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Report in the Concept of Eastern Philosophy and Western Philosophy
Submitted by: Angela Marie Ferrer BSN 2B
September 13, 2011
Concept of Western Philosophy Western philosophy is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in Ancient Greece, and including the predominant philosophical thinking of Europe and its former colonies up to the present day. The concept of philosophy itself originated in the West, derived from the ancient Greek word philosophia (φιλοσοφια); literally, "the love of wisdom" (philein = "to love" + sophia = wisdom, in the sense of theoretical or cosmic insight). However, many nonWestern religions have adopted the term philosophy in reference to cosmic intellectual discourse analogous to Western philosophy. See Eastern philosophy. Western philosophy has had a tremendous influence on, and has been greatly influenced by, Western religion, science, and politics. Indeed, the central concepts of these fields can be thought of as elements or branches of Western philosophy. To the Ancient Greeks, these fields were often one and the same. Thus, in the West, philosophy is an expansive and ambiguous concept. Today, however, what generally distinguishes philosophy from other Western disciplines is the notion that philosophy is a "deeper" and more rational, fundamental, and universal form of thought than other disciplines. Reference: http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Western_philosophy
Concept of Eastern Philosophy Eastern Philosophy offers much to the west even though there is a huge difference in the thoughts of both. Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism are among the most influencing philosophies that come from the east, and are largely based on the concept of oneness. These philosophies provide remarkable alternates to the western concepts, which are mostly originated from Greek, Socrates and Plato. As Oneness being the belief and the most important principle of eastern philosophy, it always gives the message of GOD with different names. It basically tells that you are a unit of the sole power. Thought the general concepts remains the same but still there are numerous differences that are noticed within eastern philosophies. These differences not only prevail among people of different religions but also they exist among the people of same religion. Besides the unanimous concept of Oneness eastern philosophies also have the same idea about energy. Taoists, Hipies and Hindus call it Chi, vibrations and Chakras respectively. The basic idea is that energy is neutral and it exists in everything, which is a reflection of the western terminology that says “energy can neither be created nor destroyed” but it changes the form and its shape. Humans not perfect, as GOD is another common thought between east and west. Though there are few similar concepts found but as a whole the eastern philosophies have large differences and conflicts with the western ones. They hold the concept of Cosmic Oneness and hence the presence of “GOD” in eastern philosophies is taken as a whole.
Integral Yoga.html The Difference between Western Philosophy and Eastern Philosophy Issues Main Schools Eastern Philosophy Buddhism. Hinduis m. Life is a journey towards eternal realities that are beyond the realities that surround us 3. True “Me” is given and doesn’t have to be cognizable.L. Self-liberation from the false "Me" and finding the true "Me" 6. Feeling oneself as an element of the Divine 2. business.Mencken . based on the perception of eternal recurrence 4.com/2009/01/easternphilosophy-and-oneness.) Main Principles Relationship with Religion Search for Absolute Truth Integration Systemic approach – all events in the universe are interconnected Searching inside yourself – by becoming a part of the universe through meditation and right living "Though he should live a hundred More focused on individual events and the role of the person Searching outside yourself through research and analysis "The truth that survives is simply the lie that is pleasantest to believe. happiness. Confucianism. money. etc. based on the Christian philosophy where everything has its beginning and the end. Life is a service (to the God. Rational. The true “Me” in every human being is a part of the Divine that need to become apparent. Cosmological unity 2. Circular view of the universe. Linear view of the universe and life. Scientific. Outer-world dependent 5. Zen 1. Logical schools 1. 4. Self-dedication to the goal (success. Taoism. Behavioral ethics The "Me" concept Eternal reality of the universal truth: self-liberation through getting rid of the false "Me" and discovering the true "Me" "Me" is here and now." ~ H.Reference: http://eastern-philosophy-and-meditation. Inner-world dependent 5. etc.) 3. Opposition Western Philosophy Christianity**. Islam.blogspot.
indeed. The fundamentals of the status quo should not be questioned. is the single day's life of one who sees the Truth Sublime. faith. The fundamentals of the status quo can – and often should – bequestioned. The culture of Individualism / Collectivism A human being is an integral part of the universe and the society. The inner world of a human being and his or her ability to control and develop it is of the highest value. etc. but rarely through developing inner strength." ~ Confucius Beliefs and Values The true key is inside. The philosophic base for and culture of fundamental research is weaker. yet better. Linear development. The philosophic base for and culture of fundamental research is stronger. Development stops when the goal is reached. Cyclic development." ~ Buddha Search for Truth & Fundamental Research Future The truth is given is does not to have be proved." ~ Confucius "By chasing desires you will meet only the outer surface. "You can never plan the future by the past. People are fundamentally connected. hence improvement is a never ending journey that has no limits. These that can be achieved in many ways. through self-development. and perfect happiness lies in the best activity. which is contemplative. "Study the past if you would like to divine the future. "Happiness lies in virtuous activity. The way to the top is through active outside intervention.years. not seeing the Truth Sublime." ~ Aristotle A human being has an individualistic nature and is an independent part of the universe and the society. Your future is unknown. it was predetermined by God and is not much influenced by your deeds. "The superior man understands what is right. popularity. The way to the top is inside yourself. The majority of success and achievement criteria have an external nature (money. the inferior man understands what will sell. hence improvement has a goal. Collectivism is stronger." ~ Lao Tzu The truth needs to be proven.). The culture of considering and Improvement / Evolution Radical Innovation / Revolution . Duty towards all others is a very important matter. Individualism is stronger." ~ Edmund Burke The main values are success and achievement. Your future is determined by your deeds today.
introducing radical changes is weaker. Do not go where the path may lead." ~ Sri Aurobindo Achievement & Winning Winning is inside yourself. it is because we do not dare that they are difficult. is the best quality" ~ Lao Tzu To achieve self-liberation and nirvana you need to perform your duties without expecting any . the most important thing is to carry them out extraordinary well. can be removed. passing from one stop of success to another." ~ Lao Tzu "The most excellent Jihad is that for the conquest of self.. who would conquer himself is the noblest victor." ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson "If you want to succeed. "You're not a star until they can spell your name in Karachi. "The supreme accomplishment is to blur the line between work and play. Always do what you are afraid to do." ~ Henry Implementatio n Spiritual and missionary approach. he who conquers himself is mighty. which lies at the route of all human passion." ~ Samuel Johnson "It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare." ~ Roger Moore "Life affords no higher pleasure than that of surmounting difficulties. forming new wishes and seeing them gratified. Passion & Venturing Entrepreneurial creativity and venturing is contained by the habit to control one's passions." –Mohammad considering and introducing radical changes is stronger. you have to forge new paths and avoid borrowed ones." ~ Buddhism "Vain indeed is all overweening pride in the conquest even of the entire universe if one has not conquered one's own passions. yet he. If desire. to work and guide without any expectation and control." Pragmatic and emotional approac h.. go instead where there is no path and leave a trail." ~ Buddha "He who conquers others is strong. then passion will die out and all human suffering will be ended.." ~ Arnold Toynbee "Since most of us spend our lives doing ordinary tasks. "Though he should conquer a thousand men in the battlefield a thousand times.. "Nothing is ever achieved by reasonable men." ~ John Rockfeller Winning is outside yourself. indeed. "Desires are the cause of suffering." – J Fred Bucy of Texas Instruments "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm . "To create and develop without any feelings of ownership. Entrepreneurial venturing is encouraged emotionally.
silence is golden. where the result is achieved by "Not-Me" ~ Zen Goals & Key to Success Spiritual "Virtuous life and adherence to performing your duties. lest our children should copy our misdeeds. we are all to prone to imitate whatever is base and depraved. for one all powerful reason. then the whole world will be yours.reward for it. The deed develops into habit. and subsequently of making money." ~ Spinosa Hands-on. So watch the thought and its ways with care." ~ Lao Tzu "The thought manifests as the word." ~ Lao Tzu "He is able who thinks he is able. And let it spring from love born out of concern for all beings. backed by horse sense and persistence. is the quality that most frequently makes for success. then give up everything. and enjoy the same." ~ Confucianism "The Three Armies can be deprived of their commanding officer." ~ Charles Luckman "Flaming enthusiasm. Hinduism "Action can be achieved by inaction." ~ Confucius "If you really want everything. walking ahead of people." ~ David Starr Jordan Living Principles Virtue "Be satisfied with whatever you have." ~ Buddha Establishing Control Over Your Emotions Leadership Through meditation A man can separate his/her mind from his/her emotions and control them." ~ Buddha David Thoreau "Every minute you spend in planning saves 10 minutes in execution. and you are not short of anything." – Dale Carnegie Ethic "Refrain from doing ill. is to enjoy your work. The word manifests as the deed. If you do. ~ Taoism Spiritual. When you come to know that you have everything. And habit hardens into character." ~ Brian Tracy Materialistic "The secret of success in life. breaks and courage. nothing is hard work – no matter how many hours you put in. . speech is golden. ~ Vedanta. but even a common man cannot be deprived of his purpose." ~ Sir Billy Butlin "Success is that old ABC – ability. walking behind people. Through analysis "I can control my passions and emotions if I can understand their nature." ~ Juvenal "There is no real excellence in all this world which can be separated from right living.
hence Veda Dharma. Also. What can be said to be common to many theistic Hindus is belief in Dharma. and were first written around 3. roughly Perennial Moral Duty) is one of the oldest major world religion. the Divine Word of Aum and the power of mantras. and their mystic issue. Hinduism is characterized by a diverse array of religious belief systems. Never ask others to do what you. and moksha (liberation) of every soul through a variety of moral. there may be persons who believe in none of the above concepts and yet consider themselves Hindu. . 96% of whom live in the Indian subcontinent. would not be willing to do yourself. Their exact date is controversial. culturally it's considered to be a Western religion that originated in the Mediterranean region The Eastern Philosophy Hindu philosophy Hinduism (Sanātana Dharma. Bhakti sects and Tantra Agamic schools into the one ocean of Hinduism. Thus when he is ahead they feel no hurt. and meditative yogas. It is the third largest religion with approximately 1. the leader must put himself behind them. karma. The first collection of Indian philosophy that was written down was the Vedas. China." ~ Lao Tzu "Leadership is done from in front. the sacred book Bhagavad Gita is one of the most revered texts among Hindus. However. the primacy of the Guru. Japan. Hinduism rests on the spiritual bedrock of the Vedas."In order to guide people. thus allowing for many spiritual paths leading to the One Unitary Religious Truth (which Hindus call Brahman).05 billion followers worldwide. and Arabic countries ** Through Christianity originated in Asia geographically. love of Truth in many manifestations as gods and goddesses. and an understanding that the essential spark of the Divine (Atman) is in every human and living being. reincarnation. It has its origin in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 1500 BC.000 BC. The word 'Veda' comes from the Sanskrit vid. Southeast Asia. This acceptance of various paths leading to the same truth. Many streams of thought flow from the six Vedic/Hindu schools. meaning knowledge . Still more fundamental principles include ahimsa (non-violence). it is possible that the knowledge dates back 10.the Vedas are 'sacred knowledge'. as well as the teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages. if challenged. since the term Hindu is more of an umbrella term for dharmic traditions arising from the Indian subcontinent. the Upanishads. the first of the Dharma religions." ~ Xenophon * Eastern philosophy is a group of philosophies and religions originating in India. is also a foundation of Hindu philosophy. action-based.000 years BC. practices and scriptures.
it moves and grows and changes continually. (Radhakrishnan) Hindu cosmology is non-dualistic. The cosmic web is alive. moving'. it is the second that leads you astray. (Kabir) The word Brahman means growth and is suggestive of life. Brahman is the cause of the many. Shiva sustains the manifold phenomena in the world. as it moves. They all emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically. and the apprehension of its dynamic nature is basic to all schools of Eastern mysticism. the cosmic One is thus intrinsically dynamic.The Eastern mystics see the universe as an inseparable web.and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. is perhaps the most perfect personification of the dynamic universe. one can experience their true Self which is Brahman.to move. Brahman is the eternal Now. perfect and eternal. Through his dance. Through meditation and purity of mind.) In Hinduism. the One infinite eternal thing which causes and connects the many things. from death to immortality. God. and in eternity there is no before or after. Shiva the Cosmic Dancer. the formless putting on forms. to experience the supreme reality as Self. whose interconnections are dynamic and not static. The ordinary human world of many separate and discrete (finite) things (which our mind represents by our senses) is an illusion. The following mantra and quotes express the aspirations of Hinduism religion. unifying all things by immersing them in his rhythm and making them participate in the dance a magnificent image of the dynamic unity of the Universe.' (Sudhakar S.. always. This word comes from the root ri. OM Asato ma sadgamaya. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root brih . thus associating it with motion even though it transcends all forms. (Rig Veda) Behold but One in all things. The One manifests as the many. mrityor mamritam gamaya " OM Lead me from falsehood to truth. 1972. (Fritjof Capra. immortal. 1988) In Indian philosophy. tamaso ma jyotirgamaya. vibrates and dances.The metaphysical foundation of Hinduism. for everything is everywhere. Everything that is is Brahman. motion. (Capra. the main terms used by Hindus and Buddhists have dynamic connotations. The Upanishads refer to Brahman as 'this unformed." Though One. In its phenomenal aspect. progress. True enlightenment is Self-realisation.D. . see the webpage Hinduism / Hindu Gods . Brahman is the unborn (aja) in whom all existing things abide. changeless. To use the words of Pascal 'it is a circle the center of which is everywhere and the circumference nowhere. the term Rita.to grow.' The Rig Veda uses another term to express the dynamic character of the universe. The Tao of Physics) For a more detailed explanation of the Metaphysics of Hinduism and the Wave Structure of Matter. from darkness to light. which is expressed in both the Vedas and the Upanishads is that Reality (Brahman) is One or Absolute.
meaning "to awaken" or "to be enlightened". See also: Buddhism — Outline of Buddhism — Schools of Buddhism Buddhism is a moral philosophy / religion based upon the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (566 .spaceandmotion. a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Siddhartha Gautama became known as the Buddha. The Buddha offered metaphysical knowledge into the nature of reality as well as a moral way of life. anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. .com/buddhism-hinduism-taoism-confucianism. and attain Nirvana. It is derived from the verbal root "budh". and Buddhist phenomenological analysis of dharmas. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events.). Most Buddhist sects believe in karma. one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of a God or gods. awakening to the true nature of reality.486 B. meditating under a Bodhi tree. To seek moderation and avoid the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.org/wiki/Eastern_philosophy Buddhist philosophy Buddhism is a system of religious beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama.C. which is Nirvana (Absolute Truth). Siddhartha reached Enlightenment.htm http://en. the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration. end the cycle of rebirth and suffering. The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism. At death. and "to comprehend".wikipedia. which delineates the Buddhist concept of causality. The Middle Way is an important idea in Buddhist thought and practice. At the age of 35. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion.Reference: http://www. One effect of karma is rebirth. Buddhist philosophy has its foundations in the doctrines of: anatta. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad). 'Buddha' (from the ancient Indian languages of Pali and Sanskrit) means "one who has awakened". usually translated as awakening or enlightenment. or phenomenological constituents. pratitya-samutpada. and said that anyone. though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems yet this practice has taken on different meanings and has become a skillful mean within the Tibetan Buddhist practice. which specifies that all is without substantial metaphysical identity.
which is Reality. with right action. which is attachment or misplaced desire (tanha) rooted in ignorance. which is Nirvana (the possibility of liberation exists for everyone).. no instant. We suffer in life because of our desire to transient things. from the Dhatuvibhanga-sutta (No. do not go upon report . known as the Noble Eightfold Path (right view. store it up. has crossed over doubt. is human life. brethren. The following quotes (from Buddha and others) express some of the main ideas of Buddhism. flowing far and swift. to do no harm. right vocation. right attention and right concentration). The Absolute Truth is Nibbana. we will make it vehicle and base. taking everything along with it.The dustless and stainless Eye of Truth (Dhamma-cakkhu) has arisen..e. right speech. (Buddha. it is just like a mountain river. has penetrated into Truth.. Maggo: There is a path that leads out of suffering. no second when it stops flowing. but it goes on flowing and continuing.do not go upon hearsay.. to cultivate the good. take our stand upon it. this is the Teaching of the Buddhas. do not go upon tradition. right effort. we will often practice it. right thought. Kalama Sutra) O Brahmana. Thus with right wisdom he sees it as it is (yatha bhutam) . to devote oneself to higher consciousness. . So Brahmana. has known Truth. thus must ye train yourselves : Liberation of the will through love will develop. has attained Truth. to live in seclusion. is without wavering. to practice self-restraint according to the fundamental precepts. to purify one’s mind. Not to do any evil. 140) of the Majjhima-nikaya) The Buddha taught that the nature of reality was impermanent and interconnected. To speak no ill will. Nirodha: There is an end of suffering... there is no moment.' (Buddha. Liberation from suffering may come by training the mind and acting according to the laws of karma (cause and effect) i. (Buddha) It is proper for you to doubt . right conduct. like a mountain river. this is the Teaching of the Buddhas. good things will come to you. I will teach you the Truth and the Path leading to the Truth. This teaching is known as the Four Noble Truths: Dukkha: Suffering is everywhere Samudaya: There is a cause of suffering.’ (Buddha) From The Dhammapada. thoroughly set it going. He has seen Truth. to be moderate in eating. (Buddha) ‘Wherefore.
information and quotes on Karma. conceit.spaceandmotion. and Buddhist practice has essentially to do with acquiring the freedom to choose as one ought to choose with truth: that is of acquiring a freedom from the passions and desires that impel us to distraction and poor decisions. unstable is this mind. without any least reference to God. or to gods either great or small. and other defilements. diligence.com/buddhism-hinduism-taoism-confucianism. meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgement of your action. (Aldous Huxley) See our webpage Buddha Nirvana / Buddhism Religion for more pictures. Buddhism recognizes that humans have a measure of freedom of moral choice. and it produces harmful thoughts of ‘me’ and ‘mine’. or Atman.By endeavour. hatred. during this life. attachment. All (mental) states have mind as their forerunner. then one becomes dispassionate towards the painful. If a good action produces good effects. the idea of self is imaginary. but this is in virtue of its own nature. If one speaks or acts with a defiled mind. in this world.htm http://en. when one sees this in wisdom. (Rahula) For the first time in the history of the world. Truth. its own law. According to the teaching of the Buddha. Self. Every volitional action produces its effects or results. which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment. What the Buddha Taught) Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of such a Soul. It is the source of all the troubles in the world from personal conflicts to wars between nations. A controlled mind brings happiness. mind is their chief. ill-will. it is appeased by love. Good is it to control the mind. Buddha's conception of Mind and Matter. Buddhism proclaimed a salvation which each individual could gain from him or herself. Anatta (No Soul) and Conditioned Genesis (Paticca-samuppada).org/wiki/Eastern_philosophy . (Rahula) The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect. craving. then suffering follows .wikipedia. egoism. Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. Reference: http://www. pride. selfish desire. it is a natural law.. of action and reaction. let the wise person make (of himself) an island that no flood can overwhelm. This is the Path to Purity. The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. (Walpola Rahula. it flits wherever it lists. This is an eternal Law. the Dynamic Unity of Reality. false belief which has no corresponding reality. Hard to restrain. 'All conditioned things are impermanent’. it is not justice. and they are mind-made. or reward. discipline and self-mastery. impurities and problems.
linked also with the Book of Changes (I Ching).C. It is all-pervading and unfailing. Taoism's central books are the Tao Te Ching. Without sound.” “There is a thing. . a divinatory set of 64 geometrical figures describing states and evolutions of the world. In 440 B.C. Without sound. the sage is in accord with the Tao. Before heaven and earth it existed. Being one with nature.Taoism Taoism is the traditional foil of Confucianism. The following quotes (attributed to Lao Tzu) help us understand the nature of the Tao. The philosophy of Taoism understands Tao as the One Thing which exists and connects the Many things.. individual freedom. It is all-pervading and unfailing. One may think of it as the mother of all beneath Heaven. Yet Taoism is also a government doctrine where the ruler's might is ruling through "non-action" (Wuwei). refusal of social bounds. A happy and virtuous life is one that is in harmony with the Tao. Tao. but we call it Tao. It will inexorably and adversely affect them If they accept it with knowledge and reverence. Tao is often described as a force that flows through all life. incorporating elements of mysticism dating back to prehistoric times. without substance. formless yet complete. Some people believe Lao Tzu is a mythical character. writing poetry or trying to "reach immortality". and was a doctrine professed by those who "retreated in mountains". At the end of their lives --or during the night. “If people do not revere the Law of Nature. traditionally attributed to Lao Zi (Lao tse) and the Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tse). Reality are One. Before heaven and earth it existed. it stands alone and unchanging. It will accommodate them with balance and harmony. without substance. We do not know its name. Confucian officers often behaved as Taoists. There is a thing. formless yet complete. State support of Taoism ended in 1911 with the end of the Ch'ing Dynasty and much Taoist heritage was destroyed. composed some time between the sixth and third centuries B. Nature. Tao (pronounced 'Dao') can be defined as 'path'. The core concepts of Taoism are traced far in Chinese History. The way of the Tao is the way of Nature and of ultimate reality. with Lao Tzu (so called founder of Taoism) honoured as a deity. Taoism emphasizes Nature. or 'road'. with Nature. Lao Tzu was a contemporary of Confucius and wrote a book called the Tao te Ching. it stands alone and unchanging. (Lao Tzu) Taoism is one of the great religions / philosophies of Ancient China (along with Buddhism and Confucianism). . Taoism was adopted as a state religion of China.
but does not claim to be master over them. It clothes and feeds all things.We do not know its name. but we call it Tao. All things depend on it for life. he is in accord with the Tao.” “Hold on to the Tao of old in order to master the things of the present.htm http://en. it may be called The Great. All things come to it and it does not master them. the name that can be named is not the eternal name.” (Lao Tzu) See our webpage Taoism / Philosophy of the Tao for more quotes.wikipedia. repay hatred with virtue.” “The Great Tao flows everywhere. Reduce selfishness. he is everlasting.com/buddhism-hinduism-taoism-confucianism.” “Be still like a mountain and flow like a great river. Being in accord with the Tao. many or few. . It started developing from the Song Dynasty and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty.” “Whether it is big or small. Embrace simplicity. Always without desires.” “The Tao that can be told of is not the eternal Tao. Have few desires.spaceandmotion. Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucianism is a later further development of Confucianism but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism. It accomplishes its tasks. history and pictures. It may go left or right.org/wiki/Eastern_philosophy Confucianism Confucianism(儒學). it seems to have existed forever. but does not claim credit for it. and it does not turn away from them. Its root can be found as early as Tang Dynasty.” “Being one with Nature. Deep and still. information. it may be called the Small. Reference: http://www.” ”Manifest plainness. developed around the teachings of Confucius(孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts.
Used since then as the imperial orthodoxy. Japan and Korea as well as Vietnam as well.” “ I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge. though failed. he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world. Living in the Spring and Autumn period (a time when feudal states fought against each other). for a man was not considered morally upright or enlightened if he did not study Confucius' works.” “ Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it. Analects had also been the fundamental course of study for any Chinese scholar.” “ Study the past if you would define the future.” “ Forget injuries. and earnest in seeking it there. “ Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. we should turn inwards and examine ourselves.” “ Men's natures are alike. I am one who is fond of antiquity.” “ When we see men of a contrary character. After much travelling around China to promote his ideas among rulers.” “ Respect yourself and others will respect you. he eventually became involved in teaching disciples. Zhu Xi is considered as the biggest master of Song where Neo-Confucianism and Wang Yangming is the one of Ming's. The Analects is a short collection of his discussions with disciples. whose teachings have deeply influenced East Asia for centuries. Confucius presents himself as a transmitter who invented nothing and his greatest emphasis may be on study. Confucius. he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality. it is their habits that carry them far apart. Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society. what the small man seeks is in others. Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system based upon the teachings of the Chinese sage. and justice and sincerity.” . is want of courage or of principle. and not to do it.” “ To see what is right. correctness of social relationships.” “ When anger rises.” “ What the superior man seeks is in himself. In this respect.wikipedia. For almost two thousand years.org/wiki/Confucius The following quotes from The Analects demonstrate the simplicity and wisdom of Confucianism. Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a vast and complete philosophical system known in the west as Confucianism. never forget kindnesses. he was convinced of his ability to restore the world's order. Based upon http://en. But there are conflicts between Zhu's school and Wang's.often attributed to scholar Tang Xie Tian. Confucius was a famous thinker and social philosopher of China. compiled posthumously. think of the consequences. It has a great influence on the countries of East Asia including China. These contain an overview of his teachings. the Chinese character that opens the book.
 Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3. these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. Jews are an ethnoreligious group and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. today. About 42% of all Jews reside in Israel and about 42% reside in the United States and Canada.” “ Have no friends not equal to yourself. Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel. special courts enforced Jewish law.000 years. the world Jewish population was estimated at 13. and way of life" of the Jewish people. In 2010. but in the sacred texts and the many rabbis and scholars who interpret these texts. philosophy.2% of the total world population. and the oldest to survive into the present day.htm Judaism Judaism is the "religion. and that they should be strictly followed. with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. This was historically challenged by the Karaites.“ Wheresoever you go. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization."Judaism's texts. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal.Historically.4 million. According to traditional Rabbinic Judaism. God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses onMount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.” “ They must often change who would be constant in happiness or wisdom.spaceandmotion. he will find sorrow near at hand. including Christianity.Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud. In modern times. The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism(Hareidi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism).com/buddhism-hinduism-taoism-confucianism. A major source of difference between these groups is their approach to Jewish law.” “ If a man takes no thought about what is distant. traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions. with most of the remainder living in Europe. a movement that flourished in the medieval period. It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions. liberal movements such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.” Reference: http://www. . Islam and the Baha'i Faith. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin. retains several thousand followers today and maintains that only the Written Torah was revealed. go with all your heart.” “ Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue. Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. TheHebrews / Israelites were already referred to as Jews in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther. it is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel. or roughly 0. eternal and unalterable. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.
there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide. In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping God and following his commands. is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: Allāh). I have approved Islam for your religion. and rejecting polytheism. with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[note 1] Arabic: al-ʾislām IPA: [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 2]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an. whom they consider prophets . the word for an adherent of Islam. . providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare. Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to worship God. and following Islamic law.org/wiki/Judaism Islam Islam (English /ˈɪzlɑːm/.Reference: http://en. the largest Muslim country. to warfare and the environment. considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. imān (faith)." Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. Muslim. 2% in Central Asia. including through Abraham. Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time. but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God. 20% in the Middle East. Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam. I have completed My blessing upon you. Moses and Jesus. completion and bonding/joining.41-1. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness.wikipedia. 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries." Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today. Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia. which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship. About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia. With about 1. I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you. comprising about 21-23% of the world's population. and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad.57 billion Muslims. In some verses (ayat). Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations. and parts of Europe. and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa. Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world. He expands his breast to Islam. which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society. 25% in South Asia. and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia). Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before.
and was resurrected from the dead to open heaven to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation). During the Middle Ages.5% live in the Americas (11. The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith. Following the Age of Discovery. most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized. Christians established hospitals. living and dead. The three largest groups in the world of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church. the Eastern Orthodox churches. homeless shelters. God having become human and thesaviour of humanity. splitting from the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity is the state religion of several countries. Asia Minor and Egypt. schools. They further maintain that Jesus bodily ascendedinto heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. "Christ". with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East. and the various denominations of Protestantism. These professions state that Jesus suffered. . Christianity has approximately 2. He is considered the model of a virtuous life. sub Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. North Africa. and grant eternal life to his followers. Because of this. was buried. churches.2 billion adherents. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD. orphanages. Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ orMessiah. Mesopotamia. Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians. As of the early 21st century. Among allChristians. Ethiopia and parts of India.Reference: http://en. and universities in the areas in which they spread Christianity. Australasia.Christianity represents about a quarter to a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion.org/wiki/Islam Christianity Christianity (from the Ancient Greek word Χριστός. Khristos. charities. Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news") and hence refer to the earliest written accounts of his ministry as gospels. and both the revealer and physical incarnationof God. it grew in size and influence over a few decades. 37. died. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans. and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire. Christianity spread to the Americas.wikipedia. it quickly spread toSyria. literally "anointed one") is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented incanonical gospels and other New Testament writings. In order to follow Jesus' command to serve others. Christianity teaches that Jesus is the Son of God. through missionary work and colonization.4% in the United States). Originating in the easternMediterranean coast of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine). Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. referred to as the "Old Testament" in Christianity. and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
7% live in Europe. . where the natives were called Indios.9% of all Christians live in the Middle East. It was then reserved as a calling name for Spaniards living in the archipelago. by way of Latin.25. Filipino became the basis of native national identity and citizenship of the people living in the country. philosophia. “The Spaniards first used the term Filipino after calling the archipelago Felipinas in honor of the King of Spain at the time of the archipelago’s rediscovery. B. in any language use “loob” as the basis of life and other expressions therein.org/wiki/Christianity Filipino Philosophy FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY AND ITS NATURE A. Reference: http://en." the critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs and an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of such beliefs.” There are distinct characteristics of Filipinos that may vary from one island to another.2% live in Oceania. The Americans in 1900s accepted the word Filipinas as official name of the country and translated it into the now name of the country – Philippines. and many more which can be found in the many studies conducted on the Filipino individual and the Filipino people.without any “bahid” of the Filipino culture on Mainland. "love of wisdom. It has been incorporated in the different languages and the dialects found in the whole archipelago. Philosophy as defined Philosophy is from Greek. September 1. Examples of these are the use of “utang na loob. To Be A Filipino To be a Filipino is to be a citizen of the country either living in the archipelago or in other country. Internal organs and the body itself is consciously and unconsciously expressed by Filipinos by its use of terms. 1. People from the Philippines are called Filipinos and also known as Pinoys. 2003 law of dual citizenship states that a Filipino citizen may be naturally born of the country or born by a Filipina outside of the country and or any Filipino who is also a citizen of another country. 13. The Filipinos.1% live in Asia. ancestral traditions.wikipedia. Influences from the environment.” “malayo pa sa kasukasuan” – used when somebody is wounded or hurt. Only 0. has a self who is an interpersonal and “other centered” for western thinking. and cultural and religious traditions are a few of these.5% live in Africa. but a reality to them. Philosophy is an enterprise of constructing and assessing philosophical categorical systems. with exceptions of those who were born in other countries and lived there . 22. Any Filipino.
2. I would like to define it into three dimensions: 1. and (5) other Filipino Phylosophies that Filipino scholars may add and institutionalize that is not or . Tagalog. Basing from aforementioned definitions of what is “a” or “to be a Filipino” and the definitions of Philosophy. brings about the moral philosophy of the Filipino people. Filipino Philosophy as a behavioral worldview pattern of Filipinos. Moral philosophy is within the realm of the philosophical discipline. composes the nation or the society. we now define Filipino Philosophy as the critical examination of the grounds for the fundamental beliefs of Filipino being as an individual and as a universal. not what should be. The fusion of the moral laws and norms of the individual Filipino beings. Since it is a study and the Filipinos have a diversity of life as it has a seven thousand one hundred islands. Ilocano Philosphies would fall under. It may not be as established as other philosophies do. It is both dynamic and static.C. likewise it is an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of their worldview. It is the critical examination of the grounds for the fundamental beliefs of Filipino being as an individual and as a universal. Filipino Philosophy as a discipline. The Existence of Filipino Philosophy Filipino Philosophy exists by the nature that every human individual has his own philosophy in life. Other scholars do not give a definite definition of what is Filipino Philosophy. Cebuano. and as such it has its weaknesses and strengths. but at least. as in the context of the social contract of Hobbes. Included in this study is the study of Filipino worldview from different tribal groups to mainland people and to the new generation of the modern times. (2) Filipino Philosophy of Religion. Filipino Philosophy as an identity. it is under development and emerging. Filipino Philosophy is the critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs of Filipinos and an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of the Filipino Worldviews. Furthermore. citizen in political and societal terms. Filipino Philosophy Defined According to Mercado Filipino Philosophy or the people’s “diwa” is what is. 3. D. A Filipino is a human individual. Filipino Philosophy as a discipline. likewise it is an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression of their worldview. (4) Animism and Practices of Filipinos. But here we shall define the terms in order for us to have a clear and determined notion of what Filipino Philosophy is all about. there should also be different branches of Filipino Philosophy of which I categorize as: (1) Ethnolinguistic-Tribal Philosophy where Bicolano. The Filipino individual. Therefore there is a Filipino Philosophy.
and notion of the natural citizens of the Philippines towards the day-to-day experiences in life. Questions like. Filipino Philosophy is the soul (self or “I” ) of humans living in the Philippines having “other-orientedness-centered-on-affinity-and-environment-self. in the upliftment of one’s soul. It is a pride to say that we have our own. Filipinos are used to be stereotyped as the bamboo grass for it always sway with the wind. It will further explain the way Filipinos think or give importance to their religious experience and how orthrodox it is to the true orthrodox religion. One thing that is to be observed. Each particular small group philosophies combines into one distinct philosophy which is the Filipino Philosophy. Holy Week. owing its culture to the eastern practice. and yet they always stand as firm as it was on the day our ancestors fought Magellan. These and more is the pattern of Filipinos which leads to the general behavior of the nation – the philosophy of the Filipinos. Having our own worldview and our own way of looking at things and experiences is a mere fact that we are having our own true identity. Knowing that the Filipinos are animalistic. natural calamities. ‘Filipino Philosophy of Religion’ and ‘Animism and Practices of the Filipinos’ would explain further the motives why an individual does his or her thightings or his adoration of his or her God and attributes. live the religious-spiritual aspects imposed and expected of him. religion. Ethnolinguistic-Tribal Philosophy will further explain and discuss the main ideas and the worldviews of the linguistic groups in the country.only partially influenced by the Western Philosophy and purely in the Filipino context. good and bounty years. Filipino Philosophy is the attitude. Filipino Philosophy as a behavioral worldview pattern of Filipinos. Our own worldview explains why we stand all erect despite economic downfall. Justice for the Filipino people is the satisfaction of the needs of the self and his relations.” and feelings towards realities and illusions in life and one’s entity that is obviously evident in his endurance to be with his society. We are used to presuppose that our philosophy is a western philosophy and yet I say that it is not. Particulars bring about the general. What unites it or what is common among the philosophies? The self or the “I. survival. It must be the tool in understanding the Filipino’s attitude on feasts. interrelationship with people and intrarelationship with his sakop or to oneself – the “I. religious activities such as Christmas.” or that individual characteristic – sakop orientedness. in the sakop. Ramadan.” and the uplifting of one’s soul – the Filipino being. worldview. Filipino Philosophy as an identity. we have our own pride. political crisis. ‘Where do these attitudes come from? Is it from the hospitality? the fear of God? or Filipino’s attitude of harmony?” are to be answered more clearly by this branch of Filipino Philosophy. everything revolves in relationships. We . The Filipino people has gone through tough and rough times. and live-out the culture he/she has acquired from his ancestors and his current environment. and that amazing attitude of adoring mountains and making places sacred. our sense of existence and our own line of thoughts. communication. our very own identity.
The past is only a part of it and not the whole so we can call Filipino philosophy as ours. but we can consider it as knowledge it self. Historical knowledge as said by Croce. Culture brings about variations in languages and in religious notions.blogspot. Filipinos having his own mind and having his own way of thinking has gained knowledge.may owe some of its components from our past but it does not mean it conquers all. The next chapter will further expand and discuss these major factors in the coining of a Filipino worldview. is considered as complete knowledge.com/p/filipino-philosophy.html . All of these affect in one-way or another the Filipino mind. He may have gained it from his history as he judge his day-to-day life and experiences and perceptions. Reference: http://urbanixcmf. It is wrong to say that Filipino philosophy may not be as what it is now or before because it has its own identity. Culture sets off from the split of a second measured in the historical timeline of an individual or of a nation. But we have to accept the fact that we have no other choice but to recognize the contributing factors to its nature.
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