# The University of St.

Thomas Center for International Studies Global Health (4370) August 31, 2011

WORK PREFERENCES, COMPETENCIES, AND YOUR IDEAL JOB
Presenter:

Elizabeth A. Smith, Ph.D.
Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety

Founder

A major goal in life is to be competent and demonstrate competence in daily activities— at work, at home, and in social relationships and situations.

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OBJECTIVES OF THIS EXERCISE
Learn about rank-difference correlation between selfassessed competence and work preference.  Build a model to enable users to think through the types of work activities they would like to perform at the levels of work they wish to do.

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A perpetual goal of human motivation is to develop ―self‖ more fully.
Knowledge of self increases selfconfidence, self-reliance, and job performance.
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RANK DIFFERENCE CORRELATION

Also called Spearman’s rank correlation Named after Charles Spearman Spearman’s correlation coefficient denoted by 

(Greek rho) Used in nonparametric measure Used in assessing statistical dependence between 2 or more variables
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RANK DIFFERENCE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT FORMULA

6 D2 = 1– 2 – 1) N (N
Where  = Measure of relationship N= Number of work activities ranked D= Difference between 2 ranks  = Sigma, or ―sum of…‖

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS COLUMN 1

List the major work activities (1 through 6) that you would like to perform on a regular basis in your ―ideal‖ job.

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS COLUMN 2

Rank competence to perform each work activity using 1 for the most competent…6 for the least competent. Try not to rank two activity the same. If you have two activities ranked the same for competence, raise your hand.

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS COLUMN 3

Rank preferences for performing each work activity listed in Column 1. Use the same method described for Column 2.

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS COLUMN 4

Subtract each rating in Column 3 from the corresponding rating in Column 2. Add Column 4. The sum of Column 4 must be zero.

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS COLUMN 5
Square the difference of each ranking in Column 4. Add the numbers to get D2

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STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS

6 D2 = 1– 6 (36 – 1)
Complete equation to calculate .

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 The higher the , the closer work competencies

and work preference match  Correlation > 0.70 = close relationship  Correlation of 0.50 or 0.60 = modest relationship  Correlation < 0.40 = little relationship  Correlation can be further tested statistically to determine significance

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DISCUSSION
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What are some ways you could use the rank difference correlation? When people are not competent to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level, what happens? Could this be happening in health care and other work settings? How can professional competence in your field of study or major be raised?

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3.

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THE CORE-UNIQUE-EXPANDING (C-U-E) MODEL

EXPANDING

High-level competencies needing creativity and forefront knowledge Specialized knowledge, training, and experience, like academic accomplishment or certification Basic, routine, repetitive tasks having low difficulty and low challenge levels, like data entry

UNIQUE CORE

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THE CORE-UNIQUE-EXPANDING (C-U-E) MODEL-CORE WORK
Core work areas are simple, routine, and repetitive
tasks (data entry, recording keeping) Group leaders and managers who monitor and supervise work are performing Core activities Challenge levels are low if people do Core level work most of the time People who are overqualified for a particular job or do not like what they are doing will not be motivated to do their best However, Core activities done well, on time, and in a cost-effective manner keep organizations in business
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THE CORE-UNIQUE-EXPANDING (C-U-E) MODEL-UNIQUE WORK

Unique work areas are a person’s prime areas of
formal study and demonstrated competence Unique work activities require knowledge, expertise, or competence based on education, training, or experience When people are competent to perform Unique work activities, their talents closely match job requirements

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THE CORE-UNIQUE-EXPANDING (C-U-E) MODEL-EXPANDING WORK

Expanding work areas include demanding, often

complex and mentally stimulating work activities that are high in motivating potential Performing Expanding work satisfies Maslow’s three progressively higher level needs of belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization Expanding work provides opportunities for growth, achievement, advancement, uniqueness, and self-sufficiency Work itself can be an intrinsic motivator 18

C-U-E MODEL GRID CONSTRUCTION Step 1
Select 5 or 6 activities or types of work that you do on a regular basis and write them in the columns (#1, #2, #3…) at the top of the grid.

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C-U-E MODEL GRID CONSTRUCTION Step 2
Rate each activity on the ten dimensions of the C-U-E model using the operationally defined 7-point rating scale described in Table 10.1.

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C-U-E MODEL GRID CONSTRUCTION Step 3
Add the columns for each job category to find out the approximate level of the various jobs you perform.

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C-U-E MODEL GRID CONSTRUCTION Step 4
Divide the sum of each column by the number of variables on which it was rated to get an average. If you rated your job on all ten variables of the model, divide by 10. If you used six variables, divide by 6, and so on. This rough estimate of your level of work is only a guide.
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C-U-E MODEL GRID CONSTRUCTION Step 5

Group ―averages‖ in Step 4 using the following numerical baselines: Core: 1.0 – 2.5 Unique: 2.51 – 5.5 Expanding: 5.51 – 7.0

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Interpretation of Results