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1
AbstractFractional slot concentrated windings, or modular
windings, have shown promise with permanent magnet machines.
However, their inability to produce high quality travelling fields
has limited their application from spreading to induction
machines. This paper presents the design considerations and
tradeoffs involved in applying fractional slot concentrated
windings to five phase induction machines using the conventional
three phase lap wound machine as a reference. Previous work
has touched upon the application of modular windings to three
phase induction machines, concluding that a conventional
distributed winding is superior in terms of torque production and
rotor bar losses. In applications such as high frequency induction
machines, and manually wound electrical submersible pump
motors, the proposed machine topology provides advantages that
may warrant its application despite an apparent power density
penalty. In this paper, a prototype fivephase modular winding
induction machine designed to significantly reduce the effect of
space harmonics is investigated through simulations and
experimentally.
Index Terms AC motor drives, induction motor drives,
multiphase induction motors, fault tolerance, finite element
method, analytical model, soft magnetic materials, concentrated
winding, distributed winding, modular winding.
NOMENCLATURE
q Number of slots per phase per pole
V RMS Phase voltage
K
E
Stator voltage drop compensation factor
Average flux per pole
N
ph
Number of turns per phase
k
w
Winding factor
k
c
Chording factor
m Number of phases
S Number of slots
n
s
Number of conductors per slot
A
slot
Total slot area
k
fill
Fill factor
a
c
Conductor cross sectional area
I RMS phase current
Manuscript received December 28, 2010. Accepted for publication July 11,
2011.
Copyright 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.
However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be
obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubspermissions@ieee.org
A. S. AbdelKhalik is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21544, Egypt (e
mail: ayman@spiretronic.com).
S. Ahmed is with Texas A&M University at Qatar, Doha, Qatar (email:
shehab.ahmed@qatar.tamu.edu).
J Current density
f Frequency
P Power
R Resistance
X Reactance
L
m
Magnetizing inductance
l Leakage inductance
Angular frequency
s Slip
N
s
Synchronous speed
p Number of pole pairs
K
skew
Skew factor
Skewing angle
Subscripts
c Conventional machine
p Proposed machine
s Stator
r Rotor
1 Primary sequence
3 Secondary sequence
I. INTRODUCTION
HREEPHASE induction motors commonly use double
layer, overlapping, distributed windings [1]. This winding
configuration results in more sinusoidal magnetomotive force
(MMF) and electromotive force (EMF) distributions, and
hence good machine performance [2]. However, it utilizes
bulky end windings and overlapping coils. On the other hand,
advantages of the fractional slot concentrated winding, or
modular winding, in permanent magnet (PM) synchronous
machines have contributed to recent interest in its structure.
These advantages include highpower density, high efficiency,
short end turns, and high slot fill factor, particularly when
segmented stator structures are applied [2]. However, there
has been little to no interest in modular windings for rotary
induction machines. This is because modular windings do not
produce high quality traveling fields. Two space harmonics of
closely the same magnitude are produced that travel in
opposite directions, inducing currents and opposing torques
with limited net torque and additional rotor bar losses
compared to a conventional distributed winding [1]. In [1], a
wound secondary with a double layer winding is used instead
of the conventional plate used with linear induction machines.
Hence, the induced emf is produced only by the field on which
the secondary is wound so that force is produced only in one
direction. In [3], planar modular windings are applied to a
linear induction motor using harmonic cancellation. A double
Performance Evaluation of a Five Phase
Modular Winding Induction Machine
A. S. AbdelKhalik and S. Ahmed, Member, IEEE
T
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2
sided arrangement of stators is used with mechanical offset
applied between the two stators. This mechanical offset results
in harmonic cancellation of one of the main harmonics while
reinforcing the other.
The first attempt to apply modular windings to rotary
induction machines is addressed in [4]. In [4], an induction
machine with fractionalslot concentrated windings is
examined and compared with standard distributed lap
windings as a reference. The performance of four designs,
with different slot per pole per phase ratios (SPP), is
compared. It was concluded that a traditional distributed
winding is optimal in terms of torque production and rotor bar
losses for induction machine applications. Extension of this
work to the multiphase induction machine case has not been
addressed in literature, and is the main contribution of this
paper.
The merits of multiphase machines have been documented
in literature, demonstrating that they are now serious
contenders in various applications [5, 6]. The additional
degrees of freedom in supplying such machines due to the
additional sequence planes, is one such merit [5, 6]. Extensive
research has addressed the application and design of
multiphase distributed winding induction machines [5].
Modeling and parameter determination have been discussed in
[7], performance with different control techniques were
presented in [8] [10], and the effect of harmonic injection on
torque density improvement in [11] [13]. The merits of
multiphase machines when combined with modular windings
have also been thoroughly addressed in literature for the PM
synchronous machine case [14] [20].
The degree of freedom created by the additional sequence
planes, which depend on the corresponding number of phases,
creates sequence specific airgap MMF harmonic groups.
Hence, harmonic suppression can be obtained using a
multiphase modular winding by selecting the proper sequence
that gives rise to less harmonic content [21]. Thus, it is the
objective of this paper to demonstrate that viable multiphase
modular winding induction machines can be designed to
address a gap in the electromechanical energy conversion
arena.
In an application such as electrically submersible pumps
(ESP), motors with very special form factors are employed.
The motors have long stacks and limited diameters [22] [25].
A visit to one ESP motor manufacturer revealed that one of
the costly and time consuming tasks in the production process
is the winding of such machines. Due to their odd form factor,
all ESP motors manufactured at that facility are manually
wound induction machines. A multiphase modular winding [5]
has the potential to reduce production time by enabling
automated winding of the machines when segmented stators
are utilized, while overcoming the limitations of modular
winding three phase machines [4]. In the field, ESP motors are
typically fed from a step up transformer and directly
connected to the line. A passive solution such as that proposed
in [26] could be employed for such systems.
High frequency induction machines may also benefit from
the proposed solution. Soft magnetic composite (SMC) based
segmented stator machines have emerged as a potential
solution for high frequency applications [27]. Although work
to date has been limited to permanent magnet machines [28]
[30] and to a limited extent three phase induction motors [31],
the proposed modular winding five phase induction motor
may contribute positively to this application. The favorable
high frequency flux density of SMC material, when combined
with a segmented stator structure and the lack of costly
permanent magnets poses a possible practical application.
Significant improvements in slot fill factor have been
realized with fractional slot concentrated windings (FSCW)
coupled with segmented stator structures. Many papers [29,
30] address various segmented stator structure concepts aimed
at increasing the slot fill factor up to 50%. In [29], a slot fill
factor of approximately 78% was obtained using soft magnetic
composites and prepressed windings.
In this paper, design considerations and tradeoffs involved
in the development of a fivephase modular winding induction
machine with a conventional squirrel cage rotor are studied.
In this winding configuration, one of the available sequences
gives rise to the fundamental flux distribution and relatively
low 9
th
and 11
th
order harmonics. The effect of these
harmonics can be suppressed by proper design of the number
of rotor bars as well as their skewing angle. A prototype
machine is built for experimental investigation. An existing
rotor from a standard offtheshelf 1.5Hp threephase machine
is used and the stator is redesigned with the proposed winding
layout to obtain same power. A fivephase conventional
distributed winding induction machine is also designed, and its
calculated performance is compared to the conventional three
phase and modular fivephase winding machines.
II. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
Torque production in a threephase machine with
distributed windings depends mainly on the fundamental
component of the MMF distribution. However, in machines
with fractionalslot concentrated windings, torque production
depends, in most cases, on higher order harmonics [2]. This
can be successfully applied to PM machines because the
electromagnetic torque results from the interaction of a
specific highorder stator MMF harmonic with the field
produced by the permanent magnets. Other lower and higher
order harmonics, which rotate at different speeds from the
rotor, will not contribute to torque production and cause
undesirable effects typically attributed to this winding
configuration, such as localized core saturation, eddy current
loss in the permanent magnets, acoustic noise, and vibration
[32] [34]. On the other hand, this winding configuration
offers higher torque capability [35], lower torque ripple, and
low cogging torque without the need for skewing [36, 37].
In induction machines, torque production depends on the
interaction between the stator MMF and the rotor MMF
produced by the induced rotor currents. Hence, if this winding
configuration is excited with a certain frequency, a number of
torque and rotor bar loss producing components are generated
at various slips because of the armature winding space
harmonics. Some of these harmonics will produce positive
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3
torque and others will produce negative torque. The resultant
torque is the vector sum of these individual torque
components. Hence, a poor torque density would normally be
accompanied by high torque ripple and excessive rotor bar and
core losses [4].
While stator winding chording can be applied in a
conventional lap wound induction machine to minimize the
effect of winding space harmonics, this design option is not
possible with modular windings. Such a limitation resulted in
poor performance of the three phase modular winding
induction machines described in [4]. However, an additional
degree of freedom exists in multiphase machines where
additional supply sequences can be used to feed the machines.
In the three phase case, there are three (2 +1 zero) available
sequences. The zero sequence gives zero total flux, while the
other two sequences (positive and negative sequences) give
rise to the same MMF distribution but with opposite directions
of rotation, hence, the same space harmonics. In multiphase
machines, the available number of sequences increases with
the number of phases. For example, there are five (4+1 zero)
available sequences in a fivephase system. The fourth
sequence is the negative sequence of the first, while the
second sequence is the negative sequence of the third. Each
sequence pair gives rise to a different MMF distribution with
different harmonic content [21]. In [21], it has been shown
that a five phase modular winding primarily produces
fundamental, 9
th
and 11
th
order harmonics when fed from one
of the sequences, which will be referred to as the primary
sequence in this paper. However, 3
rd
, 7
th
, 13
th
and 17
th
order
harmonics are produced when this winding configuration is
fed from an alternative sequence, which will be referred to as
the secondary sequence in this paper. Because lower order
harmonics ie. 3
rd
, 5
th
, and 7
th
are the main undesired harmonics
in an induction machine; hence, feeding the winding with the
primary sequence will inherently cancel these harmonics.
Consequently, the lowest order harmonics will be the 9
th
and
the 11
th
order harmonics, which are already low in amplitude
and their effect can be suppressed by proper design of the
number of rotor bars and their skew angle [38].
III. PROPOSED WINDING LAYOUT AND THEORY OF
OPERATION
A. Proposed Winding Layout
The proposed modular winding induction machine [21]
utilizes a conventional cage rotor. The winding layout is
designed to provide a four pole fundamental MMF distribution
to match the original three phase machine. For a double layer
stator winding [2], the required number of stator slots will be
10 slots per pole pair. Hence, the 20 stator slot design shown
in Fig. 1 is generated.
B. Effect of Applied Sequence
For a fivephase system, the corresponding available current
sequences are five, including one zero sequence. The effect of
each sequence on the stator MMF pattern is illustrated in this
section. The angle between phase currents in the fundamental
sequence is = 2/5. The stator MMF corresponding to
currents of the fundamental sequence and a 2A rms magnitude
is shown in Fig. 2a. The corresponding Fourier expansion is
shown in Fig. 2b. The fourth sequence, which corresponds to
an angle 4 between phase currents, will give the same flux
distribution, but the MMF wave travels in the backward
direction. The MMF distribution resulting from the third
sequence, corresponding to an angle 3 between phase
currents is shown in Fig. 2c, and the corresponding Fourier
expansion is shown in Fig. 2d. The second sequence gives the
same flux distribution as the third, but the MMF travels in the
opposite direction. The machine flux distributions for both
sequences are also shown in Figs. 2e and 2f. The
corresponding air gap flux densities due to the armature
current, obtained using the Maxwell 2D finite elements (FE)
software are shown in Figs 2g and 2i.
Comparing the two cases, it is evident that the fundamental
sequence, also referred to as the secondary sequence, mainly
produces 3
rd
, 7
th
, 13
th
, 17
th
, 23
rd
, 27
th
, etc. space harmonics;
while the third sequence, also referred to as the primary
sequence, mainly produces 1
st
, 9
th
, 11
th
, 19
th
, 21
st
, 29
th
, 31
st
etc.
harmonics.
Fig. 1. Stator winding layout of the proposed machine.
Space harmonics produced by a conventional distributed
winding five phase machine, are opposite of those obtained for
the modular winding case. In a conventional multiphase
winding, the fundamental sequence produces the fundamental
flux component (2p), while the third sequence produces a flux
distribution of (6p). To avoid confusion between the
conventional multiphase machine and one with a modular
winding, it is assumed that for the proposed modular winding,
the sequence which produces the fundamental flux distribution
will be called the primary sequence, while that which
produces a flux distribution with a primary third harmonic
component, will be called the secondary sequence. Hence, one
can write that the primary sequence produces a fundamental
flux distribution and harmonics of the order (10C
1
+1, C
1
= 1,
2 ), while the secondary sequence produces harmonics of
the order (5C
2
+ 2, C
2
= 1, 3 ).
It is evident from Fig. 2f that the machine flux distribution
corresponding to the primary sequence is 4pole with an
approximate sinusoidal air gap flux distribution, as shown in
Fig. 2i. Moreover, the harmonic spectrum of the flux
distribution, shown in Fig. 2j, shows that the first undesirable
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4
harmonics are the 9
th
and 11
th
. The 11
th
harmonic magnitude is
small compared to the 9
th
. The 9
th
harmonic effect can be
eliminated by selecting the number of rotor bars to be a
multiple of 9, for example 18 bars. Bar skewing can be
selected to cancel the effect of the 11
th
harmonic. Higher order
harmonics (19
th
and 21
st
) will have a negligible effect on the
machine performance.
On the other hand, the secondary sequence produces a 6p
machine flux distribution as shown in Fig. 2e. The
corresponding air gap flux density is shown in Fig. 2g
Moreover, the harmonic spectrum of the flux distribution
shown in Fig. 2h, shows that the first undesirable harmonics
are the 7
th
and the 13
th
.
The magnitude of the fundamental flux density produced
due to the primary sequence has a magnitude of 0.743T, as
shown in Fig. 2j, while the magnitude of the third harmonic
produced due to the secondary sequence is 0.69T, as shown in
Fig. 2h. It is noted that the magnitude of both components are
very close, consequently, it is expected that the magnetizing
inductances corresponding to both sequences will be close in
value. This is completely different from a conventional
multiphase machine where the magnetizing inductance is
inversely proportional to the harmonic order, i.e. the
magnetizing inductance of the third sequence is 1/9
th
the
magnetizing inductance corresponding to fundamental
sequence [13].
The MMF distribution of the proposed fivephase modular
winding is compared to that of the conventional threephase
and fivephase machines in Fig. 3. It is noted that the three
MMF distributions have approximately equal fundamental
magnitude, which confirms the equivalence of the machines.
In terms of space harmonics, the conventional winding five
phase machine is shown to possess the lowest total harmonic
distortion, i.e. has the least space harmonics as shown in Fig.
3. This in turn implies superior machine performance in terms
of torque ripples, and core loss.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
400
200
0
200
400
Peripheral angle, deg
M
M
F
,
A
T
(a) Stator MMF distribution resulting from the fundamental sequence. (b) Fourier expansion of fundamental sequence stator MMF.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
400
200
0
200
400
Peripheral angle, deg
M
M
F
,
A
T
(c) Stator MMF distribution resulting from the third sequence. (d) Fourier expansion of third sequence stator MMF.
(e) Machine flux distribution resulting from the fundamental sequence. (f) Machine flux distribution resulting from the third sequence.
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5
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Prephiral angle, deg
A
i
r
g
a
p
f
l
u
x
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,
T
(g) Air gap flux density resulting from the fundamental sequence.
(h) Fourier expansion of air gap flux density resulting from the
fundamental sequence.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Prephiral angle, deg
A
i
r
g
a
p
f
l
u
x
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,
T
(i) Air gap flux density resulting from the third sequence.
(j) Fourier expansion of air gap flux density resulting from the third
sequence.
Fig. 2. Stator MMFs, machine flux distributions and air gap flux distributions and their harmonic spectra resulting from the secondary sequence (a, b, e,
g, and h) and primary sequence (c, d, f, i, and j).
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0
100
200
300
400
Peripheral angle, deg
M
M
F
,
A
T
Conventional Threephase
Conventional Fivephase
Modular Fivephase
(a) MMF distributions of the three windings.
(b) Fourier expansion of the MMF distribution of a conventional three
phase winding.
(c) Fourier expansion of the MMF distribution of a conventional fivephase
winding.
(b) Fourier expansion of the MMF distribution of a modular fivephase
winding.
Fig. 3. (a) MMF distributions and their spectra comparison for the (b) threephase conventional, (c) fivephase conventional, and (d) fivephase modular
windings.
IV. MACHINE DESIGN
In this section, the design procedure of the proposed five
phase modular machine is introduced. The stator design is
based on a comparison between a conventional mphase
distributed winding and the proposed winding layout assuming
the same rotor dimensions. The subscripts c and p are used to
denote a conventional mphase machine with distributed
windings, and the proposed five phase modular machine
respectively. The design strategy aims to find the difference in
stator dimensions, the required number of turns, and slot area
needed to obtain the same power as a conventional mphase
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6
machine with the same phase current. Based on an existing 1.5
Hp threephase prototype machine, two fivephase machines
with distributed and modular winding layouts are designed to
obtain the same power using the same rotor design. The three
machines are compared in terms of their resulting torque
density. A prototype modular fivephase machine is built for
experimental verification.
The design methodology for a suitable rotor is also
introduced in this section. The rotor design encompasses the
selection of the required number of rotor bars, and the
optimum skewing angle needed to eliminate undesired space
harmonics.
A. Stator Design
The stator design process starts with the winding design.
After selecting a proper value for the number of slots per
phase per pole, q, to obtain an approximate sinusoidal MMF
distribution [38], the number of turns can be determined. A
single layer winding will be assumed for the conventional m
phase winding. Hence, its chording factor is unity, and the
corresponding winding factor will be equal to the distribution
factor [38]. For a modular winding, however, the distribution
factor is unity, thus, the winding factor is equal to the chording
factor.
The general expression for chording factor is given by (1).
For a conventional distributed winding, coil span is 180
o
. For
the modular winding case, the pole pitch is divided among the
coils of the different phases. Hence, the chording factor for the
proposed modular machine can be expressed using (2) and the
resulting winding factor using (3). For m
p
= 5, the winding
factor is k
wp
= 0.31, which is small compared to a conventional
mphase machine with distributed windings, where k
wc
is
typically greater than 0.9.
( ) span Coil sin
2
1
=
c
k
.
(1)


.

\

=
p
cp
m
k
2
sin
(2)
cp wp
k k =1
(3)
For a given machine rated kVA and phase current, the
general expression for phase voltage is given by (4), and the
number of turns per phase can be found from (5). Substituting
from (4) into (5), we obtain a general expression for machine
kVA rating (6).
mI
kVA
V
s
=
(4)
w ph E s
k N f K V = 44 . 4
(5)
I k N f mK kVA
w ph E
= 44 . 4
(6)
Hence, for the same kVA rating, phase current, frequency,
and flux per pole conditions, a conventional distributed
winding machine and the proposed modular winding machine
can be compared using (7). Thus, starting from the base 1.5
Hp threephase machine, the number of turns per phase and
conductors per slot is calculated for the proposed machine.
The general form for the number of conductors per slot is (8).
phc c wc wp php p
N m k k N m =
(7)
s
ph
s
S
mN
n
2
=
(8)
The proposed five phase and conventional threephase
machines have S
sp
= 20, p = 2, m
p
= 5, m
c
= 3, and S
sc
= 36.
Assuming that for the threephase machine k
w3
= 0.91, we
obtain (9).
phc php
N N 1.75 =
(9)
From (8) and (9), the relation between the number of
conductors per slot for both machines is given by (10).
25 . 5
20
36
75 . 1
3
5
2
2
= = =
sp
sc
phc c
php p
sc
sp
S
S
N m
N m
n
n
(10)
The general form for the required slot area is given by (11).
fill
c s
s slot
k
a n
S A =
(11)
The typical conventional winding slot fill factor is in the range
of 0.35 0.4. As mentioned earlier, the fill factor for modular
machines can be increased by 50% [2], i.e. k
fillp
= 1.5 k
fillc
,
hence, total slot area ratios can be expressed as in (12).
94 . 1
5 . 1
25 . 5
36
20
= = =
p
fill
c
fill
sc
sp
sc
sp
slotc
slotp
k
k
n
n
S
S
A
A
(12)
The conductor area, a
c
, in (11) can be expanded into the ratio
of rated current and the allowable current density. Total slot
area can then be expressed as in (13).
J k
I n
S A
fill
s
s slot
=
(13)
Substituting from (8) and (13) into (6), the machine kVA
rating can be rewritten as shown in (14).
J k A k f K kVA
fill slot w E
= 22 . 2
(14)
It is evident from (14) that for a certain kVA rating, the
required total slot area is independent of both rated current and
rated voltage individually. This means that the proposed
machine can be redesigned for the same voltage as the
conventional winding threephase machine, but with less
phase current, without changing the machine dimensions.
Alternatively, the design approach in which the same phase
current is maintained, leads to a lower voltage requirement. A
possible practical situation that would make use of the same
phase current assumption would be the development of a high
power/medium voltage fivephase motor drive converter. In
such cases, one of the main limitations is inverter switch
blocking voltage. Delivering the same rated power utilizing a
reduced dc link voltage would thus benefit the converter
driven multiphase machine drive system.
From the derived relations, the detailed stator design can be
performed as in [38] to determine the required slot
dimensions, and the back iron thickness. Since the same flux
per pole is assumed in both machines, the back iron thickness
will be the same. The difference will be in the slot height. The
dimensions, ratings, and itemized weights of machine
components for the existing 1.5 Hp, threephase stator and the
designed fivephase modular stator are given in Table I.
The copper weight ratio between both machines can be
estimated by measuring the phase resistance in both machines.
Since the same conductor cross sectional area is used, the total
weight can be found. Using this method, the copper ratio is
found to be 1.9. This means that the proposed fivephase
modular machine needs approximately double the copper of a
conventional threephase machine with same power rating and
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7
same rotor dimensions. This means that the torque to copper
ratio is better for a conventional threephase machine. This is
similar to the comparison between wound rotor and squirrel
cage rotor machines. Wound rotor machines need
approximately double the copper weight and have a higher
stator volume for the same power rating. Itemized machine
component weights shown in Table I for the standard off the
shelf three phase machine and the prototype five phase
modular machine were evaluated experimentally and verified
against information obtained from the computer aided design
(CAD) software. The results show that a conventional three
phase machine has a 30% better power density (kW/kg) versus
the proposed five phase modular winding machine.
Extension of the comparison to a conventional distributed
winding fivephase machine was also carried out. The results
are shown in Table I. The results in Table I show that machine
torque density, and hence general geometry, is not affected by
changes in the number of phases if the distributed winding
layout is maintained. Thus, a 30% better power density for the
conventional winding fivephase machine compared to the
modular fivephase machine is also observed.
Because the target applications for the proposed machine
are mainly in the high power arena, a case study has been
conducted on a 1000 Hp induction machine and is detailed in
the appendix. The results of this study confirm the 30% power
density penalty of the proposed modular machine with
minimal, 0.5% effect on efficiency. The results are
summarized in Tables VI and VII in the appendix.
TABLE I. DIMENSIONS AND RATINGS FOR THE EXISTING THREEPHASE
MACHINE, A SIMULATED FIVEPHASE MACHINE, AND THE PROPOSED FIVE
PHASE MODULAR MACHINE
No. of phases
3phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Modular)
No of slots 36 40 20
No. of poles 4 4 4
No. of slots/pole/phase 3 2 1
Inner diameter (mm) 83 83 83
Stack length (mm) 100 100 100
No of conductors per slot 52 43 276
Slot height (mm) 14 14 27
Back iron thickness (mm) 12 12 12
Stator outer diameter
(mm)
135 135
161
(20% increase)
Rated phase Voltage (V) 220 140 140
Rated Power (Hp) 1.5 1.5 1.5
Rated phase current (A) 3 3 3.1
Rated frequency (Hz) 50 50 50
Stator laminations weight
(kg)
4.55 4.55 5.95
Rotor weight (kg) 4 4 4
Copper weight (kg) 1.97 1.81 3.75
Total weight (kg) 10.53 10.38 13.71
Power density (kW/kg) 0.1062 0.1078 0.0816
B. Rotor Design
Although the prototypes utilized an off the shelf 33 bar
rotor whose main specifications are shown in Table II, this
section will describe the logic behind the design of an optimal
rotor for the proposed machine. The rotor design entails the
selection of the required number of rotor bars and the
optimum skewing angle to get rid of the effect of the
undesired space harmonics. One of the main design
considerations of cagerotor induction motors is the selection
of the stator to rotor slot combination. A small change in the
number of stator or rotor slots can create unacceptable audible
noise or may even prevent the motor from starting at certain
positions. The main reason for these phenomena is the
parasitic torque produced by stator as well as rotor MMF
harmonics [38].
To avoid producing parasitic torque, condition (15)
extracted from [38] and modified for the proposed five phase
machine, needs to be satisfied with the machine fed from the
primary sequence. The condition guarantees that stator and
rotor MMF harmonics do not coexist.
1
2
1 10
1
+ = +
P
S
C C
r
r
2 , 1
1
= C and 2 , 1 =
r
C
(15)
As shown in section III, the primary sequence produces
primarily the 9
th
and 11
th
undesired harmonics. If the rotor
bars/slots are selected to be 18, the induced voltage in the
rotor bars due the 9
th
harmonic will be zero [38]. This
selection also satisfies (15). However, a small 11
th
harmonic
will induce a corresponding voltage in the rotor circuit. The
skewing angle of the rotor bars can be designed such that the
11
th
harmonic is also cancelled. The required skewing angle,
, in electrical degrees, can be then calculated from (16) [12].
( )
11
2
0
2
11
2
11 sin
11
= =

.

\

=
skew
K
(16)
This design is a satisfactory starting point for a detailed
rotor optimization if the secondary sequence will not be used.
Detailed optimization would depend on a myriad of factors
besides losses, such as acoustic noise and starting torque.
However, if it is required to make use of the secondary
sequence, hence, utilize the machine as a two speed motor,
other tradeoffs will apply. The 3
rd
harmonic produced by the
secondary sequence will then be considered as the main torque
producing component for this sequence, at a corresponding
secondary synchronous speed of 500 rpm, or one third the
primary synchronous speed, 1500 rpm. The 7
th
harmonic
produced by this sequence will be an undesirable one, which
the rotor design should aim to eliminate or reduce. Since the
11
th
harmonic has a considerably negligible magnitude
compared to the 7
th
, as shown in Figs. 2h and 2j, the skewing
angle can be selected to cancel the 7
th
harmonic.
TABLE II. ROTOR SPECIFICATIONS
Rotor diameter 82mm
Stack length 105mm
Number of rotor bars 33
Skew angle One stator slot (10
0
deg.)
V. STEADYSTATE EQUATIONS
Since the proposed machines performance is similar to a
conventional multiphase machine, the same steady state [12]
and transient models [7] can be applied. Consequently, the
steadystate voltage equations in space phasor form are shown
in (17) and (18) [12];
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8
( ) ( ) rk sk
mk s
sk
sk s s
sk I I L jk I l jk R V + + + =
(17)
( ) rk
rk s
k
rk
rk sk
mk s
I l jk
s
R
I I L jk


.

\

+ + + = 0
(18)
where, k = 1 for the primary sequence circuit, and k = 3 for the
secondary sequence circuit. The slip corresponding to
sequence k, s
k
, is given by (19); where, N
sk
is the synchronous
speed corresponding to sequence k, and is given by (20).
sk
r sk
k
N
N N
s
=
(19)
kp
f
N
s
sk
60
=
(20)
The electrical supply frequency is f
s
. Equation (20) indicates
that the synchronous speed corresponding to the secondary
sequence (500 rpm) is one third that of the primary sequence
(1500 rpm).
Thus, the general equivalent circuit for any sequence k is
shown in Fig. 4. If only one sequence is applied, the effect of
the other circuit will be null. For a given set of applied
sequence voltages, the corresponding circuit is solved to
determine the corresponding sequence currents and the
developed torque from each sequence, which is given by (21).
s k
rk
rk
sk k
rk
rk
e
s
R I
kp
s
R I
p T
k
2 2
5 5 = =
(21)
k
rk
s
R
s
R
sk s
l j
rk s
l j
mk s
L j
rk I
sk I
mk I
sk V
ck
R
Fig. 4. Steadystate equivalent circuit for sequence k, k = 1 for primary
sequence and k = 3 for secondary sequence.
VI. MACHINE PARAMETER DETERMINATION
Since the machine equivalent circuit is the same as a
conventional induction machine, conventional noload, locked
rotor, and DC tests were used to determine the proposed
machine parameters for both the primary and secondary
sequence circuits. To determine the magnetizing inductance
corresponding to any sequence, the machine is fed with the
corresponding sequence at rated frequency. A prime mover is
used to rotate the machine at the synchronous speed that
corresponds to this specific sequence. For the prototype
machine, the synchronous speed is 1500 rpm for the primary
sequence and 500 rpm for the secondary sequence. This
method reduces error since the induced rotor current will be
approximately zero. With approximately zero induced rotor
current, the stator current is approximately equal to the
magnetizing current corresponding to the applied sequence.
The rotor resistance and inductance for the primary and
secondary sequences are determined using the conventional
locked rotor test, while the stator resistance is determined
using the conventional DC test. Parameters of the prototype
threephase conventional and five phase modular machines
(both primary and secondary sequence) are provided in Table
III and IV in the appendix.
VII. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
A fivephase stator with the winding configuration shown
in Fig. 11a in the appendix was built to fit the existing rotor.
The machine was fed from a fivephase sinusoidal PWM
(SPWM) inverter operating at a 5 kHz switching frequency
and fed from a 400 V DC link. The machine is coupled to a
1.5Hp PM dcgenerator which acts as a mechanical load to
estimate the machine torque. Fig. 5a is a block diagram of the
setup, and Fig. 5b shows the actual lab setup.
The output power of the generator is measured and added
to its losses to estimate the induction machine output
mechanical power. The generator losses are its copper and
rotational losses. The copper loss is calculated using the
generator armature current and the measured armature
resistance. However, the rotational losses are determined by
running the dc machine separately as a motor at different
speeds while measuring input power. The rotational losses are
found by subtracting the noload copper loss from this value
of input power. The induction machine output mechanical
torque is then estimated by dividing the calculated output
mechanical power by the machine angular speed obtained
using a noncontact tachometer. The induction machine input
power is estimated by multiplying the inverter dc link voltage
and current to estimate the induction machine efficiency. The
power factor is determined by dividing the input power by the
total machine kVA. Finally, the airgap flux distribution is
experimentally determined by measuring the internal induced
voltage with a 20turn single phase search coil with a span of
180
o
degree as shown in Fig. 11b of the appendix.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5. Experimental setup (a) block diagram and (b) experimental rig photo.
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9
VIII. EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION RESULTS
This section presents a summary of the main experimental
and simulation results conducted on the prototype machines.
Phase current of the prototype five phase modular machine is
shown in Figs. 6a and 6b for both the no load and loaded cases
with the primary sequence applied. It is noted that the noload
current suffers a high third harmonic component, Figs. 6c and
6d, which decreases significantly as the machine is loaded.
Although it is expected theoretically that phase current, with
the primary sequence applied, should not contain third
harmonic components due to the theoretical decoupling of the
primary and secondary sequence planes, however, various
asymmetries of the machine and the nonideal nature of the
inverter cause this undesired coupling. This problem is
common in fivephase machines and is addressed extensively
in [9]. In [9], an appropriate modification of the current
control scheme is applied to mitigate this coupling by
controlling the current components of the secondary plane to
be zero.
Additionally, a saturation problem with the prototype
modular machine contributed to the relatively high third
harmonic component. This is because the stator laminations
used for the prototype modular machine had a lower saturation
flux density than the original three phase stator and the
existing rotor. Redesigning the rotor is expected to reduce this
effect. However, this problem becomes negligible when the
machine is loaded. This is because the internal induced emf
decreases due to the relatively high stator drop caused by the
high stator impedance of the prototype machine. This is
common in low power rating induction machines. As the
internal induced emf decreases with loading, the machine flux
decreases, and the magnitude of the third harmonic component
significantly decreases, as is evident from Fig. 6. This is
supported by the decrease in voltage induced across the search
coil in Fig. 7.
According to the theoretically obtained harmonic spectra of
Fig. 2, the air gap flux distribution is expected to be primarily
sinusoidal. The Fourier spectrum of the voltage induced across
the search coil is shown in Figs. 7c and 7d for the no load and
loaded cases. A 10F capacitor is used to filter the PWM
signal induced on the search coil. Moreover, a software 1
st
order low pass filter with a corner frequency at 500Hz is also
used to further filter the waveform, Figs. 7e and 7f. The
figures confirm the theoretical conclusions of a primarily
sinusoidal air gap flux.
A nonnegligible fifth harmonic is, however, shown in Fig.
7. As previously mentioned, saturation was observed at no
load, leading to a relatively high third harmonic in the no load
stator current, Fig. 6c. This saturation also causes flux
distortion leading to a flat topped flux distribution [39]. Since
the search coil induced voltage waveform indicates the flux
distribution, a flat topped voltage waveform is also shown in
Fig. 7e. As the machine is loaded, the flux distribution
becomes more sinusoidal, and the effect of such undesired
harmonics is reduced as depicted in Fig. 6d and Fig. 7f.
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
10
5
0
5
10
Time, s
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
10
5
0
5
10
Time, s
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
(a) No load phase current of the prototype modular five phase machine (b) On load phase current of the prototype modular five phase machine
(c) Fourier spectrum of the no load phase current of the modular machine (d) Fourier spectrum of the loaded modular machine phase current
Fig. 6. Phase current and its spectrum for the prototype five phase modular machine (a, c) noload case and (b, d) loaded case.
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10
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
Time, s
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
V
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
Time, s
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
V
(a) Search coil induced voltage at no load for the modular machine (b) Search coil induced voltage for the loaded modular machine
(c) Search coil induced voltage spectrum at no load (d) Search coil induced voltage spectrum for the loaded machine
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
Time, s
F
i
l
t
e
r
e
d
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
V
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
20
10
0
10
20
Time, s
F
i
l
t
e
r
e
d
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
V
(e) Filtered search coil induced voltage at no load (f) Filtered search coil induced voltage for the loaded machine
Fig. 7. Raw and filtered induced voltage across the search coil, its spectrum (a, e, and c) noload case and (b, f, and d) loaded case.
A. Comparison of the Three Machines
In the experimental setup, the threephase machine is fed
from a conventional 380V threephase supply, while a five
phase inverter feeds the modular machine. A 1.5Hp PM DC
generator is used as a mechanical load for both machines. The
experimental results obtained for both machines are shown in
Fig. 8. An analytically obtained third trace representing a five
phase conventional winding machine is also shown in Fig. 8.
This provides an understanding for how two stator winding
designs with the same number of phases compare.
Similar torquespeed characteristics for the three machines
are shown Fig. 8a. The torquecurrent characteristic is shown
in Fig. 8b. It is shown that the phase current increases with
mechanical loading. A higher phase current is observed for the
modular machine because the measured magnetizing
impedance was smaller than the expected design value. This
may be attributed to differences in lamination materials, and
any minor dimensional deviations from the original three
phase stator. As expected, the torquecurrent characteristics of
the conventional threephase and fivephase machines are
quite similar. The slight difference may be attributed to
experimental data gathering accuracy, differences in
lamination material between the simulated five phase and the
prototype three phase machines, and the fact that the five
phase machine used a simulated rotor that is not exactly the
same as the experimentally tested three phase rotor.
Additionally, the phase current of the fivephase modular
machine is shown to initially decrease as the machine is
loaded then it increases again. This is because of the third
harmonic current component caused by machine asymmetry
and magnetic saturation, as previously discussed. Proper
design of both stator and rotor is expected to decrease this
effect.
The relation between machine efficiency and output
mechanical power is shown in Fig. 8c. It is noted that the
conventional threephase and fivephase machines have a
higher efficiency at full load, approximately 72.5%, versus
64% for the fivephase modular machine. This is due to the
stator copper loss. Values of phase current from Fig. 8b, and
resistances shown in Table III  Table V support this result. To
put things into perspective the copper loss was 205W for the
conventional threephase machine and 380W for the five
phase modular machine. If a partial efficiency neglecting
stator copper loss is calculated for both machines, the values
are found to be 83.8% and 82.6% for the threephase and the
modular fivephase machines respectively. High power
variations of the three machines are thus expected to have
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11
similar fullload efficiencies because the copper loss is
typically negligible compared to machine power rating. The
1000 Hp machine case study in the appendix supports this
conclusion. Finally, the higher magnetizing current value in
the modular five phase modular machine leads to a higher
three phase machine power factor as shown in Fig. 8d.
The characteristics for both threephase and fivephase
machines with conventional windings are found to be very
similar. This proves that any multiphase machine with a
certain m
1
phase winding can be redesigned with m
2
phases
such that both motors have the same performance and
efficiency. Moreover, comparing the two fivephase machines
with distributed and modular winding layouts reveals that, the
conventional fivephase machine will have improved
performance over its modular counterpart, however, certain
applications may benefit from the proposed modular structure
due to manufacturing or motion profile needs as previously
noted.
B. Comparison between Simulation and Experimental Results
of the Proposed FivePhase Modular Machine
In this subsection, a comparison between simulation results
obtained from a steadystate model and experimental results
on the prototype modular machine is made. This comparison
is made for both sequences, namely the primary, Fig. 9, and
secondary, Fig. 10. In both cases, the rated phase voltage,
140V, is applied with the corresponding phase sequence.
With the primary sequence applied to the stator, the
corresponding synchronous speed is 1500 rpm, while the
synchronous speed corresponding to the secondary sequence is
500 rpm. The machine performance with the primary sequence
is comparable to a conventional threephase machine, as
discussed in the previous subsection. The machine phase
current magnitudes corresponding to the primary and
secondary sequences are similar, as expected from the
theoretical analysis. Moreover, the machine is capable of
providing approximately fullload torque with about the same
phase current at one third the rotor speed with the secondary
sequence applied, but at low efficiency, 31%, and power
factor, 0.43. The main reason for the low efficiency of the
prototype machine is the high value of stator copper loss
compared to the output power, which is significantly reduced
due to the decrease in machine speed. Moreover, the referred
rotor resistance corresponding to this sequence is much higher
than that corresponding to the primary sequence. The referred
rotor resistance increases by a factor of 4.3 due to the increase
in the equivalent number of poles from 4, with the primary
sequence applied, to 12, with secondary sequence applied.
However, this increase in rotor resistance will result in a high
starting torque. This was observed while conducting the
experimental work. Excluding the stator copper loss from the
efficiency calculation provides an increase in partial efficiency
to 56.3% which is acceptable for such a high rotor resistance.
Another reason for the low efficiency with the secondary
sequence applied is the increase in core loss due to space
harmonics, especially the 7
th
harmonic, which has a relatively
high magnitude.
It can be concluded that the primary sequence is best suited
for high speed operation, while the secondary sequence can be
used for low speed operation. The applied frequency in this
case will be three times the frequency required with the
primary sequence applied at the same speed, which has
advantages from a control and speed estimation point of view.
Moreover, the high referred rotor resistance allows for higher
starting torque.
IX. CONCLUSION
This paper evaluates tradeoffs, design considerations, and
performance of a fivephase modular winding induction
machine. Modular windings when combined with segmented
stators have shown promise in various applications, and their
application to the multiphase induction machine produces a
viable energy conversion device. Experimental and simulation
results show that the proposed fivephase modular winding
induction machine is comparable in performance to a
conventional threephase induction machine. The conclusions
drawn from this study can be summarized in the following
points:
 There are two available operating sequences, namely
primary and secondary sequences. The secondary sequence
gives a synchronous speed of one third that obtained when
the primary sequence is applied.
 If the machine is designed for the same power while
maintaining the same rotor, the copper volume used will be
approximately double that of a conventional three phase
induction machine but with a slightly higher outer diameter
due to the increase in the total slot area to accommodate
the increased number of turns. This contributes to a power
density penalty of approximately 30%.
 Comparison between threephase and fivephase machines
with conventional windings and a fivephase modular
winding machine reveals that the conventional fivephase
machine has the least space harmonics and hence less
torque ripples and core loss.
 The air gap flux distribution corresponding to the primary
sequence is approximately sinusoidal and the effect of low
order harmonics is neglected. The primary undesired
harmonics are the 9
th
and 11
th
harmonics, which have a
negligible effect due to their low magnitude and high
frequency.
 The machine performance with the primary sequence
applied is comparable to a conventional mphase machine.
However, the machine stator copper loss for the modular
fivephase case is higher than the conventional threephase
machine if the machine is designed with same phase
current. This is due to the higher number of phases.
Machines with a high power rating are expected to have
close fullload efficiency because the copper loss will be
negligible compared to machine power rating.
 A fivephase modular design possesses added complexity
compared to a conventional threephase design due to the
higher number of leads and the power converter topology.
On the other hand, a multiphase drive has less current per
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12
phase or can be designed with a lower voltage for the same
total power. It also offers a higher fault tolerant capability.
 The analysis included in the paper assumes that the five
phase machine is designed for same phase current and
hence lower phase voltage. This selection facilitates the
theoretical comparison between the two machines. It
allows comparing the torque/current characteristics, which
represent an important design criterion in electrical
machine design. However, a design based on the same
phase voltage and lower phase current, will lead to the
same machine dimensions, but with a higher number of
turns and smaller conductor cross sectional area compared
to a machine design based on the same phase current.
 A new multiphase drive system would benefit from
applying the same phase current design criteria, as such a
system will benefit from a lower demand on device
switching voltages. If it is required to replace an existing
three phase machine with a five phase one, while
maintaining the same DC link voltage, the alternative
design criteria, ie. the same phase voltage, and hence less
phase current would be more suitable.
 The machine phase current magnitudes corresponding to
the primary and secondary sequences are close in value for
the same load. This allows for two speed operation by
changing the applied sequence. It also corresponds to
approximately the same stator copper loss.
 Experimental and simulation results for the prototype five
phase machine corresponding to the secondary sequence
show poor performance in terms of machine efficiency and
power factor. This is because the machine output power,
for same load torque, is reduced due to the reduction in
machine speed by a factor of 1/3 to account for the change
in machine flux distribution from 2p to 6p. However, this
low efficiency is also expected in conventional induction
machines operating at low speed.
 The rotor copper loss for the secondary sequence is higher
because the referred rotor resistance for this sequence is
much higher than that of the primary sequence. However,
this high referred rotor resistance allows for a higher
starting torque.
 For the proposed modular machine, higher core loss due to
space harmonics adds to the machine losses and decreases
the total efficiency.
 The secondary sequence can be used for low speed
operation since the applied frequency will be three times
the frequency required with the primary sequence at the
same speed. This facilitates machine control and speed
estimation.
 For high speed operation, the primary sequence will be
superior and comparable to conventional induction
machines.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by a National Priorities Research
Program (NPRP) grant from the Qatar National Research
Fund (QNRF).
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
Torque, Nm
S
p
e
e
d
,
r
p
m
Threephase
Modular Fivephase
Conventional Fivephase (calc.)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Torque, Nm
S
t
a
t
o
r
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
Threephase
Modular Fivephase
Conventional Fivephase (calc.)
(a) Experimental torque speed characteristics of the prototype machines (b) Experimental torque current characteristics of the prototype machines
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Output Power, W
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,
%
Threephase
Modular Fivephase
Conventional Fivephase (calc.)
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Output Power, W
P
o
w
e
r
F
a
c
t
o
r
Threephase
Modular Fivephase
Conventional Fivephase (calc.)
(c) Experimental efficiency for the prototype machines (d) Experimental power factor of the prototype machines
Fig. 8. Experimental evaluation of the prototype threephase conventional and fivephase modular machines as well as a simulated fivephase conventional
winding machine.
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13
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
Torque, Nm
S
p
e
e
d
,
r
p
m
Sim.
Exp.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Torque, Nm
R
M
S
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
Sim.
Exp.
(a) Simulated versus experimental torque speed characteristics of the
prototype five phase modular machineprimary sequence
(b) Simulated versus experimental torque current characteristics of the
prototype five phase modular machineprimary sequence
0 500 1000 1500
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Output Power, Watt
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,
%
Sim
Exp.
0 500 1000 1500
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Output Power, Watt
P
o
w
e
r
F
a
c
t
o
r
Sim.
Exp.
(c) Simulated versus experimental efficiency of the prototype five phase
modular machine  primary sequence
(d) Simulated versus experimental power factor of the prototype five phase
modular machine  primary sequence
Fig. 9. Comparison between simulation and experimental results with the primary sequence applied to the five phase modular machine.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
100
200
300
400
500
Torque, Nm
S
p
e
e
d
,
r
p
m
Sim.
Exp.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Torque, Nm
R
M
S
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
Sim.
Exp.
(a) Simulated versus experimental torque speed characteristics of the
prototype five phase modular machinesecondary sequence
(b) Simulated versus experimental torque current characteristics of the
prototype five phase modular machine secondary sequence
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Output Power, Watt
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,
%
Sim.
Exp.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Output Power, Watt
P
o
w
e
r
F
a
c
t
o
r
Sim.
Exp.
(c) Simulated versus experimental efficiency of the prototype five phase
modular machine  secondary sequence
(d) Simulated versus experimental power factor of the prototype five phase
modular machine  secondary sequence
Fig. 10. Comparison between simulation and experimental results with the secondary sequence applied to the five phase modular machine
.
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14
APPENDIX
A. Winding Layout
The layout of the fivephase modular winding is shown in
Fig. 11a, while that of the search coil is shown in Fig. 11b.
(a) Five phase modular winding layout
(b) Search coil layout in the prototype machine
Fig. 11. Winding layout for (a) fivephase modular winding and (b) search
coil.
B. Machine Parameters
All parameters are referred to the stator side. The
parameters of the original 1.5Hp threephase machine are
given in Table III, while those of the prototype 1.5Hp five
phase machine are in Table IV. Detailed ratings of both
machines and dimensions are given in Table I. The calculated
parameters of the designed fivephase machine with
conventional winding are given in Table V.
TABLE III. PROTOTYPE THREEPHASE MACHINE PARAMETERS
Rs Rr Xs Xr Xm Rc
8.8 5.5 7.56 7.56 115 827
TABLE IV. PROTOTYPE MODULAR FIVEPHASE MACHINE PARAMETERS
Primary sequence Secondary Sequence
Rs1 = 8.7 Rs3 = 8.7
Rr1 = 3 Rr3 = 12.9
Xs1 = 4.9350 Xs3 = 21.4
Xr1 = 4.9350 Xr3 = 21.4
Xm1= 54 Xm3= 30
Rc1 = 900 Rc3 = 240
TABLE V. DESIGNED CONVENTIONAL FIVEPHASE MACHINE
PARAMETERS
Rs Rr Xs Xr Xm Rc
4.85 4.5 4.92 5.5 70 750
C. Relations between the ThreePhase and corresponding
FivePhase Parameters
A generalized set of identities has been derived to determine
the parameters of an equivalent mphase modular machine
based on the relation between a three phase machine and its
equivalent five phase structure. The derivation is based on the
assumption that both machines utilize the same rotor. For a
specific rotor dimension, number of bars, and skewing angle,
the equivalent rotor resistance and inductance referred to the
stator side can be calculated from (C.1) and (C.2) [12], where,
R
be
and l
be
are the equivalent rotor bar resistance and leakage
inductance respectively.
2
'
4


.

\

=
skew
ph w
be
r
r
K
N k
R
S
m
R
(C.1)
2
'
4


.

\

=
skew
ph w
be
r
r
K
N k
l
S
m
l
(C.2)
Hence, for the same rotor, the relationships between the
referred rotor parameters of the conventional and proposed
stator winding configurations are given by (C.3 C.6). The
magnetizing inductance is proportional to the number of
machine phases and the equivalent number of turns per phase
as shown in (C.7, C.8) [13].
2
'
'


.

\

=
phc wc
php wp
c
p
c r
p r
N k
N k
m
m
R
R
(C.3)
phc c
wp
wc
php p
N m
k
k
N m =
(C.4)
5
3
'
'
= =
p
c
c r
p r
m
m
R
R
(C.5)
5
3
'
'
= =
p
c
c r
p r
m
m
X
X
(C.6)
( )
2
w ph m
k N m X
(C.7)
5
3
= =
p
c
mc
mp
m
m
X
X
(C.8)
It has been shown from comparing the prototype five phase
and conventional three phase machines that the copper ratio is
approximately 1.9. Generally, the stator resistance is
proportional to the total length of the coils and the number of
turns. This is shown in (C.9, C.10).
coil ph s
l N R
(C.9)
coilc
coilp
phc
php
sc
sp
l
l
N
N
R
R
=
(C.10)
Obtaining a closed form for the stator leakage inductance is
a challenging task; however, measurements from the
prototypes give the same relation as that for rotor leakage
inductance shown in (C.6).
D. Comparison Study for a 736kW Induction Machine
Because the target application of the proposed machine is in
the high power arena, a 736kW case study has been
conducted. Based on the relations derived in section C of the
appendix, parameters of a three phase 736 kW machine from
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15
[38] were used to find the equivalent five phase modular
machine parameters. This has enabled the calculation of
parameters and efficiency for the five phase modular machine.
A conventional fivephase high power machine was also
designed to demonstrate the effect of the modular winding on
two machines with the same number of phases at power
ratings different from those presented in Table I. Dimensions,
ratings, and component weights of the machines are given in
Table VI. The parameters are then given in Table VII. The
study confirms the power density penalty previously derived,
and also verifies the negligible effect on efficiency.
TABLE VI. DIMENSIONS AND RATINGS OF 736KW CONVENTIONAL
THREEPHASE AND FIVEPHASE MACHINES AND A MODULAR FIVEPHASE ONE
3phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Modular)
No of slots 72 40 20
No. of poles 4 4 4
Connection Delta Star Star
Rated phase Voltage
(kV)
4 2.4 2.4
Rated Power (kW)
736
(1000Hp)
736
(1000Hp)
736 (1000Hp)
Rated frequency (Hz) 60 60 60
Rated phase current (A) 70 70 70
Inner diameter (m) 0.49 0.49 0.49
Stack length (m) 0.406 0.406 0.406
No. of conductors per
slot
18 30 193
No. of turns per phase 216 120 386
Slot width (mm) 10 18 31.4
Slot height (mm) 57 51 128
Back iron thickness
(mm)
63 63 63
Stator outer diameter
(mm)
730 718
872
(20% increase)
Stator weight (kg) 602 580 909
Rotor weight (kg) 582 582 582
Copper weight (kg) 128 128 218
Machine weight (kg) 1312 1289
1709 (30%
increase)
Power Density kW/kg
0.561 (30%
higher)
0.571 0.431
Efficiency (%) 94 94 93.4
Fullload current (A) 70 70 70.4
Fullload power factor 0.934 0.934 0.933
TABLE VII. HIGH POWER MACHINE PARAMETERS
3phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Conv.)
5phase
(Modular)
Stator resistance 0.858 0.5148 0.8755
Stator leakage
reactance
6.67 4 4
Rotor referred
resistance
0.686 0.4116 0.4116
Rotor referred
reactance
5.41 3.246 3.246
Magnetizing reactance 326 195.6 195.6
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Ayman S. AbdelKhalik was born in Alexandria
Egypt in July 1979. He received his B.Sc, and M.Sc.
degrees in Electrical Engineering from Alexandria
University, Egypt in 2001 and 2004 respectively. He
received his Ph.D degree in May 2009 under a dual
channel program between Alexandria University and
Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK. Dr. Abdel
khalik is currently a lecturer in Electrical Engineering
Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria
University. In 2009, he also joined Spiretronic LLC
as a senior research scientist. His research interests
are electrical machine design, electric machine
simulation, mathematical modeling and electric drives.
Shehab Ahmed (M'04) was born in Kuwait City,
Kuwait in July 1976. He received the B.Sc. degree in
Electrical Engineering from Alexandria University,
Alexandria, Egypt, in 1999; the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
degrees from the Department of Electrical &
Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX in 2000 and 2007, respectively.
From 2001 to 2007, he was with Schlumberger
Technology Corporation working on downhole
mechatronic systems. He is currently an Assistant
Professor with Texas A&M University at Qatar,
Doha, Qatar. His research interests include mechatronics, solidstate power
conversion, electric machines, and drives.