate system is changed from the primed to the unprimed system or vice versa. we assume that the origin 0 is fixed. ! or (781) where Oth known as the Kronecker delta.. for a rigid body since we can consider a set of axes to be embedded in any given rigid body. Furthermore. More generally. (774). =j If 1~] . These equations can be written compactly in the form ~ m' I Im'i lm'i if i = { 0 .
77 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 303 . Now consider again the more general expressions for the angular momentum components as given in Eq. if the instantaneous axis of rotation is a principal axis. and we see from Eq. then (j)y == (j)z == 0. Let us assume for the moment that such a set of principal axes has been found for a given rigid body. positive and negative products of inertia are equally likely. On the other hand. A 180degree rotation about the x axis. while lyz is unchanged. This occurs because the directions of the positive yand z axes are reversed. (714) that if the body is rotating about any axis through the fixed origin. Therefore an orientation can always be found for which a given product of inertia is zero. (714). If we consider a coordinate system which has a random orientation relative to the body. I' I I f \ \ . hence H is also parallel to the x axis. Furthermore. In particular. Then.SEC. (775) that the moments and products of inertia vary smoothly with changes in ?rientation of the coordinate system because the direction cosines vary smoothly. So. (784) that Hy == Hz == 0. It can be seen from Eq. Hx Hy Hz == + Ixyw y + Ixzw z == '/yx(j)x + Iyywy + Iyzw z == /Zx. '. In fact. the inertia matrix is diagonal. it is always possible to find an orientation of the coordinate system relative to a giVen rigid body such that all products of inertia are zero simultaneously. The three planes formed by the principal axes are called principal planes. for example.. as do the moments of inertia. A similar result applies for rotation about the other coordinate axes. if 0) is parallel to the x axis. a 90degree rotation about the x axis reverses the sign of lyz. For example. if 0) lies along one of the principal axes~ then H == leu (785) where I is the moment of inertia about the given principal axis. we see from Eq. Considering next the products of inertia. the components of the angular momentum are given by Hx == Ixxwx Hy == Iyyw y Hz == Izzw z (784) since all products of inertia are zero. and the corresponding moments of inertia are the principal moments of inertia. reverses the signs of Ixy and I xz .ro x + /Zy(j)y + Izz(j)z lxx(j)x . namely. that is. we see that a coordinate rotation can result in changes in the signs of the products of inertia. in general. then Hand eu are parallel. The three mutually orthogonal coordinate axes are known as principal axes in this case. taking the principal axes as coordinate axes. the products of inertia have no preferred sign.
/) /zz /XY (/yy . Now let us find specific means of calculating the principal moments of inertia and obtaining the directions of the corresponding principal axes. the moment of inertia about the instantaneous axis of rotation./) /zy (789) (Izz . Equating the right sides of Eqs. we obtain XY [ (lXX/yX /) /zz (lv: I) /zy I Hzl [/zz Hy == /YZ Hz /zz /zy /yy /zy /zz] /yz /zz I ! If}Zl If}y If}z (786) 1 ~::] (Izz . namely.I) I:: l If}z ==0 == 0 (788) We assume that 0) =1= 0. Hence. 7 J J If the angular velocity 0) is parallel to the x axis. we can state the following: If a rigid body is rotating about a given reference point 0. then the x axis is' a principal axis. (714) in the form ° But we have seen that if Hand 0) are parallel./) This determinant yields a cubic equation in /·known as the characteristic equation of the matrix. the angular momentum H about is parallel to the angular velocity 0) if. it can be shown from Eq. that .H and 0) are parallel. we can write Eq. and only if. zero. So we conclude that Hand 0) are parallel only if the rotation is about a principal axis. hence I is a principal moment of inertia. This axis is a principal axis in this case. then the body is rotating about a principal axis. (786) and (787) and noting that / == /[1]. if H is parallel to (I). .then it is clear that H cannot be parallel to 0) unless /yz and /zz are zero. therefore the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be zero. Similar arguments apply if Hand 0) are parallel to another coordinate axis. that is. (785) in matrix form. (775) that a certain rotation about the x axis is all that is required to eliminate the third product of inertia. In summary. Assuming.304 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. the rotation is about a principal axis with respect to 0. The three roots of this equation are the three principal moments of inertia. But if these two products of inertia are. obtaining (787) where / is a scalar. then. we can write Eq. Assuming an arbitrary orientation of the unprimed axes relative to a rotating rigid body. (/zx .
In any event. assuming at this point that ro x is not zero. hence it would be preferable to divide by roy or ro z. If one of the coordinate axes is also a principal axis. So let us arbitrarily omit the first equation and divide the other two by ro x. into Eq. ~~ . The solution in matrix form is as follows: (::) (::) 1 (Iyy . these choices make no difference in the result. . however. not their absolute magnitudes. together with . and hence also defermine the direction of the corresponding principal aXIS at the reference point O. Only two amplitude ratios of the components of (I) are required. that is. for example. 77 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 305 The principal directions corresponding to the three principal moments of inertia are found by substituting the three roots.SEC. is equal to zero. The result is . then it may turn out that ro x . if ro x. whichever is nonzero for the given principal axis.." These equations can be solved to give a set of amplitude ratios for each I. and ro z are each multiplied by the same number. The problem of finding the principal moments of inertia and the corresponding principal axes is an example of an eigenvalue problem.. For example.. the amplitude ratios could have been based upon roy or ro z rather than ro x • Also. there are three eigenvalues in this . for each principal moment of inertia..I . a division by ro x can lead to an erroneous result. and the corresponding {ro}. (792) is satisfied. For example. We seek values of the scalar parameter I. (788) is unchanged. determine the direcfiouof (I).1 (790) .. It can be seen that one can solve for only the ratios of the components of (I). another equation could have been omitted rather than the first. roy. (788). (788).Iyx (791) These ratios indicate the direction of the axis corresponding to the given principal moment of inertia. or eigenvectors.. (788) need to be used. if we arbitrarily set ro x == 1. hence only two of the three simultaneous equations given in Eq. (j)x. In the usual case. As we have seen. In this case. the final results should be checked against the complete set of equations given in (788). then the values of roy and ro z. Of course. . the validity of Eq. The usual statement of the problem is in the form [I] fro} .I{ro} == 0 (792) which is equivalent to' Eq. called eigenvalues. such that Eq.I) I yz . one at a time.
as they are sometimes called. =I= 0 and (799) The Ellipsoid of Inertia.~f rlhstance and three eigenvectors.\ The inertia matrix is symmetric. although their plane is defined. It can be shown that lU t and lU 2 are orthogonal and. the ellipsoid of inertia for a given body and reference point is essentially a plot of the moment of inertia of the body fOJ. (7100) This result shows the orthogonality of the eigenvectors and indicates that if all three principal moments of inertia are different. therefore that any two principal axes are perpendicular if they correspond to distinct roots. we see that 306 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. but the analysis will not be limited to three eigenvalues. (792). or modal colulflns. I I where {rot} and {ro2} are the corresponding eigenvectors. Therefore the left sides of Eqs. (795) by {rot}.principal axes are mutually orthogonal. we first take the transpose of both sides of Eq. The mathematical treatment will be similar. As we shall see. Designating the eigenvalues by It and 12 . In our study of vibration theory in Chapter 9. 7 I [I] {rod == It {rot} and (793) (794) .. Consider now two solutions to Eq. then the corresponding. A convenient method of representing the rotational inertia characteristics of a rigid body is by means of its ellipsoid of inertia. that is. Nevertheless. we shall consider another example of an eigenvalue problem. we obtain (798) We assume that the roots II and 12 are distinct. in vector notation. hence 12 . it is always possible to find a set of mutually orthogonal principal axes in this socalled degenerate case. obtaining {ro2}T[1]T == 12 {ro2}T (795) Now premultiply Eq. all possi . (794). If two principal moments of inertia are equal.II therefore or. [I] == [I]T. (797). then two of the principal axes no longer have definite directions. So if we subtract Eq. The result is {ro2}T[/] {rot} == It {ro2}T {rot} {ro2}T[/]T {rot} == 12 (ro2}T {rod (796) (797) . (796) from Eq. To do this. (793) by {(r)2}T and postmultiply Eq. corresponding to two distinct roots. (796) and (797) are equal.
(7102) we see that p has a magnitude 1 P == Jj. 76). . z).6. 77 ble axis orientations through the reference point.SEC. Then from Eqs. In order to see how the inertial characteristics are represented by an ellipsoid. Furthermore. Thus it can be seen that the ellipsoid 1. then we can express Eq.== korm 1 (7105) . Hence the length of a straight line drawn from the center 0 to a point on the surface of the ellipsoid of inertia is inversely proportional to the radius of gyration of the body about that line (Fig. An ellipsoid of inertia. 7.x x 2 + Iyyy2 + /zzZ2 + 2Ixyxy + 2Ixzxz + 2Iyz yz == 1 (7104) which is the equation of an ellipsoidal surface centered at 0 and known as the ellipsoid of inertia. (7101) and (7102). the size of the ellipsoid of inertia and its position relative to the rigid body x X are independent of the coordinate system used in its description. and m is the total mass. we see that {p}T[I] {p} == 1 (7103) If we consider p to be drawn from the origin 0 to a point (x.. Now let us define a vector p having the same direction as Q) such that p== ro. y.yrT I 1 aJ (7102) and let the column matrix {p} indicate the components of p in an xyz system fixed in the body.r.:::::I:""'"7"'r. (753) and (756). I where ko is the radius of gyration of the body about the given axis through the reference point 0.. I . we see that the kinetic energy is T == 1 {ro }T [I] {ro} == 1 I ro 2 2 2 (7101 ) where the scalar I is the moment of inertia about the instantaneous axis of rotation. This grap sions turns out to be in the form of an ellipsoidal surface. From Eq. From Eqs. (7103) in the form l.. So let Fig. consider a rigid body which is rotating about a fixed point O. for a given origin or reference point. but not upon y' the position of the body in space.Y of inertia is fixed in the body and rotates with it. It is clear that the radius of z gyration of a given rigid body depends upon the location of the axis relative to the body.
automobiles. we know from analytic geometry that the equation of the ellipsoid takes the following simple form: (7106) But this equation is of the same form as Eq. and a variety of other objects. Hence no detailed information concerning the shape of a body can be obtained from a knowledge of its ellipsoid of inertia. If two rigid bodies have equal masses and identical ellipsoids of inertia about their mass centers. Of course. From the parallelaxis theorem. ships. In this coordinate system. This case includes all plane bodies and also is approximately true for aircraft. it is possible for two bodies which are quite different in shape to have the same mass and principal moments of inertia. a homogeneous cube of edge length a and a homogeneous sphere of radius rare equimomental if they have equal masses and if a == v'2A r. s wrl equation for the inertia ellipsoid of Eq. but it is usually neither a minimum nor a maximum value and corresponds to a socalled saddle point. that is.CHAP. the mass distribution on one side of the plane of symmetry is the mirror image of that on the other. First take the case of symmetry about a plane. we see that the minimum moment of inertia about the center of mass is also the smallest possible moment of inertia for the given body with respect to any reference point. 7 . ~he third principal moment of inertia also corresponds to a stationary value. then they are equimomental or dynamically equi= valent. Therefore Ib 12 . indicating stationary values of the corresponding moments of inertia. From Eq. 76 whose axes are assumed to be the principal axes of the ellipsoid. (7104) in terms of the primed coordinate system of Fig. and 13 are the principal moments of inertia of the rigid bociy and. Eq. (7105) we see that the lengths of the principal semiaxes of the ellipsoid of inertia are (7107) P3 ==~ We note that the principal axes are normal to the ellipsoid of inertia at their point of intersection. (7104) for the case where the xyz axes are the principal axes of the rigid body and all products of inertia vanish. they will show the same translational and rotational response to the same applied forces. It 'can be seen that the ellipsoid of inertia at 0 must have the same plane of sym1 PI == ~/I' 'I I I 1 . furthermore. Suppose we consider next the important case in which the rigid body has a symmetrical distribution of mass and we are interested in the moments and products of inertia with respect to an origin located at the center of mass. that is. the principal axes of the body coincide with those of the ellipsoid of inertia. For example. Two of the principal moments of inertia correspond to the largest and smallest of all possible moments of inertia of the body relative to the given reference point. (761).
as are the corresponding moments of inertia. metry as the body. Examples are a homogeneous cube or sphere. ' Finally. and therefore this is also a principal plane containing two of the principal axes. ls'li~~ ~!~: SEC. the corresponding rigid body need not be. All that is required is that two of the principal moments of inertia be equal.• . we note that a spherical ellipsoid of inertia does not imply three planes of symmetry. be perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. Therefore. This situation occurs for bodies with threefold.. Example 72. Furthermore. . Hence the third principal axis is perpendicular to the plane of symmetry.. regardless of the orientation of the x and y axes in the symmetry plane. Using reasoning similar to that of the foregoing paragraph.. if the body has three orthogonal planes of symmetry. 77 BASIC CONCEPTS'.will always change its appearance in space unless the inertia ellipsoid is a figure of revolution and the given principal axis is its axis of symmetry. two principal axes at the center of mass must each be perpendicular to a plane of symmetry.". For example. Of course. Next let us consider the case in which there are two orthogonal planes of symn1etry. It is important to note that. however. Using the reasoning given previously. This can be seen from the fact that a rotation o < Icp I < 7t of the inertia ellipsoid about a principal axis. or higher symmetry. three particles of equal mass rigidly connected at the corners of an equilateral triangle constitute a rigid body whose ellipsoid of inertia is axially symmetric. i ' ' I. Compare this . Typical examples are a threebladed propeller and a right prism of uniform density whose cross section is a regular polygon. two of the semiaxes of the ellipsoid of inertia are equal in this instance. a homogeneous regular tetrahedron has a spherical inertia : ellipsoid about its mass center. and if 0 < I<P I < 7t. If we let the z axis. but the third is the axis of symmetry. fourfold. even if the inertia ellipsoid is a figure of revolution. Thus we find that the directions of the principal axes can be determined by inspection. then the ellipsoid of inertia at the center of mass is a sphere and any axis through the center is a principal axis. Any two orthogonal planes which intersect along the axis of sYlnmetry can serve as symmetry planes. We find that the inertia ellipsoid is an ellipsoid of revolution whose symmetry axis coincides with that of the body. hence the third must lie along their line of intersection. For example. An interesting special case occurs when we consider a body of revolution. if a certain rotation 1> of a body about some axis through the mass center results in no change in the mass distribution in space. two of the principal axes are not uniquely defined..'. ~~~"~~1~ ~ 309 . Find the principal moments of inertia about the center of mass of a homogeneous cube' of mass m and edge length a. then that axis is a symmetry axis of the inertia ellipsoid and thus' a principal axis. ~\Nb KINEMATICS . for example.~!. then lxz and lyz are zero because of symmetry considerations.
Therefore.due to the layer of thickness i da which has been added to the original cube. Evaluating this integral we obtain S 1xx z 15 = 6 pa (7108) We see that the total mass is m = pa 3 and also that lxx = lyy = lzz. 77 (a) A homogeneous cube and (b) a thin square plate with the origin ' o at the center of mass. It is . or da m = 6pa 2 2: = 3pa 2 da (7111) So if we now let lxx. or approximately a. of a thin cubical shell of mass m and edge length a whose walls are of uniform thickness. The change' in. it is clear that the additional moment of inertia dlxx must be . (7108). obtaining dl 5 dlxx = d~x da = "6 pa 4 da (7110) . the mass of the shell is six times the mass of one face. 7 result with the principal moments of inertia. (7111) to obtain I I Fig. z T a O~~+~y I . ) a/2 sa/2 sa/2 lxx = p(y2 + Z2) dx dy dz a/2 a/2 a/2 where p is the uniform density of the cube. (710). (710) by lxx and use Eq. and lzz designate the moments of inertia of the shell. So let us choose axes parallel to the edges. I~y x (0) Now suppose that the edge length of the cube increases slightly and the density p remains unchanged. . In this case the moment of inertia about the x axis is found from Eq. we replace dlxx in Eq... Iyy. 77(a). the moment of inertia lxx is found by differentiating Eq. as shown in Fig. We note that a homogeneous cube has three orthogonal planes of symmetry. AND KINEMATICS CHAP..L______ r a 4 (b) Since the total moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is simply the summation of the contributions of the individual mass elements. Also.. But this added material forms a cubical shell of edge length a + da. its ellipsoid of inertia at the center of mass is spherical. (7109) . i 1." 310 BASIC CONCEPT~. about the center. and all axes through the center of mass are principal axes. Therefore..
(710) for this case where all the mass is in the yz plane. What are the principal moments of inertia at the center of mass of a thin circular disk of mass m and radius r? Find a point P such that any axis through this point is a principal axis. Here we chose the center of mass and a closed shell resulted from an incremental change in edge length. this being the distance between the center of the cube and the center of the face. Hence we obtain [xx == ~ 6 [2 (ma 6 2 ) +' 4(ma 12 2 + ma 4 2 )] == 2 ma 18  2 in agreement with the earlier result of Eq. f . (7109) to calculate the moments of inertia of a thin square plate. It is interesting to use the results of Eq. (7112). (7113). such as that of Fig. Let us calculate the moment of inertia Izz by integrating the contributions of differential elements in the form of rings of radial thickness dr. we see that (7114) But Iyy == I zz and therefore (7115). The mass of a ring is proportional to its surface area. that is. we see that the perpendicular axis passing through the center of mass is a principal axis."6 ma 2 (7113) I I. If we imagine the particles of the cube to be squeezed together in a direction parallel to the x axis and toward the yz plane. Because of the axial symmetry of the circular disk. as shown in Fig. the process would have applied to three mutually orthogonal square plates touching the three farthest faces of the cube. The factor cause one sixth of the total mass is associated with each face. in the choice of a proper reference point. we find that . We can use these results to check the value of the moment of inertia which we obtained previously for a cubical shell. Care should be taken. 78. there will be no change in their distances from the x axis. 77(b). in the limiting case of a thin square plate of mass m. If a corner had been chosen as the reference point. Therefore. whereas the' moments of inertia of the other four faces are obtained from Eq. (7115) with an axis translation of a/2.1 I xx .I 1 SEC. ! arises be " Example 73. however. The moments of inertia of the faces parallel to the yz plane are obtained from Eq. '77 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 311 (7112) The method of differentiation which we have used in this example is quite often convenient in obtaining the moments of inertia of shells. I Setting x == 0 in Eq.
7· z "dm == 27trm dr 7ta 2 Therefore. A thin circular disk. as well as at P. Given a rigid body with the inertia matrix . hence it must lie in the disk or be perpendicular to it. Example 74. Not all bodies have spherical points. two of the principal moments of inertia at the center of mass must be equal to each other and also be less than. In general. to have a spherical point. thus a certain translation of the origin from 0 to P will increase these smaller moments of inertia such that all three are equal. If the point P meets these conditions. So we assume that OP is a principal axis at 0. 2 a then the moment of inertia about any axis through P is ma 2/2. (761). x Fig. the remaining principal moment of inertia. Referring to the parallelaxis theorem of Eq. 78. if a body rotates about a given line through the center of mass and if (J) and H are parallel for one reference point on the line. or equal to.312 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. (7117) ) Now we come to the problem of finding a point P such that any axis through that point is a principal axis. So in this case. As we found in Example 72. lzz == a f o r2 dm == 2m fa r3 dr a 2 0 ~~~~y 1 == ma 2 2 (7116) . In fact. we find that if OP ==. since H is the same for all such reference points. Note that P can be on either side of the disk" but must lie on the z axis. assuming a common reference ppint. a point P meeting these conditions is known as a spherical point because the corresponding inertia ellipsoid is spherical. That the latter is the actual case follows from the fact that lzz is greater than lxx or Iyy. then they will be parallel for any reference point on the line. then the line OP must be a principal axis at 0."the moment of inertia of a plane body about a perpendicular axis is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about orthogonal axes in the plane. This can be seen by noting that.
roy. as can be seen from either the first or the third equation. let us first write Eq. using either the first or third equation.1)(300 .the second equation t that roy = 0 unless I = 250 lb sec2 ft..I ( ~) Next consider the root 13 = 350 lb sec 2 ft.SEC.I) roy == 0 + (300 .1) .. and ro z are the components of w such that H and ware parallel. (788) in detail. (150 .. Of course.1)(]2 . Again roy = 0. we obtain (250 . roy == o.5 x 104 ) == 0 which yields the following principal moments of inertia: I} == 100 lb sec2 ft 12 == 250 lb sec2 ft 13 == 350 lb sec 2 ft In order to obtain the directions of the principal axes. we find that ro z/ ro x = i. · . At the outset. Thus.1) 0 (250 . it is apparent from . 77 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 313 [Il =[ l~O 2~O 100 0 100] o lb sec 2 ft 300 where the reference point is at the center of mass.1) _ o . .. Thus we see that the principal axis lies in the xz plane and makes an angle with the x axis equal to a 1 = tan ..1) 0 ..4501 == 0 + 3. using the numerical values of this example. Solve for the principal moments of inertia and find a coordinate transformation which diagonalizes the inertia matrix. but in this case roz/ro x = ~ 2. Expianding the determinant about the central row or column.I)ro x 100ro x  100roz = 0 (250 . First consider the root II = 100lb sec2 ft.104] or (250 .100 0 (300 . We obtain (150 . The characteristic equation of the inertia matrix can be written in determinant form by using Eq. (789).100 == 0 .. Also.I)ro z =0 where we recall that ro x .1)[(150 .
100oo x  10000z we had divided these equations by OO x and solved for OOz/OO x .vSO.314 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. The third principal axis. Using the primed coordinate system to indicate the principal axes. 79. 7 . =0 100oo x + 5000 z = 0 yielding OO x = oo z = O. (10. as shown in Fig. each of unit mass and located at (0. Performing the indicated matrix multiplications. 0. however. 0). yl J50 with the x axis. The primed axes have arbitrarily been labeled such that a righthanded system is formed and a minimum rotation is required relative to the unprimed system. and ( 10. we would have obtained incorrect results.v5().5).. It can be seen that the actual rotation is of magnitude a l = 26. we can calculate the principal directions from the ratios of the components of (I) just obtained. 0). It is interesting to note that in this case the first and third equations become x Fig. So t4e corresponding principal axis lies in the xz plane and makes an angle a 3 = tan. . we find that the direction cosine matrix is 2 ~5 0 1 . .6° and occurs about the y a'xis in a negative sense. let us suppose that the original inertia matrix was obtained for a system composed of four particles. 5). . 79. 0. lies along the y axis since the other two are in the xz plane. (0.l (2) _ _::1&~~___1111___ y. Noting that cos a l = 2/ ~. (780). In order to visualize the required rotation more clearly. we find that [If] = [I] [I] [/]T = [1]= 100 0 [ 0 250 0] 0 lb sec 2 ft 350 o 0 in agreement with principal moments of inertia obtained previously. A rigid body consisting of four equal particles. If.v5 1 0 0 1 2 0 ~'5~ We can obtain a check on the preceding results by calculating [If] using Eq. . corresponding to the root 12 = 250 lb sec 2 ft.
yl == Iy. require that the corresponding axis be a principal axis. 77 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 315 On the basis of the inertia matrix [I] and our previous discussions of inertia ellipsoids. / Z'z' == l ' 2 a xx SIn == ~ (Ixx  + I zz ) / zz + Ixz sin 2a Ix'z. that is.z. 2a tan == 21xz Izz Ixx X' (7121) Fig. Suppose the inertia matrix is of the form [I] == [ IXX 0 Izx o Iyy o result~ A positive rotation of axes through an angle a about the y axis direction cosine matrix in a [I] == [CO~ a ~ sin a 0 _ Si~ a ] cos a as can be seen from Fig.y. the initial value of Iyy turned out to be identical with the value of one of the principal moments of inertia. of course. namely. == Ixx cos 2 a == Iyy + Izz sin 2 a cos 2 a Ixz sin 2a . we can find Ix'x' and Iz'z' from Eq'. . . This follows from the fact that Ixy and I yz are zero. that the intermediate root was involved. 710. Note. == O. (7120) z + sin 2a Ixz cos 2a and. however. (780) yields the following results: Ix'x' Iy. Ix. N ow let us consider in more general terms the problem of finding the principal axes of a system with only one nonzero product of inertia. hence the ellipsoid of inertia is symmetric about the xz plane and the y axis is a principal axis. So the primed system becomes a set of principal axes if Ix'z. Knowing the rotation angle a. Performing the transformation [I'] == [I] [I] [/]T in accordance with Eq. 710. rather than the largest or smallest. we could have seen immediately that the y axis is a principal axis. in addition. == 0. Principal axes of rigid body with a plane of symmetry. Also. of itself. so the equality of moments of inertia did not. if a is chosen such that Ellipse of inertia ~fX .SEC. (7120) or from an equivalent pair of equations.
Considering only coordinate rotations about this axis.. SIn 2 a ) . 119.. (7121). i  7 I"""" = I". dI d _ a . + In 2" Iz: cos 2a I".. sec.2+ I zz cos 2 a + 21' a cos a . Yeh and J. Hence the corresponding values of a differ by 7t /2 radians.. (7124) . if we again assume that the xz plane is a plane of symmetry .a cos a. (7104) that the equation of the ellipse of inertia is (7123) N ow let a be the angle between the z 'axis and the radial vector p which terminates at (x. Two values of 2a which meet this condition differ by 7t radians. we differeqtiate Eq... I"z' i I.. (7121) and (7122) can be represented graphically using a diagram known as Mohr's circle. sin 2a Eqs. Then. which are also the extreme values of I.  I". sin 2a '(7122) . Thus. + 21xz ( 2 a cos 21xz Izz Ixx . we can think in terms of a twodimensional ellipse of inertia which is formed by the intersection of the inertia ellipsoid and the plane of symmetry.1 = In i I.316 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. 1960). 2" Iz: cos 2a + I".. For example. I .1 . H. (7123) becomes P where we recall from Eq. ..(/xx  I.1 . Principles of Mechanics of Solids and FluidsParticle and Rigidbody Mechanics (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company. I xx SIn 2 a . The values of the principal moments of inertia are obtained by substituting the two values . (7124) with respect to a and set the result equal to zero.we find by setting y = 0 in Eq. In this case.0  or tan 2a = in agreement with Eq. Inc. the axis which is perpendicular to the plane of symmetry is a principal axis. To obtain the principal moments of inertia. . we see that x = p sin a z = p cos a and therefore Eq. 2 We have seen that. Abrams. if one of the coordinate planes is also a plane of symmetry. then at least two of the three products of inertia are zero. (7105) that the moment of inertia about a given axis is equal to 1/p2. 2Cf..I xz SIn 1 I zz) SIn. z)... .. indicating tha1 the principal axes are orthogonal.~~ . I ..
We have seen that the position of a rigid body is determined if the positions are given for three noncollinear points which are fixed in the qody.I SEC. DISPLACEMENTS OF A RIGID BODY Euler's Theorem. For convenience let us choose point 0 and two other points. A and B must move on the same spherical surface. I I'. since the points are fixed in the body_ Now Fig. In Sec. I \ \ \ ! \ I I I L I. It can be shown'that if this body undergoes a displacement. 71. and no movenlent is possible without a change in orientation. Hence the body may be displaced from its initial position to its final position by a rotation about a single axis. 78 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 317 \ ·1 i \ of a into Eq. no matter how complex it is outwardly. (7122). the rotational degrees of freedom are associated with changes in orientation of the body. 711. which are at equal distances from O. Let the final positions of A and B be A' and B'. A and B. we saw that a rigid body has six degrees of freedom. as shown in Fig. consider a rigid body with a fixed point O. Now let us consider' the possible displacements of a rigid body with a point flxed. A little trigonometric manipulation will show that this is equivalent to using the expressions of Eq. I 78. 711. the final positions of all points along one line through the fixed point will be the same as their original positions in space." As a proof of Euler's theorem. Graphical construction showing the displacement of points A and B on a sphere. This fact can be expressed as Euler's theorem: The most general displacement of a rigid body with one point fixed is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis through that point. the remaining degrees of freedom can be considered as rotational. the orientation of the body in space does not change and all points of the body move along parallel paths with equal velocities. The translational aspects of the motion can be specified by the motion of an arbitrary base point which is fixed in the body. On the other hand. (7124). Then the great circle arcs AB and A' B' are equal. Then for any displacement of the rigid body. respectively. For the case of pure translational motion. 1 ' . So if we fix the base point. three may be considered to be translational and three rotational.
This question can be decided by noting from Eqs. suppose that the cartesian components of. the points P and P' defi. Hence the angles APB and A' P B' are equal and it follows that the angles APA' and BPB' are also equal. Now we shall show that the same rotation about PP' will move B to B' and A to A'.ning the axis of rotation are located at the common intersections of C with the two great circles which include the arcs AB and A' B'. B'P. namely. a coordinate transformation from the primed to the doubleprimed system is of the form (7126) I t can be seen that 1 {r"} == [I] {r} (7127) (7128) . and P A are equal to A'B'. The latter possibility is ruled out. Thus the theorem is proved for the case where C l and C 2 intersect. BP. The great circle arcs PA and PA' are equal.BASIC CONCEPTS AND ·KINEMATICS CHAP. It is interesting to consider the effect of two successive rotations of coordinate axes. In this case. Now assume that C l and C 2 coincide. The spherical triangles ABP and A' B' P degenerate into two great circle arcs and it is apparent that the same angular displacement moves A to A' and B to B'. similarly. the arcs P Band P B' are equal. and the question arises whether their product [I] is also a rotation matrix. all points of which are equidistant from Band B'. For example. Therefore the spherical triangles ABP and A' B'P are either congruent or symmetrical. and PA'. Therefore a rotation about the axis PP' will move B to B'. a rotation about the same axis will move A to A'. . The direction cosine matrices [I}] and [12] each meet these conditions. 7 draw the great circle C1 which is the locus of points on the sphere which are equidistant from A and A'. In a similar fashion. C 1 and C 2 either intersect at opposite ends of a diameter or else they coincide. Also. forming a common great circle C. Let us assume first that C 1 and C 2 intersect at two points P and P' which lie at the ends of a diameter through o. (746) and (7128) that (7129) . We have seen that the great circle arcs AB. {r'} == [11] {r} (7125) Also. since it requires that C1 and C2 coincide. however.~ ! where Now the necessary conditions for a 3 x 3 transformation matrix to correspond to a real rotation are that it be orthogonal and have a determinant equal to + 1. draw the great circle C2 . a vector r in the primed and unprimed coordinate systems are related by an equation similar to Eq. respectively.318 . (769).
78 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 319 I . It is clear that CA and CA' are of . the determinant of the product of two square matrices is equal to the product of their determinants. it follows that the translational and rotational portions of the total displacement can be performed in either order. Hence (7130) Thus the transformation of Eq. As an example. If we allow translational motion also. 712. we have been concerned primarily with changes in the orientation of a rigid body. The translational portion of the displacement. Conversely. or even simultaneously. This is another statement of Euler's theorem. In studying the possible displacements of a rigid body with one point fixed. Hence we have Chasles' theorem: The most general displacement o. consider the plane displacement of the representative lamina shown in Fig. Nevertheless.' and the lamina undergoes a rotation <p.f a rigid body is equivalent to a translation of some point in the body plus a rotation about an axis through that point. In other words. 1 Therefore [l JT =: [I] 1 and thus [I] is orthogonal. It is apparent that the rotational portion of a general displacement is independent of the choice of the base point. it can be shown that a general plane displacement of a rigid body is equivalent to a single rotation about a fixed axis perpendicular to the plane of the displacement. the direction of the axis of rotation and the amplitude of the angular displacement are the same for all possible base points. (7127) corresponds to a single rotation about an axis through the common origin O.i I l I SEC. we can think of a general displacement of a rigid body as the superposition of (1) the translational displacement of an arbitrary base point fixed in the body plus (2) a rotational displacement about an axis through that base point. It is interesting to note from Euler's theorem that the most general displacement of a {igid body with a point fixed is equivalent to a plane displacement since a rotation about a fixed axis is a plane displacement. Since the translational displacement does not change the orientation of the body. Suppose that an arbitrary point A moves to A. \ l 1 \ I j. any number of successive rotations about axes through 0 can be reduced to a single rotation about an axis through O. By a repeated application of this result. will vary with the choice of the\base point because the rotation of the body results in a change of the relative positions of the various possible base points. however. Furthermore. and since the rotational displacement does not change the location of the base point. then in the general case there is no point in the body which does not undergo a change of position. The center of rotation C is a point fixed with respect to space and the lamina such that the lamina moves from its initial position to its final position while rotating through an angle ~ about that point. Chasles' Theorem.
then each point in the body follows a helical path. y'. z) in the unprimed system and at (x'. depending upon the choice of the base point. Hence it is the necessity for a component of translation parallel to the axis of rotation that distinguishes a general displacement from a plane displacement. however. The plane displacement of IS zero. Hence C must lie on the perpendicular bisector of AA'. that only one of these possible translations is parallel to the axis of rotation. placement of a rigid body is equivalent to a single rotation about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the displacement and passes through the center of rotation C. 76.y lzI z . This most general displacement of a rigid body is known as a screw displacement. Note. Z/) in the primed system. the center of rotation C moves to infinity along a line per~/C pendicular to A A I. 712. '~' 79. we found that the components of a vector r in the primed and unprimed coordinate systems are related by where the vector r begins at the origin and ends at (x. Now suppose that r lies along the axis about which the coordinate system must rotate in moving from the I Z XII y: = [lx/x ly'x lXly IXIZ] ly'Y ly'> II Y Z x IZI x lz. AXIS AND ANGLE OF ROTATION In Sec. depending I upon the displacement considered. we expressed a rotation of coordinate axes in terms of a direction cosine matrix [I]. y. \ I / In the limiting case of a plane translation. Its precise location is such that the angle between CA and CA'is cpo Note that the point C may lie inside I or outside the lamina. and the angle cp Fig. If we think of the translation and rotation as occurring simultaneously. It can be seen that both the translational and rotational portions of the motion are unique. a ·representative lamina in a rigid We have seen that a plane disbody. So we can consider a general displacement as the superposition of a plane displacement and a translation parallel to the axis of rotation. In particular. This is in contrast to the general case of Chasles' theorem which allows a given general displacement to be broken into a certain rotation and one of many possible translational displacements.320 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. 7 equal length.
y. or I I I Y Z r == r' x == lylx . Consider first the particular case where a rotation <I> occurs in a positive sense about the z axis. 713. Now comes the problem of finding the angle of rotation corresponding to a given direction cosine matrix. Noting that Eqs. (lyly . we obtain tr [<1>] == 1 + 2 cos <I> (7135) . and z components of r from Eq. th'l:t is. the corresponding axis of rotation can be obtained by solving for the ratios of the x.x This pair of equations can be solved for the ratios y/x and z/x unless x is zero. it can be seen from the figure that COS cP sin cP [CP] == [ .z . (7131) or (7132) with the general form of the eigenvalue problem given in Eq. (7132). (7132). one can solve for the ratio z/y from one of the equations given in Eq. as shown in Fig. Designating the rotation matrix by [CP].z ] lylz (/ZIZ .lzlx [IXIX (7131) Hence lx.1) L lZlyL X X + lylz ~ == X x lylx (7133) + (lz.1) ~ == lz.1) 1 I== x Y z 0 (7132) Comparing Eq.! \ t SEC. For a given [I] matrix. In case x == 0. Hence we can write a set of eq uations with a form similar to that of Eq. if the axis of rotation lies in the yz plane. (790). (792). In other words. It is apparent that the coordinates of any point along this axis will not be changed by the rotation. or vice versa. we see that the same procedure can be used here to establish the axis of rotation as was used previously in finding a principal axis.sin cP cos <I> o 0 ~] (7134) Evaluating the trace of this matrix. it can be seen that + 1 is an eigenvalue corresponding to this real rotation. (788) and (7132) have the same form. 79 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 321 unprimed to the primed axes. namely.
714). the first and last rotations cancel. 7 The more general case of a rotation about an arbitrary axis can be analyzed by considering the primed and unprimed systems to be originally coincident and then performing three rotations as follows: (1) Rotate the primed system about Xl some axis relative to the unprimed system such that the z' axis becomes the desired rotation axis (Fig. we can express the final components of a given vector r in terms of the z corresponding initial values by the equation y I i {r'} = [l]T[<I>] [I] {r} (7136) where the matrices [I] and [/]T represent the first and third rotations. 0 A is an axis (fixed in both systems) about which the rotations of the primed system relative to the unprimed system are performed. 714. namely. Coordinate systems used fora general rotation. even for the case of a general rotation. ~~X (2) Rotate both systems as a rigid body through an angle <I> about the Fig.322 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. (3) Perform the inverse of coordinate system about the z axis. 713. A rotation of the primed z' axis. Now let us recall from Sec. We have seen that the translational and rotational equations of motion. So if we let [<1>'] = [/]T[<I>][/] X'______~~~__~~===y y' (7137) X then tr [<1>'] = 1 + 2 cos <I> (7138) Hence the angle of rotation <I> can be found by evaluating the trace of the rotation matrix. in the sense of their relative orientation. 77 that the trace of a square matrix is invariant under an orthogonal transformation. 710. the first rotation such that the primed system coincides with the new position of the unprimed system. Equipollent Systems. respectively. Using rotation matrices. in the foregoing sequence. The end result of this sequence of three rotations is a rotation <I> of both systems about the middle position of the z' axis because. . REDUCTION OF FORCES· Fig.
. regardless of their point of application. If we limit ourselves. that elastic bodies may deform quite differently. We note that the translational motion of the center of mass. For many analyses. (a) A force and moment (7139) M=Pr which are equipollent to a general The direction is perpendicular to the force system acting on a rigid body. 710 BASIC CONCEPTS· AND KINEMATICS 323 I I I F == mrc M==H I i t I I l' . 715. then. a system such that (I) the total force is equal to that of the original system and (2) the total moment about any point is the same as for the original system. Hence equipollent force systems do not produce the same effects upon elastic bodies. to a consideration of the motions of rigid (0) bodies. By a couple we mean a pair of equal and opposite forces of p magnitude P whose lines of action are separated by a distance rFig. I I. I can be used to obtain the motion of a rigid body which is acted upon by a given system of external forces. that is. It can be seen that the moment of a given couple is the same with respect to any reference (b) point and its magnitude is Fig. is determined by the vector sum of the external forces. On the other hand. It can be seen from the two equations of motion that the separate application of two equipollent force systems to a given rigid body results in equal dynamic responses. 715(b). plane of the two forces in accordance (b) A couple. for given initial conditions. and therefore is dependent upon the location of the forces. depending upon the exact point of application of the forces. p 715(a). however. It should be noted. we find that it is often convenient to replace the given force system by an equipollent system consisting of the total force F acting at the center of mass and a couple whose moment M is computed with respect to the center of massFig. it is convenient to replace the actual force system by an equipollent system. the rotational motion depends upon the total moment of the external forces about the center of mass.I I' t· SEC.
although a given system of forces can be redu~ed to a force and a couple in many ways. Even though the couple M need not have any particular location. This can be seen by considering the equal and opposite forces F and . the resultant force F has been assumed to pass thEough the center of mass O.324 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. If 0' were chosen along the line of action of F acting through 0. The added forces are equipollent to zero and will not change the total force or the total moment about any point. If. Hence by a proper displacement of the reference point. A displacement of the refgeneral. there is only one line of action for the total force F such that the total moment of the force system about a reference point 0' on this line is parallel to F. acting on a rigid body. Now suppose that the reference point in Fig. there is only one equipollent wrench for the system. But now we can think of a force F as being applied at 0' and consider the remaining forces F and . then M' would differ from M by a couple of magnitude Fd whose direction is perpendicular to F. 716. In other words. For this system of forces. in Fig. M is directed out of the page in Fig. since the moment of F about any point is unchanged if its line of action is unchanged. The resulting equipollent force system consisting of a force F and a parallel couple M' is known as a wrench. 0' were displaced a distance d in a direction perpendicular to this line of action (Fig. We see that this line of action of the wrench is determined solely from geometrical considerations and will not. It should be noted that. then M' = M. 716. The remaining couple M' is then parallel to F and the required perpendicular displacement is d = MsinO (7140) F. 7 with the righthand rule. it is possible to cancel the component of M that is normal to F. it is the usual practice to consider it to be acting at the reference point O. 715(b). we could consider an equipollent system consisting of the same force F applied at 0' plus a couple M'. In this case. for example. 715(a) had been chosen at some point 0' that is not at the center of mass. pass through the center of erence point for a force system mass. however. ~ I \ . 716).F as constituting a couple of magnitude Fd whose direction is normal to F and out of the page in Fig.F to be applied at 0'. where 0 is the angle between M and F.
If the position of C relative to 0 is given by fc and the point of application of Fi relative to C is given by Ph then we see from Fig. fn. It can be seen that the total force is (7141) and the total moment about 0 is M = n ~ fi X Fi i=1 (7142) Hence the given force system is equipollent to a force F applied at 0 plus a couple M whose location is arbitrary. (7139). Suppose that the forces F 1. in general. 717). as shown in Fig. 718 that . Parallel Forces. . 715. Now let us consider the particular case where all the external forces acting on a rigid body are parallel to each other.P do not lie in the system. 717. A system of two P and F acting at 0 can be replaced by a skew forces which is equisingle force at 0 equal to their vector sunl. as in Fig. the effect of a couple upon the motion of a rigid body does not M depend upon its location. respectively.SEC. the couple is completely canceled and the force system is equipollent to a single force F. . assuming F =1= 0. but only upon its p magnitude and direction. Fn are applied at points whose position vectors relative to the reference point 0 are given by fl' f2' . ••• . Thus we can find a reference point C such that the system of applied forces is equipollent to a force F acting through this point. same plane. and are known as skew forces. So if the line of action of F is translated in the proper direction through a distance d = MjF in accordance with Eq. F 2 . . then it can be seen that one of these forces can have a line of action passing through the reference point 0 (Fig. We note that M must lie in a plane which is perpendicular to the applied forces since the moment of each force about 0 lies in this plane. Hence we conclude that a general system of forces is equipollent to two skew forces. So if we consider the couple to consist of two equal and opposite forces of magnitude P and separation r in accordance with Eq. 710 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 325 We have shown that any force system can be reduced to a force plus a couple. 718. Furthermore. The skew forces are not unique since the nlagnitude of P is arbitrary and its direction is restricted only in that it must lie in a plane perpendicular to M. then. pollent to a general force The forces (P + F) and . (7140). It is clear that the forces Fig.
we find that fc \ I X Fe. equating the expressions for the moment given in Eqs. we obtain (7145) Therefore. A system of parallel forces acting on a rigid body. we find that the moment relative to 0 is M = fc X F + i=1 Pi ~ n X Fi (7144) But. = ~ ft X 1. (7146) and (7147). we see that fc X F = ~ fi X Fi i=1 n (7146) N ow let us recall that the F i are parallel and use the notation Ft = Fie. 718. n (7147) ~ where the unit vector e. forces. points in the positive direction of the applied. (7142) and (7144). From Eqs. (7143) and from Eqs.326 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. (7141).=1 Fie. (7142). and (7143). F = Fe. in accordance with the assumption that the moment of the applied forces about C is zero. (7148) I t can be seen that if . 7 Fig.
Concurrent Forces. then the system of parallel forces is equipollent to a single couple M whose location is unspecified... Hence the resultant force F passes through C regardless of the direction of the parallel applied forces.. (7148) holds for any direction of ef.. (7149) is known as the center of the force system. 710 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 327 (7149) I t. 719). we see that the moments of all the forces are zero... where An example of a set of concurrent forces is the set of gravitational forces acting on the particles of an extended satellite in orbit about an attracting spherical body. 719.. we discussed the reduction to a simpler equipollent system for the general case and also for the case where the lines of action of the applied forces are parallel.SEC. we conclude that a system of parallel forces acting on a rigid body may be replaced by an equipollent system which consists of either (1) a force F acting through the center C or (2) a couple M. the point of application of the force can be moved along its line of action without influencing its effect upon the motion of the body. We saw in Example 56 that the resultant gravitational force acts along a line which passes /' through the center of gravity of the /' '\ /' satellite and the center of the attrac/' ting body. (7141) and (7142). Previously.. 0 Next consider a set of forces confined to a plane. that is.. as may be seen by comparing this result with Eq. the point C is at the center of mass. Hence they can be Fig. A set of concurrent forces replaced by a single force equal to acting on a rigid body. Taking 0 as the reference point. . it can be seen that if F == 0. We have found that an external force acting on a rigid body can be considered as a sliding vector. For the particular case of a group of n particles in a uniform gravitational field. Now let us consider a force system in which the lines of action of the applied forces all pass through the same point 0 (Fig.. The particular instance where both F and M are zero can be regarded as a special case of either.. (47). Sets of forces which are all directed through a single point are known as concurrent forces. Summarizing. '</' ... then Eq. Returning now to Eqs. The reference point C whose position is defined by Eq.. "" .. In the usual case.. Hence we conclude that a set of n concurrent forces is equipollent to a single force F passing through the common point 0. any pair of forces can be considered to be concurrent.
0. So we see that we can apply some results of our earlier discussion of the reduction of a general force system to a wrench. 7 Fig. 720). To' summarize) we have found that for parallel forces.j I . we saw that an arbitrary rotation of a cartesian set of coordinate axes can be accomplished by premultiplying a column matrix specifying the position of a typical point by a 3 x 3 direction cosine matrix specifying the rotation. There we found that. or a couple M. A plane set of forces and the resultant force F. in each instance. or perhaps both F and M are zero. 711. acting through the point of concurrency. In attempting to discover the common characteristic of these systems which allows their reduction to a single force or couple. concurrent forces~ or forces acting in a plane. Further rotations can be accomplished by further . 720. By repeating this procedure we can arrive at the force which is equipollent to the plane system of forces (Fig. 76.328 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. but not both. it is always possible by a proper choice of reference point to eliminate the component of M that is normal to F. INFINITESIMAL ROTATIONS In Sec. we notice that. then the system of forces is equipollent to a couple M whose direction is perpendicular to the plane of the forces. for F =I=.~ \ t I . the equipollent system for an arbitrary reference point consists of a force F and a couple M which are orthogonal. their sum. If F == 0. the simplest force system to which the actual system is reducible is a force F with a given line of action.
one might think t hn t a single rotation . Therefore w(~ 1night expect that it is important to specify the order in which two or 1l10fe u.. Ilernatics of a iI'X particle. t:· · :' This is in accord vvilJl the commutative nature of veel or nddition. It is apparent that the OI'l('I. (b) after 90 rotations about the x and y axes. That this is actually the case can be seen fronl 111t~ fo)]owing illustration: Suppose that a rectangular parallelepiped is inililllly in the position shown in Fig. 721(a). hOVV('VI't. The resulting orientation is givt~IJ in Fig.f:at ions about z the x and y axes.<1> == <PI + <1>9 is equivalent to . f·. the direction of t Ill~ vector being in the direction or t he axis of rotation and the magn i t "de being proportional to the n nglc of rotation.· f(. In studying the k. 711 I BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS '329 premultiplications.. 0 0 4 I· . 721. for example. On the other hn. a simx (0) ilar result will oce lIl' . and (c) after 90 rotations about the y and x axes starting from the initial position.. The positions of a block: (a) initially.. Furl ht. It is given successive 90degl'l·. lHHillt.fations given in Figs. [<p 2]. that Inatrix multiplication is not COlTIlTIutative in general. SEC. t. by analogy t () f he foregoing case of translationn I displacements.. the final orien tit' it It.ng that the axes are fixed in the hod y. x (c) ' Fig. '/ 21(c). is identical with that resulting from a single rotatIon We recall.. It! ~ if the same rotations are perrorln(~d in the opposite order. "''''~ ~ jf a rotation [<PI] is followed by a second rotation .. we have represented displacements by veet 0 HL We know. f' t he axes are y assumed to be fixed i II t~ race rather than in the bod y . Inore.tations are performed. 721 (b). 721(b) IIlId 721 (c) are quite different. Thus. One is tempted to consider rotational displacements in H ~j Hlilar fashion. the reslllli"I~ final orienJ++Y tation is given in lo'i".. that the 1l'II1Hdationai displacements A and B when taken in either order are togl~lJler equivalent (b) to a single displaccillell t C==A+B B+A 1.
(23). we premultiply [€z] by [€y]. But we have seen that rigidbody rotations are not commutative. Using Eq. Therefore. we find from Eq.. ~ 0 . (7119) that an infinitesimal rotation y axis is represented by 0 1 €y [€y] = [ 0 Si~ €y]:::::::::: [~ ~ cos €y €y (7151) sin 0 0 To find the rotation matrix corresponding to an infinitesimal rotation €z followed by an infinitesimal rotation €y. we have assumed that the angular rotation rate Cd is a vector quantity. we obtain [€z] = [_:~::: o COS €. then the infinitesimal rotation llfJ must also be a vector since at is a scalar. \ I . a general rigidbody rotation is not a vector quantity_ On the other hand. 7 the rotations <PI and <P2 taken in sequence. in general. namely. Also. we can show that an infinitesimal rotation about all three axes results in the rotation matrix (7153) ~ 1 where [1] is a 3 x 3 unit matrix and [€] is the following skewsymmetric matrix: €z I [€] =[ 0 €z €y 0 ex €Y] €x . (7154) . we note from the definition of Cd given in Eq. whereas vector addition is commutative.y ::::: 0 ~] ""' [ _ ~z ~z ~] 1 0 0 1 €y (7150) about the Also. To study this point further.:: €z ~ (7152) By a similar process.330 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. whereas a general finite rotation is not. and we have represented it in this way many times previously. Hence we find that an infinitesimal rotation is a vector · quantity. (7134). let us write the rotation matrix corresponding to an infinitesimal rotation €z about the z axis. obtaining o . Cd · llfJ = 11 m At~o at that if Cd is a vector.€y] ~ ~ [  ~z ~ ~ 1 €z 0] [ 1 = .
711 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 331 It can be seen by evaluating the matrix product [e z ] [e y ] that the result is identical with that of Eq. Using the matrix notation of Eq. 722. (7157) takes place in a time ill. The left side is just t expressed as a column matrix. Since matrix addition is commutative. . we see that [et] + [e2] == [e2] + [et] and therefore the same result is obtained if the arbitrary infinitesimal rotations are perfonned in either order.{r} == [e] {r} In the past..e] Uol (7159) The minus sign is introduced in the definition of [co] in order that its elements will refer to the components of the rotation rate of r rather than to the rotation rate of the coordinate system. For example.\ . Assuming that the rotation of Eq. The vector r was assumed to remain fixed in space. I I i SEC. 722. ~x Fig. we could consider the coordinate system to be fixed in space and let r rotate in the opposite direction. 722 for the case of an infinitesimal rotation of r about the z axis. we find that (7155) where [ell and [€2] are skewsymmetric matrices representing two arbitrary infinitesimal rotations. We shall take the latter viewpoint which is illustrated in Fig. (769). we see that {r'} = or [[1] + [€]] {r} (7156) (7157) {r'} . a positive {Oz refers to a counterclockwise rotation of r in Fig. and any changes in the components of r were assumed to be due entirely to the coordinate rotation. we can divide this equation by ill and take the limit as ill approaches zero. Furthermore. An infinitesimal· rotation of a vector r about the z axis. Hence we see once more that infinitesimal rotations are vectorial in nature. we have considered the rotation matrix to refer to a rotation of coordinate axes. So we can write If} == [co] {r} where (7158) y [{O] == Ato lim! [. On the other hand. indicating that the order of the infinitesimal rotations is immaterial. Now let us apply an infinitesimal rotation to a vector r whose length is assumed to be constant. if we neglect the product of infinitesimal quantities. (7152)..
we recall that r=OJXr (7160) I for the case where the amplitude of r is constant. one cannot find a set of generalized coordinates corresponding to cox. consider the matrix product I c \ [wHr} = [ _:: o (J)y] \ X) _ \( . as in Eq. 71. three being translational and three rotational. Hence the question arises concerning a proper choice of these coordinates. (25). Now let us consider the rotational motion only.( rozx . Another possibility is to write the rotational kinetic energy in terms of the cartesian components cox. Also. and indicate some of the preliminary questions that arise in the analysis. Since there are three rotational degrees of freedom. EULERIAN ANGLES In Sec.roxz) (7161) o i z (royx + coxy) Comparing this result with the determinant form of the vector cross product. roy. however. I I 712. Unfortunately. Now we note from Eqs. Hence we find that the premultiplication of the column matrix {r} by the skewsymmetric matrix [ro] corresponds to taking the vector cross product in the order 0) X r.rozy + royZ)) (J)x Y . The use of direction cosines as generalized coordinates is not attractive because there are nine direction cosines and six equations of constraint relating them.X we see that the corresponding components are identical. 7 ' I i Referring back to Eq. ! ~ I \ . we saw that a rigid body has six degrees of freedom. one cannot find a set of three parameters which specify the orientation of the body and also have 6>x. COy. namely. j Y k z I . and CO z. (755). As an example. First. we saw that if the center of mass is chosen as a reference point. In other words. then one can analyze separately the translational and rotational aspects of the motion for a given set of applied forces. The resulting equations of motion would be quite complicated. and CO z as time derivatives. l.332 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. one would prefer to use only three generalized coordinates. COy. it seems quite natural that we should use Lagrange's equations in setting up the equations of motion. and CO z. (7158) and (7160) that these are two forms of the same statement.
723. the attitude angle f).SEC. . primed system. The positive x axis is directed forward out of the nose. and the bank angle cp.8 X Y y 4> X y Z x y z X Z z Z z y x x y I Thus we are led to search for a new set of three coordinates by which the orientation of a rigid body can be specified. In the context of this example. the names given the Euler angl~s are meaningful. A COMPARISON OF EULER ANGLE SYSTEMS (Corresponding Quantities) Order of Rotation and Corresponding Axes I ¢ about z 8 about y 4> about x II ¢ about z 8 about x 4> about z ¢ III 4> about z 8 about y ¢ about z 4> 7t/2 . more recently. The three rotations are: 1. For example. is sufficient to allow the xyz system to reach any orientation. A positive rotation '0/ about the Z axis. Now let us consider the definitions of these Eulerian angles which give the orientation of the xyz coordinate system relative to the fixed X YZ system. 3. as shown in Fig. A set of coordinates of this sort are the Eulerian angles. performed in the proper sequence. If the two systems are initially coincident.8 ¢ ¢ 8 4> 7t/2 . the xz plane is commonly taken to be the plane of symmetry. 712 TABLE BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 333 71. . A positive rotation <p about the x" axis. whereas the PQsitive z axis is directed downward through the bottom of the fuselage. The pqsitive y axis is normal to the other two axes and proceeds roughly along the<right wing. They are the heading angle '0/. Several different types of Euler angle systems are in common use (Table 71). resulting in the primed system. A positive rotation f) about the y' . axis. in the analysis of missiles and other space vehicles. a series of three rotations ab0ll:t the body axes. 2. We shall adopt the system which has been widely employed in aeronautical engineering and. resulting in the double. in the case of an airplane. resulting in the final unprimed system. The Euler angles can be visualized in terms of a coordinate system fixed in the body whose orientation is being described.
the xy plane is vertical. 723. For the important case of bodies with axial symmetry. regardless of the value of O. and will not refer specifically to aircraft rotations. . '0/ indicates the direction of the projection of the x axis on the horizontal plane. 723. it is the angle of the x axis above the horizontal plane. The attitude angle is usually considered to lie in the range 7t/2 < 0 <7t/2. Usually. The axis about which the 0 rotation occurs (y' axis) is known as the line o. In other words. that is. Using the aircraft example. The attitude angle 0 is measured in the vertical plane and is the angle between the x and x' axes. We shall be using Euler angles to describe the orientation of general rigid bodies. the xyz system is a system of principal axes at the center of mass or at a fixed point. the heading of the aircraft. 7 . when cf> == + 7t /2. The heading angle '0/' is measured in the horizontal plane and is the angle between the X and x' axes.334 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. The Euler angle definitions which we have given are most often used for specifying the orientation of bodies on or near the surface of the earth.z' Fig. if '0/ == 7t/2 and we make the usual assumption that the X axis points due north. The bank angle cf> is the angle between the y and y" axes and is measured in the plane through 0 which is perpendicular to the x axis." i \ I I ! Line of nodes x+~~~~ Z. I Another method of defining the Euler angles can be seen directly from Fig. For example. the x axis is chosen as the axis of symmetry and two of the three principal moments of inertia are equal. The Eulerian angles. For example. then the x' axis coincides with the Yaxis and points due east.f nodes.
we obtain [r' } = [+] {R } [r"} = [{}] {r' } [I' } = [1>] [r"} or [r} = [1>] [0] [+] [R} (7165) where {R} represents the components of a vector r in the original fixed frame and {r} gives the components of the same vector in the final xyz system. we obtain the following equations: E: 1 [:~~~ ::~~ ~] 1. The X and Y axes must be nonrotating in inertial space but their precise direction is usually unimportant. Performing the indicated matrix multiplications.::1 z" sin (7163) 0 cos z' 1 z 0 sin 1> cos 1> L" (7164) Writing the preceding equations in more abbreviated form. 712 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINE. j' The X axis is assulned to . and the Z axis points directly downward. e. as will be explained in Chapter 8.1 = (7162) J = [Co~ e ~ . provided that we make a suitable definition of what is nleant by the "vertical" direction. point due north.SEC.Si~ e ] J.MATICS 335 i i. Now let us consider the matrix equations which indicate the individual rotations that are performed in going from the original X YZ systelTI to the final xyz system.: 1 . we obtain the following result: x cos '0/ cos 0 ( . 1= [~ co~ 1> Si~ 1>] J.sin '0/ cos 1> + cos '0/ sin e sin 1» (sin '0/ sin 1> + cos '0/ sin ecos 1» y z +cos e (cos +cos 1> + sin +sin e sin 1» (cos +sin 1> sin sin 0 cos 0 sin 1> cos 0 cos 1> X Y + sin '0/ sin e cos 1» z (7166) The individual rotation matrices as well as the final product matrix are . the Y axis points due east. Referring again to the definitions of '0/. Nevertheless. and 1>. we can also use the.::1 1 e e 1 J. Euler angles to describe the rotational motion of bodies away from the " earth in free space.
Earlier it was noted that several systems· of Euler angles are in common usage. The situation in which 0 == + 7t /2 corresponds to a condition of gyroscope suspensions which is known as gimbal lock. Now we shall use these principles to solve a few examples concerning rigid bodies which have distributed masses and move in a plane. EXAMPLES OF RIGID BODY MOTION IN A PLANE We have discussed many of the principles of dynamics as they apply to a particle or to a system of particles. we present Table 71. (7166) that the angle ("'" . that is. The system we are using is designated as type I. Hence the inverse transformations are obtained by merely transposing the corresponding matrices · 1 1 1·' d h Assuming that t h e Eu er ang es are Imlte to t e ranges 7t 7t <0<2 . during the condition of gimbal lock an angular velocity component parallel to the x' axis cannot be represented in terms of Euler angle rates. and <p are undefined. Thus 0 is the angle between the vertical and the final position of the z axis. it can be seen that any possible orientation of the body can be attained by performing the proper rotations in the given order. 724).<p) is welldefined if 0 == 7t /2. the angle between the X and z axes. ·c I \ . however. it can be shown from Eq. and <p can be found. In a similar fashion. the angles"". if 0 == + 7t /2. A uniform circular cylinder of mass m and radius a rolls without slipping on a plane inclined at an angle a with the horizontal. the angle ("'" + <p) is well defined for 0 == .2' { . Nevertheless. The other systems start with the z axis pointing vertically upward before the first rotation.7t /2 even though the individual angles are not. In other words. Thus. Example 75.336 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. .an orthogonal matrix. therefore each is . We have seen that rotations corresponding to the "'" and <p coordinates are not distinct for this case and therefore only two rotational degrees of freedom are represented. The missing degree of freedom corresponds to rotation about the x' axis. ~ I I Solve for the angular acceleration (Fig. then no unique set of values for"". More complex problems of rigidbody dynamics will be considered in Chapter 8. If the orientation is such that the x axis is vertical. . i i i I 713. In order to facilitate the conversion of results from one system to another. showing corresponding quantities for three common systems. it represents the heading angle of the z axis. 7 all direction cosine matrices.
From E. we find that mg sin a . 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 337 . I: I First Method: Taking the center of mass 0 as the reference point. 724. we obtain : 3mg sin a == 2" maf) or (7171) . the angular velocity (I) must be parallel to the symmetry axis of the cylinder at all times.qs.SEC. where the reference point is taken at the center 0. we can use the rotational equation M=H It can be seen that for pure rolling motion. 724(b) that the applied mOlnent M is parallel to (J). and (7169). we note froln the freebody diagramFig. It can be seen from the freebody diagram that the' moment of the external forces about 0 is (7::'169) M== Fa where M is taken positive in the clockwise sense.F == maO Eliminating F between Eqs. A uniform circular cylinder rolling down an inclined plane.. (712) that H and Ii are parallel. we see that F = "2n1af) 1 . in agreement with the value found for the circular disk in Eq. Hence the vector equation shown above can be replaced by the scalar equation M (0) I I I /0 (7167) (b) Fig. (7167). (7170) Another equation involving F and 0 can be obtained by writing Newton's equation of motion for the force cOlnponents parallel to the inclined plane. and where the moment of inertia is 2 1 1= ma 2 (7168) I 1 I. Noting that the linear acceleration of the center of mass is aO and is directed down the plane. Furthermore. (7168). (7116). it is apparent from Eq. (7170) and (7171). Since the symnletry axis is also a principal axis.
Pc X mrp == 0 The remaining terms have the s. with the result that the entire external moment is due to the gravitational force mg. Therefore pc and rp are parallel. noting that /p is constant.338 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP.pc X mr p == Hp We recall that pc is the position vector of the center of mass relative to P. namely. f) 0. Thus we have Hp == [0 + mva == [pO (7173) where Ip is the moment of inertia about the instantaneous center. (761) for an axis translation. Third Method: Let us again choose the instantaneous center P as the reference point but consider it to be fixed in the cylinder rather than in the plane. and we calculate the same value of O. We recall that the angular momentum about a point P is equal to the angular momentum about the mass center plus the angular momentum associated with the velocity of the mass center relative to P. and (7175) are valid once again.. Also. \ ' Mp == mga sin a Finally.!lme values as in the previous case. (7174). At this instant the acceleration of P is purely centripetal. and it follows that . Hence Eqs. we obtain == 2g sin a 3a in agreement with our previous result. In this example. (7173). let us refer to the general rotational equation of (470). I I I I Mp . yielding 1 I p == ma 2 2 3 + ma 2 == ma 2 2 in agreement with the value of the moment of inertia obtained from Eq. as may be seen by adding the absolute acceleration of 0 and the acceler~ation of P relative to O. the forces Nand F pass through P. . we can write (7174) (7175) I Mp == lip == [pO and solving for the angular acceleration . Since the reference point is accelerating. It is of magnitude a&2 and is directed toward the center 0. It is clear from the symmetry of the cylinder and the uniformity of the incline that the same result would apply for later instants when other points in the plane would successively become instantaneous centers of rotation. we find that 1 == !ma 2 and v == aO. 7 o== 2g sin a 3a (7172) Second Method: Now let us choose a reference point P which is fixed in the inclined plane at the instantaneous center of rotation.
Other choices could have been made of the reference point.SEC. Hence we find that pc X " mrp == rna 2. Of course. A rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I about the mass center C is supported at a fixed point 0. Example 76. M == H.center of mass or at a fixed point. Nevertheless. the angular momentum of the cylinder relative to P is the same as its angular momentum relative to O. a proper application of the general rotational equation would have given the same expression for 8 in each instance.. solve for the circular frequency (On of small oscillations. the applied moment is Mp == mga sin a Substituting into the general rotational equation and solving for iJ. applies when the reference point is taken at the . First let us calculate the moment of inertia about the fixed point O. 1 . in general. a suitable choice of a reference point will often aid considerably in understanding a problem and in finding its solution. As before. Therefore. We have emphasized previously that the rotational equation of motion. be zero if the center of mass were located at some point away from the geometrical center. (7177) H p == ma 2 {) 2 where clockwise rotations are taken as positive. Fourth Method: As a final approach. Using the parallelaxis theorem of Eq. we find that 10 == I + ma 2 It can be seen that the external moment about 0 is (7178) . 725). It is important to remember that by "fixed" we mean that both the velocity and acceleration are zero relative to some inertial frame. 713 . forming a compound pendulum (Fig. the term pc X mr p would not. If is therefore quite important to gain a facility in this aspect of problem formulation. Thus we find that . let us consider a reference point P which is the contact point and moves in a straight line down the plane. As~uming that the points 0 and C are separated by a distance a. It is clear that the acceleration of P is of magnitude a8 and is directed along its path.Q vee (7176) where ee is a unit vector directed into the page. even though the velocity of P were instantaneously zero. (761). For example. The velocity of the center 0 relative to P is zero because the two points move along parallel paths with equal velocities. BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 339 I I. we obtain the scalar equation 8 == 2g sin a 3a in agreement with our previous results.
725. 7 M ~ mga sin fJ (7179) since the resultant gravitational force is the only external force not passing through o. I. A compound pendulum. (7179). we can approxim~te sin fJ by fJ. 37 for a more general case. The solution is of the form o= A sin (Jmta+ a) t (7183) where A and a are constants which are evaluated from the initial conditions. loB + mgafJ == 0 (7182) This is the equation of simple harmonic motion which was solved in Examples 33 and 36. (7178).~ i c~ r. we see that the length I of a simple pendulum with the same period is It is interesting to note that I is a minimum for a given body when dl ==_k~+l==O da a2 ~ I \ or a == kc . (7181) reduces to i:. Hence the natural frequency of small oscillations is COn = .340·· BASIC ·CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. (3223). we find that 10 == m(k~ and it follows that CO n  + a2) ga . Thus we obtain from Eqs. \ {\:. and Eq.J k~ + a2 (7185) Comparing this expression with that for the simple pendulum given in Eq. For this case of plane motion. and again in Sec. we can write the scalar equation (7180) where both M and fJ are taken positive counterclockwise. • ' loB + mga sin fJ == 0 (7181) For the case of small motions. and (7180) that Fig.Jmga 10 (7184) If we let kc be the radius of gyration about the center of mass. \.
.. (7190) that point 0 is the center of percussion for the case where the body rotates about an axis through B. The point B is known as the center of percussion for the support point O. Example 77.SEC. center of mass is Ve y Fig. 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 341 So if a given body is supported at a distance ke from the center of mass. From . it can be seen from Eq.the equation of linear impulse and momentum. The assumption of no impulsive reaction at 0 implies that the initial motion of the body is due entirely to the impulse :ff. which is in the plane of the ITIotion and is perpendicular to the line OC. Conversely. 726. we find that the initial angular velocity is (j == . (7186). Find the distance b between the center of mass and the line of action of the impulse such that the body exerts no impulsive reaction on the support at O. we can solve for the distance b. we obtain that rna == or ab == k~ (7190) where kc is the radius of gyration of the body about C. hence we know that Vc == aO Ie b (7189) From Eqs. A transverse impulse applied to a rigid body. b:F Ie (7188) But we have assumed that the support point 0 is fixed. The body is struck an impulsive blow of magnitude g. and (7189). (7188). A rigid body can rotate about a fixed axis through the point 0 which is located at a distance a from the center of mass C (Fig. 726). Knowing a and ke. from the equation of angular impulse and momentum. its period will be the minimum possible for small oscillations of the body in that plane. the initial velocity of the (7186) ==rn :F The angular impulse about C due to gr is I vf{ == b:F (7187) Therefore.
obtaining 1 2 T . This follows from the fact that a and b can be interchanged in Eq.. 727(b)that the center of mass C moves in a circular arc of radius 1/2. Therefore we obtain . its period for small oscillations is the same whether the fixed axis passes through 0 or B. Hence we require that or k~(a . Hence if 0 is to remain initially motionless under the action of gr alone. Example 78.b) == ab(a .342 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. Let us obtain first the differential equation of motion by using Lagrange's equation. namely. ron = )mla In order for the frequencies to be equal in the two cases.Tmve 1 + 2" 1en2 U (7191) where Ve is the velocity of the center of mass and Ie is the moment of inertia of the bar about a transverse axis through its ce~ter of mass. thereby requiring the direction of gr to be perpendicular to ~C. we add the translational and rotational portions. Another interesting result is that if the body is suspended as a compound pendulum. Note that an impulsive reaction must occur at the support point 0 for all cases in which the impulse :¥ is applied in any direction other than perpendicular to the line OC. 727(a). We see that the components of velocity along the line OC must be the 'same for both 0 and C. It can be seen from the geometryFig. then the initial velocity of C cannot have a component along ~C. 7. Assuming that the bar remains in a plane perpendicular to both the wall and the floor. In calculating the total kinetic energy of the bar. solve for the angle () at which the bar leaves the wall. A thin uniform bar of length 1 and mass m is displaced slightly from its vertical equilibrium position at () == O. It slides along a frictionless wall and floor due to gravityFig. (7190) without affecting the equality. This statement can be verified by using the expression for the natural frequency of a compound pendulum which was obtained in Example 76.b) But we have seen that k~ == ab and therefore the two frequencies are equal. it is apparent that the moments of inertia about the support points must be proportional to their corresponding distances from the center of mass.
0 (7196) = T .y) As long as the bar remains. . _m/ 2 8 2 24 (0) == _ nl/ 2 8 2 (7194) y The potential energy V is entirely gravitational and is calculated using the floor as the reference level. (7191). 713 Vc BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 343 = T/8 1 . Thus we see that 1 V == 'l./1 P r:.. (7192). the moment of inertia about C IS 19 1 c  1 /2 12 m (7193) (See Appendix. ~(OL) dt oiJ where we recall that L _ of) = oL ..SEC...V. A thin uniform bar sliding on a smooth wall and floor..T mg SIn dt d (OL) _ 31 m oiJ 12(jM oL _ Hence the differential equation of motion is ' 1 " 1 Tm12() .ymglSIn (j = 0 J or . e // // / // I I (x. . hence we can write Lagrange's equation in the form I I I I I I I I x (b) Fig. we find that 1 /. (j of) . (7192) Also.. 727.. the system has only one degree of freedom because its configuration can be expressed completely in terms of a single coordinate (j.. we obtain I' 1 . 1 .. Evaluating the terms. T == _m/ 2 8 2 8 1 6 + .. and (7193).ng/ cos (j (7195) . in contact with both the floor and the wall.. .) Evaluating the total kinetic energy from Eqs. We note that the system is conservative during this interval.
It is apparent that the wall cannot exert a pull on the bar and therefore FxFig. Now let us consider the conditions which apply at the instant the bar leaves the wall. (7198). ~ I I .344 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. we see that its speed increases with O. Thus we conclude that the bar leaves the wall when Fx first tends to become negative. we find that C == 3g 21 and therefore (7198) Although we obtained this result by integration of the differential equation of motion.. 727(b)must be positive or zero. } . dO (}=={)de Performing the integration we obtain J f iJ d iJ = .cos 0) 1 1 . On the other hand. it is clear that Fx would have to be negative in order to balance the centrifugal force and keep C moving along its circular path. 7 I (} ==   21 3g sin (} I (7197) This equation may be integrated with respect to () by making the substitution . our analysis thus far has assumed that the center of mass C follows a circular arc. + mgI cos 0 == mgI from which we again find that (j2 == We can obtain Eq. (7197) by differentiation with respect to time. based on the assumption of a circular path for C.3g cos 0 21 + C where C is the integration constant. So. From the initial conditions 0(0) == 0 and 0(0) == 0. note that it could have been obtained directly from the principle of conservation of energy. T+V==E or 1 m 12(j'2 622 . at least by the time that 0 = 1(/2. 3g T (1 .f f sin 0 dO or ~ 82 2 == . and from Eq.
Another approach in finding IJ as a function of fJ is to use the general rotational equation Mp .pc X mrp == lip where we choose the reference point at the instantaneous center P. we obtain x= ~ from which we find that Fx fij cos f)  ~ lip sin f) == ml mx == 2" (fJ cos fJ '0. assuming that P is in a lamina fixed with respect to the bar. Hence we see that F. = ~ mg [sin f) cos f) . We see that the total angular momentum relative to . by substituting for IJ and 02 from Eqs. the bar leaves the wall.2) The force Fx is initially zero at fJ until fJ increases to the value f) == 0. We have considered P to move in a lamina which rotates with the bar. 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 345 We can find Fx by solving for the horizontal acceleration x of the center of mass and applying Newton's law of motion.l ml 0k 3 2 (7201) where we note that imP is the moment of inertia of the bar about the instantaneous axis of rotation through P. but does not tend to become negative = cos. fJ. we see that · Hp . The center of mass henceforth translates uniforlnly to the right.cos f)] = ~ (7200) mg sin f) (3 cos f) . Differentiating with respect to time. This choice el~minates the need of solving for Fx or Fy since the moment of each force about P is zero. and the vector Hp is positive when directed out of the page.2° At this point. (7197) and (7198).2 sin f) (1 . respectively. 8 2 sin fJ) • (7199) This result can be expressed in terms of a single variable.SEC. Taking the horizontal components of the tangential and centrifugal accelerations. Thus we obtain Hp == (m12 + m12) Ok 12 4 == . From Example 23 we see that it .P is found by considering the bar to rotate as a rigid body about P which instantaneously has zero velocity.1 ( ~ ) = 48. 1 == m/ 2 fJk 3 (7202) Next we note that pc is directed from P to C.
that the spheres remain in contact. Once again we shall use the Lagrange formulation.1 mgISIn 0 == . A sphere of mass m and the same radiusFig. 728. Let us first obtain the differential equation of motion. X mrp == 0 (7203) Mp = . Thus we find that pc Also. 728(a). . T == . ( ~ ( where the moment of inertia about the center of mass is 2 1== ma 2 5 (7207) . we find that v == 2mga cos 0 (7205) The kinetic energy is the sum of the translational and rotational portions. therefore r p is also directed from P to C. Assuming a coefficient of sliding friction /L. we find that (0) ' . '! Example 79. 7 I I is instantaneously reversing its velocity at a cusp of its hypocycloidal path. 3g sin () 21 in agreement with our preVlOUS result. 1 + 1· ¢2 2 (7206) ..346 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. find the value of () at which sliding begins. rium position at () == 0 and begins to roll. namely. Choosing the reference level for the gravitational potential energy at the center of the fixed sphere.m (2aO)2 1 2 . furthermore.~ mgl sin (j k (7204) Substituting these expressions into the general rotational equation and equating components.1 m1 2 {) 2 3 or () ==  . It is radius a rolling on a similar fixed dispiaced slightly from the equilibsphere. A solid uniform sphere of mass m and radius a is (b) placed on top of a fixed sphere of Fig.. assuming that no slipping occurs and.
they are not independent as long as no slipping occurs. 728(b) showing the forces acting on the sphere. (7211). we obtain dt d (8L) _ 5 rna.2mga SIn () == 0 or 28. (7206).2mga 28 2080 o()  SIn . let us consider the freebody diagram of Fig. 5g == _ (1 . We can calculate the nonnal force N and the frictional force f which result under the assumption of no slipping. . T == _rna 2(j2 (7209) 5 Lagrange's equation for this system is !{ dt (8L) _ 8L == 0 80 f}() and. (7207) and (7208) into Eq.. 8L . .cos ()) 7a where we have evaluated the constant of integration from the condition that 0 == 0 when () == O. The point 0' moves along a circle of radius 2a at an angular rate O. 5o == 1 sin () 14a Once again we use the substitution {) == we obtain (j2 (7210) and integrating both sides. (7211) 0 dO/d(). . we obtain mg cos () ..V. Using Newton's law of motion relating the radial components of force and acceleration. But also we see that the sphere is rotating with an absolute angul~r velocity 4> about an instantaneous c~nter which is the point of contact. () Thus the equation of motion is 5 ma 2 0 .N == 2ma iJ2 and substituting for 82 from Eq. this reduces to . An equation of holonomic constraint can be found by noting that the velocity of the center 0' can be written in terms of either 0 alone or 4> alone. So we obtain 2aO == a4> or (7208) Substituting fronl Eqs. evaluating the Lagrangian function L == T . 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 347 1 \ I \ Although we have used both (j and 1> as coordinates. In order to state the necessary conditions for slipping to begin. we find that the kinetic energy is 14 .SEC.
(7210) and (7215). It is placed in contact with a plane inc1ined at an angle a to the horizontalFig. (7213) where we note from Eq.0°. Assume that JL > tan a. that is. we obtain 14a or 5g sin () == 5JLg (17 cos () .8°. If there is a coefficient of friction JL for sliding between the cylinder and the plane. 729(a). For JL == 0.5. find (a) the distance the cylinder moves before sliding stops . 2 .l~ (1. we see from Eqs.cos 0) ] == "!.10) 28a sin 0 = .. we find that slipping begins at () == sin 1 (7JL/2). (7213). the value of () turns out to be () == 41. and (7214) that 8 == 5JLg (17 cos () . The sphere will roll without slipping if f < JLN. (7214) So at the position where slipping begins. (7208) that ¢ == 28.10) 28a (7215) Equating the expressions for 8 from Eqs. For example. we set JL == 00 and find that () == cos. (7212). A freebody diagram of the forces acting on the cylinder is shown in Fig. if JL 1. fL(17 cos 0 . 7 I 'J I N = mg [ COS 0 . A uniform circular cylinder of mass m and radius a is given an initial angular ve1. the condition of incipient slipping is /== JLN .g (17 cos () M==I¢ 10) (7212) The force f can be calculated from the equation where the reference point is at the center of mass of the moving sphere.ocity roo and no initial translational velocity. ~ i . In ~he limiting case of a perfectly rough surface. af== ma 2 ¢ 5 or /== Smaf) 4 .1 (10/17) == 54..348 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. « Example 710. Thus.10) (7216) This transcendental equation ~an be solved for the value of () corresponding to a given coefficient of friction JL. (b) the maximum distance it travels up the plane.
Equating Jft to the change in the angular momentum about 0.Lg cos a (7219) We can use the equation of linear impulse and momentum to calculate the velocity of the center 0 in a direction parallel to the plane. Choosing the center of mass 0 as the reference point. The forces acting on a uniform circular cylinder while sliding and rotati~g relative to an inclined plane. I I I ( b) Hence we.L cos a . 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 349 \ \ I . The angular impulse is . since the component of acceleration normal to the plane is zero. (7220) where the positive direction is up the plane. resulting in N == mgcosa 1 . from Eqs. 2J. 729(b). we obtain mg(J. Therefore.sin a) (roo . we obtain . we see that v == aro.sin a) t == mv . assuming that sliding occurs. t == a(roo . the forces in this direction must sum to zero.ro) 2J.Lg cos a or .ro) == aro .LNat I (7217) I where a clockwise rotation is considered to be positive. Since the translational velocity is zero at t == 0.L cos a . At the moment sliding stops and pure rolling begins.I. ag(J. we obtain (7218) We recall from Example 75 that the moment of inertia about the center IS (0) ! t I I I \~ I \ I 1== ma 2 2 Also. we can use the equation of angular impulse and lTIOmentum to calculate the time t required to decrease the angular velocity to a value ro.At == . (7219) and (7220). 729.J.I I SEC.find that the time required to reach an angular velocity ro is Fig.
we obtain d.sin a (7221) From Eqs. Eq. Thus we" can write 1 1 2 "2 mv 2 +"2 [ro ' == mgdsIn a 2 Substituting for I.L cos a . 2 = 3a 2 co~ (J. Calling this distance d 2 .L > tan a. (7223) indicates its position. the initial position of the cylinder is its highest location on the plane.L cos a . If we extrapolate backward in time from the initial condition of the system.sin a)2 (7223) To find the distance traveled by the cylinder from the point where sliding stops until its velocity is zero.L cos a . We recall from Sec. and ro from the foregoing equations and solving for d 2 . v. This example illustrates some important ideas concerning the principle of work and kinetic energy as it applies to rigid bodies. ! .sIn ) a 4g sin a (3fL cos a .L cos a  sin ay 4g sin a (3J.sin a)2 2 . the time at which sliding stops is found to be t = afiJo g(3J. the use of energy methods in solving this problem requires a clear understanding of the work of the frictional forces. we equate the loss of kinetic energy during the interval to the gain in potential energy. we use the principle of conservation of energy.L < tan a.L cos a . (7222) for this case corresponds to the time when sliding began and the value of d 1 obtained from Eq. On the other hand.sin a) (7224) The maximum distance traveled up the plane is d= d 1 +d 2 = (7225) We have assumed that J.sin a) 2g(3J.350 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. Hence the distance traveled while sliding is d 1 = ~ vt 2 = a 2 ro~(fL cos a .sin a) (7222) The forces acting on the cylinder remain constant during the sliding and therefore the acceleration is constant..L COoS a . we find that the negative time obtained from Eq.sin a) roo 3J. In particular. sliding never ceases because the angular acceleration multiplied by the radius a is less than the linear acceleration down the plane. a 2 roo ( fL cos a . This corresponds to the case where ro is positive and the cylinder is moving up the plane at the time sliding stops. (7223) remains valid. (7219) and (7221). For all cases where J. if fL < } tan a. 7 ro = (J. 32 that the work done by a force F acting on a particle as it moves from point A to point B is . If §.tan a < JL < tan a. "co is negative at the time sliding stops. but since the cylinder moves down the plane throughout its motion.
Now let us use these methods in a further analysis of this example in which a cylinder is rolling and sliding on an inclined plane. then the sum of the work done by A and the work done by B is equal to the energy WF lost in friction. For the case of this example. The particles in the road have no motion. Similarly. that is. it is helpful to write the work integral in the form tB W == J F • v dt tA (7226) To calculate the work done on a given system by the force F. the friction loss W F is a function of the relative motion of the two bodies and hence is the same for any inertial reference frame. a point on the body. In examining this question. the force exerted by the road on the tires has a component in the direction of the acceleration. We note. nanlely. This occurs because the velocities of the particles at the contact surface may be quite different for the two bodies. The difference is the energy lost in friction. Note that it is not the velocity of the point of application of the force.WB) received by B. however. however. assuming that no other moving bodies or working forces are involved. First let us equate the initial total energy·to the total energy at the moment when sliding stops plus the energy lost due to friction. In general. It is apparent that if two bodies slide relative to each other. dr For the case of forces whose point of application moves relative to an extended body. Although W A and W B depend upon which inertial frame is chosen as a reference for these computations.utomobile arises from the work done by an internal source. we interpret v as the velocity (relative to an inertial frame) of the point in the body to which the force is instantaneously being applied. Taking the reference for potential . we see that work is done by the slipping cylinder against friction. the question arises as to whether dr refers to an infinitesimal displacement of the force. The increasing kinetic energy of the a. 713 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 351 W= S:F. and therefore the road does no work. then the work done by one body may not be equal to the work done on the other. what might be loosely called the velocity of the point of the force vector. that if an automobile accelerates along a straight and level road. we see that v is the absolute velocity of the point which is instantaneously exerting the force. but no work is done on the inclined plane since it does not move. to calculate the work done by a system exerting a force. if A does work on B by means of frictional forces. the work done by A may exceed the mechanical energy (.SEC. if body A slides relative to body B. WA + WB == W F For example. the engine. for example. or perhaps neither.
The energy lost in friction is equal to the frictional force multiplied by the relative displacement of the sliding surfaces./ I ! energy at the initial position of the center q. WI = flmg cos a (afJ . (7226). the work done by the cylinder against friction due to a rotational displacement (J is = MfJ = JLmgafJ cos a But the work We is equal to the loss of rotational kinetic energy during the' same interval. where we note that the translational kinetic energy is twice the rotational kinetic energy for this case of pure rolling of a uniform circular cylinder. 729(b)is equipollent to a parallel force acting at the center o plus a couple of magnitude M = /LNa = JLmga cos a applied to the cylinder in a counterclockwise sense.d1) (7229) where fJ is the absolute rotational displacement of the cylinder during the period of sliding. Now let us calculate the work of a couple M moving through a displacement fJ. namely.352 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. by noting that the friction force JLN acting on the cylinder at the point of contactFig. however. whereas the force applied at 0 does no work in a rotation about o. Thus we can write Ei = EI + WF or ! ma2(00~ . E t 1 = T ma 2' mo 2 (7227) The final value of the total energy is EI 3 = 4 rna 2 m2 ' + mgdSIn a 1 (7:228) ~.3(0 2) = JLI1lgaf} cos a . we can write the rotational counterpart of Eq.sin a) (7230) So far. For the more general case where the moment M and the angular velocity cu of the body have arbitrary directions. or . (7231) For the problem at hand. 7 . w= f tA M· cud! We tB . A separation can be made.mgdl (IL cos a . It can be seen that the couple does no work in a translational displacement. we have lumped together the rotational and translational aspects of the motion in equating energies. however. namely. we find that the initial value of the total energy is just the initial kinetic energy. .
Introduction to Theoretical Mechanics. (7232) from Eq. Reading.Particles.REFERENCES BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 353 (7232) This is the equation of work and kinetic energy for the rotationaJ motion.sin a) I 2g(3JL cos a . 4. and e. we obtain that the total rotation of the cylinder during sliding is e aro~(2JL cos a . Halfman..sin a)2 (7234) The total energy dissipated in friction is found by substituting these expressions for d 1 and f) into Eq.L cos a .sin a) (7233) is the equation of translational work and kinetic energy. (7230). W.. . R. From Eqs. H. (7221) and (7232). Frazer. 1950... the energy loss in friction is independent of the coefficient of friction J. 1962.sin a) (7235) Note that.a2 ro~(J. this equation could have been written directly. Dynamics. we find that the sliding distance is d . Subtracting Eq. we have three equations of work and kinetic energy.. (7221) and (7233). A.sin a)2 in agreement with our earlier results. At this point.L cos a . Reading. from Eqs. J. REFERENCES 1. where both forces are applied at the center O. 2. (7221) which we obtained earlier using impulse and momentum methods. Goldstein. As a third independent equation. 1954. New York: Cambridge University Press. Of course.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Classical Mechanics. Becker. R.L for J. Rigid Bodies and Systems. R. The result is w F JLma 2 oo~ cos a 2(3J. however. R. 3. Mass. Mass. and A. L. Collar. Duncan.L cos a . A.LN and the gravitational force. New York: McGrawHill Book Company. we can use Eq..L > o. namely. Also.. ma 2 ru 2 = mgd1 (JL cos a . we obtain ~ T~is 'Ki!.. It equates the increase in translational kinetic energy to the work done by the force J.. (7229).sin a) g(3J. 1960. if a == 0. Elementary Matrices.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. db 00. but only two are independent. There are three unknowns.
Englewood Cliffs. z) system.354 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. 78. New York: McGrawHill Book Company. 76. find the location (x.j2Ixx /m). N. 77. Assuming that the origin of this bodyaxis system is fixed. but there is only one point. At a given instant the angular velocity of a rigid body is (d = coxi + coyj and its angular acceleration is m== axi. PROBLEMS 71. each of mass m. Synge. Be.J. COy. each of mass m/3. A certain rigid body has an inertia matrix [I] == 0 01 [ 004 2 0 4 0 lb sec2 ft Then a rotation of coordinate axes is performed such that <p = 71:/2 and the rotation occurs in a positive sense about an axis through the origin in the direction (i + j). Determine the inertia matrix in the (x. solve for an equivalent set of particle positions as a function of the total mass m and the moments of inertia lxx. Methods of Applied MatheffJatics. 72. v'lxx/2m). L. J. A certain rigid body has the following inertia matrix: . y.. Show that a uniform thin triangular plate of mass m is dynamically equivalent to a set of three rigidlyconnected particles. where (i. 3rd ed.j3Iyy/2m. which are placed at the following (x. and B.. and ax are nonzero. 7  ) I 5. Three particles. Griffith. y. which are necessary to duplicate the inertial properties of a given rigid body? Using a principal axis system at the mass center. Find the principal moments of inertia about the center of mass.v lxx/2m). A.. y. 1959. Find the rotation matrix [I] and the resulting inertia matrix. 79. A rigid body consists of a particle of unit mass at each of the four corners of a regular tetrahedron of unit edge length. z) of a point in the body whose absolute acceleration is a == axi + ayj + azk. each of mass m/3.: PrenticeHall. I yy . which has zero acceleration. and z axes. j. 1952. in general. and (. F. k)are a set of cartesian unit vectors fixed in the body and li>x. Hildebrand. it is impossible for only one point of a general rigid body to have zero velocity. at a given instant. 73. 6. Show that. which are placed at the midpoints of the three edges. What is the minimum number of equal particles. .j3Iyy/2m. connected by rigid massless rods. . (. Show that a thin plate of mass m and arbitrary shape is dynamically equivalent to a set of three rigidlyconnected particles. are located at a unit distance from the origin along the x. Find the orientation of three principal axes passing through the center of mass and evaluate the corresponding inertia matrix. respectively. I zz · 74.. 75.y) positions in a bodyaxis system at the mass center: (0. Principles of Mechanics.
714. Find the angle through which the turntable rotates. 710. it walks (relative to the turntable) along the chord to B. e B Fig. radius r. Consider a rigid body of nlass m = 4 lb sec2 jft whose inertia matrix at the center of mass is [I'] == [ 15~ 25~ 100 0 100] o lb sec2 ft 300 as in Example 74. P713 Fig. Solve for a translation of axes to an unprimed system such that a principal axis system results. P714 . 713. b. A solid homogeneous sphere of mass mo and radius a rolls on a triangular prism of mass m which can slide on a frictionless floor. and seeing food at B.\ PROBLEMS BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 355 I \ 450 [I] == . 712. A horizontal turntable with a nloment of inertia I is free to rotate without friction about a fixed vertical axis through its center o. a dog of mass m is placed at A. and c. solve for the velocity of the prism as a function of tinle. assuming that the moment of inertia of the dog about its own mass center is negligible. The shell is bounded by two ellipsoidal surfaces of the same shape which have a conlmon center. Assuming that the system is initial1y motionless. about a dia'meter. Find the moment of inertia of a thin uniform spherical shell of mass m. Find the principal nlonlents of inertia at the center of a thin ellipsoidal shell of mass m. Find the rotation matrix such that a minimum rotation angle <P is required. With the turntable initially at rest. respectively. 711. The semimajor axes of the shell are a.60 [ 100 60 100] 500 7 lb sec2 ft 7 550 Solve for the principal moments of inertia at the same reference point. Evaluate <P. Discuss the possibility of obtaining principal axes by translation in the general case.
calculate the translational acceleration of the cylinder if there is a coefficient of friction /L between the bumper and the cylinder. A truck pushes a solid circular cylinder of mass m and radius r along a level road.e must strike the . 718. find: (a) the linear and angular velocities of the cylinder just after the paper is removed. m(O) == roo. A solid cylinder of mass m and radius r rests on top of a thin sheet of paper which. Assuming a coefficient of sliding friction /L and initial conditions x(O) == 0. It pushes with a force having a horizontal component F. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length I can rotate freely about a fixed pivot at one end. Assuming that an interval D. P717 717. and sliding of the paper relative to the cylinder occurs throughout this interval.I 715. v(O) == vo.t is taken to remove the paper. out from under the cylinder. v 719. if any. (b) the displacement and velocity of the cylinder for very large values of time. What is the minimum value of the coefficient of sliding friction /L which is necessary to cause the cube to tip over. Assuming that the bumper is flat and vertical. Suddenly the paper is pulled to the right.. occur in the results if the cube slides directly up or down a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal? 716. There is no slipping of the cylinder relative to the road. A uniform sphere of mass m and radius r moves with planar motion along a horizontal surface. where Vo > rroo. (b) the displacement x at which sliding stops. assuming that its initial velocity Vo is sufficiently large? What changes. P716 Fig. The coefficient of friction between ail surfaces is JL.356 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. in turn. Then a particle of mass mo which is traveling horizontally with velocity Vo hits the rod and sticks to it. P718 at which the partic. find: (a) the velocity of the sphere for large t . A solid uniform cube of mass m and edge length a slides along a horizontal plane in a direction normal to its leading edge. lies on a horizontal plane. Initially it hangs motionless. / Fig. 7 . Find the distance x from the pivot Fig.
What is the force Fy exerted by the floor at the instant immediately before the bar first becomes horizontal? e .1 exists' between the sphere and the floor.5. P721 .. P720 Fig. each of mass m and length I. are connected in tandem to form a double pendulum.1_ PROBLEMS BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 357 rod in order that no impulse occurs at the pivot at the instant of impact. 8(0) == 0.01 and a coefficient of restitution e == 0. Assuming that the system initially hangs motionless. What is its final motion? 724. Initially it is spinning with an angular velocity (i)o == voir about a horizontal axis. Two thin uniform rods. Assuming that t ~ R. What is the anguJar rotation rate of the rod immediately after impact for this case? 720. A thin uniform rod of length I and mass m is pivoted at one end so that it can move in the vertical plane. find the linear velocity of the center of the rolled portion of the rug at the moment when its radius r has been reduced to ~ R. find the distance x from the pivot 0 at which a transverse impulse :17. 725. r(O) == ii. Assuming that a coefficient of friction fL == 0. and .(0):: 0. find the initial value of the force of the pivot 0 acting on the rod. A solid homogeneous sphere of mass m and radius r is dropped such that it strikes a horizontal floor with a vertical velocity Vo. Solve for the angular acceleration (j as a function of for the bar of Example 78 after it leaves the wall. A particle of mass m can slide without friction on the rod. Fig.9 exist for contact between the disk and the wall. A flexible rug of uniform thickness t and total mass m is initially rolled up to form a cylinder of radius r(O) == R. Initially the disk is not rotating but is translating with velocity Vo along a path lying at a perpendicular distance 3a from the center O. solve for the final translational velocity of the sphere. Write the differential equations of motion using rand 8 as coordinates. A uniform disk of mass m and radius a slides on a smooth horizontal circular area of radius 6a. It is released with zero velocity and proce~ds to unroll without slipping on a horizontal floor.. the bouncing or the slipping? 723.:and the coefficient of restitution is e == 0. Which stops first. If the system is released with the initial values 8(0) == 0. should be applied such that the two rods maintain their relative alignment immediately after the impulse is applied. It is surrounded by a wall at its perimeter such that a coefficient of friction fL == 0. 721. Where does the energy go at the end of the unrolling process? 722.
and II == 12 == ~mlri. and x is the distance between the center of mass of the rod and the contact point at the edge of the table. The wheels are pressed together with a normal force N. It is disturbed slightly and falls. 731 . and corresponding moments of inertia II and 12 . P724 726. What is its angular rotation rate when its upper end hits the floor? 729. however. 730. find: (a) the final rotation rates of the wheels.8/ 2. 7 . Use () and x as coordinates. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length I is balancing vertical1y on a horizontal floor. where r is the radial distance from 0. Suddenly the lower end is moved with a constant velocity Vo along a straight line on the floor. What is the angular velocity of the rod as it strikes the floor? 728. In this case. Assuming a coefficient of friction JL for sliding between the wheels. rotate on frictionless parallel shafts. Assuming that m 2 /ml = rl/r2 == 2. and (b) the time required for the sliding to stop. A particle of mass m can slide without friction in a groove cut in the' disk in the form of a spiral r = r oe. A disk with a moment of inertia I = t mr~ is free to rotate without friction about a vertical axis through its mass center at o. P723 Fig. Initially the disk is motionless and the particle is moving such that r(O) = ro and 0(0) = 00 • Find rmin for the particle in the ensuing motion.I i x m L 1 Fig. no external forces act the system. solve for the e on . and is the position angle measured relative to the disk.358 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. The center of mass of the rod is assumed to lie beyond the edge. Two spinning wheels of radii rl and r 2. A uniform thin rod of mass m and length I is balancing vertically on a smooth horizontal floor. Write the differential equations for the motion in a vertical plane of a thin rod of mass m and length I which can rotate and slide without friction relative to the edge of a fixed table. 727. Consider again the system of problem 730 in which the wheels are pressed together by a force acting between the shafts such that a normal component N occurs at the contact point. the shafts being held fixed in the process. where () is the angle between the rod and the horizontal table surface.
For the system of problem 736. A unifonn semicircular cylinder of mass m and radius r rests on a horizontal plane. 734. Find the coefficient of friction JL if the rod makes an angle 8 == 30° with the vertical at the moment when slipping begins. find an expression for its angular velocity iJ in terms of where is the angle between the rod and the vertical. (b) the plane is perfectly smooth. P729 Fig. regardless of the value of the coefficient of friction. An infinitesimal Fig.··· 7 t·. If 8(0) == 0 and 8(0) == 8o. 737. 735. A particle of mass m is attached at its upper end. One end is constrained to move without friction along the x axis. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length I moves in the horizontal xy plane. and the angle between the rod and the positive x axis by 8.· PROBLEMS BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 359 P Fig. e . Designating the position of the constrained end by x. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length I is balanced vertically on a horizontal surface. P730 final rotation rates of the wheels and the tinle required for the slipping to stop. solve for the angular velocity 8 of the rod in terms of 8. 733.:. A thin unifonn rod of Inass m and length I is initially balancing vertically on a smooth horizontal surface. For the system of problem 734. Write the differential equations for small motions about the position of equilibrium for the following cases: (a) the cylinder rolls without slipping. solve for iJmax. 736. find the range in 8 over which it is impossible for slipping to begin. e e. P732 disturbance causes it to fall. Let be the angle of rotation of the cylinder from its equilibrium position. 732. If the system is disturbed slightly and falls. find the differential equations of motion for the system.
assuming that 8 ~ 1 and that I and k are much smaller than R. where e is the angle of the pendulum R from the local vertical and cp gives the position of the box on the earth's surface.360 BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS CHAP. There is a moment of inertia I about the axis of symmetry and the initial conditions are n(O) == no. A despinning device for an axially symmetric satellite consists of two flexible thin ropes. P740 for the length I which will result in the . Initially the bars are hanging vertically and are motionless. each having a particle of mass m at its free end. A horizontal force F(t) is applied to a small box of mass mo which slide"s without friction along a great circle of the earth. P738 Fig. Fig. P739 739. A physical penduF(t) )II lum of mass m and radius of gyration k (about the center of mass) is suspended inside the box from a pivot at a distance I from the mass center of the pendulum. Then a particle of mass m o. Using the angles 8 and cp to Earth indicate the configuration of the system. /(0) == O. Solve Fig. strikes the joint between the bars inelastically. traveling horizontally with velocity vo. 740. but are free to unwind in a symmetrical fashion such that each has a straight length / which increases as the unwinding proceeds. each of mass m and length I. Solve for the angular velocity of each bar immediately after impact. These ropes are initially wound around the circular crosssection of the satellite. 7· 738. Two thin uniform bars. Find the rope length / at the moment when the angular velocity n becomes zero. are connected by a pin joint to form a double pendulum. write the differential equations of motion.
742. show that the velocity change of Pi is where Ip is the moment of inertia about a transverse axis through P. solve for the period of the motion in B. Initially the system has a square configuration in the vertical plane with point C directly below A. Note: A pendulum having this period is known as a Schuler pendulum.PROBLEMS BASIC CONCEPTS AND KINEMATICS 361 motion of B being independent of F(t). each of length 1 and nlass m. If the vectors pc and Pi indicate the positions relative to P of the mass center and a general point Pi' respectively.vp occurs in the velocity of P. Suppose that a linear impulse is applied at point P in the principal plane such that a sudden change b. What is the velocity of point A immediately after the impact? h ???????i???????????????????????? Fig. Four thin unifornl bars. It is dropped through a height hand C strikes the floor inelastically. are joined together by pin joints at their ends to form a rhombus ABCD. For this value of I. Assume that R¢2 renlains much smaller than the acceleration of gravity. P742 . 741. Consider the impulse response of a rigid body of mass 111 having planar nlotion parallel to a principal plane.
362 . we obtained the translational equation: F ·· = mrc 'I ! I. provided that the reference point for calculating the external moment M and the angular momentum H is taken at the center of mass or at a fixed point. On the other hand. A number of methods will be presented. As was shown in Chapter 7. a rigid body with one point fixed has only three degrees of freedom. Also in Chapter 7 we found that the equation of rotational motion.I \ " 8DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY Now we turn to a more general consideration of rigidbody dynamics with particular emphasis on rotational motion in three dimensions. rc is the acceleration of the center of mass. and F is the total external force acting on the system.. only the rotational equations need be considered for this case. at most. A separation of the translational and rotational equations of nlotion is usually accomplished whenever it is possible. (81) and (82) can be solved separately. For the case of general motion of a rigid body. one usually chooses the center of mass as the reference point. Sometimes we shall use several approaches to solve an example in order to compare the various methods. Since these degrees of freedom correspond to rotational motions. namely. 81. others are best suited for obtaining solutions to particular types of problems. (81) where m is the total mass. hence this equation of motion applies equally well to rigid bodies. If the force F is independent of the rotational motion. and if the moment M is independent of the motion of the center of mass. we can consider a rigid body as a particular case of a system of particles. GENERAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION In the discussion of the dynamics of a system of particles given in Chapter 4. Some are useful in illustrating the physical principles underlying the motion. (82) applies in this simple form to a rigid body. then it can be seen that Eqs.
I I" \. and z axes. Hence the evaluation of fIx. and Hz are the instantaneous values of the projections of H onto the x. This implies that ro == 0)' (86) x Using this bodyaxis coordinate system we see from Eqs. (85) and (86) that Hx Hy Hz . 81). 81. Expressions for H x. We obtain (83) where (H)r is the rate of change of the absolute angular momentum with respect to 0. H y .. Consider first the general case in which the body rotates with an absolute angular velocity 00' and the xyz system rotates at an absolute rate 00 (Fig. 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 363 . and fIz involves time derivatives of these moments and products of inertia as well as derivatives of the components of ro'. and Hz were given in Eq.~y == == == + lxy(})y + Ixz(})z l yx (})x + Iyy(})y + Iyz(})z lzx (})x + I zy roy + Izz (i)z . A rotating rigid body. as viewed by an observer on the moving xyz system. This makes for rather complicated equations in z the general case so we shall make the assumption that the xyz system is fixed in the rigid body and rotates y with it. SEC. it is apparent that the moments and products of inertia vary with time. Suppose that the reference point is taken at the origin 0 which coincides with the center of mass or a fixed point. if H x . In 'other words. then (84) where the unit vectors i. In terms of the present notation. j. we can write an expression for the absolute rate of change of H. H y . Fig. f General Rotational Equations. Now let us use the general expression given in Eq. y. and k rotate with the xyz system. (82) to describe the rotational motion of a rigid body. (714). fI y . lxx(})x (87) X Also. Using Eq. (290). . they are as follows: Hx H y Hz == == == lxxro~ + lxy(})~ + lxz(})~ lyx (})~ + lyy (})~ + lyz (})~ Izx(})~ + lzy(})~ + lzz(})~ (85) For the general case in which the angular rotation rate of the coordinate system is arbitrary.
) Ixz(w x .co. this is a most difficult procedure. (811) reduces to .Hyffiz)i + (Hxffi z . solve for ffi as a function of time. anq assuming that M is a known function of time as well as of the position and velocity of the body.Hyffi z My = Iyxwx + Iyyw y + Iyzw z + Hxffiz .Hzco x Mz = Izxw x + Izyw y + Izzw z + Hyco x .COXco y) + (Ixx .Hzcox)j + (Hyffi x . the calculation of the required external moments is usually a relatively straightforward procedure.co.Izz)coxco z + Ixz(co. Noting that Iij = I ji and collecting similar terms we obtain Mx = Ixxwx + Ixy(w y .Iyy)coyco Z (811) Suppose that the constant values of the moments and products of inertia are known. On the other hand. H y. Euler's Equations of Motion. if one is given the rotational motion. Thus we obtain Mx H must = lxxwx + lxyw y + Ixzw z + Hzco y . in theory. With this choice of body axes. k mX H = COx Hx COy Hy CO z Hz (89) = (Hzco y . A considerable simplification can be made in the general rotational equations of motion if the xyz coordinate axes are chosen sl:lch that they are principal axes at the center of mass or at a point fixed in space.COxffi z) + Ixz(w z + COXco y) My = Mz = + Iyz(co~ .Ixx)ffixffi y + Ixy(co. and Hz from Eq. For a given set of initial conditions. .co~) + (Izz . In general~ however.Hxffiy)k From Eq. 8 fIx = Ixxro x + Ixy@y Hy Hz + Ixz@z = Iyxwx+ Iyyro y + Iyzw z = Izxw x + Izyw y + Izzw z (88) Now let us evaluate m i j X H using the determinant form of the cross product.364 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. . we see that corresponding components of M and be equal. (82). (87).lOylOJ + Iyz(w y + 6.) Ixy(w x + ffiyCO z) + Iyyw y + Iyz(w z .>x ID z) + Izzw z + (Iyy . one can. They can be given in greater detail by substituting for H x.Hxco y (810) \ '" These are the general rotational equations of motion in terms of a bodyaxis coordinate system. all products of inertia vanish and Eq.
that they are nonlinear in general and it may be difficult to solve analytically for (I) as a function of time. however. (i)1I' and (i)z do not correspond to any physical angles which might be used to give the orientation of the body. as we have seen previously. Note. we use Eq. k are an orthogonal triad of unit vectors which are fixed in the body. if the applied forces rotate with the body. So if one wishes to solve for the orientation. Coordinate transformations are often included as a part of the computation procedure if the equations are solved by means of an electronic computer. Bodyaxis Translational Equations.SEC. They are relatively simple and are widely used in solving for the rotational motion of a rigid body. j. (81) in the form F == mv (813) where F is the total external force acting on the rigid body and v is the absolute velocity of the center of mass. or perhaps solve the rotational equations in terms of the other coordinates froln the beginning. In order to find the absolute acceleration v referred to the bodyaxis coordinate system. Furthermore. one must transform continuously to another set of coordinates. we can write (814) and (815) where i. the time integrals of (i)x.vy(i)z)i + (vx(i)z . Let us write the translational equation given by Eq. This might occur. The resulting equation is (I) X v == (vz(i)y . 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 365 Mx == Ixxwx My == Mz == + (Izz Iyyw y + (Ixx I zz Wz + (Iyy  Iyy)(i)y(i)z Izz)(i)z(i)x Ixx) (i)x (i)y (812) '" These are known as Euler's equations o. particularly if the applied forces are most easily specified in the bodyaxis systenl. (89). for example. It may be convenient to solve for the translational as well as the rotational motions of a rigid body in terms of a coordinate system fixed in the body.Vz(i)x)j + (vy(i)x . Expressing these vectors in terms of their instantaneous bodyaxis components. (290) and obtain v == (v)r where + (I) X v (816) (817) (V)r == vxi + vyj + vzk The cross product (I) X v is evaluated by using a determinant similar to that of Eq.vx(i)y)k (818) .fmotion.
we can write the following equations of motion: Fx Fy Fz = m(v x + Vz(i)y = m(v y + Vx(i)z = m(v z + Vy(i)x  Vy(i)z) Vz(i)x) Vx(i)y) (819) The components of co are usually given or are obtained in the solution of the rotational equations. (811). that is.000 lb ft This result could also have been obtained directly from Eq. it rotates with a constant angular velocity such that (i)x = 10 rad/sec and (i)y = (i)z = O. Hence we must transform the velocity components v x . we cannot integrate directly to obtain the components of the absolute displacement. and V z to a fixed coordinate system if we wish to solve for the absolute displacement. It can be seen that the applied moment is constant in the bodyaxis coordinate system. (87) we obtain Hx = /xx(i)x = 1500 lb sec ft By = 0 Hz = /zx(i)x = 1000 lb sec ft Now we can use Eq. V y . 8 . Note that even if we solve for vx . Example 81. Mx=O My Mz = =0 Hz(i)x = 10. and it indicates that the body is dynamically unbalanced when rotating about this axis which . using Eq. [I] =[ l~O 2~O l~O] lb sec2 ft 100 0 300 where the reference point is the center of mass. (810) to solve for the components of the applied moment. (817) apd (818). (813). it rotates with the body.366 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. V y . This result occurs because the body axes are changing their orientation in space continuously. First let us calculate the bodyaxis components of the angular momentum H. From Eq. and V z as functions of time. In terms of bodyaxis components. Then. Consider a rigid body whose inertia matrix is identical with that of Example 74. we obtain the components of the absolute acceleration of the center of mass. This rotating couple is equal and opposite to the inertial couple exerted by the body. that is. ) \ Adding similar components in Eqs. Solve for the components of the total external moment applied to the body.
From Fig. 79.Iz'z')roz'ro x' == 10. A thin uniform bar of mass m and length / is connected by a pin joint at one end to a vertical shaft which rotates at a constant rate n as shown in Fig. 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 367 is fixed in space as well as in the body. Assuming e ~ 1.vs. 79 we note that the inertial couple is due to the centrifugal force of the particles on the x' axis which are whirling about the x axis. 82.rad/ sec Now we can apply the Euler equations given in Eq. Write the differential equation of motion for the system in terms of the angle e. == (Ix'x' .y'5 rad/sec == 0 == .. Example 82.SEC. we see that the components of (J) in the primed system are {ro'} == [/]{ro) where the direction cosine matrix [I] is the same as we found previously in Example 74. Also. Performing the matrix multiplication.000 lb ft M z' == 0 This is in agreement with our previous result since the y and y' axes coincide. . Now let us analyze the same problem using principal axes~ We found in Example 74 that the inertia matrix for principal axes is [I'] == [l~O 2~O ~] lb sec ft 2 o 0 350 where the principal axes are the primed axes of Fig.2. 82. we obtain or l M x ' == 0 rox'l = ) 5 (i)y' [2 0 1 0 ~5~ 0 ro z' 0 2 1] 110l 0 rad/sec 0 ro x ' roy' ro z' == 4. (812) to this primed coordinate system. The moments are found to be My. find the range of n for stability. A thin bar which is attached by a pin joint to a vertical rotating shaft. y Fig.
that is...\ j :.(j 2{) 1 .l l sin () == ll cos () == iJ (821) The only applied moment which can be found easily is the gravitational moment 1\ . Hence an exponentially increasing term occurs inthe solution for (j and it is considered to be unstable in the region near f) == O.368 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.w) {} = ! \ 0 (j (824) The natural frequency of small oscillations about == 0 is (825) I t i It can be seen that ron decreases as . . as can be seen by comparing it with Eq. The stability limit for motion near () == 0 is reached when ron goes to zero. The principal moments of inertia at the fixed point 0 are Iyy == 0 (820) The components of the absolute angular velocity of the rod are ro x roy ro z == . corresponding to a shift in the form of the transient solution from trigonometric to hyperbolic functions of time. (823) by . when II == + {3g ~21 For ll2 > 3g/21 the coefficient of (j in Eq. this equation is identical in form with that of a simple pendulum of length 2//3. cos ()) SIn (j == 0 (823) Note that. "3 m I 2112 SIn (j cos (j Thus the differential equation of motion is (j . + (321g  ll2 . Assuming that (j ~ 1 we can replace Eq.: Mz == "2 mgI· () 1 SIn  (822) Using the third of Euler's equations given in (812) we obtain 1 1 "2 mgI· == 3 mI" sIn.n increases from zero. .S First let us obtain the differential equa~ion of motion using Euler's equation. for II == 0. 8+ Gr . Choose a bodyaxis coordinate system such that the y axis lies along the bar and the z axis is the axis of the pin joint. (3220). (824) becomes negative.
I I I Stability of Rotational Motion about a Principal Axis~ Let us consider now the free motion of a rigid body which is rotating about one of its principal axes. it is apparent that Wx remains constant and Wy == W z = 0. For 0 2 > 3gj21 we have shown that small motions about 0 == 0 are unstable. (823). The equation of motion obtained from Eq.cos 1 2/0 2 correspond to positions of equilibrium. 57. It can be seen that if the system is disturbed slightly from its equilibrium position at 0 == fi o. Therefore this is a position of stable equilibrium.0 . SEC.~ I. Let us analyze the stability of these perturbations in (I). Thus. Assume that the xyz system forms a set of principal axes at the center of mass and these axes are fixed in the body.) Taking a rotation at the constant rate n about the x axis as the reference condition. (See Sec. (823) is DO + 0 2 sin2 0 DO 0 == 0 (826) where SO and SO are the perturbations from equilibrium. We shall consider a general rigid body with unequal principal moments of inertia and assume that the rotation is about the x axis. == 10 SIn 00 I == [ 0 2  ( 2/0 )2J1 2 3g / (827) l r Also. assuming that all applied moments are zero. Thus we find that the values 3g O . 57. (812). one can find a position of stable equilibrium for the 0 motion. From Euler's equations given in Eq. we find from the first of Euler's equations of motion'that . 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 369 I It is interesting to note that. (826) that any small deviation DO results in a restoring moment tending to reduce Sf) to zero. I i o == 0 + DO o== DO 0 . if the system is given a slight disturbance and then is allowed to continue rotating freely. it will no longer rotate solely about the x axis. we can write Wx Wy Wz == 0 + == DWy DW z DW x (828) == Assuming that the perturbations DW x . \. The positions of equilibrium are found by setting 0 == 0 in Eq. DW y . and DW z are much smaller in magnitude than 0 and neglecting the products of these small quantities. We can investigate the stability of small motions about fio == cos 1 (3gj2Z02) by using the perturbation theory discussed in Sec. it is apparent from Eq. even for 0 2 > 3gj2/. the coordinate DO oscillates sinusoidally with the natural frequency Wn I I . On the other hand.
370 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. + (Iyy . (829) with respect to time and substitute the value of ro z from Eq. Since the magnitude of an arbitrary small disturbance does not grow. One can demonstrate the stability of the rotational motion about two of the principal axes. into the air so that it spins initially about one of the principal axes. we can the initial value of ro x .Izz)nro z = 0 Izz ro z (829) rox = 0 redefine n as + (Iyy .lxx)flroy = 0 (830) where we note that both roy and ro z are much smaller than n.Ixx)(Izz . roy will vary sinusoidally with a natural frequency (832) It can be seen from Eq. The solutions for roy and ro z are sinusoidal functions of time and the rotational motion is again considered to be stable. resulting in a solution for roy which has an exponentially increasing term. We have shown. such as a blackboard eraser. . we see that if Ixx is the largest of the principal moments of inertia. the coefficient of roy in Eq. implying that oro x = O. (831) is negative. then the coefficient of roy in Eq. the rotational motion about the x axis is said to be stable. Now differentiate Eq. A similar result occurs if Izz < Ixx < Iyy. We obtain roy . So a rotation about this axis is unstable.. ~LJ 02 roy   0 (831) The coefficient of the roy term is' positive if Ixx is the smallest of the principal moments of inertia. (830). that the rotation of a rigid body about a principal axis corresponding to either the largest or the smallest moment of inertia is dynamically stable. 8 Since ro x is constant. The appearance of . The other two Euler equations are Iyyroy + (I xx . ifIyy < Ixx < I zz . This result applies regardless of the relative sizes of Iyy and I zz . Also we note that the magnitudes of these oscillations in roy and ro z are constant. Now consider the case in which Ixx is the intermediate moment of inertia. Hence a small disturbance in (J) tends to grow if it is applied to a body which is rotating about the principal axis corresponding to the intermediate moment of inertia. Hence for this case. then.that is. This is accomplished by tossing an object. (829) that ro z must vary sinusoidally with the same frequency as roy but will have a phase lead of 90 degrees.i i . (831) is again positive. In a similar fashion. For example. and the instability of motion about the third.Ixx) 1 I yy zz . its magnitude lies between those of the other two principal moments of inertia. These are the differential equations for the perturbations in (J).
the motion is irregular in appearance due to large changes in the location of the axis of rotation relative to the body. The external forces acting on the sphere are the gravitational force mg acting at the center 0 and the force R acting at the contact point P. the effect of the damping is to eliminate any initial nutation or wobbling in its motion. if [xx is the maximum moment of inertia about the center of mass. The nature of this motion will be further explained in the discussion of the Poinsot construction in Sec. Let us express the motion in terms of a fixed cartesian coordinate system which is chosen so that the sphere rolls on the xy plane. Consider R in terms of its two components.SEC. if one attempts to spin the body about the third principal axis. regardless of its initial axis of rotation. In fact. Conversely. then the kinetic energy Trot is maximum. an oblate body. This explains why a satellite which consists of a long narrow rocket spinning about its symmetry axis is unstable in practice and usually begins a tumbling motion within a few hours. on: the other hand. assuming a general set of initial conditions. assuming that no external moments are acting. On the other hand. Hence its final condition is a rigidbody rotation about the principal axis of maximum moment of inertia. 84. R==N+F . Solve for the motion of the sphere. the kinetic energy will continuously decrease to the minimum possible value consistent with the constant angular momentum. then T"ot is the minimum possible for the given H. corresponding to the intermediate moment of inertia. then (i) x H ==Ixx and So if [xx is the minimum moment of inertia. 83. Because of the presence of internal damping. such as a circular disk spinning about its axis of symmetry. a friction force F which acts in the xy plane and a normal force N. It is interesting to note that if a rigid body is spinning about the principal axis of minilTIum lTIOment of inertia. if the rotation is about the x axis. For example. is stable in the presence of internal damping. 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 371 the spinning motion about a principal axis of minimum or maximum moment of inertia is relatively smooth. Example 83. as shown in Fig. This result is important in the analysis of the rotational motion of nearly rigid satellites with internal frictional losses. A uniform sphere of mass m and radius a rolls without slipping on a plane which is inclined at an angle a from the horizontal. namely. it has the largest possible rotational kinetic energy for a given angular momentum about its center of mass.
With the assumption of no slipping at the contact point P. for this case of a uniform sphere. A uniform sphere rolling on an inclined plane. Consequently the angular momentum is given by H = leu (836) where. 8 Fig.i f:) Now let us choose the center 0 as' the reference point for the rotational equations. we find 'that the translational equation is F . 83. Any axis through 0 is a principal axis. we can write an expression for the velocity of the center 0 in terms of the absolute angular velocity eu of the sphere. . v= aw X k X (834) k : (sI35) Using Newton's law of motion. The center of the sphere moves parallel to the xy plane and therefore the force components normal to this plane must sum to zero.372 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. (833).mg sin aj = maw . We obtain v =aeu X k (833) Note that the sphere can spin about an axis normal to the plane at the contact point without slipping. The acceleration of the center is found by differentiating Eq. Hence N = mgcosa We need not consider these force components any further since they do not influence the motion of interest.
we can solve for the tangential force F at the contact point from Eqs. x(O) = (x)o.SEC. we obtain x = Xo + (x)ot + · . (835) and (840).. yielding . if the conditions at t = 0 are x(O) = X o. 7 (841) Since the acceleration is constant. The result is mgasinai + ma 2 (m X k) X k = ~ ma 2 m We note that M. yeO) = Yo. Hence (cO X k) X k = (cO o· k)k . we know from our previous experience (Sec. substitute the value of F obtained from Eq. and therefore cO. (839). and yeO) = (Y)o. Finally. Hence the rotational motion does not change the general nature of the translational motion for this case of a rolling sphere.) 5 ( Y 0 1 . m = SInal 7a (840) The acceleration of the center 0 is found by substituting this expression for cO into Eq.14 gt 2SIn a (842) Y = Yo Note that the path of the center is identical with. that of a particle sliding without friction on a similar inclined plane. 31) that the path of 0 is a parabola whose major axis is parallel to the y axis. mga SIn a I· 7 · = 5 rna 2m or • 5g. . Specifically. each has no z component. (834). the result being 'F = 7mgslnaJ· 2 . (835) into Eq.cO = cO Thus we obtain that . but under a uniform gravitational field of magnitude 5gj7. 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 373 1= 2ma 5 2 (837) The applied moment about 0 is due to F alone and is given by M = aF Xk (838) Using the general rotational equation M = iI. v= gsInaJ 5. (843) . we obtain (839) aF X k = ~rna2cO 5 To solve for the motion of the sphere.
. Suppose that a system of (n + 1) rigid bodies consists of a reference body of mass mo with its center of mass at P and n other bodies of arbitrary mass. I ~y " Fig. in expressing the angular momentum of such a system. Consider . I I I I ·1 \ c. The position of the center of mass of the ith body relative to P is given by the vector Pi and its absolute angular velocity is CUi.studied the dynamics of a system of particles. and rotate with that body at an absolute angular velocity CU o as shown in Fig. We found in Sec. The cartesian XoYo Zo axes are fixed in the reference body with the origin at P. A system of rigid bodies. we can expect the general dynamical principles for a set of particles to apply equally well to one or more rigid bodies. In Chapter 4 we . such as the moments and products of inertia. 84. So let us consider briefly the development of expressions for the total angular momentum of a system of rigid bodies and also for its rate of change. N ow let us find an expression for the total angular momentum of this system of rigid bodies with respect to the origin 0 of the fixed XYZ coordinate system. Nevertheless.m. 8 Systems of Rigid Bodies.374 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. 45 that the angular momentum of a system of particles with respect to a given point is equal to the sum of (1) the angular momentum due to the translational motion of the center of mass. 8. . Since we have considered a rigid body as a limiting case of a rigidly connected set of particles. (2) the angular momentum due to motion relative to the center of mass.4. it is convenient to use rigidbody parameters.
the total angular momentum of the system of rigid bodies is equal to the sum of the angular momenta of the individual bodies. Hence we can use the result for a system of particles given in Eq.. X molp + i=1 fi 2: n X mili (847) where M is the total moment about 0 of the external forces acting on the system. the center of mass of the system. {Ho} == [/0] {roo} {Hd == [Ii] {roi} (845) (846) where [/0] and [/d are the inertia nlatrices with respect to the mass centers of the individual bodies.Pc) X mi(Pi . we can write the components of Ho and Hi using matrix notation. In calculating the location of the center of mass for the system. Another convenient reference point for angular momentum calculations is. Referring again to Fig. Hence we find that the total angular momentum about 0 is H == Ho + i=1 Hi + fp L: n X motp + i=1 fi L: n X miti (844) where Ho and the Hi represent the angular momenta of the bodies about their respective mass centers. The term pc X mopc represents the angular momentum due to the velocity of the mass center of mo. Furthermore. In evaluating Ho and Hh it is often convenient to use a 'set of principal axes at the center of mass of each body. obtain (849) "where the total mass is .. '. (82). • M :. (812) then correspond to the bodyaxis components of H for the given body with respect to its mass center. 84. The righthand sides of Euler's equations given in Eq. From Eq.. individual rotational equations can be written for each body in many instances. the relative motion is derived exclusively from its angu~ar velocity.SEC.Ho + i=1 Hi + fp L: n. namely. (463) to. The general rotational equation of motion is obtained by differentiating Eq. Thus. (738). (844) with respect to time and substituting into Eq.Pc)] (848) where we note that (PiPc) is the position vector of mi relative to the center of mass. Of course. 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 375 ing a rigid body as a system of particles. we see that the total angular momentum 'about the center of mass is Hc == Ho + i=1 ~ Hi n + Pc X mopc + i=1 [(Pi ~ n . we can consider the mass of each body to be concentrated at its own mass center.
(855) . So.pc X mPe (852) Finally. (853) where we note that Oi is the angular velocity of mi as viewed by an observer rotating with the XoYo Zo system. where Me is the moment of the external forces about the center of mass. (851). Thus. (849) and (850) to yield the following result: He = Ho + i= 1 ~ Hi n + i=1 ~ Pi X miPi . using Eq. (848) and simplify by using Eqs. Substituting the expressions of Eqs. (855). (290). The absolute angular velocity CUi of the ith body can be written as the sum of CU o and the angular velocity relative to the reference body. we find that He = n n n Ho + i=1 ~ H~ + i=1 ~ Pi X mi(W O X Pi) + i=1 ~ H~' X + i=1 Pi ~ or n X mi(Pi)r . Hence we can rewrite the matrix expression for Hi as follows: (854) or. that is. i I I I where H~ and H~' are associated with CU o and Oi' respectively. • Me = Ho + i=1 ~ Hi n. let us obtain an expression for the angular momentum with respect to the center of mass in terms of the motions of the various bodies relative to the XoYoZo system which is fixed in the reference body. + i=1 ~ n Pi X miPi . and (857) into Eq. 28 that the apparent rate of change of a vector depends upon the angular velocity of the observer. Next we remember from Sec.Pc X mPe n (851) Next we recall that Me = He.pc mPe (858) where . we obtain (856) and (857) where (Pi)r and (Pe)r are velocities relative to thexoyozo system. (856). 8 m = mo + i=1 mi/ ~ n (850) Now we collect terms in Eq. in vector form.376 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.
So we obtain that the total angular momentum about P is .pc + (Ji~)r X .SEC.. Example 84. (859) and (860). Furthermore. 85. The second body is a thin uniform circular disk of mass ml and radius a which is supported on a massless rod connecting the centers of the bodies. relative to the sphere to be a specified function of time. the system is motionless relative to the XoYoZo system and rotates with it. one usually must also write equations of motion for the individual bodies.2pc X m [(1)0 X (Pc)r] (864) Here we have written the overall rotational equation for a system of rigid bodies in terms of their motions relative to the XoYoZo system (which is a noninertial rotating frame) and the absolute angular velocity (1)0 of that frame. obtaining Me == or. (465). an internal motor applies a couple about this symmetry axis. (861) where H~ and H~ are given by Eqs. The first of a system of two rigid bodies consists of a spherically symmetric body of mass mo and moment of inertia 10 . The remaining terms account for the change of reference point from P to the center of mass. using Eqs. H~ represents the angular momentum about P which is due to motions relative to the XoYo Zo systenl. Again we can equate the external moment Me about the center of mass to the time rate of change of He. as shown in Fig. To solve for the complete motion. On the other hand.pc X m[mo X (mo X pc)] . we see that an expression relating the angular momentum about the center of mass to that about P is as follows: (862) in agreement with Eq. (290) and (858). causing the angular velocity of the disk. 81 H~ DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 377 (859) (860) == Ho + H~ i=1 ~ H~ n + i=1 Pi ~ + i=1 Pi ~ n n X mi «(1)0 X Pi) X mi(Pi)r == i=1 ~ H~' n Note that H~ is that portion of the angular momentum with respect to P which is associated with the rotation of the entire system as a rigid body at an angular velocity (1)0' I n other words. where . Hp  pc X mPe (863) Me == (H~)r . At t == 0. Initially the entire motion of the system consists of a rotation as a single rigid body with an angular velocity cobeb about an axis which is perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the system.pc X m(pc)r + mo X H~ + (1)0 X H~ memo X Pc) . O(t)e a .
designating the axial and transverse moments of inertia. ea is a unit vector which is directed along the symmetry axis. A RIGID BODY CHAP. Thus it can be seen that the transverse component of the angular velocity must maintain the same direction and magnitude in space. Also. solve for its rotational motion. In general. Since we are using a principalaxis system. Returning now to the problem at hand. we see that the axial component of the absolute angular acceleration is directly proportional to the axial moment applied to the body. (812). A sphere and a disk connected to form an axially symmetric system.la)IDaIDy where M a and IDa are the axial components of the applied moment and the absolute angular velocity.378 DYNAMICS OF. we note that Ha = laIDa and it follows that (866) where Ha is the axial component of the total angular momentum of either body about its center of mass. let Ixx = la and Iyy = I zz = It. we are applying equal and opposite axial moments to the sphere and the disk. (865) that the change in the magnitude of the axial component of angular velocity is inversely proportional to the value of I . Therefore the changes in Ha for the sphere will cancel those for the disk. Let us consider first the form of the Euler equations of motion for the case of an axially symmetric rigid body. The total angular momentum of the system is constant since there are no external moments. respectively. respectively . Using Eq. let us take the x axis as the axis of symmetry and assume that the y and z axes are transverse axes through the center of mass. 8 Symmetry _a~~_ Sphere Disk Fig. resulting in a net Ha of zero for the system throughout the motion. In this instance. We note from Eq. 85. Assuming that no external forces or moments act on the system. we can write the equations of motion: Ma Mz = lama (865) = Itm z + (It .
First we find from Eqs. we can evaluate Eq. yielding He == (10 + II + mo/5 + mi/Drobeb (876) The quantity in parentheses is seen to be the moment of inertia of the system about a transverse axis through the mass center. we obtain that the angular momenta of the individual bodies about their respective mass centers are Ho == JOrobeb HI (870) == II robeb (871) where the moment of inertia of the disk about a diameter is II = ! ma == 2 Evaluating the remaining two terms of Eq. So we conclude that the angular velocity of the disk is (867) where the axial lTIOment of inertia of the disk is Ia == 2mla . First let us calculate the angular momentum He of the entire system at t == 0. (870).I faD o + J ea a (868) It is instructive to use this example to illustrate the meaning of some of the terms introduced in the discussion of systems of rigid bodies. (851). and (875). (871).12 In a similar fashion. noting that D(O) == O.SEC. the angular velocity of the sphere is _ (1)0  robeb . Now let us consider the more general case in which t > 0 and calculate Hp in terms of (1)0 and O. (845) and (846). 81 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 379 fa for that body. The sphere is chosen as the reference body and we see that (869) Hence from Eqs. (845) and (868) that . (851) we find that • PI X m i PI m l 12 robeb (872) pc X mPe == (mo + ma l 5ro beb (873) But from the definition of the mass center for this system we have mo/o == mIll (874) and noting that I == 10 + Ih we obtain PI X miPI  pc X mPe == (mo/5 + mi/Drobeb (875) Adding the expressions given in Eqs.
Now we obtain He by using Eq. (862). roy. from Eqs.380 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. as shown in Fig. Referring to the definitions of the Eulerian angles.I~ ! I 82. PI X m 1 «(1)0 X PI) PI X = m 1 12(i)b eb m 1 (Pl)r = 0 (880) (881) Adding the terms indicated by Eqs. 712. (854). In a similar fashion.. we cannot substitute this expression for the kinetic energy directly into Lagrange's equations because the variables (i)x. The last term on the right is evaluated from Eq. (i)y. 8 (877) . we obtain (878) (879) Also. (876). As we mentioned earlier. we obtain He = (10 + II + mol~ in agreement with the result of Eq. and (i)z do not correspond to the time derivatives of any set of coordinates which specify the orientation of the body. however. and (868). Nevertheless. we can use Eq. Assuming a coordinate system consisting of a set of principal axes at the center of mass. and (i)z are the bodyaxis components of the absolute rotation rate (I) of the body. (873). (855). a suitable set of generalized coordinates can be found for the description of the rotational motion. we see that an arbitrary angular velocity (I) of the xyz system can be . These are the three Eulerian angles which were introduced in Sec. and after some algebraic simplification. (859) and (860). EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN TERMS OF EULERIAN ANGLES We turn now to the use of Lagrange's equations in the formulation of the differential equations of rotational motion for a rigid body. + m11D(i)beb . (754) to obtain the following expression for the rotational kinetic energy: (883) where (i)x. we find that the total angular momentum about P is Hp = (10 + II + ml12) (i)b eb {882) Note that it is constant. 723.
.&sin 1> I I \ as can be seen directly from Fig." 0. 86. and cP do not form a Inutually orthogonal vector triad in general. In other words we can write cu == . 6.Y " z. (7166) with '0/' == 0 to obtain the values of the required direction cosines.. Euler angle components of the angular velocity of the xyz system.. 82 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 381 expressed in terms of the time derivatives of these angles except for the case where f) == + 7t /2. 86). and cP are angular velocity vectors associated \\lith changes in the corresponding Eulerian angles (Fig. Conversely. We find that COx COy CO z == == == ¢ t sin f) &cos 1> + t cos f) sin 1> (885) t cos f) cos 1> . Note particularly that the magnitudes of'. and cP onto each of the axes of the xyz system.' and cP are not equal to the orthogonal projections of cu on their respective axes.SEC. however..." 0." OJ and cP to be a set of nonorthogonal con1ponents of cu since their vector sum is equal to cu. CO z ." fJ." 0. except for the case where f) == + 7t/2... 8. It is important to realize that . and cP in terms of COx. . Now let us obtain expressions for cox. we can solve for . Thus it can be seen that 0 is perpendicular to . COY' and CO z by summing the orthogonal projections of .. COy. obtaining 'I I I I x I Y. or by referring to Eq. + 0 + cP (884) where .. z' Fig.. consider . and cP but these last two vectors are not perpendicular to each other. We can.
.' and the x.'0/ SIn 0) These generalized momenta are scalars equal to the magnitudes of orthogonal projections of the angular momentum vector H onto the .'.'. = 8T 8cp ' . and ro z from Eq. (658).382 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID.. respectively. Let us calculate first the generalized momenta by using Eq. 2: /yy(f) cos cp + '0/ . . 8t 8'0/ + I 8 roy yyro y . '0/ cos 0 sin cp)2 (887) + 1· 2: /zz ('0/ cos 0 cos cp . we have . (885).. cos () sin cp cos ¢) (888) + /zz(& sin 2 cp PtP = . and <P axes.. Therefore we find that I I ..' cos 2 0 cos 2 1> ." (). We find that Prb = 8 ~ = . resulting in Trot 1· 1· = 2: /xx(cp . including any arising from a potential function.' are just the cosines of the angles between'.iJ cos 0 sin 1> cos 1» + Po = 8 ~ 80 /yy(& cos 2 cp + +cos {} sin 1> cos 4» ./xx(4) ..~~ = Qi where the generalized force component Qi is in each case a moment about an axis through the center of mass and involves all external forces. and z axes. /xx(cp . 8'0/ But the partial derivatives 8m x /8'.. and 8roz/8'. (6073): . 8 t = (roy sin cp + ro z cos cp) sec 0 (886) iJ = roy cos cp . y. (~~) .8T _ I 8ro x Prb .. Also..· sin 0)2 +.. roy..xxmx. (883) the expressions for ro x . for example. sin cp)2 We obtain the differential equations for the rotational motion by using Lagrange's equation in the form of Eq. sin 0) sin 0 8'0/ + + = /yy(& cos 0 sin cp cos cp + cos 2 0 sin 2 cp) /zz('..BODY CHAP. This can be seen by noting that for the case of Prb.. 8ro y /8'. respectively.f). sin 0 = ro x + (roy sin cp + ro z cos cp) tan 0 The rotational kinetic energy of the body in terms of the Euler angle rates is obtained by substituting into Eq. 8'0/ + I Oro z zzro z .mz sin cp 4> = ro x + .
In the succeeding sections.. (887) and (888) into Eq. we find that these equations apply to an arbitrary rigid body. we shall consider various special cases for which the rotational equations can be obtained in simpler form.. implying that Mrb = Me = M</> =0 (891) It can be seen that the rotational motion is essentially free even if there are forces acting.. 83 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 383 P¢ Pe = !:H •. we mean that no external forces act on the body. Hence the following development will apply to these cases as well. (887) and (888) in obtaining the differential equations of motion by the Lagrangian method. . and cP axes. the generalized momenta are not equal to the magnitudes of component momentum vectors whose sum is the total angular momentum H. Wh~n we recall that we have made no assumptions concerning the relative magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia. FREE MOTION OF A RIGID BODY General Case . and M</> are the moments of the external forces about the . It follows that because a system of nonorthogonal reference axes is being used. Note that oT/oo/ = O.SEC. 8 f) P4> = ~ H • cb where the latter two expressions are obtained by a process similar to the first. As a first simplified case of rotational motion.. By free motion. 8. It can be seen that a substitution of Eqs.. so long as the total external moment about the center of mass (or a point fixed in space· and fixed in the body) remaips zero.M dt of) e dp</> _ dt (890) oT = ocp M </> I \ I where Ml/. 83. (890) results in a rather complicated set of equations in the general case. '0/ (889) = ~H.. Me. let us consider the free motion of a rigid body. Now we can use the expressions given in Eqs. however. We have dprb = Mrb dt dpe _ oT .
for this case of free motion in which there is no longer a "vertical. H. that is.. is fixed in inertial space for this case of no external moments. PrP' and T into the general equations given in Eq.H cos () sin ¢ = Izz(i)z = ..T '0/ cos {) cos ¢ . and attempting a solution. sin cp = T cos {) cos ¢ zz 2 H These equations can be solved for i. (890).f) cos() sin ¢ cos ¢ 4> = H (_1 _ sin cf> _ cos p) sin () H (sin 2 Iyy (896) zz yy 2 2 Ixx Iyy Izz Thus we have obtained the first integrals of the differential equations of motion. 8. (885) and (894). we see that (892) Also. Rather than writing out this set of rather lengthy equations. A convenient choice is to let'.. 8 In the past vie have chosen .384 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. and hence to H. Additional analytic results can be obtained by integrat .r =  ¢ + cos ¢) iJ = H(} . of course." we have the problem of choosing a suitable direction for t. (894) Then from Eqs. A set of secondorder differential equations in the Eulerian angles can be obtained by substituting the general expressions for P1/n Po.r cannot b~ positive. Po .H cos () cos ¢ '0/ SIn () + cp = .. This· direction was assumed to be fixed in inertial space. in the direction of the gravitational force. First we note from the geometry that Hx Hy Hz = Ixx(i)x = H sin f) = Iyyffi y = . however. yy . Note that . but iJ and 4> can have either sign. depending upon the values of (j and ¢ and the relative magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia. {j . and 4> to yield Izz . . to point vertically dov/n\vard.I =0 (893) since (J is always perpendicular to t.. With this assumption. Now. H. we can obtain their first integrals more directly in the following manner.' point in a direction opposite to the angular momentum H which. we can write Ixx sIn () cos () SIn cp (895) '0/ cos f) SIn 1> + () cos cp = .. .
and 1. Principles of Mechanics. 0. (888) can be expressed as follows: p$ == Ia(¢ Po == ItO t sin 0) sin 0 + Itt cos 2 0 (899) Pq. Now let us obtain the general equations of rotational motion for the case of a rigid body which has at least two of its three principal moments of inertia at the mass center equal. thereby implying that IY11 and Izz are equal. respectively. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particle and Rigid Bodies. Synge and B. Let us choose the x axis as the axis of symlnetry. 83 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 385 ing the equations given in Eq. We shall not. 14448 for the details of this derivation. From the point of view of its rotational characteristics such a body can be said to be axially symmetric whether its mass distribution is truly symmetrical or not. the generalized momenta given in Eq. T.>. (896) to yield expressions for '0/. A. are constant. Thus Ixx == Ia Iyy == I zz == It (897) For this case of axial symmetry. 1 Rather.>. however. 3rd ed./dt are zero. Inc. Griffith. Let us define the total spin n by the equation n == ¢ t sin 0 (8100) Then we can write Eq. Axially Symmetric Body. we shall continue a discussion of the qualitative features of the motion when we discuss the Poinsot method in Sec. since the applied moments are zero. 1944) pp. pp. 1959). carry the solution further at this time. (887) can be simplified to the form (898) Similarly. == Ian ISee J. We shall designate the moments of inertia about the symnletry axis and about a transverse axis through the mass center by Ia and It. (899) in the form p$ == Ian sinO Po == ItO + Ittcos 2 f) (8101) pq. This follows from the fact that the kinetic energy is not an explicit function of '0/ or 1.SEC. 37780 or E. (New York: Dover Publications.. Therefore. . it can be shown that p$ and Pq. == Ia(¢  t sin 0) Furthermore. (New York: McGrawHill Book Company. 4th ed. Whittaker. we see that the expression for the rotational kinetic energy given by Eq. we see from Eq. (890) that dpl/J/dt and dpq. all involving elliptic functions of time. 84. L.
(893) and (8101) that () is constant. we have made no assumptions concerning the orientation of the total angular momentum H relative to the XYZ system from which the Euler angles are measured. Now let us choose the direction of the positive x axis such that . On the other hand. we obtain (8104) i' == The relative spin being . Note that an increase of 27t in the angle cp returns the body to the same position relative to a vertical plane which includes the x axis. is positive or zero. and the relative spin cfo. It is important to distinguish between the total spin . This. is in agreement with Eq.n.' (whose magnitude is negative in this case so that it is actually directed upward) and </J which is parallel to the symmetry axis. Solving for i'. 87 for a typical case.n. Notice that the angular velocity OJ can be considered as the sum of an axial component n and a transverse vector of magnitude i' cos f). (884) for the present case wher.e (J is zero. We see from the middle equation of (895) that t (8""""103) indicating that the precession rate t It is constant. On the other hand. The relative orientations of the various vectors are shown in Fig. The total spin n is identical with IDx and represents the amplitude of the orthogonal projection of the absolute rotational velocity OJ onto the axis of symmetry.386 DYNAMICS OF· A RIGID BODY CHAP. (8100) and (8104). we .' vector.H ==  It Ia~ SIn f) ¢ is obtained from Eqs. the result (8105) Thus we see that () is zero. ¢ is independent of any precessional motion the system may have. whereas both i' and ¢ are constant for this case of the free motion of an axially symmetric body. is constant. that is. Ina similar fashion. (8104) that f) is in the interval o < f) < 7t /2. the nature of the motion can be better understood by solving for and ¢. we see from Eqs. OJ is also the vector sum of'. Then we see from Eq. since p¢ is c9nstant. of course. We have seen that n is equal to the axial component IDx of the absolute angular velocity. So far in this analysis of an axially symmetric body. If we now assume once again that H is directed opposite to the'. Hence Prb == H Po == 0 PtfJ (8102) == H sin () Having found that f) is constant. the same points of the body once again lie in this plane.n. 8 where we see that .
. tan fj ro cos a (8110) (8111) n == . We see that (J) ! I (3==f) 7t 2 (8107) It is apparent from Fig.. Axis of Fig. _ 'r  we see from Eqs....In Ha a = (8109) Hence tan a Noting that ~. Vector relationships for the free motion of an axially symmetric body. (8110) and obtain . 87 that tan a == and Q t an fJ  ± cos n f) (8108)  Ht _ Itt cos f) ... It>Ia • see that the total angular momentum given by has axial and transverse components Ha == Ian == Itt sin f) H t == Itt cos f) Let us designate the angle between and let (j be the angle between H and I (8106) and the axis of symlnetry by a t~e axis of symmetry.. (8107) and (8108) that sin a sin {3 ro (8112) Now we substitute for sin {3 from Eq. 87..RIGID BODY 387 symmetry  _ .SEC. 83 H DYNAMICS OF A .. ".
We shall consider two cases~ Case 1: It > lao Direct Precession. 8 (8113) A geometrical model which illustrates the free motion of an axially symmetric body consists of two right circular cones. 88.388 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. The vertex of each cone is located at the mass center of the body and the cones are tangent along a line corresponding to the instantaneous axis of rotation. 88. We can represent the rotational motion in terms of a body cone which we imagine to be fixed in the body and " H Space cone (a) It > Io H Fig. A geometrical representation of the (a) direct and (b) retrograde precession of a freely rotating body. . one fixed in space and one fixed in the body. as shown in Fig.
The space cone becomes a vertical line and the body cone is a vertical plane which revolves about that line. therefore the angular momentum vector H lies between wand the axis of symmetry. 87 and 88(a) we see the similarity in the vector orientations. It can be seen from Fig. (8105).. This case applies to bodies where the largest moment of inertia at the mass center is about the axis of symmetry. If we consider a circular cross section of the body cone which is rolling on a circular cross section of the space cone. 88(b) or from Eq. (8111).. that is. Notice that the total angular velocity w lies along the line of contact between the two cones. and (8114). Finally.a) SIn a (8114) equation is also valid for Case 2 which follows. 88(b).a and (¢t) are each equal to (i). (8104). we see that ¢ is positive and represents the angular rate with which the line of contact moves relative to the body cone. it follows that ¢ == . for fa == 0 the angle «(3a) can come arbitrarily close to t . as can be seen from Eqs. Moreover. Hence the relative angular rates of the contact point are inversely proportional to the corresponding radii. all being in the same plane. (8112).. then a == (3 == 7t/2. Again the body cone rolls on the fixed space cone. including the limiting mathematical idealizations of the thin rod and the circular disk. we see that a > (3. Finally. The axis of the body cone coincides with the symmetry axis of the actual rigid body. Then a and (3 are both zero and the cones become lines. By comparing Figs. This line is the instantaneous axis of rotation since the body cone rolls without slipping. as compared to its motion in Case 1. the body cone rolls on the outside surface of another right circular cone which is fixed in space and is known as the space cone.. 8. consider first a body which is rotating about its axis of symmetry. For this case of direct precession. To illustrate a few of these limiting cases. the condition of rolling requires that the contact point move an equal distance relative to each cross section during any given period. From Eqs.m. Retrograde Precession. for example. The semivertex angles of the cones lie in the ranges 0 < a < 7t /2 and 0 < I(3 . On the other hand. From Eq. and (8111). It is interesting to note that the ratio la/It lies in the range 0 < (fa/ f t) < 2 for axially symmetric hodies.a == 0 and == .SEC. ~ T~is + == sin «(3 .3 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 389 rotating with it. Also note that (3 > a and therefore the w vector lies between the synl1netry axis and the H vector. but in this case it is the inside surface of the body cone which rolls on the outside surface of the space conesee Fig. whereas the axis of the space cone points in the direction of the angular momentum H. such as oblate spheroids. if the body is rotating about a transverse axis.a I < 7t /2. (8105) that ¢ is negative. Case 2: Ia > It. (8110). Hence the w vector moves in the opposite sense relative to the body.
An axially symmetric body with It == lOla is spinning about its vertical axis of symmetry with an angular velocity n. nitude and direction. (476).1 ItO. 89. we know that the change in the angular momentum due to the transverse angular impulse isvlt'. 2 . we see that the maximum angular deviation of the symmetry aXIS IS .In It Hence we find that tan a == == 0. What is the period of the precessional motion? The total angular momentum of the body just before the angular impulse is applied is Ho == laO From the equation of angular impulse and momentum. 89. Solve for the rotational motion and find the maximum angular deviation of the symmetry axis from its original position. The components of Hand (t) immediately after a transverse angular impulse is applied. From Fig. but a transverse component of angular velocity appears which is of magnitude IAxlS of :symmetry I I I I . f'J vf{ o Fig.390 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. 8 rt/2 as' a: approaches zero. ~. 2(:) == ~ . Suddenly an angular impulse of magnitude Jft == Ian is applied about a transverse axis through the center of mass. H remains constant in mag. and since It > la. It can be seen that The axial component n of the total angular velocity OJ is unchanged by the transverse angular impulse. During all further motion of the body. Hence the total angular momentum after the impulse is as shown in Fig. Eq. If a == 0 for a finite ({8a) ceases to existFig. 810. we can use the geometrical model of a body cone rolling on the outside surface of a fixed space cone in order to describe its motion. 8"""78(a). JIt It == Ia n == O.. then H == 0 and the angle Example 85.
9n 84. obtaining . (8104). Noting that () == (3 == 7t/4. A cross section of the space and body cones at the position of maxi mum angular deviation. it applies to the free motion of general rigid bodies as well. 84 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 391 __ Llnitiol position of body cone 1""\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Fig. we saw that the rotational inertia . 810. r == _ ItIan () == _ ~ n sin 10 The time required for one complete precession cycle is T == 27t == 10~ 7t l. This method.Ia It n == 0..I' SEC. is similar in its geometrical nature to the rollingcone method and reduces to it for axially symmetric bodies. However. we can solve for the preceSSIon rate from Eq. THE POINSOT METHOD Now we shall consider another method for analyzing the free motion of a rigid body. cb == It . stated by Poinsot in 1834. Poinsot's Construction.. (8105). In Sec.rl n The relative spin cb is obtained from Eq. 77.
p = (t) IT ro.H _~ H roH~ H Since both the rotational kinetic energy and the angular momentum are constant. kinetic energy is Trot = we find that the length OS is ~ (I) • H = ~ 100 2 peH_ co. 8 characteristics of a rigid body are conveniently expressed by i~s ellipsoid of inertia. the equation of the ellipsoid of inertia is Ilx2 + 12y2 + 13z2 = 1 (8115) where II. showing a principal cross section of the inertia ellipsoid as it rolls on the invariable plane. (751) and (756) that the rotational . (7102). From Eq. . 811. So we see that the point of Invariable plane H Ellipsoid of inertia Fig. and 13 are the principal moments of inertia at the center of mass. 12 . So if the body is instantaneously rotating with an flngular velocity (t) about an axis through 0. We recall that the distance from the origin 0 to any point P on the surface of the ellipsoid of inertia is inversely proportional to the square root of the moment of inertia of the body about the axis OP (Fig. The Poinsot construction.392 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. the direction of rotational motion and the moment of inertia about the instantaneous axis are both given by the vector p drawn from 0 to P. If we choose the center of mass as the origin of a cartesian set of principal axes. Noting from Eqs.y I (8116) N ow let us evaluate the length of the orthogonal projection of ponto the constant vector H. it is apparent that OS is also constant. 811).
j. Furthermore. or VF. we conclude that the invariable plane is tangent to the inertia ellipsoid at P. This can be accomplished by finding the gradient of the function F(x. each having a slightly different value of F. with the point 0 and the invariable plane remaining fixed in space. y. (8118) is changed slightly. (387). having shown that the normal to the inertia ellipsoid at P is parallel to H. So. Now let us calculate the direction of the normal to the ellipsoid of inertia at P. This plane is fixed in space and is known as the invariable plane. Now we write an expression for the angular momentum H about 0. z) are the cartesian components of p. 84 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 393 the vector p moves in a plane which is perpendicular to the angular momentum vector H and intersects it at S. y. as the righthand side of Eq. the instantaneous axis of rotation passes through the contact point P at all times. (8115) that the equation of the ellipsoid of inertia in the principal axis system is (8118) F(x. We have found that the point P at the tip of the p vector lies in the invariable plane and also on the surface of the inertia ellipsoid. z) == 1 This procedure can be visualized by noting that. namely. so the rotational motion of the rigid body is also described by the rolling of the inertia ellipsoid on the invariable plane. the direction in which F increases most rapidly is the direction of the outward normal. It is important to realize that the Poinsot method gives an exact representation of the free rotational motion of a rigid body. we see that H and V F are parallel if lOx: my : mz == x: y : Z (8121 ) That this proportionality actually exists is evident from the fact that (x. Also. and k are the usual cartesian unit vectors which point in the directions of the principal axes in this instance. y. z) == 11x2 + 12y2 + 13z2 (8117) where we recall from Eq. H == 11(i)xi + 12myj + 13mzk (8120) Comparing Eqs. So the ellipsoid of inertia rol1s without slipping on the invariable plane. the equation represents other concentric ellipsoids of the sanle shape. the inertia ellipsoid is fixed in the rigid body. we find that VF== oFi ox + oF j + oFk oy OZ (8119) == 211 xi + 212yj + 213z k where i. Of course. Performing the operations indicated by Eq. we see that . it is clear that at a given point on a certain shell. (8119) and (8120). and wand p have the same direction. If we consider a series of neighboring ellipsoidal shells.SEC.
812 for a typical ellipsoid.394 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. In the general case. This component causes a pivoting about P in addition to the rolling. An interesting characteristic of herpolhode curves is that they are not wavy in the usual sense because they have no inflection points. even though their masses and exterior shapes might be quite different. Now let us use the Poinsot construction to obtain some of the qualitative features of the free rotational motion of a general rigid body. 8 two bodies having equal inertia ellipsoids will have identical rotational motions. We recall that the tip of the· p vector remains in the invariable plane throughout the motion. An ellipsoid of inertia showing the polhode curves. . If the body is rotating about a principal axis. During successive intervals of 7t /2 in cp. the direction of travel of the tip of the p vector being indicated by the arrows. Examples of these curves are shown in Fig. the herpolhode curves are not closed even though P moves continuously in the area between the two concentric circles corresponding to the extreme values of ((3a). It can be seen that the form of a herpolhode must repeat at regular intervals. the k Fig. corresponding to repeated circuits of P around the polhode. assuming the same initial conditions. and this curve is known as the polhode. On the other hand. the center of curvature being always on the same side of the curve as S. First we note that if Ih 12 . Each polhode is a closed curve. Characteristics of the Motion. Note that the motion usually involves a component of (J) which is normal to the invariable plane. P also traces a curve on the inertia ellipsoid. The path traced by the point P as it moves in this plane is known as the herpolhode. and Ig are all different. 812. the motion consists entirely of this pivoting movement. P moves from a point of tangency with one circle to a point of tangency with the other.
we found previously that rotation about the principal axis associated with the intermediate moment of inertia is unstable.: hence a small disturbance will not cause a large change in the direction of the axis of rotation relative to the body. the period being the time required for 1> to change by 7t. This is seen from the fact that the polhodes in the immediate vicinity of k or 11 are small ellipses. Om. If we let 12 and 13 approach each other in magnitude. respectively. but not about the third. the relative spin 1> is always positive. Again t. Suppose. the polhodes aa and bb become more nearly horizontal. 1>. A small disturbance will cause the contact point P to move from m along a polhode near b to a point approximately opposite m. we see that t. whereas those in the vicinity of k become nearly circular. Om. 84 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 395 ellipsoid of inertia is not axially symmetric. hence the angle {j of Fig. respectively. that 11</2</3 and these principal moments of inertia correspond to the axes Ok. Assuming that Ok is the positive x axis and the ellipsoid rolls on a polhode which is near k and encircles it. The polhodes aa and bb also serve to separate the regions where the point P moves about the principal axis of minimum moment of inertia from those in which it moves about the axis of maximum moment of inertia. in addition to its precession about the H vector. This implies an increasing stability for rotation about Ok. Axial Symmetry. In general. 812. then the motion is stable. and f) remains in the range o < f) < 7t/2. and On. in Fig. but a decreasing stability for rotation about On. 811 oscillates between two limiting values unless the rotation is about a principal axis. The ellipses in the vicinity of n become elongated. and f) are all periodic functions of time. 812. of Fig. and On. Consider the limiting case where 12 = 130 The axis Ok is an axis of symmetry and the ellipsoid of inertia is an ellipsoid of revolution. for exalnple. and f) are periodic with two cycles occurring for each revolution of 1>. The time required for this cycle approaches infinity as the polhode approaches m. If the motion takes place about a principal axis corresponding to either the smallest or largest moment of inertia. This introduces an oscillation in f) or nutation to the motion of the given principal axis. 1>. but 1> is negative in this case.I \' SEC. The polhodes . Consider now the case where On is taken as the x axis and the ellipsoid rolls on a polhode near n. This instability is indicated by the hyperbolic shape of the polhodes in the vicinity of m. The precession rate t is always negative. we notice that the polhodes form closed curves about two of the principal axes. On the other hand. and then to return via a polhode near a to the vicinity of m for further repetitions of the cycle. Now assume that II < 12 < 13 and these principal moments of inertia are about the axes Ok.
On the other hand. For the prolate case. This provides a further illustration of the change in the sign of ¢ as the ratio It! la passes through unity. 812. Its shape depends upon the values of Hand T ot but. the point P must move on its surface. Again the Poinsot method and the rollingcone method yield the same results for the motion of the body. z) represent the components of p. It is interesting to note in these cases of axial symmetry that'the point P at the tip of the p vector moves along the circular polhode with an angular velocity ¢. instance and the inertia ellipsoid is an oblate spheroid. then. A second ellipsoid can be described by first writing an expression for the square of the magnitude of the angular momentum. Now assume that II == 12 . two curves are formed. the motion of P is in a positive sense about On. the point P moves in a negative sense about the axis Ok. Since the polhodes are circles. the vector p sweeps out a circular cone in the ellipsoid of inertia. we see that the Poinsot method and the rollingcone method (Sec. 83) are equivalent for this case. one can see why the sign of this motion relative to the body is dependent upon whether the inertia ellipsoid is prolate or oblate. Furthermore. By observing the directions of the arrows in Fig. namely. the herpolhodes are circles. 8 are all circles lying in planes perpendicular t9 Ok. The resulting equation is (8123) where we note that the constant D has the dimensions of a moment of inertia. (8115) and (8123). comparing Figs. hence vIe see that a ro= tation about the axis of symmetry is stable. We have seen that the contact point P traces a polhode on the surfGtce of the inertia ellipsoid as the body rotates in accordance with the Poinsot construction. / For this case of axial symmetry in which 12 == 13 .396 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. We see. whereas for the oblate case. Thus. the rotational motion about a transverse principal axis is neutrally stable and a ~mall disturbance will result in a steady drift of the contact point P along c:y! circular polhode passing near m and n. 88(a) and 811. (8122) I \ Now divide by 2~'ot == 1m 2 and again let (x. the Poinsot construction indicates that the general motion is that of a prolate spheroid rolling on the invariable plane. therefore p also sweeps out a circular cone in space. that the polhode is the curve at the intersection of the ellipsoids given by Eqs. Equation (8123) represents an ellipsoid which rotates with the body.) 1' . Polhode Equations. y. the second being the polhode for a reversed direction of 0). The axis On is the axis of symmetry in this. in any event. (In general.
8:12. and (8127) in considering the stability of such motion. The polhode projections given here provide excellent approximations to the shape of the actual polhode curves in the immediate vicinity of a principal axis. (8124). 84 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 397 Let us continue to assume that II < 12 < 13 . (8115) and (8123). (8123) has its principal axes oriented in the same directions as the corresponding axes of the inertia ellipsoid. Note that the permissible ranges in y and z are limited by the requirement that x 2 be positive in Eq. the value of D will lie between these limits: II < D < 13 Of course. then D = 13 .Il)y2 + 13(13 . (8115). z is eliminated and the equation of the polhode projection onto the xy plane is II (13 . we see from Eqs. we obtain X2 == (1 . (8115) and (8123). and for the usual case where II < 12 < 13 . however.D (8127) Again the projection is an ellipse. the result being (8126) This is the equation of a hyperbola whose major axis is the x a.) . substituting into Eq. For the third case. it is the equation of an ellipse.12y2 . For other directions of 0). the result is (8125) 12(12 . Also. the shape of these curves is an indication of the stability of the spinning motion about a principal axis.13 z2 ) (8124) II and. It can be seen that the ellipsoid of Eq.SEC.xis for the case where D < 12 • If D > 12.12)y2 = 13 . (8123). So let us use Eqs. since it lies outside the inertia ellipsoid near k and inside this ellipsoid in the vicinity of n. (8126). as we saw earlier. Now suppose that we eliminate y between Eqs. I ts shape is more elongated and exaggerated.II This represents the projection of the polhodes onto the yz plane. if 0) is directed along the axis On. D is constant for any given case of free motion. For a given value of angular momentum. (8125). then the z axis is the major axis of the polhode projection onto the xz plane.I 1)x 2 + 12 (13 . The two ellipsoids do' not coincide except for the case of spherical symmetry. Similarly. For example. the motion is most stable when the body rotates about a principal axis with circular polhodes surrounding . solving for x 2 from Eq. The projections of the polhodes on the principal planes can be obtained by elilninating one of the variables between Eqs. (8116) and (8123) that D = II. If the body rotates about the axis Ok of Fig. for any particular polhode. that is.I1)z2 = D .
Hence. their magnitudes are proportional for any given case. 812.. An example of neutral stability is provided by setting II ~ 12 in Eq. (8122) for this case as follows: + l~ro~ + l~ro~ = H2 We see from the Poinsot construction that a reaches a maximum value when (t) lies in the plane determined by the principal axes corresponding to 11 and 12 . the motion is relatively stable. the axis Ok of Fig.2I1 T rot ro2 .398 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. (8127). We recall that p and (t) point in the same direction and. 811. (8115) in the form I I I t r II roi liroi + 12 ro~ + 13 ro~ = 2 Trot (8128) (8129) Also. Let us assume that II < 12 < 13 and consider first a polhode about the II axis. in the plane kOm of Fig. As the eccentricity of the polhodes increases. 812. Referring to Fig. as we have seen. where these angles are 'measured from the principal axis which is encircled by the polhode under consideration. that is. we obtain rol = 'V /212Trot . if II = 12 and the rotation is about On. Here the polhode approximation consists of a pair of lines perpendicular to the z axis. I l it. as can be seen from Eq. for a certain body with a given initial value of (t). (8125) or (8126).we obtain t an a max  'V 12 (212 Trot / II (H2 .It) (8130) In a similar fashion. is always associated with the intermediate moment of inertia. we find that _ '/ H2 . the stability is less because (t) will deviate farther from its nominal axis in the body. we wish to find the extreme values of a and {j. Limits of the Motion.211 Trot) . in fact. Next let us consider briefly the limits of the nutational or bobbing motion of a' general body which is spinning freely.H 2) (8132) . 8 .j '. setting ro3 = 0 and solving for rol from Eqs. Finally.H2 11 (12 .II) The maximum value of a is found by noting that (8131) and substituting the above expressions for rol and ro2. we can express Eq. we can write Eq. (8125). This situation occurs when 12 = 13 for a polhode near k. as seen from Eq. The angle (f3max{jmin) is the amplitude of the nutational motion. that is. Similarly. a hyperbolic polhode in the vicinity of a principal axis indicates unstable rotational motion about that axis which. (8128) and (8129). So.'V 12 (12 .
that is. then a separate analysis shows that the correct equations are obtained merely by interchanging the" 1" and "3" subscripts. and ro3 as functions of time.212 Trot)  j 13(213 Trot . thus we obtain Q H2 I 2 ro 2 tan f'J max == H ==[ 1 1 rol or. mm i. however..SEC. (8132). /It(2/3Trot . when cp differs by 7t /2 from the case just considered. Solutions can be obtained for roh ro2. The results for this case are t an a max t t Q  '\/ j II (H2 . (8133) The minilTIum values of a and fj occur when Hand (J) lie in the plane kOn.2/t Trot) I where we assume that II < 12 < 13 and the angles a and fj are measured from the On axis. Hence the maximum value of fj can be found by noting that ro3 == 0 at this time also.211 Trot) I 3 (213 Trot _ H 2) (8134) ro2 _  ro3  )13(213 Trot . Inc.H2) '\/ It ( H 2 . L (H2 . If. using Eq. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies (New York: Dover Publications.H2) . These solutions are somewhat similar to those for the Euler angles in that they involve elliptic functions.H2) 13 (H 2 . 84 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 399 It can be seen from the Poinsot construction that a and fj reach corresponding extreme values simultaneously at the moment when both Hand (J) lie in a principal plane. we have assumed that the polhode under consideration encircles k. 2 2Cf. they will not be presented here. on the other hand." The results are t an am in and (8135) In the preceding derivation.211 Trot) '\/ tan fj . it encircles n. W. pp.H2) I3(H2 . Using a procedure similar to the foregoing. D. 1936). we find that the corresponding expressions are identical except for an interchange of the subscripts "2" and "3.2l T ) 2 2 rot (8136) (8137) (8138) (8139) an f'J max an a min  '\/ jI2(2I3 Tl'ot . . 19496. MacMillan.
Let us assume reference values of the moment of inertia and angular velocity such that and Then we find from Eqs. The result ~ I i t IS tan a lllax = I I: tan fJmax = 0. (8128) and (8129) that 2Trot = H2 = 36Ioro~ 122Igro~ We notice that II < 12 < 13 and can solve for the extreme values of fJ from Eqs. consider the Poinsot construction for those instants at which there are extreme values of a and fJ..4° = 10. Initially the direction of (I) is such that rol :ro 2:ro 3 = 3: 1 : 1. .) _ tan fJmax (. (8133) and (8135).6° I Noting that p and (I) are related by a constant scalar factor.400 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. 113(H2 ..2/1 Trot) .6908 I a max = 34.t = ro s~n a niax SIn fJrnax = 0. (8132). We see that is the precession rate of this principal axis about the fixed H vector. + cPo Also.6°  32. We remember that (I) = . we note from the construction that the'.. 811 and 812.2° This angle is the nutation amplitude of the principal axis which is encircled by the polhode under consideration.) _ tan fJmin Hence we obtain 'V II (212 Trot 'V II (213 Trot fJmin 112(H2 .' component is of maximum amplitude and the cP component is of minimum amplitude when a = a max .211 Trot) _ .0 6343 . Solve for (fJmax/3min) and the maximum value of the ratio tiro. So let us first obtain a max by using Eq.H2)  'V 174  /70 . Looking at Figs.839 .H2)  'V 66  (56 . fJmax  = 42.0 9211 . (. 8 Example 86.. we see that the component of (I) normal to the given principal axis is ro sin a max =  t sin fJ max from which we obtain . A rigid body with a ratio ~f principal moments of inertia given by II :12:13 = 3:4:5 is undergoing free rotational motion.
cos 2 1> It. we find that == V(f  +cos {j)2 + t2 sin2(j == 3. since ro is minimum and lt I is maximum at this moment. the total kinetic energy may be written in terms of the Euler angle rates. We note that this is an example of forced motion. 85. (887) that . So let us use the original Euler angle definition of Sec.() and taking {j == {jmnx. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 401 This is clearly the maximum value of this ratio. The top was chosen because it is a relatively simple example of a body whose forced motion is markedly affected by gyroscopic moments associated with the spin about its axis of symmetry. 13 .SEC. Izz with 0. If we choose the fixed point 0 as the reference point. and we equate lxx. 12 . such as a top. H v'l22 4 ro o == 2. The only external moment about 0 is that due to the constant gravitational force mg acting through its center of mass at C. Iyy. == ¢= ro Finally. we find from Eq. we obtain V== 7. (885).677000. THE MOTION OF A TOP In this section. which has a fixed point on its axis of symmetry and is acted upon by a uniform force field. such as gyroscopes and spinning projectiles. The results. 813. Noting that Ixx == Ia and Iyy == Izz == It for this case of symmetry about the x axis. General Equations.==  . A check on this ratio can be obtained by using the general solutions for the Euler angle rates given in Eq.291 roo =:f == 0. we shall consider the motion of an axially symmetric body.iJ = and. Consider the rotational motion of the top shown in Fig. It is assumed to spin without friction such that the point 0 on the axis of symmetry is fixed. Let us analyze the motion of the top by using Lagrange's equations and choosing the Eulerian angles as coordinates. however. 712 in which the'. respectively. H cos fj UI . have application in the analysis of other systems. using Eq. Also.' vector is assumed to point vertically downward in the direction of the gravitational force.761ro o 0. Noting that {j == 7t/2 . (896). hence H is not fixed in space. where we find that sin 2 1> == 1.839 ro in agreement with our previous result.
The generalized momenta are of the same form as we obtained in Eq. namely.. (8142) Fig. (8L) _ 8L = 0 . We see that PrfJ Po 8L = .y 8L 8fJ = . Now we can write the Lagrangian function: I X I I I I Z + "2 It (f)2 + '0/ 2 cos 2 f)) .y cos 2 0 0 • • 8.t sin + 0)2 1·. 8 .r sin f) The standard form of Lagrange's equation. the gravitational potential energy is V y+~!IIIC = mgl sin f) (8141) I I I I where I is the distance of the mass center from . = . Itf) (8143) P4> = 8r: 81> = Ian where we recall that the total spin n is given by n =¢~ dt 8qi . A symmetrical top with a fixed point at O.. (8143) to obtain =0 =0 (8144) from which we see that both PrJ.mgl sin f) 1 . "2 It (f)2 + '0/2 cos 2 (8140) f)) where the moments.402 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. dt dp4> dt is now applied together with Eq. T = 1Ia(4) . of inertia are taken about principal axes at O. and Pcp are constant. Assuming a horizontal reference level through 0. . (8101) for the unforced case. the fixed point. = . Hence we find that n is constant for this case where there is no applied moment about the .Ia ~IJ SIn f) + It. 813. 8qi dprJ.
(8145) and solving for 0 iJ2 == 2E' _ we obtain (8148) It (Plb + Ia fl sin fJ)2 _ 2mgl sin () It cos () It Note that () is the only variable on the righthand side of this equation. b.SEC. We can assume that the parameter . (8145) and (8148) that the precession rate and the nutation rate &can be written as functions of () alone for any given case.cu) . we see that the total energy is E == T + 1 V == '2 fa f)} 1· + '2 I t (fJ2 +· 2 COS 2 fJ) + '0/ mgl sin fJ (8146) where we recall that fl == 1> sin fJ is constant. (8148) by cos 2 fJ and make the foregoing substitutions. (8140) and (8141). and e as follows: a == Plb It ' b == Ia fl It ' c == 2mg/ It ' e == 2E' It (8151) Now multiply Eq. Figure 814 shows a plot of feu) versus u for a typical case.u 2)(e . The resulting equation is u2 == (1 . (8147) '+ from Eq. let us make the substitution t u == sin () ) (8149) (8150) from which it follows that u == 0 cos fJ Also. we can write t 1 1·· E' == E .u 2)(e .'2 fa fl2 == 2" f t «()2 + '0/ 2 cos 2 fJ) Substituting for + mgl sin fJ 2 . Thus we see from Eqs. Also. the precession rate with the following result: t can be obtained from Eq. In order to simplify the statement of Eq. let us define the constant parameters a. (8152) in the form u 2 == feu) (8154) Now let us consider the functionf(u) in greater detail. It follows that the total energy minus the kinetic energy associated with the total spin fl is also a constant. (8148).(a + bU)2 (8153) then we can write Eq. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 403 symmetry axis.(a + bU)2 (8152) If we use the notation feu) == (1 . (8143) (8145) Now let us use the principle of conservation of energy to obtain an integral of the fJ equation of motion.cu) . From Eqs. Calling this quantity E'. c.
e ~inr. that u must oscillate between these values and f) will undergo a corresponding oscillation.o~itiv.w2)(I. (8148) or (8152).. Furthermore.p. we can write ~ ~. Now feu) is a continuous function roots of f(u) =0 for a typical case of of u so it must be zero for at least top motion. ····1 '". A graph showing the three u.. 814. Summarizing. That feu) is actually zero for three real values of u will now be shown._" c~n ""'A" J ~ 1wavs . f(u) .1 < u < 1 and the third root Ua must lie in the range Ua > 1..p. (8155) in the following form: w2 ==p2(1 . we find that the motion in f) stops only when u == U 1 or u == u2 • It is apparent.. It is evident that u2 is zero or positive for all physically realizable situations. (8153) that the cubic 1 term predominates for large absolute magnitudes of u. let us write Eq. consider the distance I from the support point to the center of mass to be positive.k2W2) f) (8158) If we measure the time t from the instant when and u == Ul. (8153) we find thatf(u) is zero or negative at these two points since (a + bU)2 must be zero or positive.u2 )(u ua) (8155) Now we define and we see that w .u (8157) Making these substitutions... one real value of u. we find that pt  is at its minimum value k) . (8159) . But if we set u == + 1 in Eq.U1)(U2 .. ==~~====~====~ 1) u 2"J(u . we can write Eq.. w. we see from Eq.u1)(u .1< U1 < U2 < 1< Ua Looking again at Eq.F(· 1 _ w2)(1 _ k2 w) SID W. (8154) in the form u == feu) == 2 c(u .404 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. 8 c is nr. To analyze the motion of f) in time.fW "J(1 0 dw .1 < u < 1 which is the range in which u must lie in the actual case. Therefore there are two roots in the interval . then. Hence we find that feu) must be negative for large negative values of u and must be positive for large positive values of Fig. so feu) must be zero or positive at some point in the interval .
(8145) and (8151). is indeterminate). we can solve for w. Now we use the definition of w in Eq. Let us consider the path of a point P located on the axis of symmetry at a unit distance from the fixed point o. == a 1 . Also. (8156) to solve for u (8161) Because the sn function is squared. In order to simplify this classification. Note that both and ¢ have the same period as (). we find that u == sin () represents the height of P. Conversely. The path of P in any given case can be classified as one of three general types. obtaining w = snp! (8160) where.p".' as a function of time. sn.SEC. If we represent the motion of the symmetry axis by the path of P on the surface of a unit sphere. Path of the Symmetry Axis. let us define Uo = . Thus the period of e or u is T == 2K(k) == p f) is just v' C(U3 4K(k)  (8162) u 1) where K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind..!!:. the elliptic function. was introduced previously in Sec. we see that the precession rate can be expressed as a function of u as follows: t . from the definition of the total spin !l given in Eq. 39. Uo lies outside the possible range of u." Let us consider first the case where U o > U20 In other words... The values Ul and U2 at which 14 is zero correspond to positions of minimum and maximum height and are known as turning points. and therefore the precessional rate does not equal t t .'u (8164) t where !l is constant. we find that P will remain between two horizontal "latitude" circles given by f) = ()l and () == ()2. b = . Taking a horizontal reference through 0. we recall.. we see that ¢==!l+'. p~ (8165) From Eq. in which case . corresponding to the extreme values of u. Hence the motion of the symmetry axis at the instant when U = U o is such that the path of P is tangent to a vertical circle of "longitude. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 405 where we recognize the integral as an elliptic integral of the first kind.u2 + bu (8163) Having solved for u as a function of time. (8163) yve see that = 0 when U = Uo (except if Uo = + 1. the period of the nutation in half the period of w.. Hence ¢ is a known function of time. (8100). we can also obtain'. Referring to Eqs.
The case in which Uo = U2 is known as cuspidal motion and is illustrated in Fig.u)(l . 815(b). for a certain top with a given total spin fi. we see from Eq. Cuspidal Motion. (8152) that (8166) e = cUo t since u = 0 at the cusp. if the axis of a spinning top is released with zero initial velocity. l 1 I I . This case ~s shown in Fig. Using the definition of Uo given in Eq. 8 zero at any time during the motion. the potential energy must be at a maximum when the kinetic energy is minimum. Case 1: u = U o when iJ = o. for example. 815(b) can be accomplished by giving the axis of symmetry an initial precession rate which is opposite in direction to its average value. &. (8165). corresponding to u = U2' In other words. (2) u = 0 because cos () = O. Incidentally. and It can be seen. we obtain (0) (b) (c) . 815(a). that the formation of loops as in Fig. To find the limits of the nutation for cuspidal motion. causing gyroscopic inertial moments which result in a combination of nutation and precession such that the axis is motionless at a cusp at regular intervals. ·1 . i to i. Next consider the case in which Ul < Uo < U2' As shown in Fig. we see from energy considerations that the axis can be stationary only when P is at its highest point. let us set u2 or f(u) equal to zero. This type of motion will occur.406 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. We can then write an expression for f(u) in the form f(u) = c(uo . we see that is zero twice during each nutation cycle at () = (}o. and. the path traced by P is dependent upon the initial values of 0. Possible paths of the axis of symmetry. for () > (}o. Consider the following two cases: (1) u = 0 because iJ = 0. The axis begins to fall vertically.u 2)  b 2 (u O  U)2 = 0 (8167) We have already shown that one limit of the nutational motion occurs at U2 = uo• Dividing out this root. 815. resulting in a cusp which points upward. 815(c). 'Nhere the arrows indicate the direction of the velocity of P for positive O. r I Fig. for example. it actually reverses its sign compared to the average value of In general. Note that u and are both zero when U = uo.
an evaluation of I 3 \ . (8170) will show that < U3 Uo < 1.j'A2  1 (8170) U3 2'Au o + 1 where we take the positive square root.b2 (1 ./'A2 . (8148) and (8151) e>9 So we can expressf(u) in the form (8172) feu) == (1 . For 1 Eq. (8169). (8170) to obtain Ul' Note again that U 3 has no physical meaning.. e = 0 One of the roots of this equation corresponds to a turning point at other root U3 is greater than 1 and has no physical meaning. (8165) that a == b (8171) and.. since ()2 that > 0 at this moment. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 407 or U 2 . Consider first that U o == 1.1< U1 < Uo < 1< regardless of the value of 'A and in agreement with our earlier results.SEC.2'Auo + == 'A + .cu) . Case 2: & =1= 0 lvhen u == Uo == + 1. Dividing out the known factor (lu) cor. 'A from Eq. 2'Au + (2'Au o  1) == 0 (8168) where 'A is a positive constant given by b2 ]2 !}. We see from Eq. This case applies when the symmetry axis passes through the upper vertical position with a nonzero angular velocity. we can summarize the roots of feu) == 0 for this case as follows: U1 . A similar procedure can be followed for the case where () =1= 0 at U The == U o == . we note from Eqs. and then using Eq.u) == 0 (8174) Ulo which can be written in the form u2 _ (b 2 : e_ 2 1) u + b . The limits of the Illation in U or (J are found by evaluating Uo from Eq. responding to U2 == 1. (8166). there remains (1 + u)(e  cu) .== 'A . (8168) and including the one found previously.2 'A == 2c == 41:mgl (8169) Solving for the roots of Eq.u2)(e .b2 (1  U)2 == 0 (8173) and solve for the turning points.
This falls under Case 1 of cuspidal motion. the symmetry axis pass~s through the bottom point on the unit sphere with a nonzero velocity.U3 = (2A. and U o = 1 in this instance.408 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID aODY CHAP. Now let us consider the motion for the following values of A.u2)(e .U 2. we see that e+c>O So we can write feu) = (1 . From Eq.1. we see that the roots are U 1. For this case the cusp occurs at a position of unstable equilibrium at u = 1. < 1. 816. f(u) I lit >1 l u Fig. = 1. whereupon a reversal of this motion returns the ~ I I I I I I . Case 1: A < 1 or !l2 < 4Itmgl/I~. An example of top motion of particular interest occurs if the axis points vertically upward when () is zero.l) is designated as UI or U3 according as A.: A. 8 . . since ()2 > 0 at U =  1.J is reached.b2 (1 Dividing out the known factor (1 we obtain + U)2 = 0 1 (8177) = 1. Graphs of f(u) indicating the stability of a vertical top. 816 by noting that a small disturbance at this position will cause a nutational motion during which () decreases until the minimum value corresponding to Ul = 2A. > 1.1 (8179) where (2A. This can be seen from Fig. We see f~om Eq. (8165) that a =b (8175) (8176) Also. . U2 and the nonphys Stability of Motion near the Vertical.1. (8170). In this instance. and A. + u) corresponding to the root U (8178) The roots of this equation are the upper turning point ical root U3 which again is larger than unity. . A.1). is less than or greater than 1.cu) .
Nutation Frequency and Amplitude for the Case of Large Spin.. (8170). that is. to find the approximate amplitude and frequency of the nutational motion of a fast top. We can write the expression for U 1 in the form » U1 = X . ').2X2 )  Uo  1 2X (1  Uo 2) (8180) The amplitude of the nutation is Uo U1 = 2X ~ 1 (1  Uo 2) . Incidentally. the ability of an actual top with a large spin to right itself and reach the sleeping condition is due to the action of frictional forces on its rounded point. hence the complete elliptic integral K(k) is infinite. All three roots are equal to unity and thus there is an inflection point of feu) at u = 1. Again we find thatf'(l) = 0..('(u) is zero at this point. the spin being much larger than that required for stability. and hence "sleeping. Now let us use Eq. The double root at u = Uo = 1 is illustrated by the fact that the slope . that is.zero for Uo = 1. Case 3: A. These forces have been omitted in this analysis.SEC.X~ f12u o + . Case 2: X = 1 or !l2 = 4Itmglll~. ". (1 /\J  /\i  Uo ~ + 1 u~ _ 2'A2 . we obtain U1 = . (8167). using the binomial expansion and neglecting terms of order higher than 1lA. '). It follows from Eq. At this point a wobble or nutation appears and gradually increases until the body of the top hits the horizontal surface. an infinitesimal disturbance will not cause a finite deviation of the symmetry axis fronl the vertical. one for which X 1. It is interesting to note that the period of a nutation cycle is infinite. (8156) and we find that the modulus k = 1. (8162) that the period is also infinite. we refer to Eq. > 1 or !l2 > 4ItmgllI~. To show this. for a vertical top. This name arises because a smooth. Here is the borderline case in which there is neutral stability at the vertical. It becomes.2It mgl (1 I!fl2  Uo 2) (8181) Note that the nutation amplitude varies inversely with the square of the total spin rate fl. that is. . 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 409 axis to the vertical. which was obtained in the analysis of cuspidal motion. as may be seen from Eq.1) > 1.1 X X2 1  or. axially symmetric top with its axis vertical and X > 1 might appear at first glance to be not moving at all. A top which is spinning as in Case 3 is known as a sleeping top. " In an actual case there are small frictional moments which slowly decrease the spin until X becomes less than unity. but in this case the third root U3 = (2X .. The spin is sufficiently large in this case that the vertical position is stable.
hence we can approximate the elliptic function sn pt by the trigonometric function sin pt. or higher. '0/ == mgl (1 . (8170).410 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY U2 CHAP. we' see that the circular frequency of the nutation is 2p = v'C(U3 . and thus is widely separated from the others. we can rewrite this result in the form: u I = Uo 12n. However. for we note ".. we see from Eq... that the roots Ul and separation.u~ ~ 1 .2. (8156)...1 ~ (8187) where we neglect terms of order 1/A..f! (1 + cos 2pt) a + cos 2pt) . but the third root U3 is approximated by U3 .uU) 2 Substituting for band (uou) from Eqs.u 1) ~~= Ii? (8185) An expression for the precession rate from Eqs. so long as 'X ~ 1..un + 2uo(1  u~) 12n. == _ b 'r (u1o. because U3 is widely separated from ~l and U2. and (8182). (8151) and (8184). So we obtain for this case of a fast top that the precession rate is t ~ ~~ (1 + cos 2pt) (8188) the approximation being valid even for cuspidal motion near the vertical..!!. let us refer to Eq.. ~ (1 . (8156) that the modulus k is very small. (8184) that 1 .. then. (8163) and (8165) that t can now be obtained. == Uo have a small (8182) 2A.u2 or 1 . (8181) and trigonometric identities.U~) (1 fa n 1 _ u2 + cos 2 ) pt. Thus we obtain (8183) where the time t is measured from the moment when u == Ul' Using Eq. 8 We see from Eq. (8151)..f! (1 a t4)(1 + cos 2pt) (8184) From Eqs. (8161) which gave the general solution for u in terms of elliptic functions. we obtain . To find the nutation frequency of a fast top. (8186) But we see from Eq. .u2 2A.(1 1 . (8169).
U2)2 == 0 (8191) Solving for (a + bu). The conditions for a double root are that f{u) and f'{u) be zero for the same value of u. (8~189) and (8190).SEC. by the presence of a double root of f{u) at a point other than at u == + 1. . that is. == 2 sin 0 1 b [ (8195) It is interesting to note that two steady precession rates are possible. 817. 817.2 J U (8194) '0/ . Precession with no nutation is indicated by having Ul == U2.2b(a 1 _ u2 2u + + bu) from which we obtain the following quadratic equation in (a + bu): 2u(a + bU)2 + 2b(1 . we have e  + bU)2 2b(a == 0 (8189) (8190) + bu) == 0 cu  _ (a bU)2 _ c(1 . we obtain a + bu = a (1 2u u 2 ) [b + . using Eq.cu) .c(l . 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 411 Precession with No Nutation.u2)(a + bu) + c(l .(a Also.J1./b 2  2eu] (8192) But we recall from Eq.. The form of f(u) for the case of steady precession.. (8163) that + bu == t(l  u2) == t cos 2 0 (8193) so we find that the precession rate is t or. Thus. (8153) we can write f(u) == (1 .u2 ){e . provided that the values of 0 and b == laO IIt are such that the square root f(u) 1 u Fig.2.u2 ) From Eqs.u2) . in terms of 0.cu) . = 2: [1 + . f'(u) == .2u(e . as shown in Fig.
(8188). Hence the angular impulse o applied at t == 0 is zero. A top with a total spin n and velocity v is sliding on a smooth horizontal floor with its symmetry axis vertical (Fig. in order that steady precession be possible at a given value of fJ is that ~JJ 02 > 4It12 SIn fJ mgl . Thus we see that the condition on the total spin!}. is identical with the free precession rate obtained previously in Eq.jr)I is independent of O. b. at t == 0. where the moments of inertia are taken about axes through the vertex. Suddenly. SlS.412 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. 8 in Eq.2b  .m12 == Itl5. the spin is large enough so that the second term in the square root of Eq.. the point strikes a crack at 0 and is prevented from moving further although the angular motion is unhindered. If 0 is the angle between the axis of symmetry and the floor. == 't' 2 SIn fJ .b [1 + (1 _ c sin fJ)] b2 from which we obtain the following possible rates of uniform precession: . This is the precession rate which is usually observed in a fast top or gyroscope and is also equal to the mean value of f found in Eq. A sliding top on a horiexpressions for the horizontal comzontal floor.2 ~ 4It mgl sin fJ /I~. the fast precession rate (f)2 is independent of the acceleration of gravity and.Ian (8197) mgl Note that the slow precession rate (. a (8196) Consider now the case in which !}. (8104). (8195) is real. Omin in the ensuing motion. in fact. The linear impulse exerted on the top at t == O. . Then we can approximate (8195) by ". Example 87. c. Equating Fig. The angular velocity 8(0 + ) just after the vertex is stopped. 818). Our approach will be to note that the angular momentum about the vertex 0 is conserved during the initial instant because the reaction forces of the floor pass through this point. (8195) is small compared to unity.. find a. that is. This last requirement is similar to requiring sufficient spin for stability in a vertical top. assuming that n == 20v/i == 20~ and Ia == i. On the other hand. _ c _ ('0/)1 .
A uniform circular disk of mass n1. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 413 ponent of angular momentum before and after the impact at t == 0.9° Example 88. (8174) with the result: U2  10. Therefore we have the cuspidal motion which was described previously under Case 2 on page 407.6 == 0 the third root of feu) == 0 being The roots of this equation are U 2 == U o == 1.SEC. we obtain Hh == mvl == It s(0+) (8198) where this component is directed into the page. rolls on a horizontal surface in such a manner that its plane is inclined with the vertical at a constant angle e and its center of mass describes a circular path of radius RFig. radius G. c. In order to calculate the minimum value of e.9058) == 64. the geometry and the constraints are different . Noting that v(O+) == 0(0+)1 we obtain Y7 m/2) == mv(O+) .4u Ul + Ug. and e froln Eq. we note first that 0 =I=. Evaluating the constant parameters b.1 (0. Solve for the precession rate t. (8151). 819(a).0 at u == sin e == 1. We obtain and U1 Ug == 0.mv == mv ( 1 . Thus we find that 0(0+) == _mvl It (8199) The linear impulse is found by calculating the change in the linear Inomentum during impact.It (8200) where the impulse is positive when directed to the right.9058 == 9.494 Thus we find that emin == sin. First Method: Although the disk is an axially symmetric body subject . we have b == Ian == 4 /gIt '\/ I c == 2mgl == 8g It 51 (8201) e == 2E' == (mVI)2 It It + 2mgl == 56g It 251 The turning point is found by substituting these values into Eq.to gravitational moments. 8.
414 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.. (8202).. .' would imply a changing kinetic energy. by the principle of work and kinetic energy... Ha = laO = a R Ia"" . Taking horizontal and vertical components of this portion..' cos (j To find the total angular momentum about 0. cannot change.R ' . = mRa'.'cosf) . v from which we have (8202) It can be seen that'. we must add the angular momentum due to the translational velocity of the center of mass about O.' = ail '. hence. (a) The forces acting on a disk rolling in a circular path.. from those encountered in the analysis of a top... (a) (b) Fig. But. Let us use Eulerian angles to describe the orientation of the disk. there are no working forces acting on the disk. we obtain Hv = mR2'. (b) The components of angular momentum in the vertical plane.' H". Consider now the axial and transverse components of the angular momentum about the center of mass..l ... 8 Edge view of disk ~R~ r ..' must be constant. we see that 0 is also constant. we can write = R'.' can be obtained in terms of the total spin !l by equating two expressions fqr the translational velocity of the center of mass... H t = It'. (8106) and (8202).. From Eqs.... since (j is constant and no slipping occurs. The precession rate'. A changing'. 819. From Eq. So let us start again with the basic rotational equation where we shall choose the fixed point 0 as a reference..
we obtain i H = "fr2 cos (j mRa · . (8207). R '0/2 cos (j ( mRa + a I Ia + . H a . substituting the preceding expressions for H h .SEC. Equating the expressions on the righthand sides of Eqs. (j . (898) for the rotational kinetic energy and adding the translational kinetic energy. and H t .6R + a sin (j (8208) Second Method: Now let us consider this problem from the Lagrangian viewpoint. The applied moment about o is independent of Fh and is given by M (8206) where we note that Fv = mg since the mass center has no vertical nl0tion. we obtain • 2 _ 4g tan (j "fr . we obtain . Thus we see rotates with angular velocity that the total angular momentum vector H is of constant magnitude but precesses about a vertical axis at the same rate as the disk.t sin 0)2 + i I t ((}2 + t2 cos2 0) (8209) In order to use a standard form of Lagrange's equation. ( R Ia + It sin (j) eo +a = mga sin (j eo (8205) \ where eo is a unit vector directed out of the page. (8205) and (8206). It SIn ) = mga sIn f:) or t2 = mRa mga tan (j (8207) + R Ia a + It sin (j F or a thin uniform disk. Using Eq. 85 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 415 As the disk travels in its circular path. we recall that Ia = ma 2 2 It 1 = ! ma 2 Substituting these values into Eq. Now we can evaluate H by noting that t. the system of four component vectors as shown in Fig. We find that t(Hh + Ha cos (j + H t sin (j)eo or. the coordinates . we obtain the total kinetic energy T = i m(R 2 2 + a 2(}2) t + i laC<i> . H = t H= I X H (8203) (8204) for this case in which the magnitude H is constant. 819(b).
0 = . = Po = ~~ = 00 [( m + ~~) (R'  a sin 0)2 + It cos 2 0] . however.a sin (j a t (8210) and substitute into the kinetic energy expression of Eq.416 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID ·BODY CHAP. = ItO Also.i (I~&2 + I '. (673)."'" SIn (j = a '0/ So the coordinates '0/. namely.t sin (j = R' . = <P . '. dt Oqi . Ri .'2 + .. we obtain the result T = i (m + ~~) (R' . because R is no longer constant if (j is considered to be variable.00 = mga SIn Let us use Lagrange's equation in the form of Eq. 8 must be independent. we evaluate the following terms: . .asin 0)2'. v = mga cos () The generalized forces are (8213) Mrb Mo = oV = 0 0'0/ (8214) OV . we write the constraint equation in the form ¢.Oqi = Qi d· (oT) oT First we obtain the generalized momenta: p"..a sin (j (8212) in accordance with Fig. R . If. . (j. (8. It can be seen that the system is conservative and the potential energy is given by '. (8209). 819(a). Now <p has been eliminated as a generalized coordinate and the remaining coordinates '0/ and () are independent in the kinematic sense. Also.202) that the condition of rolling imposes the constraint that ..n .'2 cos 0) t 2 (8211) where we have let I~ = It + ma 2 and R = R' . we have introduced a new constant. (8215) oT . <p are not independent as they stand. But we saw in Eq.
(85). we used a bodyaxis coordinate system with its origin at the center of mass. Again let aJ' be the absolute angular velocity of the body. Choose the origin of the xyz system at a fixed point or at the center of mass. provided that the rotation occurs about the axis of symmetry. 81. (8215). it follows from Eq. In the analysis of axially symmetric bodies. (8215) that the precession rate is constant. The primary reason for choosing a system fixed in the body was that it resulted in constant moments of inertia. OTHER METHODS FOR AXIALLY SYMMETRIC BODIES Modified Euler Equations.a sin O)a + It sin 0] cos 0 +2 = mga sin 0 + It sin (j (8218) Setting fj == 0 and solving for t2we obtain . using a set of principal axes which are not necessarily fixed in the body. it can be seen that an arbitrary rotation of the body relative to the coordinate system will not cause the moments of inertia to change. Then. (8214). using the general equations for the components of angular momentum given in Eq. For this particular case in which (j is constant. and (8216).0 + [(m + ~~) (R' . In our discussion of Euler's equations of motion in Sec. + R Ia a 86. we can now \vrite the in the form '0/ equation (8217) dprb == 0 dt indicating that p¢ is constant.SEC. but may rotate relative to the body about the symmetry axis. In a similar fashion we find that the (j equation is t 1. So let us investigate the form of the rotational equations of motion. Furthermore. and let the axis of symmetry of the body be the x axis (Fig. and let aJ be the absolute angular velocity of the xyz coordinate system. we can write . 820). principal axes were chosen in order that the equations be as simple as possible. 86 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 417 aT == 0 0'0/ ~r = [(m+ ~~)(R'asinO)a+ItsinoJcoso+2 (8216) From Eqs. mga tan (j mRa t2 == in agreement with our earlier result.
Then we can write expressions for ro~. we obtain Ia(ro x + s) Itro y Hx = By = (8221) Hz = It(i)z and by differentiating with respect to time.Ia)(i)zro x + las(i)z (It . M = H. (8222). and ro~ in terms of the angular velocity components of the coordinate system as follows: z Fig. 8 Hx = laro~ Hy Hz = = Itro~ ltro~ (8219) Now suppose that the body rotates about the axis of symmetry (x axis) with an angular velocity" s measured relative to the xyz system. we recall from Eq. (89). (8219) and (8220). Coordinate systems used in describing the motion of an axially symmetric body.Ia) (i)x roy . we obtain the modified Euler equations: Mx = Ia(ro x + s) = Ian My Mz = Itro y = It ro z + (It . (83) that H= (iI)r + Cd X H and. (812) for the case of an axially symmetric body . and the general vector equation of motion. (8221).las (i)y (8223) where we note that the total spin n is given by n = (i)x + S (8224) It can be seen that these equations of motion bear a strong resemblance" :0 the Euler equations of Eq. 820. ro~. (8220) From Eqs. using Eqs. the rates of change of these scalar components are found to be fIx = Ia(ro x + s) = Itroy fIz = Itro z fIy (8222) Finally.418 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.
(8228).to cos 0 ro u = {} ro z = f cos 0 .t sin 0 (8226) cos 0 IDu ID z =0 =t Differentiating these equations.2. To illustrate the use of Eq.SEC.Euler angle. the only nonzero component of the applied moment is Mu' This gravitational moment about the point 0 is given by (8229) My == mgl cos 0 Also.jr(} sin 0) . (8226).f sin 0 + t2 sin 0 cos 0) + to cos 0) Iat cos 0(1) . we see that IDx = . in fact. that is. 813 which we analyzed in Sec. and (8227) into the modified Euler equations of (8223). The added flexibility of being able to choose the spin s in an arbitrary manner. we obtain a new set of rotational equations in terms of the Eulerian angles. substituting from Eqs. it is evident that the spin s must correspond to the rate of change of the third .tsinO is a constant. 86 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 419 and. however. Mx == Ian My == I t ({} = Ia(¢ . are identical for s = O.t sin 0) (8228) Mz == It(f cos 0 . enables us to obtain more easily the motion of the body in space. Because of our particular choice of the xyz coordinate system. (8225).to sin 0 (8227) and. 85. Let us consider the case where we choose s such that the y axis remains in the horizontal plane. We can specify the orientation of the xyz system by using the Euler angles 't and 0.I aO(1) . we obtain ro x = f sin 0 . (8225) The rotational motion of the xyz system does not involve cpo So if we set cp and 1> equal to zero in Eq. the total spin n == 1> .t sin 0) Note again that if the axial moment Mx is zero. we see that () == 0 for the case of steady precession with no nutation. or refer to Fig. In this case. 820. (885). as shown in Fig. let us calculate the steady precession rate of the top of Fig. Therefore the second equation of (8228) becomes Itt 2 sin 0 cos 0 + Iant cos () == mgl cos 0 or (8230) . 820.
(898): Trot = ~ Ia(¢  t sin 8)2 + ~ It(iF + t2 cos2 8) 2 The generalized momenta were given in Eq.t sin 0) sin 0 + Itt cos 0 O"fr aT 00 = . 8· Using the definitions of the constants band c given in Eq. (8195). we have aT = 0 o. we obtain the following equ~tions of motion: . ~r = Iat cos 8 (¢  t sin 8)  Itt 2 sin 8 cos 8 (8232) aT = 0 ocp Performing the required differentiations of the generalized momenta in accordance with the above form of Lagrange's equation.Oqi aT = Qi and take either a fixed point or the center of mass as the reference point in writing the expression for the rotational kinetic energy given previously in Eq.. we have b t +__t+ 2 sin 0 =0 c sin 0 2 (8231) from which we obtain . Now let us consider the differential equations of motion for the more general case of arbitrary external moments.y.. (890)... We use Lagrange's equation in the form dt d (aT) Oqi . (8151).420 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. Lagrange's Equations for the General Case. = O~ o~ ItO 0 P4J = = Ia(~  t sin 0) Also.='r 2 SIn 0 ? [1+ ~11_2csinOJ b 2 in agreement with the result found previously in Eq. (899): Prb Po = or: = Ia(~ . We have used the Lagrangian approach in obtaining the equations for the free motion of an axially symmetric body and for the motion of a top. or from Eq.
85. .i sin 0) = Me la(¢ . Evidently this path is traced on the surface of a unit sphere centered at 0. under our assumption of small motions. We have found that it is often important to solve for the motion of the axis of symmetry in space. for example. 821). the transverse moment vector remains essentially in the w plane and we can write (8236) where \ve now consider M t as a complex variable. A path traced by P in the complex plane. and consider the effect of transverse moments on the motion of P. then the normal projection of the path onto a plane that is tangent at the pole gives a good approximation to the actual path of P. We note first that. or lV plane.SEC. that is. we find that MI/J = Mx sinO + MzcosO (8234) Me =My M~= Mx as may be seen from Fig. Now if the point P remains near the "pole". we can write the transverse component of the angular velocity CI) of the body in the' form w plane Y I Fig.rsinO . or at the mass center. as was shown in Fig. (8228).. where the y' and z' axes are not rotating in space and the origin is taken at the pole (Fig. 821. 815. The Use of Complex Notation. 820.'f8cosO) = M~ (8233) Comparing these equations with those obtained previously in Eq. Suppose that this plane is called the y' z' plane. As we saw in Sec. if (j ~ + 7t /2.isin 0) cos 0] + It(.. The motion of P can then be specified conveniently in terms of the complex variable w = y' + iz' Z I (8235) wherei= ~.r cos 2 0 . this can be accomplished by solving for the path of a point P located on the axis of symmetry at a unit distance from the reference point O. We shall assume that the reference point 0 is a fixed point.rsinO + i8cos 0) sin 0 . 86 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 421 Ia[(¢ It({} + .. In a similar fashion..2i8 sin 0 cos 0) = Ml/J + 1t2 sin 0 cos 0) + Ia'f cos 0 (1) .8(1) .
(8240) and (8241). .. . . and using Eq. we see that for small motions of the axis of symmetry. we can speak of the two planes interchangeably when considering transverse components of various vectors. the y' z' plane is approximately parallel to the w plane. we obtain Mt == My.ila fi IDt (8240) The last term on the right is a gyroscopic term for which the response Wt is in spatial quadrature to the applied moment. Referring to Figs. . 813 and 821 . So.Mt WlW==lIt It N ow let us apply this equation in the analysis of the cuspidal motion of a top near the vertical..IafiIDy' (8239) where n is the total spin of the body and the transverse components ID y' and ID z' apply to both the body and the coordinate system."S IDt == IDy' + iID z. + iMz. (8237).Iaf!. == It Wt . to a first approximation. If we choose another primed coordinate system such that the x' axis is the axis of symmetry and set IDx' == 0 (8238) where ID x .Ia It n.we see that the external moment is given by Me == imglw (8243) Note that lw represents the horizontal distance of the mass center from a vertical line through the fixed point o. mgl w' .0 It (8244) where n is constant since there is no axial moment.422 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. let us first express Wt in terms of the velocity w as follows: (8241) Here we note that tV is equal to IDt in magnitude. Thus the equation of motion is WlW . In order to find the path of P. adding it to the first. == Itro z. From Eqs. Also. Now we can write the" last two equations of (8223) in the form My. (8237) Now let us consider the modified Euler" equations of (8223) for this case. we obtain Mt == ilew + Iafiw (8242) or . == It roy' + Ia n ID z. the instantaneous axis of transverse rotation is perpendicular to the velocity of P. Multiplying the second equation by i. M z. is the x' component of the angular velocity of the coordinate system. since P is a unit distance from o. .
(8244) is linear. . (8199) to obtain the following initial conditions: .211Jf ' i3. (8244). As an illustration of cuspidal motion. SEC. if n. indicating that the top is stable.2  i lail"A. 86 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 423 The stability of the top can be investigated by assuming a solution of the form w == Ce At (8245) where C is a constant.2 = = i(2 + Js)ff iO.mgl It It == 0 (8246) where the common factor Ce At has been canceled because it is nonzero for the solutions of interest. (8245) into Eq. we obtain the characteristic equation "A. indicating unstable motion. Hence any small disturbance (for example.789Jf If we assume that the initial velocity of the top is in the direction of the positive real axis. (8246) are (8247) and the general solution is of the form lV == C 1 eA\t + C2 e A2t (8248) For the case n. .. The actual limits of the motion cannot be obtained in this last case because nonlinear effects limit the motion. whereas the analysis of Eq. I~ I so the motion is stable.2  i4 ~l Ii "A. . I and 41t mgl .2 < 4It mgl/I.80 K. The characteristic equation (8246) is found to be "A. In this instance we find that f!2 == 400 K. consider again the sliding top of Example 87. Substituting Eq.. one of the roots will have a positive real part. we can use Eq. The roots of Eq.2 > 4lt mgl/ I. we see that both roots are imaginary. a small initial velocity) will result in a small motion.  4g 51 == 0 which yields the roots 1\1. On the other hand.
4 /g w(O) = 8(0+) = 5vi Evaluating the constants C I and C 2 in Eq. (0) z . (b) Fig. (8248) from the initial conditions.9° = 0.224 (e'J'1t  e A2t ) The initial portion of the solution is shown in Fig. that is. ~~~~~y . We see that I w Imax = I CII + I C2 1= 0.424 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID 'BODY CHAP. which was obtained in Example 87. The difference occurs because the axis of symmetry deviates about 25 degrees from the vertical in this case z . 822. The maximum deviation of the axis from the vertical occurs when w attains its greatest magnitude. 822(a). .448 This result is slightly larger than the comparable result. cos 64. . Typical paths of the axis of symmetry for (a) a nearly vertical top and (b) a nearly horizontal top. 8 tV(O) = 0 .424. we find that the general solution is w = iO. ~~~r~Y .
. We take the imaginary axis parallel to the axis of the cylinder. the initial velocity of P is w(O) == O. consider the cuspidal motion of a top or gyroscope which moves near () == 0 under the action of gravity. In this case. the w plane was considered to be tangent to this unit sphere at () == 7t /2. Thus it can be seen that if the cylindrical surface is cut vertically and unrolled.Ian. it can be seen that the solution for w is of the form (8251) w == mgl Ian + Cei(IaO/1t)t If we assume that the motion starts from a cusp. so we have WlW==l (8249) .L (1 Ian ei(IaO/1t)t)] (8253) . (8251) that C == and the solution is mgl Ian w == mgl [1 _ Ian ei(IaO/1t)t] (8252) A further integration. we use the approximation cos (j ~ 1.!.76 (T Vg We have seen that the point P is confined to the surface of a unit sphere.BODY 425 and the smallmotion assumption is only approximately true. yields the == mgl Ian [t . assuming the initial condition w(O) complex displacement W == 0.i. We chose the point w == 0 to correspond to a vertical top. Again we assume that the center of mass is on the axis of symmetry at a distance I from the fixed point O. hence the transverse moment is M t == mgl Equation (8242) applies in this case. To illustrate this application of the complex notation method.A.2 . the path of the point P is projected normally onto a circular cylinder which is tangent to the unit sphere along the unit circle at f) == o.l 27ti == 1. the resulting coordinate grid is the usual rectangular complex plane. In the previous examples.mgl It (8250) Using standard methods. Thus we obtain from Eq.SEC. The period for a nutation cycle is calculated to be T == A.. But complex notation is also useful in studying the motion of an axially symmetric body near () == O. 86 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID . For small motions. The real axis is the circle tangent to the unit sphere. It .
The nutation frequency is laO/It and the mean precession rate is mgl/laO.) IDxIDy := := := 0 0 (8254) 10 Mz := From the first equation. l'lote that the axis of symmetry follows a cycloidal path whose peaktopeak amplitude is 2Itmgl/I!02. Owing to a thrust misalignment. 8~22(b). An axially symmetric rocket is fired in free space at time t := O. then the nutation amplitude is small and these results are the same as those obtained previously in Eqs. If we assume that the spin is large. that is. we obtain the following set of differential equations: Ia.iven in the next section. Initial conditions are IDx(O) IDy (0) := := 10 rad/sec (Oz(O) := 0 Find the motion in space of the axis of symmetry.Ia. and (8186). problems are often solved quite directly and effectively by this approach.Ia) IDx ID z Itoo z + (It . we have seen that when the complex notation method is applicable. 87. 0 2 ~ Itmgl/ I!. we see that IDx is constant. so we have IDx .oox It OOy . the rocket motor produces a constant moment (about the center of mass) having the components Mz := 2 X 104 lb ft := Mx:= M y 0 where the xyz axes are principal axes fixed in the body and the x axis is the axis of symmetry. 8· This result is plotted in Fig. (8185). First method: The possibility of using Euler's equations immediately comes to mind because the components of the applied moment are constant in a bodyaxis system. We shall use this numerical example to illustrate several of the methods which we have presented for analyzing the rotational motion of an axially symmetric body. EXAMPLES Example 89. In summary. Further examples of its use will be g. The principal moments of inertia are Ia It := := 104 lb sec2 ft 5 x 105 lb sec 2 ft and are assumed to be constant. (8184).(It . .426 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. From Eq. (812) or (865).
does . 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 427 rad/sec for all t we obtain > o.not rotate in space.08 x 10. 823. 823(a).3 sin 9.8ro y == 0.8(  A sin 9.8t + B sin 9.8t (8258) z z' A plot of roy versus ro z is shown in Fig.SEC. coincides with it at t == O. So we find that y """". the latter condition being obtained with the aid of Eq. Substituting numerical values into the last two equations~ Wy . 823(b). (8255).~ _ _ _ _ y' (b) Fig.08 X 10. B == 0 roy (o) Consequently the solutions for and ro z are found to be roy == 4.8t + 4. The resulting values are A == 4. .8ro z Wz == 0 + 9. The primed coordinate system has the same origin as the unprimed system and.392 Solving for roy by standard methods (see Example 36).3 (8256) and it follows that Wy == 9.8t) (8257) The constants A and B are evaluated from the initial conditions roy(O) == 0 and wy(O) == 0. The transverse angular velocity in the bodyaxis system and the transformation to nonrotating primed axes..08 x 10. Thus far we have solved for the motion of (t) relative to the body. let us first obtain the components of (t) in terms of the primed coordinate system of Fig.3 . In order to obtain the motion of the axis of symmetry in space.04 (8255) Now we eliminate ro z between these two equations and obtain the following differential equation in roy: illy + (9. The primed system. in fact. however.8)2 roy == 0. we have roy == A cos 9.cos 9. .8t) ro z == 4.08 X 10.9.81 + B cos 9.3 (1 .
08 x 103(sin lOt . .0./ / at its initial value of 10 rad/sec. z' == O.4.02. 2x 10. noting again that the applied moment consists z' 8. Using y' and z' to specify the position of P relative to the primed coordinate system. We choose the y' z' plane as the complex plane.2t) == 4.02 z'== 2. referred to 'the primed system.08 X 10. are (i)y' (i)z' == == (i)1/ cos lOt sin lOt (i)z sin lOt cos lOt (8259) (i)y + (i)z and./ / / I My. centered at y' == ." Fig. 8 for small motions of the symmetry axis.4. the complex transverse moment is .428 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.cos 0. primed coordinate system.sin 0. 8. The path in space of a point P on the axis of symmetry.sin 0. 824) is an epicycloid formed by a point on a circle of radius 4. by a coordinate transI I formation similar to that of Eq. ..02.04 X 10. \ I I \ \ .2 .4 cos lOt .0. 4+~~y (8259).2t . we obtain the following path for P: y' == 2. == 10 == 4.3(cos lOt .4 rolling on the outside of a circle of radius 0.2t) (8261) Integrating these equations with respect to time and using the initial conditions y'(O) == z'(O) == 0. I I Furthermore.""'r .2 sin 0. *"" " . == 4. Then. (8258) and trigonometric identities. we see that n or (i)x remains constant .08 x 10. the components of the absolute angular velocity CI) of the body.4 solely of a constant component Mz 1which rotates with the body. == 4.08 X 10.2t) i' == (i)y.04 x 10.08 x 10.2t) (8260) In the nonrotating.08 x 103( cos lOt + cos 0. == Mz sin lOt M z' == Mz cos lOt " " ' . we see that \ ". using Eq.16 X 10. Consequently.2t .3(sin lOt . we obtain (i)x.4 sin lOt (8262) This path (Fig. Second method: Now let us solve this example by the complex notation method.08 x 10.2 cos 0. (i)y' (i)z. it can be seen that P' == (i)z.. it is a straightforward process to write expressions for the velocity components of the point P which is located on the positive x axis at a unit distance from the origin.24.
(8241). This direction can be found by requiring that (t) and H be parallel when the rotation takes place about the x" axis (Fig. hence a small rotation of axes will result in a very small change in the./ . So let us find the direction of a new principal axis. Ia and Iyy r. Therefore we can use the It in the preceding equation and obtain approximations Ixx . which is known to lie in the xy plane because Ixy is the only nonzero product of inertia.. 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 429 M t == My. moments of inertia. Third method: We have seen that the moment applied to the rocket is constant in the bodyaxis systelTI.Ixx(i)x + Iyyw y + Ixy(j)y _ Wy . we obtain the following differential equation in the complex displacement w: (8263) == 0. So let us find the required product of inertia such that the inertial moment about the z axis due to Wx is equal to the actual external moment M z • We recall from d'Alembert's principle that the inertial and applied forces or moments are equal and opposite.Mz == Ixyw. then the x axis is no longer a principal axis.(i)x Now.02 + 2. we see that w(O) == O. Hy _ Ixy(i)x Hx . yields the solution w == 0. w == i 4. from which we obtain the required product of inertia: Ixy == M T == . (811) that . it rotates with the rocket.. 824. (8263) and using i 0. assuming that the initial displacement of P is w(O) == 0.08 x 10. For this case. it is clear that Wt(O) == 0. Integrating Eq. we obtain.. Thus we find from Eq.2t  ei1ot ) (8264) A further integration.2w w this initial condition to evaluate the constant of integration. we recall that each of the principal axes intersects the surface of the ellipsoid of inertia perpendicularly.04e ilOt Since we were given that wy(O) == (02(0) == 0.SEC.4 eilOt (8265) Thus the path of the axis of symmetry is identical with that obtained previously in Eq.08 X 10.3 (e iO .2t  4.04 x 10.200 Ib sec2 ft (i)x where Mz is the external moment. It is shown in Fig..2 eiO . + iMz' == M z( sin lOt + i cos lOt) or Mt == i 2 x 104 ei10t Ib ft Substituting into the general equation given in (8242). This suggests a similarity to the case in which the rocket is dynamically unbalanced for a spinning motion about the x axis. hence from Eq.. if we assume Ixy =1= 0. 825). that is. (8262). x". Of course..
4 radians since that is the angle between the x and x" axes.02 radians. we see that Thus the semivertex angle of the space cone is 0.08 X 104 Space cone rod r=========~.4 radians. In terms of the unprimed coordinate system. 83.08 x 10.4 implying that the x and x" axes are separated by an angle of 4. We see immediately that the semivertex angle of the body cone is 4.y It .08 X 10. The space and body cones for a rocket with a small thrust misalignment. 8 )( (original' axis of symmetry) Hy x" (new principal axis) Body cone 4. Ix. the motion of a point P at a unit distance from 0 on the x axis is found to be essentially that of a small circle of radius 4. To find the semivertex angle of the space cone we calculate the angle between the (J) and H vectors. Remembering that the x axis rotates with the body· cone. y Fig.08 x 10. We shall use the rollingcone method of Sec. Having replaced the actual external moment by an inertial moment.08 x 10.02.25.. 8. The rotational motion of the rocket in space is now apparent.430 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. . This results in the epicycloidal motion which we obtained previously (Fig. 824). and since It > la. roy :::::::: _ rox. we expect a case of direct precession with the body cone rolling on the outside of the fixed space cone.4 which is rolling on the outside of a fixed circle of radius 0. we can now consider the free motion of a body which is approximately axially symmetric with the x" axis as its axis of symmetry.Ia == 4.
we considered the steady motion of a disk which is rolling along a circular path. A thin circular disk of radius a and mass m rolls on a horizontal plane.zontal.SEC. Obtain the differential equations of motion. 826. Let us choose a cartesian coordinate system with its origin 0 at the center of Inass. Thus we see that (I) is equal to (I)' for the case where 1> == o. Now let us write an expression for the velocity of the mass center. Now let us analyze its rolling motion in the Inore general case. respectively. Rolling disk. y. A thin circular disk rolling on a horizontal plane. the rotation of the disk relative to the xyz system is given by the third Euler angle <p. . whereas the z axis is in the plane of the disk and passes through the contact point P (Fig. k directed along the x. and assuming that the disk rolls without slipping. Also discuss the stability of a vertical disk which is rolling in a straight line. j.ak) == . Check the steady precession rate found in Example 88. the y axis is in the plane of the disk and remains hori. we obtain v == (I)' X (.. 826). In Example 88. We note that the disk is an axially symmetric body. 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 431 . z axes. Using an orthogonal triad of unit vectors i. I Example 810. The orientation of the xyz system is specified by the Eulerian angles 't and (j. we find that the disk is rotating about its contact point with an absolute angular velocity (I)' == (1)  t sin O)i + OJ + t cos Ok (8266) We note that the position vector drawn from P to 0 is ak. The x axis is the axis of synlmetry. x Fig.aOi + a(1)  t sin O)j (8267) (8268) The acceleration of 0 is found from a == (v)r + (I) X v where (I) is the absolute angular velocity of the xyz coordinate system.
t sin 8)] = M = aRyi + mg cos f) The moment of the external forces about the mass center ·0 is + aRxj (8275) We have chosen the xyz system to move with the disk such that the x axis is the axis of symmetry and the y axis remains horizontal.f sin 0 cos O)j (8270). First consider again the disk of Example 88 which is rolling steadily with constant () such that its mass center moves in a circle of radius R. An analytic solution cannot be obtained in the general case. From the first equation of (8274) we obtain Rx = mg sin f)  mat cos f) (~  . (8274) and (8276) from which to solve for the time histories of the three Euler angles and the three components of the reaction R. but we shall apply these equations to certain special cases.! + t cos 8 (4)  t sin 0)] = Rx .aRy = fa «(fi . (8270). we can write the translational equations as follows: mare ..r sin 0) <\ and substituting this expression for Rx into the middle equation of (8276). (8267).2. (8228) and (8275). we have Mx = .t sin f) +sin 8) (8276) Thus we obtain the six equations of motion given in Eqs. i .2t8 cos 8] t sin 0 (4) .to cos f) My = aRx = ft(e + t2 sin 8 cos 0) + fat cos f) (~ Mz = 0 = ft(t cos f) . 8 From Eq. we obtain (v)r = a8i + a«(fi .2t8 sin 0) . adding the x and z components of the gravitational force.432 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. Evaluating the vector product Q) X v and adding the result of Eq.t sin f) .mg sin 0 Ry Rz (8274) ma[(fi ma[8 2 t sin f) .fa 8(4) . we have .jr8 cos 0] = t sin f) (4) . hence we can obtain the rotational equations by a direct application of the modified Euler equations written in terms of Euler angles. we obtain the acceleration of 0: (8271) where ax = a[ ay = a[(fi  t8 8 az = a[8 2 t cos 8 (4) .t sin 0)] f sin 8 . From Eqs.t sin 0)] (8272) The force acting on the disk at the contact point P can be written in the form (8273) Thus.
SEC. (mn 2 l. (8279).mga8 + (ma 2 + Ia)4>o1r == 0 The last equation of (8278) can be integrated to yield t (ma 2 + /. 2 _ M'Jrrrv l IJ  {'\ 10 . we obtain (8279) (ma 2 + It)8 .ma(8 + cfoot) == + mg == Rx (8277) ma<{> == Ry Rz The rotational equations are 0 I t s + Iacfoo1r == aRx Ia¢ == aR y Itt .)8 + == Ia 4>0 8 It ' (8280) where we assume that t and f)are initially zero. we have .".Ia1> oO== 0 (8278) From the middle equations of each set we find that Ry and ¢ are zero. Now consider the stability o.1r sin f))1r cos 8 But the condition of rolling implies the kinematic constraint of Eq. (8202). The translational equations become mgf) . and then neglecting all terms of order higher than the first in the small quantities.mRa + (R/a)Ia + It sin f) in agreement with the previous result of Eq.. this is equivalent to writing the translational and rotational equations of (8274) and (8276). r I . hence 4> == 4>0 throughout the motion.f a vertical disk rolling in a straight line. (8274) and (8276) which are nonzero in the reference condition are Rz == mg Let us write perturbation equations for sman deviations from this reference condition. Finally. substituting this expression for t into Eq. In this instance. (8207).01\ . namely. Eliminating Rx between the first equations of each set.' ) ~ r/. The only variables in Eqs. R1r == a(1) so we see that t sin 8) mga sin 8 == It 1r2 sin 8 cos 8 + R (ma 2 + Ia)1r2 cos 8 a Hence we obtain • 2 _ mga tan 8 '0/ . 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 433 mga sin 8 == I t 1r2 sin 8 cos 8 + (ma 2 + Ia)(4) .
the solution to the preceding perturbation equation will contain hyperbolic functions of time and hence will be unstable. the solution for t contains terms of the same frequency as the solution for B.434 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. It is evident that the vertical component of the force on the sphere at P is equal and opposite to the gravitational force mg because the center C undergoes no vertical acceleration. Note that if the system is stable. provided that ". Example 811. whose transient solution consists of sinusoidal oscillations. Solve for the motion of the center C of the sphere. Let R be the horizontal component of the total reaction force passing through the contact point P."2 'f'0 > Itmga fa (ma 2 + fa) This is the condition for stability. 8 This is recognized as the harmonic equation. The external moment about Cis (8284) M = ak X R Fig. 827). A uniform solid sphere of mass m and radius a rolls without slipping on a plane horizontal surface which rotates with constant angular velocity n about a vertical axis through the fixed point 0 (Fig. 827. A solid sphere rolling on a rotating horizontal surface. Furthermore. . Thus we have M = Ii = f ciJ (8283) where cu is the absolute angular velocity of the sphere. these forces are collinear and thus do not enter the rotational equations. If the spin ¢o is smaller in magnitude than this critical value. The translational equation of motion can be written immediately in the form: mr=R (8282) We see that the rotational equation is relatively simple because the moment of inertia is the same for any axis through the center.
Equating the corresponding expressions for the velocities. we have 1= ~ma2 5 Thus we find from Eq. we obtain the angular acceleration of the sphere.aiiJ) Now we substitute the value of iiJ from Eq. (8288). (8289) that the center of the sphete moves with a speed (8290) Also. although it may be the position vector of any point on a vertical line through the center of the circular path. we obtain t = I In + rna 2 k x (r .ak is the position vector of P. (8289) conforms to the initial conditions on rand r. we obtain r aaJ X k = Ok X r (8286) where we note that r .rc) (8289) where rc is a constant vector such that Eq. ~or the particular case of a uniform solid sphere. we obtain IiiJ = mak X r (8285) The velocity of the instantaneous contact point P can be found by considering it to be fixed in the sphere and also fixed in the rotating plane.fc I is constant.fc). 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 435 Combining these equations. (8289) that the center of the sphere moves in a circular path at a constant speed. (8285) into Eq. Therefore the magnitude Ir . solving for f. Differentiating this equation with respect to time. (8285). = r 1+ rna 2 k X r . (8288) Integrating this equation with respect to time. We see that r is always perpendicular to (r . For convenience we take f c as the position vector of the center of this path. from Eqs. (8287) and find that = Ok X r10 rna f 2 or. and (8289). . It follows from Eq. ..SEC. we have ror aiiJ X k = Ok X r (8287) r = k X (Or .
436 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. We find that r2 == = r~ + 2r c • p + p2 ~ [1 + 2rc~ p + (t YJ (8295) Fig. Gravitational moments.I 8 (f) · _ _ 50 'X (k X. 7a We (8291) 10.rc I == 77t v . 828). we shall assume that the dimensions of the body are small compared to its distance from the attracting center.rc) 49a Note that cO is horizontal.Q. 7a k . (re r r + p)dm (8293) where JL is the gravitational constant per unit mass and rc is the position vector of the mass center. Apply this result in obtaining the rotational equations for the problem of the dumbbell satellite discussed in Example 56. we find that the total moment about the center of mass due to the gravitational field is M == JL I •I i f p X (re m r3 + p) dm (8294) In the evaluation of this integral. (8292)· .J1.n. 828.J1. Now we use the binomial expan . we can write an expression for the distance r from 0 to a mass element dm.k X (r . Find the gravitational moment acting on a general rigid body which is attracted toward a fixed point by an inversesquare field. r) . A general body which is attracted by an inversesquare gravitational force acting toward o. Suppose r is the position vector.2 == .  == 50 . implying that any initial vertical component of cu remains unchanged. and p is its position vector relative to the center of mass. rdm == . Example 812. of a typical mass element dm. Also note that the period of the circular motion of the center is T == 27t Ir . Using the law of cosines.. The force acting on dm due to the external gravitational field is dF == . Integrating over the body.. relative to the attracting center 0. Let the xyz axes be principal axes at the mass center (Fig. so it is independent of the initial conditions.
we see that p X (re + p) == p X re == Ye [(ryy . (8296).== _1 [1 r3 r~ _ 3(ax + (3y + ryz)] Ye (8299) Referring to the integral for the gravitational moment M in Eq. Thus we see that and Furthermore. ./zz)i + ary(/zz . we have chosen the xyz axes to be principal axes at the mass center./yy)k] Y c (8302) This is the equation for the gravitational moment acting on an arbitrarily oriented body_ Note that a rotation about re does not change these bodyaxis components. 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 437 sion to obtain an approximation for y.3~ [(3ry(/yy . (8301) reduces to M == . 1. z axes relative to the positive direction of re. /3. /3. from Eq.ryx)j + We note that the direction cosines a. Also. we have (8296) I t is convenient to express p in terms of its bodyaxis components as follows: (8297) p == xi + yj + zk Let a./xx)j + a/3(/xx .ryx)j + «(3x .3(ax + (3y + ryz)] == Yc m Ye (8301) «(3x . (8294)./3z)i + (az . J (y2 m Z2) dm = Izz .(3z)i + (az .3 • Neglecting terms of order higher than the first in the small ratio plye.~ J [1 . Therefore Eq.ay)k] (8300) Hence we obtain M . ry are constant for this integration. y.ay)k] dm [(ryy . Then we see that (8298) and.Iyy and so on.SEC. ry be the direction cosines of the positive x.
and f) indicates the outofplane motion. we find from Eq. (8302) that the components of the gravitational moment are approximated by Fig. Hence. We shall assume that It > Ia and also that the angular deviations of the symmetry axis from the radial direction are small. consider an axially symmetric satellite v/J1ich is in a circular orbit about the earth. we see that the direction cosines are given by a =1 t~ow . I I (j='o/ ry = f) (8303) Furthermore. 1 . neglecting secondorder terms in small quantities. Thus we are not using a bodyaxis system. . as shown in Fig. An axially symmetric satellite in a circular orbit about the earth. 8 o· o '1 . ·1···. whereas f) is the angle between the normal to the orbital plane and the z axis. 829. an arbitrary rotation of the body about its axis of symmetry does not change the gravitational moment or the orientation of the coordinate system. For small '0/ and f). The angle between the position vector r c and the xz plane is '0/. '0/ refers to the inplane motion of the symmetry axis relative to r c.438 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. Let us choose the x axis as the axis of symmetry and require the y axis to remain in the orbital plane. 829. In other words.
is constant. we set la == 0 and obtain e + 4(i)~() == 0 (8309) + 3m~+ == 0 Ite + m~(4It Itt + 3(i)~(It  31a)O + lant == Ianmo t consideration of the requirements for the conservation of energy and the conservation of angular momentum will show that slight changes in orbital speed must accompany any angular oscillations of the satellite.(i)o +t The rotational motion of the satellite about its axis of symmetry is obtained from the first equation of (8306) which indicates that the total spin n. In this instance.Itmz(i)x + lan(i)z == 3(i)~(lt .Ia)'o/ where we note that the total spin n is given by n == (i)x + S For this case of small 0 and '0/.SEC. 87 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 439 Mx==O My == 3m~(lt . 3A . 3 N ow let us substitute the results of Eq. yielding (8308) la)+ . (8304) into the modified Euler equations given in (8223) to obtain Ian == 0 Itroy .3 m~(lt .lan(i)y == .la)O (8304) Mz == 3m~(lt .la)O (8306) It ro z + It (i)x (i)y . Also. We neglect these changes in this analysis. (8307) into the last two equations of (8306). (8308) to the particular case of the dumbbell satellite of Example 56.la)'o/ where we have taken Ixx == la and Iyy == Izz == It. the absolute angular velocity co of the xyz coordinate system has the following components: (i)y == (j (8307) (i)z == . let us apply Eq. we recall that the orbital angular velocity of the satellite is (8305) as was shown in Exan1ple 56. The equations of motion of the symmetry axis itself can be obtained by substituting from Eq.lano == 0 where we have neglected the products of small quantities. As an example.
and D. A rigid body is moving freely with a general angular velocity Wo. A prolate spheroid and an oblate spheroid are each rotating in free space about their respective axes of symmetry. 6. Principles of Mechanics. Housner. The second equation. Inc. New York: McGrawHill Book Company.. The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid.440 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. where the reference point is at the mass center. is in agreement with the result obtained previously in Eq. Principles of Mechanics of Solids and FluidsParticle and RigidBody Mechanics. Abrams.. G. 1959.. 5.. New York: John Wiley & Sons. solve for the change ilw in the angular velocity at the time of the impulse. (5157).. which refers to the inplane oscillations. If equal transverse angular impulses are applied to each. Webster. A. 8 The motions are independent or uncoupled in this case and are of different frequencies. Both have the same angular momentum Ho and total spin O. and J. and Fluid Bodies.. Classical Mechanics. Assuming a general bodyaxis cartesian frame at the center of mass.. Elastic. 1961. E. H. T. Find the magnitude of the least angular impulse which can be applied to the body and result in ex being reduced to zero. Griffith.r? 85. Goldstein.. W. Consider the free rotational motion of an axially symmetric body with fa == 2It • What is the largest possible value of the angle between Q) and H? 84. 2nd ed. 1959. Inc. Princeton. 2nd ed. Reading. 3rd ed. Thomson. MacMillan. 82. Consider the free rotation of a rigid body having principal moments of inertia II < 12 < 13 • Under what conditions on H and Trot does the polhode encircle the principal axis of maximum moment of inertia? . Mass. A. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies. D..: D. New York: Dover Publications. New York: Dover Publications. Yeh. Synge.. J.. Inc. j I PROBLEMS 81. Inc. 1960. Van Nostrand Co. 7. W. Hudson. L.J. and B. Then an angular impulse having components (Jf{x. 4. H. N. Applied MechanicsDynamics. 1950. where ex is the angle between the angular velocity wand the axis of symmetry. 2. 1959. 3. G. 83..Jf{y. Introduction to Space Dynamics. which will undergo the largest angular deviation of its symmetry axis during the resulting motion? Which has the largest precession rate .Jf{z) is appifed to the body. An axially symmetric rigid body with It == 2Ia is spinning in free space such that ex == 45°. REFERENCES 1. 1936. New York: McGrawHill Book Company. I.. W.
as shown. radius G. A rigid body is rotating. Consider the forces of friction acting on a rounded point. and length I is pivoted about a transverse axis through its center of mass.ro z ). where the xyz axes are principal axes at the mass center. find the magnitude of the smallest possible angular in1pulse which will result in a steady free rotation about a principal axis. Assuming that I> J3 G. The shaft is Fig. SS. freely such that its angular velocity at a given instant has components (mx.PROBLEMS DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 441 86. A solid circular cylinder of mass m. find: (a) the frequency of small oscillations of the cylinder about = 7t/2. Fig. (b) the angular velocity Ii when = 7t/2 if the cylinder is released from e 0 with a very small positive value of e e e. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length I is rotated at a constant rate ro x about a transverse horizontal shaft through its center of mass.PSS S9.. Assuming that Ixx<Iyy</zz and H2<2IyyTl'ot. Explain how a top with a spin parameter A much greater than unity is able to right itself to a vertical position. The time of application of this impulse can be chosen at will. This axis rotates with a constant angular velocity 0. S7. P89 .roy.
(a) Solve for the height h of the line of action of the impulse such that no slipping occurs in the subsequent motion. What changes occur in the motion of the sphere? 812. 814. I. and (3) the axis of symmetry changes its direction in space by 90° during half of a precession cycle. A rocket· is rotated at a constant rate m about a fixed transverse axis through the center of mass at o. solve for the driving moments about the x axis and the y axis. and moment of inertia I about the axis of symmetry. Two particles. P811 811. respectively. The transverse moment of inertia about 0 is It == iml2. While observing the free motion of an axially symmetric body. and mass is ejected at a constant rate b. where m == mo . the following characteristics are noted: (1) 0) and H are separated by 30°.bt.2m Solve for the ratio la/It and evaluate and ¢ in terms of w. each of mass m. 8 supported by a gimbal which rotates at a constant rate my about a fixed vertical axis. solve for the velocity v when the sliding stops. 810. A satellite consists of a disk of radius a. (2) is larger in magthe precession rate nitude than w. Express the result in terms of a fixed set of cartesian unit vectors with k pointing vertically upward. as viewed from the rear. mass 2m. If the x axis rotates with the gimbai and the y axis remains vertical.DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. (b) Now suppose that the line of action is moved horizontally a distance r/2 to the right. . 813. Assume that the rod is vertical initially. are atFig. The rocket is fired at t == 0. P814 tfll + + . the exhaust velocity relative to the rocket being Vee What external moment must be applied to the rocket? T h 31 Fig. A uniform spherical bowling ball of mass m and radius r is placed on a horizontal floor so that the initial velocity of its center is v(O) == voi and its initial angular velocity is w(O) == moi. Assuming a coefficient of friction JL. P810 Fig. A uniform sphere of mass m and radius r lies motionless on a smooth horizontal plane. Suddenly it is given a horizontal impulse fljT whose line of action intersects the vertical line through the mass center.
Solve for the slower precession rate. the disk is spinning about its axis of symmetry at roo rad/sec with 8(0) == 0 and 8(0) == O.. Assuming that the total spin is n == 10v2g/r. ¢(O) == n. (b) the cone can slide without friction. . Show that the angular velocity of the line of contact which is required in order for the vertex to lift off the plane is given by t . Solve for the initial precession rate t(O) and the magnitude of &when 8 = ~ '!t/2. Find the precession rate of the free motion and solve for the maximum angular deviation of the axis of symmetry from its position when the support breaks. . the rod is found to move through the bottom position at 8 = . A solid right circular cone whose base diameter 2r is equal to its altitude is spinning as a top on a horizontal plane. The rod is initially supported without friction at the fixed point 0 and the disk is precessing uniformly with 8 == 30°. find the slower rate of uniform precession for the following cases: (a) the vertex of the cone is fixed . A gyroscope consists of a uniform thin disk of radius a and mass In spinning about one end of a rigid massless rod of length I whose other end is supported at a fixed point O. P816 Fig. 819. P817 n 817. solve for the satellite rotation rate ro and also the value of 8 as a function of O. The frictionless pin joints are oriented so that the two rods always lie in a plane which contains the symmetry axis and rotates with the disk. Compare the approximate nutation period 'obtained by using the complex notation method with the exact period found by using elliptic integrals. 815.PROBLEMS DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 443 tached by rigid massless rods of length I to opposite points on the circumference.. 818. Now suppose that the support at 0 suddenly breaks.. 0(0) == 0. For the initial conditions 8(0) == 0. A solid right circular cone of vertex angle 2fJ and height h rolls without slipping on a horizontal plane.7t /2..2 _ mgh sin 't'  fJ (1 + 3 sin2 fJ) 4f(J cos2 fJ \ where m is the mass and fa is the moment of inertia about the line of contact.I I I I Fig. and the symmetry axis makes an angle of 45?' with the horizontal. Consider the motion of the sliding top of Example 87. 816. For free motion. Initially. A uniform circular disk of mass m and radius r has a total spin = lOUr about a massless rod of length I = 2r which lies along its symmetry axis.
The angle between the angular momentum vector H and the axis of symlnetry is 45°. 8 . One end of a thin uniform rod of mass m and length I is constrained· to a fixed vertical axis. At t == 0.r(0) == 0(0) == 0. Using Euler angles to specify the orientation of the body. Freely suspended at the mass . What is the smallest value of roo for which the rod will leave the floor? 821. 823. Find the final angle between H and the symmetry axis. At the end of this process. 824. find Bmax and tmax in the resulting motion. The only applied moment is Me == k[(n'l2) . 822. The rocket. An axially symmetric rocket is spinning in free space about its axis of symmetry with an angular velocity roT == 10 rad/sec. the initial conditions are . 825. along which it can slide without friction. the rod is whirling with an angular velocity roo about the vertical axis. An axially symmetric body with It == lOla is supported by a massless. P820 m and radius a is at rest in free space when it is struck by an impulse of magnitude myfgCi applied tangent to the rim. (b) the maximum angular deviation of the symmetry axis from its initial direction. the rotational kinetic energy is found to be three times its former value. Assuming that B remains small. An axially symmetric rocket is spinning in free space with an angular velocity n about its axis of symmetry. Other initial conditions are 8(0) == 45° and 0(0) == O. Then a particle of mass mo is ejected with an absolute velocity Vo along a line perpendicular to the symmetry axis and intersecting this axis at a distance I from the mass center of the rocket. 820. whereas la is halved and It is 80 percent of its original size. Solve for the initial velocity of the point P on the rim at which the impulse is applied. A solid hemisphere of mass Fig. (c) the distance traveled by the center of mass of the rocket before the symmetry axis returns to its original orientation. An axially symmetric space vehicle with It! la == 10 spins in free space. Show that the rim will never come in contact with the floor. Find: (a) the transverse angular velocity of the rocket immediately after the particle is ejected . ¢(O) == 1OOvk/ Ih and 8(0) == O. where the spring stiffness k is positive. regardless of the magnitude of the impulse. 826.444 DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY CHAP. frictionless gimbal system in such a manner that its center of mass is fixed. has a mass m and moments of inertia I a and It about its center of mass. Then symmetrically placed internal masses are moved slowly toward the axis of symmetry by internal forces.8]. The other end slides along a smooth horizontal floor.. Suppose that the solid hemisphere of problem 821 is resting on a smooth horizontal floor when the given impulse is applied. Its center of mass is motionless. find ro and 0 as functions of B. exclusive of the particle. If the rod remains in contact with the floor. Find: (a) the initial magnitude and direction of (I). (b) the maximum angular deviation of the symmetry axis from its initial position.
Let the angles 'o/and be defined as in Fig. 827. Assume that the axis of symmetry is oriented in the radial direction and It> la. The rocket. Solve problem 826 for the case where Fig. Note that approximate axial symmetry is maintained after the gimbals are clamped. P826 the gimbals are suddenly clamped but the rotor is allowed to continue spinning about its own axis of symmetry. (c) Find the time required for a complete precession cycle of the rocket. Assuming that the xyz system is a principal axis system at the mass center.y. (b) the maximum angular deviation of the axis of symmetry of the rocket from its initial position. Find the separation h between the center of mass and the center of gravity of an axially symmetric satellite at a distance r from the earth's center. 104 rad/sec about its own axis of symmetry which is perpendicular to that of the rocket.Z components of the angular impulse applied to the rocket by the gyro at the instant the rotor is stopped . 829. Suppose a satenite with Izz> I yy> [xx is in a circular orbit of radius r c about the earth. Solve for the following: (a) the X. Suddenly the gimbals are clamped and the rotor motion relative to the rocket is stopped. has moments of inertia I a = 103 lb sec2 ft and It == 104 lb sec2 ft. 828. where the positive sense is chosen so that the vector <p is directed along the positive x axis.1 lb sec2 ft and It == 0. write the differential equations describing the small angular motions about a reference condition in which the x axis is directed toward the center of the earth and the z axis is normal to the orbital plane. e . 829. exclusive of the rotor. The gyro rotor has moments of inertia fa == 0.05 lb sec2 ft.PROBLEMS DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 445 center of the rocket by massless gimbals is a gyro rotor which is rotating at an absolute rate roo . and let ~ be the angle between the y axis and thedntersection of the yz and orbital planes.
No continuous elastic systems are analyzed. First. Now we turn to the study of the motions of mathematically simpler systems which are adequately described by a set of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. We shall now review some of these results briefly before we consider more complex systems. we shall consider only those systems which have a finite number of degrees of freedom. Others are actually nonlinear but can be approximated by linear equations for small motions or perturbations in the vicinity of an equilibrium position. Tong.9 VIBRATION THEORY The equations of motion that have been obtained in our study of dynamical systems have been. 1960). timeinvariant system with a single degree of freedom. we discussed many of the more important aspects of the motion of a linear. REVIEW OF SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM In our study of the massspringdamper system in Sec. These equations are usually much easier to solve than . that is. Inc.. In addition to limiting ourselves to the study of linear or "linearized" systems. For an explanation of these topics the reader is referred to a textbook on vibration theory. Theory of Mechanical Vibration (New York: John Wiley & Sons. This equation can also be written in the form IFor example. for the most part. nonlinear differential equations. in obtaining time histories of the variables. we recall from Eq. 1 91. (3161) that the differential equation of motion is of the form mx + ex + kx = F(t) (91) where F(t) is the external force and x is the displacement of the mass. 37. the more complete nonlinear equations and provide an insight into important characteristics of the system. none whose mathematical description involves partial differential equations. N. 317. as shown in Fig. and often a computer. 446 . see K. Some of these systems are assumed to be linear at the outset. Quite frequently one cannot find analytical solutions for these equations and must use approximate methods.
(93).~2 t or.ith increasing damping ratio S'.t w~x == 0 (93) (94) is known as the transient solution.2 == . A pair of negative real roots occurs whose difference increases w. or C. () are evaluated from the conditions at t == 0 (or at some other time). Note that these constants are not evaluated until the steadystate solution is known. + C 2 sin w n . In general. Let us assume that the initial conditions are x(O) == Xo and x(O) == Vo. we see that for the undamped case where S' == 0. a pair of imaginary roots occur. A.l F(t) m where ron == v'k/m is the undamped natural frequency and the damping ratio. For the. These roots must be both real or both imaginary or form a complex conjugate pair. The transient solution is S' > (910) Unforced Motion. depending upon the value of the damping ratio S'o 'Let us summarize the possible solution forms. 91 VIBRATION THEORY 447 x + 2S'ro nx + ro~x == . equivalently. we can write the solution in the form (911) . hence the transient solution is a sine function of circular frequency ron.1 == A. The roots form a complex conjugate pair.e identical in this case.ron. S' == 1. It has the general form + C2 eA2t where A.v'1 . Also. and the transient solution is Xt == (C 1 Case 3: Overdamped: + C2 t)eCr>n t (99) 1. A. + W.SEC. The two roots ar. Case 2. The arbitrary constants in the foregoing solutions can be evaluated immediately for the case in which the F(t) == O.~2 t) (97) (98) where the constants C b C 2 . Case 1: Underdamped: 0 < ~ < 1. as can be seen from Eq.2 are the roots of the characteristic equation A.t == 0 obtained by substituting a trial solution x (95) (96) == Ce At into Eq. Critically Damped. underdamped case. 2 + 2~wnA. resulting in a transient solution of the form Xt == e~Cr>nt(Cl cos ronv'l . (96). The solution to the homogeneous equation x + 2S'ro nx + Xt == C] eA. (92) S' == c/2v'kii1 is Transient Solution. 1.
we conclude that . (916) into (915).(vo . 37. 1 A. namely. Im(mz + ci + kz) = Im(Foeic. k. We wish to find the steadystate solution. Noting that the steadystate response varies sinusoidally with the same frequency as the forcing function.vl  t2 (t < 1) (912) In a similar fashion. where the damped natural frequency is rod = ron. we find that the unforced solution for the critically damped case is (913) Finally. Now consider the case where the system is driven by the force F(t) = Fo cos rot. SteadyState Solution for a Sinusoidal Forcing Function. and the time t are real.[xo)e~. Substituting Eq. The preceding expressions for the amplitude A and phase angle 1> of the steadystate response can be obtained conveniently by considering both the forcing function and the response to be complex variables.>t) since this corresponds to a 90degree shift in both the forcing function and the response. A similar equation applies to the imaginary parts.>t) where we remember that m.I and A.2xO)e~.448 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. 9 . (96). a particular integral satisfying the complete differential equation: mx + cx + kx = Fo cos rot = A cos (rot + 1» (915) Using the procedures of Sec. Adding these two equations. that is. we see that the steadystate solution can be written in the form Xs (916) where the constants A and 1> depend solely upon the system parameters as well as the amplitude and frequency of the forcing function. it can be shown that A and = ~[1 _ (oo2/oo~i(k+ [2t(oo/oon)]2 (917) (918) Complex Notation.t] (914) where A. [(vo 1 2 A.2 are given by Eq. the unforced solution for the overdamped case is found to be x = A.A.t . we can let x = Re(z) and write the differential equation of (915) in the form Re(mz + ci + kz) = Re(Foeic. c.
91. 320. Also. Rather. however. the parallelogram rule for vector addition.# j Having established this result. or complex numbers. A and Fo are represented in Fig. So we see that the principal results of the formal solution for the steadystate response Xs are obtained in a rather direct fashion by using complex notation. Furthermore. This is only partially true. hence Fig. The representation on the these directed line segments are complex plane of the relative ampliusually called phasors rather than tude and phase of sinusoidally vectors. which might lead one Re to believe that complex numbers can be treated· as vectors.SEC. We note that they obey varying quantiti~s. 91 VIBRAl'()N 449 mz + ci + kz == Fo e i6Jt (91. the angle between A and Fo is the phase angle cp of Eq. it is convenient to revert more closely to the former notation. 319. 91 by arrows. The product of two phasors. does not correspond to either the dot or the cross product of vector analysis. the time derivative can be found by solving for the velocity of the tip of the arrow. 91). (920) and canceling the common factor ei6Jt . (918) which is plotted versus frequency in Fig. We now consider x and A to be complex and let (920) The differential equation of (915) is written in the form: mx + cx + kx == Fo ei6Jt (921) Substituting for x from Eq. we obtain (k . we find that k times the ratio of their magnitudes is IFjk I = vTI . . This is just the amplification factor of Im Fig. however.mro 2 + icro)A == Fo or (922) If we assume that Fo is a complex number and plot both Fo and A on the complex plane (Fig. (917).(ro2/ro~)]12 + [2r(ro/ro )]2 n (923) in agreement with Eq. as for a vector drawn from a fixed origin.
450
VIBRATION THEORY
CHAP.
9
we see that their magnitudes are multiplied and ~he phase angles (measured from the real axis) are added in obtaining the product. Referring again to Fig. 91, we see that the solution for A in Eq. (922) actually indicates its amplitude and phase relative to Fo. These are" constant for any given driving frequency. But if we mUltiply both sides of Eq. (922) by eirut , this has the effect of rotating both A and Fo counterclockwise at a constant angular velocity roo Now we take the real. parts of both sides, corresponding to the projection of the rotating phasors onto the real axis. The result is the actual time variation of x and F(t) = Fo cos rot in the solution of the original scalar differential equation given in Eq. (915). We have given a brief review of some of the principal results and methods of analysis applicable to linear, secondorder systems having a single degree of freedom. In the succeeding sections of this chapter, we shall consider systems having more than one degree of freedom. Many of the methods, however, will be similar to those encountered previously. In particular, we shall show that certain oscillation modes can be analyzed in the manner of independent systems, each having a single degree of freedom:
92. EQUATIONS OF MOTION Now let us formulate the equations of motion for a system which has a finite number of degrees of freedom. We shall consider a system of N particles whose configuration is specified by 3N ordinary coordinates. But since we allow for workless constraints, the results are also valid for systems which include rigid bodies.
Conditions for Equilihrium. In discussing the principle of virtual work in Sec. 64, we stated the necessary and sufficient conditions for the static equilibrium of a system of N particles. Suppose the system configuration is specified by the ordinary coordinates x}, X 2 , ~ •• ,X3N. If Fj is the applied force acting in the Xj direction at the corresponding particle, then the necessary and sufficient condition for static equilibrium is that the virtual work of the applied forces is zero, that is,
oW = ~ F j
j=1
3N
OXj
= 0
(924)
for all virtual· displacements consistent with the constraints. The constraints are assumed to be workless and bilateral. N ow assume that the applied forces F j are derivable from a potential function according to the usual relationship (925)
SEC.
92
VIBRATION THEORY
451
where V is a function of the x's and possibly time. We see from Eqs. (924) and (925) that
oW=
or
~ OXj
3N
oV
j=10Xj
=0
(926)
where we recall that St = 0 in a virtual displacement. We note that, because of the constraints, the ox's are not independent in general. If, however, we assume holonomic constraints, it is possible to find a set of n independent generalized coordinates q}' q2, ... ,qn which describe the configuration of the system. Transforming to these coordinates, we see that the condition for static equilibrium is
or, using Eq. (925),
(927)
in agreement with Eq. (926). Since the oq's are assumed to be independent, the virtual work is zero in all cases only if the coefficients of the oq's are zero at the equilibrium condition; that is, if
(~ ~)
0
= 0
(i = 1, 2, · · · , n)
(928)
Now let us expand the potential function V in a Taylor series about the position of equilibrium in the manner of Eq. (628). Ifwe choose to measure the q's from the equilibrium position, we obtain V = Vo
+
n (0 i=1 8qi
~
V)
0
qi
1 ~ ~ 8 V n n + j=1 i=1 ( Oqi 8qj)0 qiqj + ... 2
2
(929)
We can arbitrarily set the potential energy at the reference condition equal to zero, that is, Vo
=0
(930)
Then we see from Eqs. (928) and (929) that
V =  ~ ~ 2 j=1 i=1 8qi 8qj
1
n
n
(
82 V ) qiqj
0
+
or, neglecting terms of order higher than the second in the small.displacements,
(931)
452
VIBRATION THEORY
CHAP.
9
(932)
Thus we see that the potential energy V is a homogeneous quadratic function of the q's for small motions near a position of equilibrium.
Quadratic Forms. The expression for the potential energy V given in Eq. (931), where we now assume that the k ij are all constant, is an example of a quadratic form. If V is positive for all possible values of the q's, except when ql == q2 == ... == qn == 0, then V is said to be positive definite. This, of course, puts a restriction on the allowable values of the k ij • If we consider the matrix [k], it is clear that the terms on the main diagonal must all be positive; for if one, say kii' were negative or zero, then V would be negative or zero when qi is the only nonzero coordinate. This condition, however, is insufficient to ensure the positive definite nature of V~ The necessary and sufficient condition that V be positive definite is that 2
kll
kI2 ... k22
kIn
kll
> 0,
kll
k'21
k12 k22
>
°' ... ,
k21
>0
knl krzn
(933)
For the system under consideration, we see that the reference equilibrium configuration at q 1 == q2 == ... == qn == is stable if V is a positive definite quadratic form. Now let us suppose that one or more of the principal minors of matrix (k) are zero, but none are negative. Then V is a positive semidefinite quadratic form. In other words, the potential energy is nonnegative but may be zero when one or more of the q's is different from zero. This corresponds to a condition of neutral stability at ql == q2 == ... == qn == 0 and, as we shall see, also implies the existence of one or more pairs of zero roots of the characteristic equation. Finally, if the principal minors of (k) are of both signs, the quadratic form is indefinite and the system is unstable at the· given equilibrium configuration.
°
Kinetic Energy. We shall be using the Lagrange formulation of the equations of motion and nlust first obtain an expression for the kinetic energy of the system. If we again let thex's be the ordinary coordinates specifying the location of the N particles and assume a transformation to generalized coordinates of the form given in Eq. (61), namely,
2See R. A. Frazer, W. J. Duncan, and A. R. Collar, Elementary Matrices (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960), p. 30.
SEC.
92
VIBRATION THEORY
453
Xl ==!t(qhq2,'" ,qn, t) X 2 == f2(qh q2, ... ,qn, t) (934)
X 3N
== laN(qb Q2, ... , qn, t)
1 ~ mk (~ aXk Q1, . £..J £..J 2 k=l i=1 aQi
then the kinetic energy is
T 
+ aXk)2 at
(935)
as we found previously in Eq. (657). It can be seen that the kinetic energy is not, in general, a homogeneous quadratic function of the q's, but also includes terms that are linear in the q's as well as other terms that are independent of the q's. Furthermore, the coefficients aXk/aqi may be explicit functions of time. Now let us simplify the analysis by making the following assumptions: (1) the coordinate transformation equations relating the x's and the q's are independent of time; (2) the equilibrium configuration is not a function of time. These assumptions imply that there are no moving constraints. Specifically,
( OXk) 0 at
== 0
(936)
and
(~~;)o = constant
(937)
where the coefficients are evaluated at the equilibrium position. With these assumptions, the kinetic energy can be written in the form (938) where
mij
==
mji
==
3N mk ~
k=l
(ax) (ax) ~ k ~ k
uqi 0
(939)
uqj 0
· .
~
Thus the inertia coefficients mij .are assumed to be constant for the present case of small motions. We can show that the kinetic energy T is a positive definite quadratic function of the q's. It is evidently positive definite' because it is the sum of the positive kinetic energies of the individual particles (assuming that none of the mk is zero). Its quadratic form is apparent from Eqs. (938) and (939). Note that the self..inertia coefficients mii must be positive. Some of the mutual inertia coefficients mij may be negative, however, so long as none of the principal minors of the [m] matrix is negative. This last requirement is similar to that of Eq. (933).
454
. VIBRATION THEORY
CHAP.
9
Equations of Motion. Consider a system in which the only forces which do work in an arbitrary virtual dispiacement are derivable from a potential function. Assuming holonomic bilateral constraints, we can use the standard form of Lagrange's equation:
~(OL) dt Oqi
_ oL =
Oqi
0
(940)
where the Lagrangian function L is given by
L= T V
First let us discuss briefly the general case in which T and V are functions of time and we desire the equations of motion in the neighborhood of the instantaneous position of equilibrium 3 • Let us use the notation
aki = (OXk) , Oqi 0
Ck = (OXk)
at
(941)
0
The kinetic energy expression of Eq. (935) then becomes
T =
~ ~l mk[~l akl(t)q; + Ck(t)
r
(942)
Similarly, from Eqs. (931) and (932), the potential energy is of the form (943) Now we find that
Oqi
n
oL = 

~
j=l
n
kijqj
and, using Eq. (940), we see that the equations of motion are
~
j=l
[mtj(t)qj
+ btj(t)qj + ktj(t)qj] + gt(t) = 0
= k=l mkaktakj ~
aN
(944)
where
mij
(945)
J. •• )
I
I
Having obtained the general differential equations for small motions in the vicinity of the instantaneous position of equilibrium, let us now consider
3Here we define equilibrium with the aid of the principle of virtual work and note that 8t = O.
SEC.
93
VIBRATION THEORY
455
the special case of a conservative, scleronomic system. We found the kinetic and potential energies previously; hence we can use Eqs. (931) and (938) to show that the Lagrangian function is
(946)
where the mij and k ij are constants. Now we substitute into Lagrange's equation, Eq. (940), and obtain· the following equations of motion:
~ mijqj
j=l
n
+
~ kijqj ==
j=l
n
0
(i == 1, 2, ... , n)
(947)
In summary, we note that the linearized system is described by a set of n secondorder ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. The kinetic energy T is a positive definite quadratic form in the q's. The potential energy V is quadratic in the q's, but is positive definite only if the reference equilibrium position is stable.
93. FREE VIBRATIONS OF A CONSERVATIVE SYSTEM
Natural Modes. Let us consider a conservative system whose kinetic and potential energies can be written as follows: 1 n no. (948) T ==  ~ ~ mijXiXj
2
i=lj=l
V ==
2" ~1 ~l kijXiXj
1
n
n
(949)
or, in matrix form,
T=
V=
~ ~
{xY[mHx}
{xY[kHx}
(950) (951)
where the [m] and [k] matrices are constant and symmetric. The x's are usually considered to be ordinary coordinates, but could be any set of generalized coordinates which are independent, specify the configuration of the system, and are measured from the equilibrium position. In accordance with Eq. (947), we can write the equations of motion as follows: [m]{x}
x j == A j C cos (Xt
+
[k]{x} == 0
(952)
n)
Let us assume solutions of the form:
+ c:p)
(j == 1, 2, .
0
•
,
(953)
456
VIBRATION THEORY
CHAP.
9
where we note that the amplitude is the product of the constants .A j and C. It is evident that C acts as an overall scale factor for the x's, whereas the Aj indicate their relative magnitudes. If we substitute the trial solutions from Eq. (953) into (952), we obtain
~
j=I
n
("f'.v2mij
+ kij)AjC cos ("f'.vt + cp) ==
0
(i
== 1,2, ... ,n)
This set of equations must apply for ,all values of time; hence the factor C cos CA.t + cp) cannot be zero except in the trivial case where C == 0 and all the x's remain zero. Therefore we conclude that
~
j=I
n
(A.2mij
+
kij)Aj == 0
(i
== 1,2, ... ,n) == 0
(954)
or, in matrix notation,
([k]  A. 2 [m]){A}
(955)
This is a set of linear homogeneous equations in the amplitude coefficients A j . If the Aj are not to be all zero, then the determinant of their coefficients must vanish; that is,
(k11  A. 2 m ll ) (k21  A. 2 m 21 )
(k12  A. 2 m 12) (k22  A.2 m 22 )
• ••
(kIn  A. 2 mIn)
== 0
(956)
The evaluation of this determinant results in an nthdegree algebraic equation in A. 2 which is called the characteristic equation. The n roots A.~ are known as characteristic values or eigenvalues, each being the square of a natural frequency (usually expressed in rad/sec). It can be shown 4 from matrix theory that the roots :A.i are all real and finite if T is positive definite and if both [m] and [k] are real symmetric matrices. Furthermore, the A.~ are positive and the motion occurs about a position of stable equilibrium if, in addition, V is positive definite. If V is positive semidefinite, the system is in neutral equilibrium in the reference configuration and at least one of the A.~ is zero. For the case of motion near a position of unstable equilibrium, at least one of the :A.i is negative real. . Let us summarize the effect of a given root A.~ on the stability of the solution as follows: Case 1: A.~ > O. The solution for each coordinate contains a term of the form Ck cos (A.kt + CPk) in accordance with the assumed solution of Eq. (953). This term is stable, but, of course, the overall stability depends upon the other roots as well.
4See Goldstein, Classical Mechanics (Reading, Mass.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1950), p. 323.
SEC.
93
VIBRATION THEORY
457
Case 2: A,~ = O. This results in a repeated zero root A,k, corresponding to a term in the solution of the form Ckt + D'k. This implies that a steady drift can occur in one or more of the coordinates and is characteristic of a neutrally stable system. Case 3: A,~ < O. The corresponding pair of roots are imaginary and they result in terms of the form Ck cosh A,kt + Dk sinh A,kt, implying an unstable solution. Note that the symmetry, or lack of it, in the [m] and [k] matrices may depend upon the procedure used in formulating the equations of motion. For example, if we use Newton's laws in obtaining the equations of motion, it may occur that no symmetry is apparent in either the [m] or [k] matrices; yet we are analyzing a linear bilateral system for which symmetry is expected. The loss of symmetry in the equations can occur merely by multiplying one of the equations by a constant, or by adding equations. This would not change the nature of the solution, but nevertheless would change the appearance of the equations. An advantage of the Lagrange formulation of the equations of motion is that the systematic approach preserves the symmetry of the coefficient matrices for those cases where T and V are adequately represented by quadratic functions of the velocities and displacements, respectively. Returning now to Eq. (954) or Eq. (955), we find that for each A,~ we can write a set of n simultaneous algebraic equations involving the 11 amplitude coefficients, A j • Because the equations are homogeneous, however, there is no unique solution for these amplitude coefficients, but only for the ratios among them. For convenience, we shall solve for the amplitude ratios with respect to A 1. Also, let us arbitrarily eliminate the first equation ·of (955) and divide the others by A h resulting in (n : 1) equations from which to solve for the (n  1) amplitude ratios. Using,::::matrix notation we can write
where we have shown a typical element of the matrix in parentheses in each case. The subscripts refer to the original rows and columns in Eq. (955). Now we solve Eq. (957) for the amplitude ratios and obtain
where we assume that the eigenvalues are distinct and AI* 0, thereby ensuring the existence of the inverse matrix.5 In case Al = 0, another coordinate should be chosen as the reference. In fact, one can use any amp li5The rank of the matrix must be (n  1) in order that the (n  1) amplitude ratios can be determined directly. (See Frazer, Duncan, and Collar, Elementary Matrices, po 18.)
458
VIBRATION THEORY
CHAP.
9
l~
°1
tude normalization scheme \vhich preserves the correct relative magnitudes of the coordinates. Note that a set of (n  1) amplitude ratios can be obtained for each natural frequency "Ak • Each set defines what is known as' an eigenvector or modal vector, since the (n  1) ratios plus a unit reference amplitude can be considered as. the components of a vector in n dimensions. On the other hand, a set of amplitude ratios can be considered to define the mode shape associated with a given natural frequency "A k • Each natural frequency with its corresponding set of amplitude ratios defines a natural mode of vibration. The terms principal mode and normal mode are also used. For the case of the conservative systems just considered for which the "A~ are real, the amplitude ratios are also real. Therefore we see from Eq. (953) that if the initial conditions are such that the system is vibrating in a single mode, all the coordinates are executing sinusoidal motion at the same frequency. The relative phase angle between any two coordinates is either 0° or 180°, depending upon whether the particular amplitude ratio is positive or negative. The zero frequency modes are somewhat different physically in that no elastic deformation occurs. For this reason, they are known as rigidbody modes. Both the potential energy and the kinetic energy are constant, implying a uniform translational or rotational n10tion. The amplitude ratios are calculated in the usual fashion and are perhaps more easily considered as velocity ratios. Comparing the mathematical methods employed here in finding the eigenvalues and the corresponding amplitude ratios with those methods used in Sec. 77 in finding the principal moments of inertia and the corresponding principal directions reveals a strong similarity. To illustrate this mathematical similarity, we found in the discussion of principal moments of inertia that
[J] { ro}
I !
I
I I
== J { ro }
where the scalar, I, is the eigenvalue. In the present vibration problem we have
[k]{A}
==
"A2 [m] {A}
or, assuming that [m]l exists,
[m]l[k]fA}
== "A 2 fA}
where /.,..2 is the eigenvalue. It is evident that the square matrix [m]l [k] plays a mathematically similar role to the inertia matrix [J]. The eigenvectors or modal columns are fA} and {ru}, respectively. An important difference between the two problems is that the characteristic determinant for the vibration problem has n rows and columns rather than the three shown in Eq. (789). Also, we note that the eigenvalue
SEC.
"/\, 2
93
VIBRATION THEORY
459
may appear in each element of the determinant rather than being confined to the principal diagonal. Nevertheless, we can think of the eigenvectors of the vibration problem as defining principal directions in an ndimensional space. Example 91. Calculate the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios for the system of Fig. 92, where 2 ml == 4m2 == 4lh sec jin. and kl == k2 == 1000Ib/in. In this relatively simple example, we can write the inertia and stiffness matrices directly, or we can use the Fig. 92. A massspring system with two degrees of freedom. Lagrangian approach, in which case we find that
111ij ==
Oqi oqj
OqiOqj
02T
(959) (960)
02 V ki' = =  J
In either event, we obtain
[m]
= [~ ~J
Ib sec jin.
2
1000 [k] == [ 1000
1000J lbjin. 2000
We note that mij is numerically equal to the inertial force which opposes a positive displacement of Xi and which arises from a unit acceleration of X j, assuming that all other coordinates remain at zero. In a similar fashion, kij is numerically equal to the elastic force opposing a positive displacement of Xi, the force arising from a unit displacement of X j. The equations of motion are found directly from Eq. (9~52). [
o 1 txJ +
Xj
4
OJ Xl
[1000

1000J {Xl} == 0
1000
2000
X2
Assuming solutions of the form
== Aj C cos ("/\'1
+ cf»
we obtain (1000  4"/\,2) [ 1000
 1000
(2000 
An
J
{AI}
A2
=0
The characteristic equation is (1000  4"/\,2) 1000 or 4"/\,4  9000"/\,2 1000 (2000  "/\,2) ==0
+
106 == 0
For the general case. however.. So.18 rad/sec = 10. A~2) _ A~2)  1000 133 7 53 . Let us define the principal coordinate Uk corresponding to the kth mode by the equation Uk = Ck cos (~kt + cPk) (k = 1. It is characteristic of the oscillations of these conservative systems that adjacent masses tend to move in phase for the lowfrequency modes and move out of phase for the highfrequency modes. if a conservative linear system is oscillating in a single mode of vibration. (961) and (962) we obtain (962) . using solutions of the form of Eq. we obtain A(1) 1000 1883 A~l) = = = 0. then. if all velocities are zero and the coordinates have initial values proportional to the amplitUde coefficients in the modal column fA} for the given mode. we can write Xj = k=l AjkCk cos (~k t + :L.2000 . we can solve directly for the alnplitude ratio. for example.460 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP.~~ = 2133 rad 2/sec 2 46. 2. obtaining A2 _ 1000 Al . . we find tl1at. We have seen that a linear conservative system with n degrees of freedom has n eigenvalues or natural frequencies. where the numbers in parentheses refer to the mode. The amplitude ratios indicate that the two masses move in phase when oscillating in the first mode. In general. Principal Coordinates.531 Similarly.n) Then from Eqs. 9 The roots are A.:\2 F or the first mode. 94. for the second mode. the negative sign indicates that the motion is 180 degrees out of phase in the second mode. no single mode matches the initial conditions.83 rad/sec ~2 = In this simple example.2 rad 2 /sec 2 . ..t :\1 = 117. It is possible for the system to oscillate at a single frequency if the initial conditions are properly established. n CPk) (961) where the SUbscript k refers to the mode. (953).. The reasons for this property will become more evident when we discuss Rayleigh's principle in Sec. and a superposition of modes is required. we can consider all coordinates to be moving in phase except for a possible sign reversal. On the other hand.
Eq. In the discussion of pril1cipal axes in Sec. corresponding to the products of inertia. in matrix notation. (799). the x's must be proportional to the corresponding amplitude coefficients for that mode. We assume here that the modal columns are linearly independent. Note that the principal coordinates are generalized coordinates of a particular type. since all offdiagonal terms. So if only one mode is excited. we are confronted by two quadratic forms. indicating that the eigenvectors corresponding to the principal moments of inertia are mutually orthogonal. In this case. the orthogonality of these axes can be expressed by Eq. As we shall see in Sec. we can solve for the principal coordinates in terms of ordinary coordinates as follows: (965) The modal matrix [A] is a square matrix whose columns are the modal columns for the various modes. the use of coordinates associated specifically with a given frequency makes possible a reduction in the number of coordinates used in the analysis. (962) indicates that Uk oscillates sinusoidally at the frequency of the given mode. (x} == [A] [U} (964) Conversely. Nevertheless. + I3 00D In other words. are zero. A jk Uk k=t or. Returning to vibration theory. a condition which is assured if the eigenvalues are distinct. 77. the coordinate transformation to a principalaxis system results in the reduction of the general quadratic form for the rotational kinetic energy given in Eq. a general motion requires all 11 principal coordinates. 93 Xj VIBRATION THEORY n 461 (963) == L. {m2}T[ mt} == ° An equivalent vecto'r statement is (1)1 • (1)2 == 0. . the entire motion is described by using only one principal coordinate. a similar reduction in the effective number of degrees of freedom can often be accomplished when one analyzes forced vibrations by using principal coordinates. the transformation to principal axes diagonalizes the inertia matrix [I]. since we are often interested in the transient response within a certain frequency range. Furthermore. namely. We see from Eq. (754) to the simple form: T = ~ (II oo~ + 12 00. (963) that if only one of the coordinates Uk is nonzero. Orthogonality of the Eigenvectors. 95. Of course. we found that if the vectors (1)1 and (1)2 are directed along any two of the three principal axes.SEC.
It is interesting to note that if one of the modal columns of Eq. obtaining (970) If the eigenvalues /\t and /\~ are distinct. (967) by {A (k)} T. we note that the lefthand sides of the two equations are equal. The resulting equations are {A(l)}T[k]{A(k)} == i\~{A(l)}T[m]{A(k)} (968) (969) Because of the symmetry of the [k] and [m] matrices. We shall find that the transformation to principal coordinates diagonalizes both the [m] and [k] matrices. (971) corresponds to a zero frequency mode. the elastic modes of a body in free space must have zero linear and angular momentum. then the orthogona1ity condition implies that the appropriate momentum component is conserved in the vibration of the elastic mode. (971) can be obtained by noting that a modal column of amplitude coefficients gives the velocity and acceleration ratios as well as the displacement ratios for the given mode. I n practical term~. (968). then it follows that (971) This is the orthogonality condition for the kth and lth eigenvectors with respect to the inertia matrix [m]. Now subtract Eq. Now let us write Eq. . (968). For example. there is no inertial coupling between the principal coordinates corresponding to distinct modes. the kinetic energy Tand the potential energy V. that is. Performing this operation on Eq. certain mathematical similarities between the two' eigenvalue problems will be apparent. for the lth mode we have [k]{A(l>} == /\7[m]{A(l)} (967) Premultiply both sides of Eq. then several momentum components will be zero in the remaining modes. 9 namely. (966) by {A (l)} T and premultiply both sides of Eq. An additional result is that the eigenvectors are shown to be orthogonal. but not in the same geometrical sense as was the case for the principal axes of a rigid body. Insight into the physical meaning of Eq. The zero value of this dot product indicates that the two vectors are orthogonal in an ndimensional space. (955) for the kth natural mode in the form [k]{A(k)} == /\~[m]{A(k)} (966) Similarly. thereby simplifying the expressions for T and V. the kth and lth modal columns can be interchanged on both sides of either equation. If several zero frequency modes exist. A~ =I= /\z. (969) from Eq.462 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. Nevertheless. So the orthogonality condition can be interpreted as the dot product of the eigenvector' for one mode and the inertial force vector for another mode.
(969). In other words. The product of [k] and a certain modal column fA (l)} gives the elastic force components corresponding to a given displacement of that mode. We can summarize Eqs. (977) states that the scalar product of the eigenvector for a given mode and the elastic force vector for another mode is zero. So let us write (972) where Mkk is a positive constant which is just the inertial coefficient for the kth mode. So Eq. we have (977) For a zero frequency mode. hence the modal columns for the kth and lth modes can be interchanged. the principal modes are not elastically coupled because no work is done by the . We can show that the transformation to principal coordinates also diagonalizes the stiffness matrix. This is the orthogonality condition with respect to the stiffness matrix. and the kinetic energy has been shown to be positive definite.~I) {A(k)Y[k]{A!l)} = 0 At =1= At and it follows that (976) If the modes are distinct. (971) and (972) as follows: [A]T[m] [A] == [M] (973) where we recall that each column of [A] is a modal ·column. the same result is obtained directly from Eq. that is. indicating a lack of inertial coupling among the natural modes. Let us write Eqs. 93 VIBRATION THEORY 463 If the natural modes are not distinct. (974) and subtracting Eq. we obtain (~ .SEC. (975). then the matrix product of Eq. It cannot be zero because it is proportional to the kinetic energy for motion in the given mode. (964) has resulted in the diagonalization of the mass matrix. Again we note that [k] and [m] are symmetric. we see that [M] is a diagonal matrix. for k == I. Performing. (971) is no longer zero.this interchange of matrices in Eq. each element along the diagonal is the generalized mass or inertial coefficient corresponding to a particular mode. Thus we find that the coordinate transformation to principal coordinates given in Eq. Because of the orthogonality of different eigenvectors. (968) and (969) in the form ~~ {A (°Y[k]{A (k)} = {AwY[m]{A(k)} ~ {A(k)Y[k]{AW} = {A(k)Y[m]{A(l)} (974) (975) where we assume that A~ and AI are nonzero.
In contrast with Mkk which must be positive. 9 elastic forces of one mode in moving through the displacements of a second mode. the potential energy is given by v= ~ or {UnK]{U} (982) (983) Now we can express the Lagrangian function L == T .464 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. the transformation to principal coordinates has resulted in the diagonalization of both the inertia and stiffness matrices. since [M] is diagonal. we obtain [M] {OJ + [K] {U} == 0 (984) or + Kll UI == 0 M 22 0 2 + K22 U2 == 0 Mll 0 1 (985) ~'i MnnUn + KnnUn == 0 r These differential equations of motion indicate that the free vibrations of I . In summary. we find that Kkk can be positive.V in terms of principal coordinates. This implies that the modes have neither inertial nor elastic coupling and therefore are independent for the case of free vibration. I \ . zero. ( The kinetic energy can be written in terms of principal coordinates by using the familiar form (980) or. T 1 == 2 MllU 2 + 2M22U22 + 1 ° 1 ° (981) Similarly. and from Lagrange's equation. or unstable. [A]T [k] [A] == [K] (979) where [K] is a diagonal matrix. For the case where A~ == At we can write (978) where Kkk is the generalized stiffness coefficient for the kth mode. neutrally stable. or negative according to whether the kth mode is stable. In general.
SEC. 2. let us use the systenl of Example 91 to illustrate the orthogonality of the natural modes.7 lb sec 2 in. (979) we have [K] == [A]T[k] [A] == 0. or letting the reference amplitude be some other nonzero value. .53 J'In. Similarly.. we have arbitrarily chosen the amplitude coefficient to be unity for a given coordinate. and have calculated the other amplitude coefficients accordingly.2 sec. Thus far.n) (988) Similarly.2 • Note that each element of the modal matrix [A] has the units of length. Normal Coordinates. n) (986) Finally. Using Eq. such as x}.. . . (972) and (987) that {A' (k>}T[m]{A' (k)} == 1 (k == 1. we obtain [M] equal to unity for == [A]T[ln][A] == [ 4. Xl where we arbitrarily set the anlplitude of the motion in each mode.502 [ ° ° 129 Jx 10 3 lb in. But we could have used other amplitude normalization procedures. from Eq. . such as choosing another coordinate as a reference. (971) and (987) we obtain {A' (k)}T[m]{A' (l)} == 0 (k =F /) (989) . (986) we obtain Xi == KulAIll == 117.2 and X~ == K221A122 == 2133 sec. It turns out that the equations of motion in terms of modal coordinates can be expressed in a particularly simple form if we normalize the modal columns in the following manner: Let us choose a new modal column {A'(k>} which is related to the former column {A(k>} by {A' (k)} == ~ 1 {A(k)} (987) It is evident from Eqs. We note that the natural frequency of each mode is given by X2 == MKkk kk (k == 1.2. We have seen that the modal columns give the relative amplitudes of the ordinary coordinates when the system is oscillating in a single natural mode. from Eqs. (973). . . The [A] lnatrix was calculated to be 1 7.28 ° °J 60. each system representing a single mode. From Eq. 93 VIBRATION THEORY 465 the entire system can be described in terms of the vibrations of n independent undamped secondorder systems.
Hence we find that the generalized inertia n:tatrix for the primed system is just the unit matrix. ... that is.J Mkk Uk (991) Now let us calculate the stiffness matrix in the primed coordinate system.. We can solve for U/c in terms of. For the kth mode we have. [M'] = [A']T[m] [A'] = [1] (990) Let us use the term normal coordinates to designate the generalized coordinates U/c associated with the primed system. 1 1\'2 2 + 2 ~ 2 U'2 + . we obtain U~ = . (987). 2. .) I to'} + where [K'] [K'] [U'] = 0 [M]l [K] = . + l ~ 2 U'2 2 '\I n n (995) (996) 1 "'1 1 V = 2 ~ 2 U'2 Now we can use Lagrange's equation to obtain UL + X~ Uk = or. .. . K£k .Uk by equating the expressions in the primed and unprimed systems for the displacement Xj due to the kth mode. using matrix notation.. We see that AjkUk = AJkU~ and using Eq. = {A' (k)}T[k]{A' (k)} = _1_ {A(k)}T[k]{A(k)} Mkk (992) So we see from Eqs. using Eq.466 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. namely. 2.. the kinetic and potential energies reduce to particularly simple quadratic forms. + ~ U'. . 9 ..•.. n) (993) The offdiagonal terms are again zero and we obtain X~ 0 X~ o [K'] = [A']T[k] [A'] = (994) In terms of normal coordinates. 0 (k = 1. n) (997) (998) (999) . (987). T = ~ U? + ~ U? + .. (978) and (986) that K K£k = Mkk = Xi (k kk = 1.
m) equations from (957) and the orthogonality conditions with the (m . that is. we solve for the remaining amplitude coefficients in {A<P)}. But now only (n . Each succeeding calculation involves one less arbitrary choice of an amplitude coefficient. A~p+l). we can choose two amplitude coefficients arbitrarily when A... again set A~p+l) == 1. is found by setting A~p+ml) == 1 and solving for the other amplitUdes using the (n . even for the degenerate case. {A(p+ml)}.. 93 I VIBRATION THEORY 467 Repeated Roots. [A<P+3)}.~. Next we find {A(p+l)} by choosing Af p+l).2) remaining amplitude coefficients from the (n .m) of the equations in (957) are independent. the amplitude ratios corresponding to all the distinct modes.1) equations from which to solve for the (n . for example. For the general case of an mfold degeneracy..~+mh we note first that the m amplitUdes A~P)..m + 1) amplitudes using (n . With this assumption. A~P). however. The principal problem arises in finding the final modal column {A(P+l)} such that it is orthogonal to {A<P)}. we might take A~P) == 1.A. By this procedure. We continue in this fashion.~mij)]1 does not exist. . solving for {A{P+2)}. . we find that these modes are mutually orthogonal. == A. . that is.. . Furthermore. but has one more orthogonality condition with the other vectors of the degenerate set. we found that the eigenvectors are mutually orthogonal with respect to both the [m] and [k] matrices. This complete set of modal columns forms a modal matrix [A] which diagonalizes both the [m] and [k] matrices in the ..~ == A.. and so on. we find that the inverse matrix [(k ij . Then we can solve for the (n .1) simultaneous algebraic equations is not linearly independent. A.1) other vectors of the set. A~!l) arbitrarily and solving for the other (n . we find that the modal column {A(P)} is orthogonal to all the modal columns corresponding to the distinct modes. For this case of a sin1ply degenerate system.~ == A. Specifically.1) remaining amplitude coefficients in {A (p+ 1)} . we obtain a set of n mutually orthogonal eigenvectors. 2 == A.2) independent equations from (957) plus the orthogonality condition (9100) Thus we have (n . indicating that the corresponding set of (n . (971) are still valid.~. both matrices are diagonalized by a transformation to principal coordinates.2) independent equations contained in (957).+ l' If we use Eq.A~) may be chosen arbitrarily. Now let us consider a socalled degenerate system in which the eigenvalues are not all distinct. we assumed that the roots are distinct. since the assumptions for the derivation of Eq. first consider the case of a double root such that A.m) independent equations obtained from (957) and the condition that {A(P+l)} be orthogonal to {A<P)}. (958) to solve for.2 == A. Using these equations. Then we use the (n .+1 == . But if we choose A. A~P) == O. The final eigenvector. We can. In the previous discussion of free vibratipns. in order.SEC.
/sec. the righthand side of each equation will be zero. In fact.468 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. We obtain from Eq. are not necessarily mutually orthogonal. (9103) and (9104) to solve directly for the C z and CPl for each mode. Initial Conditions. usual manner. rather than being forced to solve 2n simultaneous equations.j I x 1(0) = 0 . any linear combination of the modal columns corresponding to a repeated root forms another possible modal column for that root. namely. except when k = l. Let us assume that the initial displacements and velocities are given. let us calculate the transient response of the system of Example 91 for the following initial conditions: Xl(O) = 10 in. that the amplitude ratios are no longer unique. We should note. since we found that some of the amplitude ratios can now be chosen arbitrarily. As an illustration of this method. (9102) that (9104) Thus we find that we can use Eqs. (961) that (9101) and (9102) Now multiply each of these equations by mijAU and sum over i andj. 9 . . Xj = k=l AjkCk cos (Akt + CPk) ~ n Assuming that the eigenvalues A~ and the modal matrix [AJ have been found. Because of the orthogonality condition of Eq. Thus we obtain from Eq. (971).•. (9101) that ~ ~ i=l j=l n n Xj(O)mijAU = ~ i=l n L ~ mijAilAjkCk cos CPk j=l k=l n n = MUCl cos CPt or (9103) I 1. " J In a similar fashion. The form of the transient solution for a system having n degrees of freedom was given in Eq. however. we obtain from Eq. however. Columns formed in this way. we must now solve for the n Ck's and the n CPk'S from the 2n initial conditions. We can use the orthogonality conditions to simplify this process. (961). as they were for the case of distinct roots.
substituting numerical values for the constants in Eq.0. we find that the transient solutions for Xl and X2 are Xl X2 == 0.0143. (9103) and (9104). we see that the transient solution in this case is of the form: Xl X2 == Au C I cos (:\1 t + CPl) + A 12 C 2cos (:\2t + CP2) == A21 C I cos (:\1 t + CPI) + A22 C 2 cos (:\2 t + CP2) (9105) Thus we need to solve for the four constants C}.7) . 'Noting that the square of the velocity of the mass 2m is v 2 == x~ + x~.SEC.1 08 si~n 46.2t (9106) Example 92. Now we evaluate the righthand sides of Eqs.0143 with the result that C 2 == 0.863.863 C I == 0. _ (10)(4)(1)_ C 2SIn 1>2 . 93 VIBRATION THEORY 469 From Eq. where we assume small motions such that the angles remain essentially unchanged.(46.863 sin 10.2)(60. C2. using the numerical values of the masses and aInplitude coefficients which we obtained previously. Obtain a set of mutually orthogonal modal columns.458 sin 10. 93.0. We obtain ..83)(4. for the second mode we have C 2cos 1>2 == 0 . Let us obtain the equations of motion by the Lagrangian method.0143 sin 46. we see that the total kinetic energy of the system is (9107) The potential energy is found by adding the energies of the individual springs. (961).83t + 0. Similarly.83t .28) . Find the differential equations of motion and the natural frequencies for the system whose equilibrium configuration is shown in Fig.2t == 0. CPb and CP2.0. (9105). We obtain for the first mode that C I cos CPl == 0 C 1 sin CPl == from which we obtain (10)(4)(1) (10. Therefore.
. + 'k(3 +k TXt  1 . 93.: 1 = Aje cos (Xt + cp) 1 . v= i k(XI 3 2 X2)2 + k(XI ~ 2 2 Xa  ~ X4y + k(X2 ~ Xs + ~ X4y 2 = k ( 4 X1 3 +4 X2 1 3 + TXg + 2X4  X 1 X2  TXIXg  1 2 1 X2Xg .V and substitute into the standard form of Lagrange's equation: .J3 X 1X4 + J3 X 2 X4) 2 2 (9108) Now let L = T .!{ dt (8L) _ 8L = 0 8qt 8qt X2  The resulting eqll:ations of motion are mX 1 .3 =0 (9109) mX2 ( Xl + ~ X2  i Xs + ~ X4) = 0 2mxs 2mx4 + k ( i Xl  i X2 + Xs) = 0 +k ( ~ Xl + ~ X2 + 3X4) = 0 Assuming solutions of the form Xj .' '\'. A massspring system with four degrees of freedom.470 VffiRATION THEORY CHAP. \ / 1\ Fig.2X4 ) TXg v . j.
Consider first the zero frequency mode. . we have .2mi\. ~ A~2) == 2 12 J'f A~2) + Af) 2 == J'f 2 from which we find that A~2) == 1. that {A(4)}T = II 0  ~J Now \ve consider the modal columns corresponding to the repeated roots ~ == i\..2) The characteristic equation is found by setting the determinant of the square matrix equal to zero. 93 VIBRATION THEORY 471 as in Eq. (9111) Thus we see that this system is simply degenerate and also has a zero frequency mode. in factored form. Ai 2) == column is given by {A(2)}T == J'f. == 3klm. we find for the fourth mode.6 + 7mk 2i\.3k 3 i\.::.~ == kim.2) 0 A3 A4 (9110) _J'f k 2 J'f k 2 (3k .~ == kim..~ In a similar fashion..  .8 . . j .•• _~. Let i\. (958) to solve for the modal column for the first mode.~) ~ _ _ .:':c:. Omitting the first equation. 0 The corresponding modal II 1 J'fJ For the remaining mode.5m 2ki\.4 .2mi\.i\.•.2 == i\.2 == 0 or. We find that {A(1)}T == II 1 1 1 OJ i\. _ _ . we obtain the following equation in terms of the amplitude coefficients: (~ k  mX2) k 1 k 2 _J'fk 2 Al A2 ==0 k k 2 1 (~ k 1 mX2) 1 k 2 J'f k 2 0 k 2 (k . Let us arbitrarily choose A~2) == 1 and A~2) == O.SEC. we can choose only one amplitude . The resulting equation can be written as m 3i\.'J.I == 0 in Eq. we can use Eq. (953). (9110) and take A~l) == 1.I . rOmitting the first two equations of (9110). .
Let us take AP) == 1. 7 coefficient arbitrarily.r.. the remaining two can be written as ~ A~3) . it is apparent that any procedure which allows us to . THE USE OF SYMMETRY We have observed that· the characteristic equation for a linearized vibratory system having n degrees of freedom is of nth order in the eigenvalue ~2..A~3) == ~ 2 2 v'3 A~3) + A~3) == 2 Aj'32 The required third equation is a statement of the orthogonality of the second and third modes with respect to the mass matrix.\. The characteristic equation is obtained by equating to zero the determinant of the coefficient matrix for the general modal column {A}. as shown in Eq.A.A~3) + 2v'3 A~3)) == 0 1 1 Hence we can solve for {A(3)} with the following result: {A (3)}T == Ll 1 1 OJ 1 1 0 1 These modal columns can be collected to form the modal matrix: 1 1 1 0 ~3 [A] == 1 0 1 1 0 J3 It is interesting to note that all modes except the first have zero linear momentum in the horizontal direction. (956). (971) and the numerical values for {A(2)}. we can solve for the generalized inertia and generalized stiffness matrices from Eqs. This is a result of the orthogonality of the zero frequency mode relative to the others and the consequent lack of inertial coupling. If we again omit the first two equations of (9110). Sinc~ the effort required to evaluate a determinant increases rapidly with its size.C1. we have m(Ap) . (973) and (979). These are 4 0 0 8 0 [M] == mOO 4 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 8 o 0 [K] == k 0 0 4 0 o o o o 0 0 ! 0 o 8 94. Using Eq. Finally.
we will show that the n required roots may be found by solving two characteristic equations. Note that the symmetry assumptions can be expressed in the form of a set of simple holonomic constraint equations. As an exalnple of the effect of these symmetry assumptions upon the boundary conditions. k2 == 500 lbjin. that is. kl == k3 == 1000 lbjin. (2) antisymmetric modes in which the displacement at each point is the negative of the mirror image of the displacement for the corresponding point in the other half. m2 == m g == 1 lb sec 2 jin. If. 94(a). then there will be that many more modes with the given symmetry. then this coordinate must be zero for either the symmetric or the anti symmetric case. One could obtain expressions forT and Vand use the Lagrangian method to find the equations of motion. This system has four degrees of freedom. 94 VIBRATION THEORY 473 consider fewer degrees of freedom at one time will be most welcome. but must move in a direction perpendicular to the plane of symmetry for the antisynlmetric modes. All motion occurs along the same straight line. In the usual case. we find that the displacements must preserve the continuity of the system. Usually these equations state that the ratio of a given coordinate to its image coordinate is either plus one or minus one..sider a systenl having a plane of symmetry. Given these conditions at the plane of synlmetry.SEC. For systems having a plane of symmetry. m 1 == m 4 == 4 lb sec 2 jin. Find the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios for the system shown in Fig. Example 93. it can be seen that the motion in any distinct mode must fall into one of t\\'o classifications: (1) symmetric modes in which the displacement at each point in one half of the system is the mirror image of the displacement of the corresponding point in the other half. If we think of the displacements and forces at the interface between the two portions. however. whereas only shear forces and stresses occur at this boundary when there is an anti symmetric vibration. whereas the forces acting on the two portions must be equal and opposite in accordance with Newton's Ia. An alternative plan for this relatively simple system would be to write the . we find that only normal forces and stresses occur at the symmetry plane for the case of the symmetric modes. we note that particles in the plane of symmetry must remain in that plane for the symmetric modes. each obtained by evaluating determinants which have approximately nj2 rows and columns. the coordinate refers to a point in the plane of symmetry. But if there are more coordinates at the boundary which are associated with one type of symmetry. in the reference position of static equilibrium. a plane can be found such that the system is divided into two parts which are mirror images of each other with respect to the plane. Similarly.' of action and reaction. Let us con. and assuming small displacelnents. the numbers of symmetric and anti symmetric modes are roughly equal.
\ 0.474 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP.531 7. We recall that if the length of a given spring is halved. the coordinates are related according to the equations: C (9112) We note that the center of the spring k2 cannot move.l8 rad/sec. First consider the symmetric modes. however. is identical with the system of Example 91. Using the results of Example 91. They are f.2 after factoring out the zero root. For this case. So let us assume that the center of spring k2 is fixed and consider just one half of the systemthe lefthand side.531 7. we can immediately give the frequencies and amplitude ratios for the symmetric modes.53 0. Because of the symmetry of the physical system.53 1:1 I IJ (9113) Next. The use of symmetry in breaking a system into smaller parts.~.. the characteristic equation would be of third order in f. So we find that the system to be analyzed..83 rad/sec... fA(2Jf' == Ll fA(4)F' == Ll . let us use symmetry methods in the solution. 94. 94(b). == 46. [m] and [k] matrices directly by inspection.. For this case we assume that . since any movement of this point would be antisymmetric in nature. consider the antisymmetric modes. for example. In either event.4 == 10. Fig. its stiffness is doubled. 9 (0) (b) (c) (d) Fig.2 f..
we see that the effective spring constant is 5k 1.53 1 The modal matrix is 1 1 1 4 4 1 == We have shown that the use of symmetry. (In other words.531 1 1 1 Ij Ij == II 4 4 1 1 7. . the mass center of this small system is stationary. and missiles. m t l = 35. Hence these other modes must have zero translational momentum in the given direction of motion.SEC.53 7. We recall that the zero frequency mode contains the entire translational momentum for the system. such as ships.4 rad/sec. by symmetry the momenta of the two halves are equal. Evidently the natural frequency of this mode is :\3 = J5k . Also. So we can set the linear momentum of each half equal to zero. For the system of Fig.) If we fix this point and again consider the lefthand system. But in general. The resulting massspring system is shown in Fig. 94(c).symmetry methods can be used to simplify the analysis. 1 [A] {A (l)}T == II {A(3)}T 1 0. Many physical systems of interest. we have 1111 Xl + m 2 X2 == 0 and. 94 VIBRATION THEORY 475 One of the anti symmetric modes is clearly the zero frequency mode corresponding to a uniform translation such that Xl == X2 == X3 == X4. 94(c). saving of labor in the solution of vibration problems. otherwise the remaining modes would not be orthogonal to it. we see that x 2 ==_m l ==_4 Xl m2 Now we can reduce this system one step further. can result in a considerable . the foregoing ratio implies that a point which is onefifth of the distance from Xl to X2 must remain motionless. We have considered the case I : i . == 35. Assuming a uniform spring between m l and m2. we see that the condition X2 == X3 implies that no force is exerted by the spring k2 for any of the antisymmetricmodes. have at least approximate symmetry. aircraft. since the displacement ratio is constant and is equal to the velocity ratio. plus the knowledge that certain elastic modes have zero momentum. 94(d).531 0.4 fad/sec So we can summarize the anti symmetric modes as follows: Al ~3 == 0. and whether the system is lumped or continuous. Therefore we can omit this spring entirely and consider the system of Fig.
thereby allowing further divisions of the systerI1. 9. The tensile force P is constant. Let us take the lefthand half. . Assume that the wires have a constant tensile force P and are massless. 95(b). 95(a).Ul'O:: CHAP. 9) Xii (9114) The potential energy is found by calculating the work done on the wires for a given small displacement. we can write (9115) expanding the square roots in terms of the small quantities XIII and x 21 we obtain I.. so the work done equals P multiplied by the total stretch of the wire. and because of the even symmetry.t:H"A llUl'4 1 tlJ:. Example 94. 9 of a single plane of symmetry. as shown in Fig. the mode frequencies.. (b) The partial systems associated with the symmetric modes and (c) the antisymmetric modes. Find the equations of motion. it is possible that the symmetry exists with respect to a line or a point. rather than with respect to a plane.5. I (0) m ~. hence we can consider just half of the system at a time. We note that the system is symmetric about m 2 . The kinetic energy T is just 1 T == 2 mX1 ·2 + 16 mx2 3 ·2 == 16 m (8 ·2 Xl + 3 . We see that the plane " of symmetry bisects m2.\ I (b) (c) Fig. it has no X2 component. It might be that more than one plane of symmetry exists. Assuming that V is zero at equilibrium. Let m l == m3 == m and m 2 == 3m14. Also. the force Pacts normal to the boundary. and the amplitude ratios for the system shown in Fig. Also obtain the [M] and [K] matrices corresponding to a convenient set of principal coordinates.Y l. (a) The complete system. that is. and consider first the symmetric modes. Of.
94 VIBRATION THEORY 477 (9116) where all higherorder terms have been neglected.SEC. the latter by a consideration of the elastic forces acting on each . mA2)A2 == 0 8 =0 (9120) or (9121) This equation yields the following eigenvalues for this case of symmetric modes: . Using Lagrange's equations. we obtain I !.i. using primes to indicate a partial system.. is [m'l == m [~ 2 ~j ~j + cp) (9118) (9119) [k'] == ~[ I 1 Now the equations of motion can be written by inspection. particle. we find that the equations of motion are lnX I  2P + TXI   P T X2 == 0 (9117) 3 .. nlX2 8 Xl P I + IX 2 P 0 == An alternate approach is to write the inertia and stiffness matrices directly. The result. C{ ~Al + I The characteristic equation is m:\2) AI  ~ A2 == 0 (PI . Following the usual procedure of assuming solutions of the form Xj == AjC cos (At and substituting into the equations of motion.
Noting that the individual coefficients are additive at the plane of symmetry. hence the motion of any single particle would not be sinusoidal.50J 1 0. we see that they are of identical form. let us first write the [m] and [k] matrices for the complete system. Returning now to the problem of finding the generalized inertia and stiffness matrices. Ll ° IJ 1 0.75 1 0. mX 1 + 2 I P Xl == ° (9122) from which we obtain the frequency ~2 = {A(2)}T == The corresponding modal column for the entire system is Now we can write the complete modal matrix as follows: J. obtained by· using Eq.75 It is interesting to consider the transformation to principal coordinates. namely.50 U 3 If we compare these eq uations with those of (652). the deflection forms or mode shapes for the three natural modes are those shown in Fig. 610. Furthermore. It is evident from symmetry considerations that m2 does not move in this case. we find from Eqs.. X2 X3 == U I  U3  (9124) U2 == 0.1 0.. Thus we see that the system can perform a free vibration with the particles moving sinusoidally and in phase according to anyone of the three possible mode shapes. (652).75 [A] == [ 1 o . 95(c).478 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. Hence the left half of the system is as shown in Fig. A general free motion would involve all three modes oscillating at their individual frequencies.75 U I + 0.50j where we have arbitrarily set the largest amplitude equal to unity for each mode. the U's in this case corresponding to theq's of Eq. (9120) and symmetry.75J 1 0. are fA (1)}T == LO.50 (9123) 0. 9 The corresponding amplitude ratios for the complete systemt. Next we consider the antisymmetric modes. (9118) and (9119) that . The equation of motion for this simple system is .
SEC.•• . Suppose we consider a conservative linear system described by the coordinates Xb X2.75 0 1 2 ~] ~] 0 2 0 0 1. Furthermore. 94 VIBRATION THEORY 479 [m] = ml~ [  0 0. (9129) and (Xj)max == Ajro (9130) where ro is the natural circular frequency of the given mode. Now we assume for convenience that the maximum value of the given principal coordinate is unity. and vice versa. (948) and (949) that (9131) and Vmax Thus. It follows from Eqs. if the reference value of potential energy is chosen such that it is zero at the equilibriulTI position. we know that the motions of all coordinates are in phase.875 m 00 [ 1.250 (9125) [k] = ~ ~ (9126) 1 Finally. Then. Since the total energy is constant. we obtain (9133) . (961) and (962). .Xn • If such a system is oscillating in a single natural mode. we can use the general equations given in (973) and (979) to obtain [M] == [A]T[/n][A] == 1. in the sense that all reach their maximum amplitudes together and all pass through zero at the same instant. then the kinetic energy is maximum when potential energy is zero. by setting Tmax I" == 2" ~l j~ kijAiAj 1 n n (9132) equal to Vmax .25 J (9127) o [K] = [Ank][A] = ~ [ ~ o OJ 4 0 o 5 (9128) Rayleigh's Principle. from Eqs. we find that the maximum values of the kinetic and potential energy are equal.
llax == . As an illustration of the use of Rayleigh's principle. (9133) that == 1 and note that k 1 == 2k 2. Taking the portion of the system that is shown in Fig. that this method can always be applied to systems with a single degree of freedom. provided that the modal column {A} is known. But it is also useful for more complicated systems in which the modal column is known froin symmetry considerations.4 in order that the linear momentum be zero. 94(b). or perhaps is estimated or approximated in some fashion. I  ••. It is apparent. These equations can be used to solve for the unknown amplitude coefficients. the changes in the value of (1)2 computed using Eq. then. the stationary values of (1)2 correspond to the true eigenvalues.480 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. Another important result is Rayleigh's principle which states that.1. . We see that the preceding equation provides a convenient means of determining the natural frequency of a given mode without finding the equations of motion or solving the characteristic equation. consider again the system of Example 93. (9133) will be of higher order in the small quantities. . 94(c). or from the requirement of zero momentum. 94(a). I n other words.0 (. If we take just that portion shown in Fig. 2 . So we see that (1)2 == k 1 (1 + 4)2 == 1250 rad 2 /sec2 m l (1 + 4) in agreement with the value of A~ found in Example 93. 9 This is Rayleigh's method for obtaining mode frequencies. consider again the nonzero anti symmetric mode for the system of Fig. Let us calculate the amplitude ratios for the symmetric modes. As an example. Also. m 1 == 4m2. it was given that m 2 /m l == 1/4. we find that (9134) But we recall that A 2/ Al == . we find that T. n) (9135) at an eigenvalue. if small changes are made in the modal column in the vicinity of its true values for a given mode. we find (9138) .w (ml Ai + m2AD '> (9136) and (9137) If we arbitrarily let A I from Eq. So we find that O(1)~ OAi .
It is apparent from Eq. Hence if one uses an approximate ITIode shape in calculating 0 2 . this explains why the adjacent masses tend to move in the same direction for the lowfrequency modes and in the opposite direction for the highfrequency modes. 7. small errors in the assumed mode shape or eigenvector can usually be tolerated because. Hence any approximation to this mode shape will result in a value of 00 2 that is too small. It is interesting to note that the value of 00 2 obtained by using Eq. . the resulting error in 00 2 must be of higher order in the small quantities. consisting of two uniform circular disks connected by a spring between corresponding points on the circumference of each. Find the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios for small oscillations about this reference position for the following cases: (a) there is no slipping of the disks on the floor . (9133) that the higher modes have a larger Vlllax for a given value of TlIlllX ' Since the elastic members normally connect adjacent masses. Nevertheless.'1 Example 95. The system has only two degrees of freedom and can be described in terms of the coordinates Xl and X2' Furthermore. Consider first the case of no slipping. (9133) reaches its minilTIUITI value when the amplitude coefficients correspond exactly to those of the fundalTIental or lowest frequency mode. In a similar fashion. 96. These characteristics of the function 0 2 . which is the ratio of hOlTIogeneous quadratic forms. The antisymmetric mode is characterized by the constraint Xl == X2' Since this motion involves no change in the length of the spring.4 == 0 The roots are A2 1 == 2(7 +~) == 0. the largest eigenvalue corresponds to the maximun1 possible value of 0 2 for any set of A's. (b) the floor is perfectly smooth. the result must be larger than the true eigenvalue.53 in agreelTIent with our earlier results in ExalTIple 93. 1. Given the system shown in Fig. it follows that the only antisymmetric mode is a zero frequency mode. according to Rayleigh's principle. there is symmetry about a vertical plane through the center of the spring.SEC. so we can look at just one half of the system at a time.531. remind one of similar properties of the moment of inertia I of a rigid body about an axis near one of the principal axes. For the intermediate eigenvalues the error can have either sign. 94 VIBRATION THEORY 481 We see that A2 is the only variable. So we can write doo2 ==0 dA 2 from which we obtain the following equation: A~ + 7A2 .
using Eq.ro • I == 4~ 3m {k 1 Summarizing the results. 96(b). k' (0) I I· (b) Fig.9 . hence the lefthand half of the system can be analyzed separately. (9133).21 (9139) where we note that I == ima 2 • The maximum potential energy is Vmax == 4kA.X 2 It can be seen that the center of the spring is fixed. we obtain o 1. Now consider the symmetric mode. For the system shown in Fig.482 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. (b) The partial system for symmetric modes.that . 96. we find .1 ~ (9140) 1 So.2 Tmax == "2" mx1 1 +"2" 10.. (a) The complete system consisting of two uniform circular disks and a spring. (l)2 = 4J3':n. Here the complete . we can write (l)1 = 0. for which Xl == . [A] == [1l' 1IJ Now consider the sase in which the floor is frictionless.
+ aAO)2 So. (9144) are 1 (9144) a' 2 a Substituting these values of Ao! into Eq. We obtain that 1 III a x 71 _  In(j) 2( 1 1 2 A2 + T a 2 A2 ) 0 XI 1 (9141) (9142) and Vmax = k(Ax. (9143) Now let us arbitrarily set Ax." (9143). from Eq. but now the floor is assulned to be frictionless. ~1 1 a 2 a ~J .. 94 VIBRATION THEORY 483 system has four degrees of freedoln. Performing the differentiation and simplifying. 96(b). we see that the eigenvectors for the symmetric modes are LA Xl (3) LA(4) XI A(3) X2 A~:) A~!)J = A~:)J = A(4) X2 A~~) II II 1 . we can again consider the partial system of Fig. we see that a possible set of eigenvectors which conforn1 to the constraints and are mutually orthogonal is given by and lA ~: A~. + 2~Ax. Therefore these modes have zero frequency. 111 (2Ax. namely.aAoI .) + a 2Ao. ~ Using the foregoing results and the symmetry properties.Ao.o We see that d(j)2 ="0 dAo. t. For the antisymmetric modes we have Xl = X2 and (}1 = (}2' It is evident. (9133) we have (»2 = 4k(A~. For these repeated roots. that both anti symmetric modes involve no change in the length of the spring.~J . we obtain the corresponding natural frequencies. = 1 and use Rayleigh's principle to find Au. A ~~) A ~~) J = lO 0 1 1J For the case of the symmetric modes. we obtain a 2 A~I . (» = 0. (A~. then.2 = 0 The roots of Eq.SEC.
FORCED VIBRATIONS OF A CONSERVATIVE SYSTEM Transfer Functions. we note first that the system is linear. Using Eq. 95. we find that the center of percussion is halfway between the center of the disk and the contact point with the floor. (7190).9 . Using complex notation we can write fit) == FjeiG>l (9147) To find the steadystate solution. Suppose that external forces are ar!:lied to the system such that the force h(t) corre· sponds to Xh that is. It follows that the ratio of linear and angular accelerations for the disk are such that this point does not move during the vibration. It is interesting to consider again the nature of the single nonzero mode. the instantaneous centers must also be located at the centers of percussion with respect to the spring attachment points. X 2 . Consider a conservative system whose configuration is described in terms of n independent coordinates Xl. the virtual work done by the external forces in an arbitrary virtual displacement is SW == j=l SXj 2:1'i n (9145) Then we obtain n differential equations of motion which can be written as a matrix equation of the form [m] {x} + [k] {x} == {J(t)} (9146) First assume that the applied forces are harmonic functions of time.484 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. • • • . Therefore the total steadystate response is the sum of the responses to the individual forces. Since no other horizontal forces are applied.Xn . We can summarize the mode shapes in the 1 m~dal matrix: 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 [A] 1 1 a 1 1 2 a 2 a == 0 0 a We have seen that three out of four natural modes for the frictionless case are zero frequency modes. We note that plane motion is involved. hence the disks will rotate about their respective instantaneous centers which remain fixed in space for this case of small motion. If we assume solutions of the form (9148) .
the frequency of each forcing function may be different. that is. except if I([k] . Xjt == ~ AjkCk cos (Akt k=l n + <Pk) (9153) Note that the boundary conditions on the transient solution are Xjt(O) == xlO) .fer .Eq. in fact.(() 2 [In]) I == 0 But a conlparison with. (9147) and (9148) into the differential equations of (9146). The Use of Principal Coordinates. (961). (956) shows that this occurs only when (()2 == ". The equations of . Now let us consider the same system in terms of a set of principal coordinates Ub U2 . the steadystate solution at Xi is (9152) where the F j may be complex.Xjs(O) . obtaining a transient solution of the form given by Eq.ru 2[/n])1 A typical elenlent Tij(iru) is a trans. shall find that the use of principal coordinates may be computationally more· advantageous for the analysis of lnany undamped systems. we obtain ([k] . we must also solve for the transient solution. For this case. namely. We note that [T] exists. Xjt(O) == xlO) . Steadystate solutions can be obtained for more general periodic forcing functions by using a Fourier series representation of the forcing function and superimposing the solutions resulting from individual harmonic terms. Here we use the methods of Sec.2. In general. Transfer function methods are also applicable to systems with damping and. when the system is driven at one of its resonant frequencies. are particularly useful in these cases. 93 and solve for the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios.(()2[m]){B} == {F} The solution for {B} is (9149) (9150) (9151) tB } == [T][F} where [T] is called the transfer function matrix and is given by [T] == ([k] . ••• . On the other hand. Un. 95 VIBRATION THEORY 485 and substitute from Eqs.SEC. we. If the complete solution is desired for a given set of initial conditions.function which expresses the steadystate output amplitude and phase at Xi due to a unit sinusoidal input force at Xj' Fo~ this case of a conservative system [T] is a real symmetric matrix since both [k] and [In] are symnletric and real.Xjs(O) (9154) (9155) from which we solve for the n C's and the n <p's.
not the given initial conditions for the complete solution. Rather than solving n simultaneous differential equations involving coupled coordinates. 93. Thus we can use Eq. 1 . (9103) and (9104). we obtain Mn iiI M22 ii2 + Kn U == + K22 U2 == 1 (9161) Mnniin + KnnUn == Qn Now the advantage of using principal coordinates is apparent. (9159) The differential equations of motion are [M]{ii} + [K]{U} == {Q} Q1 Q2 (9160) If we write the individual equations. we use the initial conditions for the transient solution. (963). (651) that (9156) and from Eq. we obtain (9157) So we find that (9158) or. in matrix notation. Note that. 9 motion are similar to those of Eq . where the constants C l and CPl are evaluated by using Eqs. (985) except that each independent modal system is driven by its corresponding generalized force Qi. One can then use the frequency discrimination of the individual modes to reduce the number of degrees of freedom by omitting those modes whose response .486 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. we can solve for each of the principal coordinates independently and superimpose these solutions to obtain the motions of the x's. We recall from Eq. in this evaluation. A further advantage of using principal coordinates occurs in obtaining the response to a forcing function having a limited frequency content.. (963) to obtain solutions of the form x} == n ~ i=l Aji Ui (9162) The transient portion of the solution for the principal coordinates is obtained by using the methods of Sec.
1601 (9167) C 3S == 0. fP U3 == O. Hence the steadystate solutions are' ..lPsln~1iiit 4 5m .lP sin ~ t These values and those of the [M] and [K] matrices are now substituted into Eq. X 2 . = 0.0267/.. Using Eq. X3. and to neglect the elastic forces for those modes whose natural frequency is well below the forcing frequency.. consider again the system of Example 94.. (9165) and comparing coefficients. 8. As an illustration of a forced vibration calculation using principal coordinates. 2mU 2 + LfJ U P 5P I == O. (9161) to obtain the following differential equations of motion: 15m . 95 VIBRATION THEORY 487 is negligible. we find that CIs == 0.1 P sin ~t (9163) We wish to find the complete solution for XI. U3 To obtain the steadystate solutions. First we calculate the generalized forces corresponding to each of the modes. In other words.U I . where « . assumIng that the system is at rest in the equilibrium position at t == O.IP SIn ~ . Another useful approximation is to neglect the inertial forces for those modes whose natural frequency is well above the forcing frequency. fP 1iii t (9165) + 4T + 5/ P U2 == 0 . (9158) we obtain QI = f2A21 = O.lP sin~ t (9164) Q2 == 12A22 == 0 Q3 = f2A23 = O. we use trial solutions of the form Uis = CiS sin ~ t '" I (9166) i After substituting into Eq.SEC. Suppose a force 12 is applied at X2. Mkkoo2 ~ Kkk if 00 2 oot and vice versa.
\ == 0..2 cos CP2 (9171) U 3(0) = 0 = C 3A. 9 ./' VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. we obtain and C1 f.0267 1sin u3S =  ~t 1 j The transient solutions are of a form similar to that given previously by Eq. obtaining I ! ) J UI(0) == 0 == C 1 sin CPI U2 (0) U3 (0) == 0 == C 2 sin CP2 == 0 == C 3 sin CP3 C1A. U1S == 0.. initial conditions to the complete solution.<.816~ t U2t == 0 (9172) ! .. (9124).. CP3.} . for convenience. A..0267.1COSCPI  (9170) and U1(0) = 0 = 0.1961 sin 0. and CPb 4>2. . C 3. (9169) where.488 .. To evaluate the constants C 1 C 2. namely. 3.3 cos CP3 .\ ill . we have used sines rather than cosines. li 2(0) == 0 == C 2A.1601 sin U2S 4:nl t (9168) ~I If) == 0 0. (962).01331 sin 2{~1 t Noting that (9173) and transforming back to ordinary coordinates using Eq. 'h r:.01331 . . Solving these six equations after substituting the values of the frequencies I\b 1\2.. U3t = 0.. ~ Thus the transient solution in terms of principal coordinates is I i i " Ult = 0.1961 C 2 == 0 C 3 == 0.0.f!(J.. we obtain I J I.~ r' t 1 . ~ ". we apply the given .f!(J.160.
at a point of zero amplitude.816~t + 0. Normally we think in terms of linear coordinates. 96.01331 sin 2~ t (9174) X2 = 0.147/SinO.1) modes is zero. (971). Now let us consider the free vibrations of a system containing viscous dampers. An idealized viscous damper is a massless device which transmits a force which is directly proportional to the difference in the values of certain velocity components at its two ends. The lack of the second mode in the steadystate solution shows that a mode cannot be driven at a node point. The lack of a transient secondmode solution is a coincidence in the sense that the initial conditions for the given mode must match those for its steadystate solution in order for the transient solution to be zero.k .133/sinJ~lt We observe that the second mode is absent in both transient and steadystate solutions. All other Q's will be zero because of the orthogonality of the other modes with respect to the mass matrix [m]. VIBRATIONS WITH DAMPING Free Vibrations. . then the kth mode will be the only mode with a nonzero steadystate solution. But viscous dampers can also be applied to angular coordinates to yield corresponding moments."" i=l n A i(l)m ii A(k) i (9175) By Eq. The steadystate solution is missing because the system is being driven at a point of zero amplitude for this mode.4 Q l .SEC. This result can be used to drive selectively certain modes and not others.816~ t  0. if a system having no inertial coupling is driven harmonically at all n coordinates by forces proportional to the product of the mass and the kth mode amplitude coefficient at each coordinate. . that is.1961 sin 0. Ql is zero except when 1 == k. then the relative amplitudes of the forces can be chosen such that the steadystate motion of (m . in which case ordinary forces are involved. More generally. as can be seen by not~ng that. 96 XI VIBRATION THEORY 489 = X3 = 0. hence the generalized force Q2 is zero. if one can drive the system harmonically and in phase at m points (m > 2).l33/sin~t 0.0067/sin2~t  O. For example. in this instance. assuming distinct modes.
We assume trial solutions of the form Xj == AjCe'\t (9179) and substitute into Eq. [c]. Now let us solve for the free vibrations of the given dissipative system. 9 The equations of motion for a damped system having n degrees of freedom can be found by adding terms of the form CijX j to the equations of (952) which were obtained previously for an undamped system. I(A} [m] + /\ [c] + [k]) I == 0 (9181) This is the characteristic equation for the system and is of order 2n in /\. so Cij is evaluated at the reference configuration and is constant. We again assume small motions. !!.. Another method for obtaining these equations of motion is to use a modified form of Lagrange's equations. the 2n roots must either be real or else must occur in complex conjugate pairs. (9176). Furthermore. . introduce the damping coefficient c j which is the force acting on the damper in the positive direction at Xi due to a unit velocity at Xj' It follows that the total damper force acting on the system at Xi is just . and where (9178) is known as Rayleigh's dissipation function. namely. the real parts of all roots must be negative or zero. and only if. We note that no individual damper can transmit a force without simultaneously dissipating energy.~j. After canceling the common factor Ce At . F is a positive semidefinite quadratic form in the velocities. (8L) dt 8Xi _ 8L 8Xi + 8Xi 8F == 0 (9177) where the' Lagrangian L == T . \vith the result that no energy is dissipated. undamped motions may be possible if they are such that no damper transmits forces. Here we . and is equal to onehalf of the instantaneous rate of mechanical energy dissipation from the system. For dissipative systems. we obtain (9180) (/\2 [m] + /\[c] + [k]){A} == 0 These homogeneous equations possess a nontrivial solution if.V is found in the conventional manner.2: j=l n Cij". Thus we can write the equations of motion in the form [m]{x} + [c]{x} + [k]{x} == 0 (9176) where [In]. and [k] are real symmetric matrices. their determinant is zero. if we assume there are no energy sources within the system. that is. Since the coefficients are real.490 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. Nevertheless.
we notice several important differences. hence we have (9183) The 2n C's are real. we see that the amplitude coefficients are. (9180) for the modal column. . In comparing the solutions of Eq. Forced Vihrations. those columns corresponding to real roots are not paired as complex conjugates with any other column of amplitude coefficients. . and one cannot solve for the principal coordinates from a knowledge of the x's alone. This means that the various x's do not move in phase when oscillating in a single mode corresponding to a complex conjugate pair of roots. But if"Ak is complex. So we find that the modal matrix [A] is not square. So if we aSSUlne A I == 1 for each Inode and solve Eq. is just the complex conjugate of the column {A(k)}. If the root is real. then the amplitude ratios of the corresponding modal column are entirely real. Secondly. We conclude. First we see that there are 2n modal columns rather than just n. (965). in general. (961) for an undamped system. it is generally not convenient to use principal' coordinates in the analysis of heavily damped systems.SEC. or occur in complex conjugate pairs. (9183) with those which were given previously in Eq. as in Eq. Usually the x's win also be required. complex. 3. (9180). then the amplitude ratios are. Also. that even though a single mode can exist. Hence they can be determined from the 2n initial conditions. we obtain fAj} == [("A2n1ij + "ACij + kij)]l {("A2mil + "ACil + (i. Using complex notation. . All coordinates. for the case of complex conjugate roots. usually complex. j kit)} == 2. The forced vibrations of a similar damped system are described by a set of differential equations of the form [m]{x} + [c]{x} + [k]{x} == {J(t)} (9184) In considering the methods of solution of these equations. This can be seen by noting that a reflection of each tenn of Eq. let us first obtain the steadystate solution for a harmonic forcing function. 96 VIBRATION THEORY 491 For each root "Ab we can solve for the corresponding modal column {A(k)} by using Eq. the modal column {A (k) *}. Furthermore. hence it has no inverse. would show the same frequency and damping ratio under these conditions. independent of the other modes. . we take . n) (9182) The general solution for the free vibrations is obtained by superimposing the solutions corresponding to each of the 2n roots. (9180) about the real axis does not destroy the equality. corres pondi ng to the cOlnplex conjugate root "A%. then. fj(t) == FjeiCl)t . however.
(9147).VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. For example. It is interesting to note that the impulse response function hij(t) and the transfer function Tiliro) are related. that is. let us use complex notation with Eq. ]f the initial conditions are not zero. The resulting equations are ([k] . so that only the steadystate solution remains.ro 2 [m] + iro[c)){B} := {F} (9185) or. (9187) to calculate the response to a unit sinusoidal forcing functionjj(t) := ei6Jt • We assume in this instance thatjj(t) was applied infinitely long ago. (9184). Using the method of convolution. Again we find that [T] is symmetric. 9 as in Eq. To := T ji .(r) dT (9187) where hij(t) is the response at Xi due to a unit impulse applied at Xj when t := O. we can write an expression for Xi(t) which is similar to Eq. (9152): Once again it can be seen that Fourier series methods are applicable to the problem of finding the response for any set of periodic input functions. So one can solve for the complete forced motion of the system if one knows [h]. The steadystate solutions are given by Eq. the impulse response matrix. Hence we obtain (9188) . (3194). using the notation of Eq. The constants C k are evaluated from the actual initial conditions. namely. then a transient solution of the form of Eq. in a manner similar to that used for the case of undamped systems. the complete solution may be obtained by adding the transient solution and solving for its 2n constants from the initial conditions. Also we assume solutions of the form Xi  B i ei6Jt and substitute into Eq. _ {BJ:= [T]{F} where the transfer function matrix [T] is given by [T] := ([k]  ro 2 [m] + iro[c])l (9186) A typical element Tij(iro) is a complex number and represents the amplitude and phase of the steadystate response at Xi as a result of a unit sinusoidal force input at Xh assuming all other input forces are zero. (9183) is added. Xj(t) = S: hlj(t  T)/. Also. (9150). Now let us find the response at Xi due to an arbitrary force fit) applied at Xj' We shall assume for convenience that the system is at rest at its equilibrium position when t := O.
Bu~ from Eq. REFERENCES 1. Inc.. K. 1945. Halfman. Inc. J. H.: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. and A. Theory of Mechanical Vibration. Mass. and Relativity. h£it) may be obtained as the inverse Fourier transfonn of Tij(iOO). A. Langhaar. Inc. Frazer. (9191) Convergence difficulties can arise in evaluating the integral of Eq. 1950. Reading. 3. Making the substitution Tl == T. W. DynamicsSystems. H. Collar. Lord.. Elementary Matrices. As a practical matter. Reading. Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics... Tong. Whittaker. we obtain (9190) Thus T£iiro) is recognized as the Fourier transform of the corresponding function h£it). Rayleigh. (9188) and (9189) ~nd also set t == O. R. : AddisonWesley Publishing Company. making the substitution of iro for the Laplacian operator s. 1962. L. The Theory of Sound. one can use Laplace transform tables in these evaluations..REFERENCES VIBRATION THEORY 493 where we use Tl as the dummy variable of integration. 6. New York: Dover Publications. Variational Methods. 4. T.. where we note that hiit) is zero for all negative values of its argument. 2. Classical Mechanics. 5. L. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles.. R. Inc. 4th ed. R. New York: John Wiley & Sons. New York: Cambridge University Press. however. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Conversely. 1962. New York: Dover Publications. and Rigid Bodies... 1944. Goldstein. E. (9152) we see that the response can be written in the form Xi(t) == Tij(iro)e i 6)t (9189) Now we equate the righthand sides of Eqs. N.. Duncan. 7. (9190) for the case of undamped systems. 1960. 1960. Mass. .
Solve for the mode frequencies and amplitude ratios. solve for the nonzero natural frequency and the corresponding amplitude ratio of a small oscillation about the reference condition. each of mass m and length I. 9 PROBLEMS 91. each of mass m and length I. A finitedifference representation of a cantilever beam of length 31 and mass 3m is shown in the figure. Two thin uniform rods. 93. Assume small motions about the equilibrium position at Bl = B2 = o. B = o. Use Rayleigh's principle. consider a reference condition in which () = 80 and cp = o. and letting the coordinates 0 1 and 82 designate the angles (measured from the vertical) of the upper and lower bars. f I i . m m Fig. For the system of problem 68. Two simple pendulums. radius 2r. The bending stiffness is lumped into springs of stiffness k which produce a bending moment at the joints that is proportional to the difference in angular orientation of the adjacent levers. P92 92. solve for the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios. P91 Fig. 94. which. Assuming that R = I. Find: (a) the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios.494 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. The levers are assumed to be rigid and massless with pinned joints. Assuming no slipping. in turn. Write the differential equations for small motions of the given system near its equilibrium position at x = 0. respectively. find the frequencies and amplitude ratios for small oscillations about the equilibrium position. A solid circular cylinder of mass m. rolls in a cylindrical depression of radius 6r. radius r. solve for the frequencies and amplitude ratios of the natural 2 modes. J. respectively. U sing the angles eland O as coordinates. (b) the steadystate solution for Yl and Y2 when a vertical force . are connected by pin joints to form a double pendulum. 96. rolls inside a thin cylindrical shell of mass m. are coupled by a spring of stiffness k connected between their midpoints. The absolute rotation angles of the cylinder and the shell are Band cp. 95. Assuming small motions that are restricted to a given vertical plane.
5~(k/mI2)t is applied at Y2. For small motions about the equilibrium position in which the bar is horizontal and the contact point is at its center.PROBLEMS VIBRATION THEORY 495 o Fig. A thin uniform bar of mass m and length 3R can roll without slipping on a fixed circular cylinder of radius R. P96 12 = F2 COS 2. a. From each end of the bar. P97 Fig.lTIass m is suspended by a spring of stiffness k. P98 . I m3R8. P95 k ~~Z~+l~~ Fig. solve for the mode fre .~~1 14~ Fig. 97.". Assume small motions near the equilibrium position.
then the highest natural frequency is approximated by A2 ~ A2 2 l1e: h. Solve for the natural frequencies and corresponding amplitude ratios of the plane vibrations of the system shown in the figure. 98.11 5: ~c 496 VIBRATION THEORY CHAP. X2. Furthermore. Show that the addition of this mass. The upper ends of two thin uniform rods. forming a system of three masses and three springs connected in a manner similar to Fig.. __~_ d k kl S1' e k k nl ISS .0165ko 1 . each of mass m and length I.. leJ ~I..f / I I o .. 9 tt a] u ~o quencies and amplitude ratios. The other ends slide on a frictionless floor. and e are absolute displacements.18 rad/sec refers to the original systenl. The bars are connected by pin joints and are assumed to be massless. and spring results in lowering the lowest natural frequency and raising the highest natural frequency for the system. Check the orthogonality of the calculated rnodes. find the nonzero natural frequencies and the corresponding amplitude ratios for small oscillations around an equilibrium position at 8 1 = 8 2 = 30°.Cl leI + O. Assume small motions. Suppose that a spring of stiffness ko and a mass mo are attached in tandem to the mass ml of Example 91. A particle of mass m is suspended from the pin joint by a massless string of length 1/2 and is connected by equal horizontal springs to the rods.I\ G( . but four particles of mass m each are located at the joints. are connected by a pin joint. P99 Fig. Let mg = 2kR and assume that XI. if ko ~ kl and ~ < 2000 rad 2 /sec 2 where ~ = k o/ m o. Find the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios for small motions of the given system in its own plane. Assuming that the system remains in the same vertical plane. Using X and 8 as coordinates. P910 ld 910.is . 912. 92. solve for the motion of the system .ne . 99. as shown.e 1 'e m~~~r~·m k Fig.. 911. A lin ear damper is connected from its midpoint to the ground.Z . m~~AJ\AA.(Ao/A2)2 r 2 where A2 = 46. A thin uniform bar of mass m and length 21 is supported by two springs of stiffness k at its ends..
(9176). What are the phase relationships? . show that (Ak m ~l~~l~~ Fig. P912 [A(O}T[c][A(k)} + Al)[A(l)}T[m] {A(k)} + 915. c < ~8 km. Solve for the natural frequencies and amplitude ratios for the case in which Ixx : Iyy : I zz = 3 : 4 : 5. For a damped system described by Eq. 8(0) = 80. Consider small angular oscillations of the satellite of problem 829. Consider a system which is identical with that of Example 91 except that a viscous damper with a damping coefficient c = 50 lb sec/ft is connected in parallel with the spring k l' Solve for the eigenvalues and the modal matrix. 914. 913.PROBLEMS VIBRATION THEORY 497 if it is released with zero velocity from an initial small displacement x(O) = x o.
7tr2 x Ixx = Iyy = 4 mr2 lnr2 Izz=T Thin circular disk y A = ab = Ixx r b A 12 mb 2 x ll.APPENDIX A INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS BODIES A Ixx x =0 = Izz = m1 2 3 m1 2 12 Iyy l AA =  Thin rod y A ..+"A z Thin r~("tnnn"'nr nlntp .
A V== abh 3 Ixx == ~ (4b 2 ·3h/4 2 ) Iyy == ~ (a 2 + b2 ) 2 ) )svl 7 Right rectangular pyramid + 3h I.lr.APPENDIX A INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS BODIES 499 y 1yy == 2 1mr 2 .x = ~~ (4r 2 + h 2) 3 1yy .1A z Right circular cylinder A~~A v == _1 7tr h 2 3 Ixx = Izz .fA == ~ (b + 12h2) Inn == ~ (b 2 + 2h2) Izz == ~ (4a 2 2 y V== abc Ixx == ~(b2 Iyy t+x + c 2) == ~ (a 2 + c 2) Izz == ~ (a 2 + b 2 ) IAA == ~ (b 2 +c 2 ) Rectangular prism lliB == ~ (4b 2 + c 2 ) . + 3h y Al.10 mr 2 IAA IEB t'8 = ~~ (r 2 + 4h2) == ~ (3r2 Right circular cone + 2h2).
5 mrw 2 9 A z Hemisphere y A = 27trh z Thin circular cylindrical shell ~X z Thin spherical shell .500 INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS BODIES APPENDIX A . V fX 4 = 7tr 3 3 z Sphere y 2 V= 7tr 3 3 \"'X _ 83 / xx _/zz .320 mr 2 / YY =.
APPENDIX A INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS BODIES 501 4 V= itabc 3 +x Ellipsoid .
. (d) (P)r = m X (m X p)  (v p  (e) 210..:) bSin<f>1>}en + {( 1 .. ap'p = r'«(1)' . a= {[(1.m)et.0032 rad/sec A3 = . a VP'P = r'(m' ..J2 A y .8.Ay .:Y bcos<f>l~2 . Al = Ax .R¢2 sin f) cos () + a¢2 sin a cos f) + 2an¢ sin a cos () + an 2 sin a)ee + (a¢2 cos a .55 ft/sec. a = v a R R 1 + 2 cos f) + R (1 + cos f) + a cos f) [ 2 aR SIn () ] en . (a) it vo').252 ft. (a) p= Vp  V o'. a p = aa[(sin" () . 71.: .:) b cos <f> 1> .(b) 212..APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS CHAPTER 1 14.vO') ap'p Vp'p = (r'm' .j'2 rna.2an¢ cos a cos () 2 an 2 cos a)et/J 502 .A z .m)2en = (. 16...r( 2)en ...5e z ft/sec 2 27. A2 = .4e r  695. X (c) P = 0.(1 .. TAB = TeD = .~ [2 sin () + ~ sin () + ~ sin () + ~1 (1 + cos () ] 29. 1. T Bo = rna CHAPTER 2 21.rm)et.0885 sec 0. [(.. a = 159.o)T] = (I) X (vp . (b) (P)r = Vp  V o'  0) 20) X p. = (r'm'2 . el .7.at 2)e r + (I + cos ()ee] 25. 0. .R¢2 sin 2 () + a¢2 sin a sin () cos f) + 2an¢ sin a sin () e r + (. 0.(1.:) b sin <f> 1>2} el Vo R 2 28.J2 Az 1.(1  .:) .
i + f j) .kv o ' x 2t2t2) == Vo [t == '\/ ok fIn sin '\/ fk m(t .1 [ ( 1 + ~) ~n 46. rmax == i2 3. vi == Vo (1. . ry 0 = ~ sin . k t >  /Lmg kvo 312 .2° 315.APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 503 CHAPTER 3 32. v == co(1.21 2  49.06a a 2U 2 .y  {2fi. v~ == vo (0. x == O' 0 < t < /Lmg. 4 v0 co' .cvn~f ~ S'2 tan ]_ 37. v~ ~ vo(0.( 1 l JL 2  3 )1/4 316. F 313.JLm )] _ kvo g JLmg ._ · 0). + 2. F== !mg CHAPTER 4 43.525i 47. I == ant. v2 .t )] where t * == ~(il1/bi) tan.475j) w' 1  .l (~(b/mg) v o). Ii" + 31~ .41J .J3Fl 8m 410.475i . V max == ~~5gR.1(6g7. v == mg [( 1+ lng bv~) b 2 e(2bz/rn)  1]'.179j)ft/sec v == V'(nii7b) tan [". Vo == 3/0 '\/13k m == 9 . v .n) (t * . Z Illax == 2b mIn (1 + mg bV~) _ 1 1 (2t~1 35. FT = m [ A(32 sin (31 + (ro + ~~~n (31 )3 ] 45. + O.0. 6. v = . .Vo (1 1 . (j == 4man 3 t == 48.t .475j).501i 34.
3° above horizontal.14.€2) (~ . € (b) 22. 0 422. 1 == 1. ry == 39.6531. (a) == == == 14.. . (a) e == 0. 418. cp == (2R2 :.a 2) cos (j 1 ± V/ 1  2Rg ] 2 a 4 fl. (a) 14901b.0367mg o 58. 516.29i .v'J/g I < () < 2 tan.1787j . (c) 166 g.260k ft/sec 'ap == 8. i I .l8i . 54 g 'I~ I "17.8 min before appearance over horizon. I == 2.a ) cos () .42i ..5..21. 57.4 . 8.8.2 (2R2 . O€ OV == ~ (1 .. T = 2~7t .i ! CHAPTER 5 56.260i .5° .1) 2h mo + m momvo (b) 6021b.29k ft/sec 2 .29k ft/sec 2 == 14. P = 59.8.4 517.24.1) movo (Jl + 2k(mo + m) . 2 0.407 10.231 ft 510. (a) ry == 56.236R. a fl.14.1 (a/g)..1525j .04 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS APPENDIX B &11. Vr == rmin 2737 ft/sec 1.~ av == V Vp  87l' vI: X ar == r 167l' X 10.77 . Vmax = VO ~12 • v luax == (J1 + ~ .260k ft/sec al: == 8.2.08j . . (r l)max == 1.8.435 (mv 2/1) 4. 4. 515.690ft/sec O.260i .14.905v at 51. (b) e == 1 T == 4.260k ft/sec == ap (b) VI' a}.3°. (b) Height of bounce is v2/4g .v'2g/1 P min [ == 423. V lllax == == 29. (a) 0..1) €V r 514. 420.29k ft/sec 2 VI: == 14./1J?)go.260i . I· iJ == . and position is 2v 2 / g from initial impact point.
~ [(1 + sin 0)1>] = 0. 2 2 I) + cf == 0.. mI [(1 + cos ¢)O + ¢ + 0 sin ¢] + mgl sin (8 + ¢) = 0 m12(50 + 2¢) + mg/(3f} + ¢) = 0. d . Angular acceleration ¢ vertical acceleration z mg sin 2ry 2 .yiT Vo cos (O/VS)..g sin 0 = 0. cos 0. ro 0. or + (3g/a) cos a or = == . dt (nlr2¢ sin 2 a) = 0. + sin 2 fJ)] == 0. ... + cos 2 fJ)O . 0. ma(aO .r¢2 sin 2 a f max = + g cos a) = 1. o =  2. P = 3mg cos (j. fJ JIlax = 116.(r 2 ¢ sin 2 0) dt d . (j = 67.30 mv~ sin (20/J5) a .r¢2 sin fJ + g cos 0) + k(r rO + 2fO . A.j"3g cos a/a 617. 616. (1 619.g sin fJ) 0.j2gro/3 . T = 7.7° 612.2° 64.314a 63.42 f~ = .382V'i/1 620. dt [ma 2¢(1 d . (a) mI 2[(3 2 (b) + 2cos¢)O + (1 + cos¢)¢ . f(O) == . = ma 20= ~aA. 615. == 0 (b) S~eady conical motion with ¢ = 1.3mx=A.2ro(mo m sin ry) = _ (mo m)g sin 2 ry mo m sin 2 ry + + + 0 618.j·3. nzl (20 + ¢) + mg/(fJ + ¢) = 0 2 2 69...1 (a) m (r .APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 505 CHAPTER 6 61.. 611. Omin = 35.sin fJ cos f}(02 + ¢2) == 0.sin¢(¢2 + 20¢)] + mg/[2 sin fJ + sin (fJ + ¢)] = 0. a 9.r¢2 sin 0 cos 0 .r0 2 .sinO./2. '0/ == 71.a¢2 sin (j cos () .185 viga 0. 3my= A.8° 62. rmin = ir o . mer .
0).6 = 0 [I] = [ 0. v = ~14gR/3 + 1) cos () = 0.557 0. i(l2 F = img upward 721. {j.~ I~ rmin I . ~g(2r 720.5m o cos 2 a 714.236 0.y'3f2 a.451] 0.0 ct> = 41.548ro . =  "j(I/~~ + b2 tanI C/(I/':) + 62) + 3r2)0 + 2rf8.796 713.Iyy + Izz)/m.5 13 = 618.5 lb sec 2 ft / 2 =516. are located at (.806 0. 0. 724.Izz)/ln 1 1 2" 1 2" 1 J'i: 1 ~ 2" 1 ~ 2" 1 ~ . 1 ry = ~(Ixx + lyy . _ 2g sin () (6 1(4 _ 3 COS 2 (j)2 12 . 729. Disk rolls around circle with the speed of the center v = ivo.404 0. ry/. 2ry/~). f)  . each of mass m/4. '( I I " I I . ) • Fy = mg/4 co = it "jv~ + 4gt = 0.J'3). (a/~. 727. II 365.. (a/~.383 0. where a = ~(.~ I 723.893 0. 13 = 75.g sin () = 0.1 cos () + 9 cos 2 (). 0. r . 0 [1'] = i[~ 1 1 7 ~ ~] Ib sec ~ 2 ft ~ 79. ry/~3). [1] = ~(Ixx . Particles.Ixx + Iyy + Izz)/m..r8 2 .506 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS APPENDIX B J CHAPTER 7 73.198 0. x = 16//11 725. ~ (a/~. x= [ f) 5mQg sin ex cos ex ] t 7(mo + m) . I 1 13.
. I 740.2: (10 sin (j + 18 2 cos (j) == 0. I == 7 39 a • U 1 II + 2n1a 2 V' 2n1 12movo == (12 mo + 7 m) I ' e· 2 == (12 mo  18m ovo + 7 n1) I RF(t)... == ~. (/2 + k2)O + (RI. 24 . 2.. (mo + m)R2C.j2gh CHAPTER 8 81.cos f) ) I 5 + 27 sin 2 (j 0. 21 SIn == 0. (a) 818. co . .: (b) (b) t == 20~. 8max == 28 0 738.I 82 • 'r  + 2ma COo + 2m(a + I sin (j)2 .4° 8. 2 2 co~(I + 2ma ) [1 _ I + 2ma ] 2(1 + cos e) m1 I + 2m(a + I sin e)2 (I 2 ) 2 8 16 ".gra.y'gJr.8 == 2.y'gJr . (a .I (0.54° t == O. < f) < f} cos. 1 x . t == 0. 742.818) f} > cos .433.l (0.I (i).APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 507 733 · 82 == == 72g ( 1 ..12 . M x 9 2 • == . f)   3x.ml2 COy SIn 2coxt.626) or for 736.351 734.k2)¢ + gle == 0. + m(Rll2k2)(O~)/.511. {~co} == [1]1 {~} 83.360. Slipping cannot begin for cos.. (a) 2a !} == 4/2 + a 2 .mRl¢ == VA == k 2 /R._ 814.(3)max == 19. I 2 IiJ 1== 2 2a !} /1 4/2 + a 2'\j + 2g1(41 2 + a2) a4 !}2 t == 0."(0) 817. fL 735.
== 1.. (a) t/t't" == + 1000k lb sec ft. ~1 == 0. 913. Aif>/Ae == 2.2 rad. iO.508 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS APPENDIX' B 820.Ixx)fJ .5 V m/2 t.1443 . (c) 27tIt [1 + (movol )2J1/2 Ia il ml == 1. (a) m == 2. (b) 2.32. == ~2 == ~3 == 0. (jlllax == 0.Izz)m o8 == 0 IyyO + 4w~(Izz .:~/. (b) 0.241 A2/Al == 0.. 95.360.89ygrG. ~3 == V'2k/m 2 ~l.856. :\1 == 99.04~ ga COt 823.50i (c) T == 6.533~k7m 84/ 2 (7( Y2 == .0 ± . 2.1 n.48.222 rad.431.559 ± ± il1.v3k/2m.Ji/l. == 30. == and ~3 == 3. "'I == v'k[iii. 0. ~2 == 2. ~2 == 1. ~2 == ..8 3.6° 825. ~1 == O.727 11 . 910. Vp == 4.78°. 32/ 2 (k Yl == 41 k F2 cos 2. Ixx¢ + m~(Izz .1° 822. I 11 i I (m~)Hlin == 5g/v'2 1 821.18.25 sec 827. 98.Jifr.Jifr. A2/AI == 0. (a) vt'? == 0.311~ 2 826.Jg[l. (b) 2{8 == 41.28 sec 829.50i lb sec 2 ft. (a) = m~o I.Iyy)1> + (Ixx + /yy .414.0°.(k + K) In 1 == ~5 == ~6 == ~7 == V'2k/m. ~8 == 2v' kim ~3. (b) 2{8 == 0. A2/Al == 1.8 = 2 tan. :\1 ( 6k" Vl1m' :\2 == V :\4 F:. 0.27 ± i1.41 k F2 cos 2. csc2 0) + A 1 (l  v'2 cos 0) .06v'k/m . ~1.10 2..5 V fii[2 t 97. (c) T == 6.15 96. co = 2 s7~ 2 0' iJ2 = ~ co~ (2 . a == 30. Symmetric mode is ~2 == ~m Antisymmetric modes are :\1 .135. {8 ==25. 2 == (~2 =f 1)v' k/m/2. +lIIax 824.(Ixx + Iyy /zz)m o¢ == 0 /zzt + 3m~(Iyy  Ixx)'o/ == 0 CHAPTER 9 94.30.414.. 2.
490 massspringdamper system. 322 Angular impulse. 41 tangential and normal components. M. 225 Body centrode. 156 Banach. I.. 45 Coriolis. 16. 151 Angular momentum: about arbitrary point. 98.INDEX Abrams. 38 tangential. 33. 146 about center of mass. V. 283285. A. 327 of gravity. 9295 of rigid body. 187. 319. 86. J. 43. 127. 449 Angle of rotation. 37 of gravity.51 in spherical coordinates. 195. 54 Body cone. 31 Becker. 137. 131. 388 Branch. 41. 39. 198 Apogee speed. 40. 208 for harmonic motion. 203 mean. 155. S. 51 in cylindrical coordinates. 447 509 . 200 Burning rate. 207. R. 203 Antisymmetric modes. 333. 180. 382 Anomaly: eccentric. 36 centripetal. 209 of a particle. J. bouncing.. 142 orbital. 161 Center: of curvature. 131. Jr. 31.. 142146 of a system of rigid bodies. M. 204 true. R. 127 Amplification factor. 18. 225 Ball. 235. 375377 Angular velocity. 316. 197 Associative property: matrix addition. 363 of a system of particles. 334 Atwood's machine. 180. 138 Axis of rotation. 333. 5 Attitude angle. 41 of a point in a rigid body. 334 Base point. 223 motion of. 143 conservation of.40 Adjoint matrix... 353 Binormal unit vector.. 53. 49. 321 Baker. 440 Absolute system of units. S. 93. 33. 292 vector addition. 294 Ames.. 17 Acceleration: in cartesian coordinates. 239 Areal velocity. 61. 210 Applied force. 473 Apogee. of hyperbola. 19. 39 of force system. 54 Characteristic equation. 46 in a rotating reference frame. 102. 223 of mass. 127. 32 Euler angle components. 275 Bank angle. 145' about a fixed point. 45 for helical motion. 321. 291 matrix multiplication. 198 Apogee distance. 39 Blanco. 132 of percussion. 41 for circular motion. 341. 456. 95. 320 Centrode. 484 of rotation. 61. 53.
97 Conservation of angular momentum. 298 matrix addition. 151 Collision radius. 91. 8. 328 Conic sections. 232 Circular orbit. 299302 skewed. 6. 229231 of rigid body. 198 Constraint: bilateral. 447 Degenerate system. R. 319 Control volume. 236 unilateral. 152155 Commutative property: translation of. Degrees of freedom. 255 multiplication of scalar and vector. 187 Determinant. 138. 268271 5.510 INDEX I ! I I ~ ! " ! Chasles' theorem. 245. 486 131. 255. 431434 nonholonomic. 286 Cofactor. 208 Coordinates: Circular speed. 421 rheonomic. 232 moment of inertia of. 1517 free vibrations of. 234. 223. 236 Disk: equation of. 251 . 268 rolling motion of. 26. 13. 237239. 90 Conservative force. 23 Conservation of mechanical energy. 299 Directrix. 231. 235. 490 141. 16 forced vibrations of. 449 Cylinder. 448. 7 nonorthogonal. 244. \ "~'~ . 281. 7981 Dimensional homogeneity. 460. 381 Compound pendulum. 413417. velocity squared. 111113.. of interaction forces. 232. 7 principal. 273275 Displacement: complex. 243 Couple. 467 Conservation of mass. 293 Conservative system. "'. 128 93. 75.6 It •• . 145 Conservation of linear momentum. 292 Corio lis acceleration. 293 generalized. 282 81 system of particles. 249 Concurrent forces. 231. 339. 80. 25. 4 Complementary function. normal. 323 vector addition. 241 Direction cosine. 9 Cuspidal motion. 153 Damping ratio.. 90 static equilibrium of. 165 Circular frequency. H. 275 matrix multiplication.. 238. 234236. 292 254.7 Collisions.t' '. 43 Convolution integral. 268270. 239 Distributive property: Constraint force. 291. C. 466 Collar. t"'. 306. Damping coefficient.84. 98. 197200 Damped vibrations. on inclined plane. 455472 Dirac delta function. 55 for steadystate response. 232. 41 Coordinate transformation. 7. 40. 208 bodyaxis. 230. 312. 248. 85 Cross product. of a matrix. generalized. 6. 8 Coulomb friction. 452. 353. 457. 311. 190 holonomic. orthogonal. 492 Circular motion. 219 rotation of. 490 workless. 233 virtual. 128. 51 multiplication of vectors. 147. 291 Corben.. 340 D'Alembert's principle. 489493 Damper. 498 instantaneous. A. 135137 Del ta function. 327. 80. Damping. 233 scleronomic. 493 Collinearity. 207. 421426 Cycloidal motion. 336339Components. . 243245 Dissipation function. 234 gravitational potential of. linear. 297. 406408. 202. matrix multiplication. 105109. 484489 Dimensions. 422 Complex notation: for axially symmetric bodies.
A. 17. 254. 209 skew. 196. 85. orthogonality of. 239 centrifugal. 110 semiminor axis of. 493 potential (see Potential energy) Freebody diagram.337. 198. 383385. 348 English gravitational system of units. 118120 Fourier transform. 316 semimajor axis of. 305. of orbit. 200. 8084. 194 vacant. 103 of simple pendulum. 255. A. 24 circular. rocket. 201. 80. J. 250 general. 11 vector multiplication. W. 189 Flight path angle.) scalar multiplication of vectors. 122. 26 conservative. 147. 155 rotating. 327. 8 Dumbbell satellite. of parabolic trajectories. 353. 328 461464 Ellipse. 305. R. 26. 265 kinetic (see Kinetic energy) loss during impact. 198. 69~ 70 Free motion: of axially symmetric body. 130. 452. 249. 327. 4751 Frazer. 323 Equivalence. 391Equipollent systems. Equilibrium (see Static equilibrium) . K. principle of. 161 Exhaust velocity. 235. 306308 Elliptic functions. 198. 26 internal. 396 Equimomental bodies. 447 . 365 of harmonic motion.130. 308 of general rigid body.INDEX 511 Distributive property (cont. 89. 186 of a sphere. 458 Forces: component. 456458 Forced vibrations. 6870. 467 493 Eigenvector. 203 impulsive. 98. 210 Frequency: Eulerian angles. 25. 439 Dyadic. 493 Elliptic integral. 452. arbitrary force. 395. 207. 99. 199 parallel. 306. 354 Dynamical constants. 293 Duncan. 16. 328 of inertia. 20 noninertial. 15. 199 Force: applied. 491Eigenvalue problem. 118120 Frame of reference: Energy: inertial or Newtonian. 207213 Eccentric anomaly. 457. 201 347. 353.260.. 2325 Eigenvalue. 117 Exhaust pressure. 245. 457. 8 vector differentiation. 25. 14. 187 constraint. 208 generalized. 90 Eccentricity. 209 inertial. 493 Dynamic balance. 194. 128. 131 Effective collision radius. 306. 306. 366 Dynamic equivalence. 458 degenerate case. 325327 plane. 196. 88. 327 units of. 198 for square wave. 43 Euler's theorem. 317319 resonant. 17 Envelope. 161 undamped. 201 Field strength: gravitational. 308. 244. 197. 110 Ellipsoid of inertia. 325 Fourier series. 21n 395 Escape velocity. 19. 14 Eigenvectors. 225 resultant. 220223. 385391. total. 237239. concurrent.. 448 Euler's equations of motion.131 Earth orbit: field. 333335 damped. 268271 contact. 7. 223. 305. 219 Ehricke. 209 Focus: attracting. 9 Dot product. 24 external.. 7. 154.
153 generalized. 52. 390. 97 stress of. 53.202 Kinematics. 279 restitution. 201. 440. 112 Hudson. 41 Herpolhode.. 111 cone of. 30 for orbital motion. 204 Kepler's laws. E. 209 semiminor axis of.127. 186. 294 Inversesquare attraction.. 393 Inverse Fourier transform. definition of. 4345 Heading angle. 223 Griffith. B. 27. 14. L. 81 Gravitation: Newton's law of. W. 200 f Generalized coordinates. 41. 243 energy loss from.225. R. 200. 180..440 Gyroscopic moment. 112 Coulomb.'199. 354 Hodograph. 15. H. R. 231. 187. 249. 440 Hyperbola. 73. 336 Goldstein. 197. 440 Impulse response matrix. Gimbal lock. 111113. 198. 185. F.385. 493 Gradient. 31. 42 Helix angle. 66 Invariable plane. 197 Gravitational field strength.. A. 32. 151 compression. 29 Kinetic energy: for arbitrary reference. 200 semimajor axis of. 43. 279 Generalized mass. 27. 296 Instantaneous center. 186 universal constant of. 493 Harmonic motion: simple. 180. 61 Kepler's equation. 463 Generalized momentum. 18. 155 Impulse response. 453 generalized. 333. 207. T. 78 using normal coordinates. 492 Inertia coefficient. 306308 for symmetrical bodies. 406. for linear system. 17 Gravity: acceleration of. 83. 154 restitution phase. 382 Generalized stiffness coefficient. 293. 466 . 61. 186 Gravitational coefficient.. 200. 453. for spinning axially symmetric body. of conic section. 391. 208 center of. D. 456. 253. 452~ 464 Geometrical constants. 275. 180. 42. 308... 8489 twodimensional. 82. 201 . 330. 155 during impact. 353. 154 perfectly elastic. 75. 309 Inertial reference frame. 440 Jammer. 155 inelastic. 192 I Halfman. 186. 61. 394 Hildebrand.354. 454. 27 Kane. 148 of a particle. 195. 232 Housner. 268 Integral of motion. 331 Initial conditions. 113. 19. 'M. 155 Impulse. 484 Instantaneous constraint. 187191 Gravitational system of units. 463 Inertia ellipsoid. 453. 493 Inverse matrix.!S12 INDEX Friction: coefficient of.. 422 Impact. 468 Instantaneous axis of rotation. 227 Holonomic constraint. 19. 250 Generalized impulse. 334 Helical motion. 251 Generalized force. 16. 95. 20 Infinitesimal rotation. 90 angular. 454. 152155 compression phase. 437 Gravitational potential. 436. 232. 189 Gravitational moments. 33. 350353 linear (viscous). G. 74. 353. B.
289 rotation. 291. 291 equality of. 159161 generalized. 27 L~w: of action and reaction. 253.492 overdamped. 260262. 289 singular. R. 464 of a rigid body. 27 MacMillan. 400. 100. 289 damping coefficient. theorem of. 293 diagonal.. L. 194 units of. for system of particles. E. 446448 Lagrange multipliers. 269 Lagrangian function. 23. 13.. 13 Length. 290. 296. 14 of motion. 295. 289 impulse response. 447 forced vibrations of. 22. 256. 109. 99. 290 . 288. 100. 153 for system of particles. 301 real. 17 Limits of nutation. 291 conformable. 52. 299.. 225 Mach. of rocket. 295 for the twobody problem. M. 453 translational. W. 1618. 301 infinitesimal rotation. 398. 448. 141 Linear system. 289. 252257 with friction forces. 105. 461464 element of. 98100. D. 453. 491. 275 Langhaar. 73. 8489.448 underdamped. 294 skewsymmetric. 256. 420.. 101103. 21 inertial.. 20. 270. 99. 108 Matrices': addition of. 114116 squarewave response of. 105 unit step response. 98.INDEX 513 Kinetic energy (cont. units of. 461 null. 141 Linear momentum. 89 conservation of. 138140. 302 Mass (cont. 447 transient solution for. 101 McCuskey. 13. 288 rectangular. definition of. 171 Massspring system. 295. 27 Li. H. 304 column. 289 symmetric. 22 reduc~ 193. 257. 447. 399 Lindsay. 303. 21. 91. H. 289. 296 rotational. 300 row. 105. 271 for nonholonomic systems. 269 Lagrange's equations. 2123 Mass center (see Center of mass) Mass ratio. 45 Logarithmic decrement. 293. 492 inertia. H. S. 225 Margenau. B. W. 110 Massspringdamper system. 23 effective. 382 for a system of particles.near impulse and momentum. 292 Matrix. W. 294 modal. 290 square. 257 Lamina. 447 unit impulse response. 290 multiplication of. 440 Makemson. 148 Kronecker delta. 53 Lanczos. 290 orthogonal. 106 Lissajous figure. 463 critically damped.. 454. 193 Konig.. 27 Mass: conservation of. 288290 adjoint. 149 with Coulomb friction. 97109..) using principal coordinates. free motion. 134. 289 scalar. 330 inverse..) gravitational. 294 characteristic equation of. C. 16. 421 derivation of. 490 determinant of. 105. 13 of addition of forces. 74. 493 Lass. 99. 257 for axially symmetric body.
204 273275 Mean.. 199 of a rod. 288 Osculating plane. line of. 12. 306. 458 Mode shape. 458 Orbits. 461. for vector addition. Natural modes. 19. 39 of a circular disk. 304 Parabola. 458 Orbit equation. 288295 Newton's law of gravitation. 290 Newtonian reference frame. 316 of eigenvectors. 302 transfer function. 15. 418 Orthogonali ty: Modulus. 225 sliding on a moving belt. 243. 500 Parallelaxis theorem. 499 by differentiation.distance. 395. 71. 93 gravitational. 200. 422 system. 295 Nodes. corresponding quantities for.. 306 Moment: of vibration modes. 206 principal. 298 of a sphere. 72 Moulton. 303. 293 Normal coordinates. 306. 6670 Momentum: of elastic modes. 498 of shells.r JI . 287. 199.F. 290 unit. 198 1\ . 399 Modal vector. 198.br.LJ:~:. 461464 of a force. 199. I. 464 elliptic. 14. 1925 . 458 hyperbolic.. 284. 458. R. basic concepts. 466 Modal column.. 20 Matrix notation. 1925 trace of. 458 parabolic. 118 Mohr's circle. 325327 Moment of momentum (see Angular Parallelogram rule. 259 . 500 Parallel forces. D. 478 Mode of vibration: anti symmetric. 294 Nonholonomic constraint. 206 Modified Euler equations. 292 N ewton's laws of motion. 311 principal. 123127 Murnaghan. 39 Modal matrix. 473 Orbit. 489 inverse of. (See also Linear momentum. 473 194196 zero frequency.. 306. 458 7476. 462 circular. 310. 185 elastic. 458 nearly parabolic. 334 transpose of. 311. 13 Node. 234. ".. transpose of. 186 Matrix product. 202. 291. Massspringdamper system) Moment of inertia. 458. 205. 398. 461463 of principal axes. 346. 127 in a uniform gravitational field. 6770. 491 Normal unit vector. 373.. symmetric. 207. 311.514 INDEX Matrix (cont. 485 Newtonian mechanics. 204 natural. 161 Nutation. 207 normal. for twobody problem.) Neutral stability. 312. 208 independence of. 498 of a cube. 436. 13 generalized. 206. 452 Newton. 462 definition of. 258. 253. Mean anomaly. 310. 310.66 momentum) with a rotating force. rocket. 268270. 4 Particle: momentum) constant acceleration of. 382 general equation of motion for. of elliptic functions. Massspring gyroscopic. 355. 13. 437 Oscillations (see Vibrations. 491 Nozzle area. ~I ii i I I . 205 rigidbody. F. 242. Angular 65. 406. 12. 287.
262265 151 of conservation of angular momentum. 6770. 35. 120122 Plane. Perfectly smooth surface. whirling. 303. 460. 17 Reduced mass. 90. 8284. 452 Polhode. 218 Repeated roots. 464 Rayleigh's method. 198 Perigee speed. 419 orbital. 69. 493 using normal coordinates. 135137 d'Alembert's. 120 of superposition. 106 Perturbation theory. 8789. 389 Precession rate. 410 306. 184. 21n of circular orbit. 193. of particle in a uniform gravitational 190. Perigee distance. 360 Principal planes. 113 93. ~94 Rayleigh's principle. 71. 102 of work and kinetic~. 82. 259 of angular impulse and momentum. 257 Radius of gyration. 396398 Polygon rule. 147. 25. for massspringdamper. 103 . 5256 Plane motion of rigid bodies. 8084. 340 369371 Principal coordinates.. 336353 Poinsot method. 5 Potential: Radius of curvature. 322328 Precession: Relative motion. 249 Period: of equivalence. 81. 8789 Rayleigh. 83 slant. 490 using principal coordinates. 386. 467 Principal axis. orbital. Principal moment of inertia. 486 with moving support. 240 Phase angle. 70. 466 Rayleigh's dissipation function. 339. 27 Projectile.) Particular integral. 141 of conservation of mechanical energy. 284 Phillips. 120122 of inversesquare attraction. "216218. 484 Perfectly rough surface. 386. 26. 95. 194 Power. 7779. 39 gravitational. 103 132135 Phasor. 208 of linear impulse and momentum. 179. for vector addition. 480 of simple pendulum. 120 of linear spring. 391396 Quadratic form. 42 Rayleigh's. 188. 42 velocitydependent. Pendulum: compound. 85 stability of rotational motion about. trajectory of. 180. 187191 of a helix. 248. H. 116120 Principle: spherical. B. 388 Relative spin. retrograde. 479. 451 Range: gravitational. Lord. 304 265267 Schuler. 113 Perigee. 480 for the twobody problem. invariable. 4551 direct. 135 Reduction of forces. 186. 480 Pound. 303 simple. 202 141 of simple harmonic motion. 118.INDEX 515 Principal axis (cont.449 Product of inertia. 210 80. 84. 394 equation of. 198 91. 303306 Resonant frequency. 213216 of virtual work. 285 Potential energy. 191 field. center of. 393 Plane motion. 145 of conservation of linear momentum. effect on eigenvectors. 341. Percussion.
204 angular velocity of. 242. 110 Rocket problem. l6fees of freedom of. 371373. 458 of a force. 363365. 32 viean. 331 generalized. 450. 36937 Rotating reference frames. 457 of a whirling bar. H. 80. Rigid bodies. trace of. 385 effect of thrust misalignment. 46 Scleronomic system. 368. 458 stability of. 31 Spherical shell. property of. 383396 principal. ' conditions for. 33 Sphere: normal. rotational equations of. 317319 (See also Linear of vibrations. 240244. 458. 281. 46 vIoment: of. 360 inverse of. 462 general equations for. 241. 241. 401405 Specific impulse. 419 Rocket: gyroscopic.odyaxis translational equations for. 17 viode of vibrat with a fixed point.~:'. gravitational field of. 242 dumbbell. 10 vfatrix product. 161165 of a rod. 295. 189 Rigidbody mode. 242. 346.421 Spherical pendulum. 43443 vIodified Euler ~ 383. 171. 317320 Simple pendulum.. 197. 213 Shames. systems of. 373. 47. 458 general equations of motion for. of static equilibrium. 312 translational equation of. 32..190 rigidbody. 93 Spin: Ring. 330. ~ Square wave. 305 Sliding friction (see Coulomb friction) Slug. 53. 3] Stability: Roll' angle (see Bank angle) of a sphere. distance. 287. 198 . 188. 220223. 172. 216218. 290 Rheonomic system.. 4: infinitesimal.. 461 ~ displacements of. 374377 Scalar triple product. 294 angular momentum of. 282 viodal matrix. 33 Space centrode. 295 acceleration of a point in.f" ".. 171 independence kinematics of.5 Static equilibrium: vfurnaghan. 216 momentum Rotation: viomentum: of rolling disk.i14 IN 516 INDEX vfatrix (cont.418. 47 kinetic energy of. 500 zero frequenc. gravitational potential of. 7.. 201 . 243. 452 vector derivatives in. 153155 Satellite (cont. 20. 362. 306. : Rigid body. 45. 282. 408. 4: of. I. 32 Schuler pendulum. 389 elastic. Scalar. 190 gravitational. 409 dynamical equivalent of. 233 transpose of. 346 of free rotational motion. 283285. parallel. 409' real. 3( Restitution. due to gravity. transpose 0 Reversibility. 363 Screw displacement. 139n by diiferentiatio control volume approach. of eUi! Spherical point. 369 momentum) vfoulton. Semilatus rectum. 433. 293 366 Sensitivity coefficients. 327 rotational motion. definition of. 310. 253. 2 unit. 116120 vfodal vector. 401417 antisymmetri acceleration of point in. 439. 8 viatrix notation. 121 445 ... 95 twostage. 170173 of shells. 31. 233 Scalar product. 31. 303.. 426430 vfoment of inerth Spiral motion. 189 symmetric. Fourier series represen1 particle mechanics approach. 310. 386. coefficient of..384. 458 free motion of.'" I . 4~ Euler's equations for.1 I .. 48 orbital. of a top. 4751 vfoment of mon neutral. 173 Springs: of a circular dis velocity change of. 366 vIohr's circle. 180 viodal column. 32.. 4 relative. 259 vIodulus. 33 Speed. 296 moment of inertia of.) transfer fUI Resultant force. 198. 45 Satellite: ~ atural modes. 61. 207213 . 161169. 165170 principal.. . F. 320 viean anomaly. 439 Static thrust.. 456. Sleeping top. 29 natural. 139n Rocket motion: series.386. gravitational potentia' velocity of a point in. D. 2~2. 45 361364 gravitational potential of.F. 354 vfode shape. 434 of coordinate axes. 299302 of elastic modes.or. 188. R. 163 orbits about the earth. rolling motion of. 54 Space cone. 40~ total. 458 velocity of point in. 172 of a cube.
223225 Thrust. 7. 105. 409 total energy of. 448 . 7. 409 nutation frequency of. N. 231. use in obtaining orbital constants. 492 Unit step function. 3 components of. 105. 34 True anomaly. 412 Torsion. 151.354. 85. in vibrations. 7476 Transfer function. 447. 408. T. 135. 448. 40 Total energy. 440 Threebody problem..9. 409.395 452 451 Tangent unit vector. 209. W.61. 34. 232 orthogonal. 209. 385 Tracking data. 472479 Synge. 275 . 302 Jm. 405 Twobody problem. 35 orthogonal triad of. 406408. 108 Unit vectors. 164169 kinetic energy of. 20 Time constant. 127. 17. 210 Turning points. 6. 87 ". 406 precession with no nutation. 3 resolution of. of orthogonal unit vectors. 225. 6870 in a uniform gravitational field. 410 general equations for. 446.440 System of particles: angular impulse on. 405. 412 sleeping. 447. 2 Thomson. 6. 403 uniform precession of. 17. 493 Top: cuspidal motion of. 473 Symmetry. 35 skewed. 485 Transformation of coordinates. 4 differentiation of. 191197 GO 436 tial entation 371. for massspringdamper. 204207 units of. 405. 7 resultant. 87. 11. 76 Time of flight. 104 Unit step response. 411. 6. 105. K. 411. 402 limits of nutation for. 422 fast. 88. 485 for massspringdamper system. 213 Tong. P. 152 angular momentum of. 130132. 4 . 298 Triad. 452 generalized. 89. for massspringdamper. 142146 equations of motion. 6. 7 Units. rocket.L. 18 dimensions of. 16. Stiffness coefficient. underdamped. 17 conversion of. 7476 parabolic. 6870. of a curve.. 464 Substantial derivative. 8teadystate solution.tum.. 405 .. mot jon of. 401412 nutation amplitude of. 34. 12 free. 16. 203. 133135 Total spin.225. 448 overdampe~ 447. 210 Trajectory: of a linearlydamped particle. 87 Unit impulse response. 7 derivative of. 448 for . 148 linear impulse on. 141 linear momentum of. 167 Superposition principte. 1519 absolute system of. critically damped. 201 '\ Undetermined' coefficients. 85. 106 Symmetric modes. 101103. Transient solution. 452. 196. 69. 297. 409 stability of. 86. 410 path of symmetry axis. 17 gravitational system of. 405. symmetric case. 17 V ector.massspringdamper system. 141 work of. 163 Time: orbital. 447 Translation of coordinate axes. 491. . 134.2.J. 16. 80. method of. 492 Stehle. 3 bound. 98100.385.. 38 Tensor. 401405 kinetic energy of.
458 rigidbody. 38 Velocitydependent potential. f M:'. 310. 47 zero frequenc~ Modified Euler e Modulus. Natural modes. ( See also Linear momentum) Moulton. ~ Mode shape. 55. 458 Vector (c. 293 Modal column. 4 equality of.. INDEX Matrix (cont trace of. 324 Yeh. 35. 43 for helical motion.1:6r. 2 Wrench. 112 Vector product. 10. 484489 (See also Massspring system.. :. 440 Zero frequency modes. 201 Webster. 240 Visviva integr!ll. 138. 29~ transpose of. 36 for circular motion. 4( Modal vector.'j inverse of. 332 Vector triple product. princip 7779. E. 236 . 303. 3 subtraction of. 440 Weight. 316. rolling motion of. 493 Work. 257 Vibrations: damped. : Mean anomaly. 45. Massspringdamper system) Virtual displapement. 290 Matrix notation. 458 principal. R. 105. H. 1~ 31 ~ virtual. 45 symmetric. 4 gyroscopic. 41 in cylindrical coordinates. 61. 3] of a sphere. 46 relative. 458 normal. 180. 238. distance.) sliding. 46 in a rotating reference frame. 18 Weighting function. 36 for harmonic motion.ont. 205 Murnaghan. 275. by difIerentiatio principal. F. Mean. G. 235246 principle of. 235246 Work and kinetic energy. ~ of a rod. 458 . 9 matrix form.F. 489493 undamped. 1'. 253. 9 determinant form.. Mode of vibrat antisymmetri elastic. A... 3t transfer fUl transpose 0 unit.. D.. 45. 455472. 13~· for system of particles. 11 Vectors: addition of. 49. . 8. 4~ of shells.385. Whittaker. 4 Vector analysis. Virtual work. 5 Velocity: in cartesian coordinates. 492 Wheel. 235. 350353 of nonconservative forces. 462 independence natural. 287. 4. 93 gravitational. 1"27. 50 in spherical coordinates. 78 of frictional forces. 132135 Workless constraint. 38 tangential. 310. of eUiI Mohr's circle. Moment of mon momentum Momentum: of elastic modes.. 406 Moment of inerth of a circular dis of a cube. 41 of a point in a rigid body. 54. Matrix product. 4Modal matrix. generalized. 3 unit. 346.514 IN 518' . 31 Moment: of a force.