Doctoral Track and Conference

ENTREPRENEURSHIP, CULTURE, FINANCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

“AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS”
Lars Kolvereid*, Tatiana Iakovleva**, Jill Kickul***
* Bodø Graduate School of Business, lars.kolvereid@hibo.no

** Nordland Research Institute, Bode, Norway, Iakovleva@nforsk.no

*** Professor, Director Stewart Satter Program in Social Entrepreneurship, NYU – Stern School of Business kickuljr@muohio.edu

Petersburg (Russia). Dr. Bjørn Willy Åmo. St. Tatiana Iakovleva.AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS Lars Kolvereid. Administration of the Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Bode Graduate School of Business (Norway) . Baltic State Technical University. Anatoliy Steshin. Jill Kickul Director. . Stewart Satter Program in Social Entrepreneurship NYU – Stern School of Business Acknowledgments: Dr.

Caen 2008 Science to Market Insert Larger Model for Future Research Intentions .

Caen 2008 Science to Market Entrepreneurial Intentions Research – Guided By: (1) Shapero & Sokol’s (1982) model of the entrepreneurial event (SEE). (2) Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB) Intentions .

Caen 2008 Science to Market SEE Focus on Entrepreneurial Event: Start-Up or Self Employment Desirability – attractiveness of starting a business Feasibility – degree to which the individual feels capable of starting a business Propensity to act – personal disposition to act on one’s decisions Intentions .

Caen 2008 Science to Market TPB – Behavioural Intentions Attitudes towards the behavior – degree to which the individual has favorable or unfavorable assessments of the behavior in question Subjective norm – perceived social pressure to either perform or not perform the action Perceived behavioral control – individual’s control beliefs regarding the action in question Intentions .

2003) Intentions .Findings Both SEE and TPB have been supported There is a need to integrate and reduce the number of alternative intentions models and to use a consistent definition of entrepreneurial intent (Shook. Priem and McGee.Caen 2008 Science to Market Previous Research .

Caen 2008 Science to Market Proposed Research Questions (1) Are employment status choice intentions different from or similar to intentions to start a business? (2) How are the independent variables from the two intention models in question. related to each other and to entrepreneurial intentions? Intentions .

Caen 2008 Science to Market Attitude Desirability self-employment Desirability start-up Intentions self-employment Intentions start-up Subjective Norms Feasibility self-employment Feasibility start-up Perceived Behavioral Control Intentions .

F (se) ) Desirability (su)= F (A( se). SN (se) ) Feasibility (su) = F ( SN (se). F (su) ) (1) (2) (3) Intentions . SN (se) ) Feasibility (su)= F ( SN (se).Caen 2008 Science to Market Models Specification Desirability (se)= F ( A (se). PCB (se/su) ) Intentions (su) = F (D (se). PCB (se/su) ) Intentions (su) = F (D (su). F (se) ) Desirability (su)= F (A( se). SN (se) ) Feasibility (su) = F ( SN (se). PBC (se/su) ) Intentions (se)= F( D (se).

Caen 2008 Science to Market Method Data gathered from 528 business students: 317 Russian students from Baltic State Technical University 226 third year students (Bachelor Business Administration) 20 Master of Business administration students 76 second Master of Business degree Average age 21. 54% females 111 Norwegian students from Bode Graduate School of Business Third year Bachelor Business Administration program Average age 28 years. Bachelor Business Administration program Average age 22 years. 43% females Intentions . 45% females 100 Finnish respondents Undergraduates.5 years.

I could easily become self-employed /start and run a business… Intentions .Tkachev and Kolvereid (1999) If I wanted to.Caen 2008 Science to Market Measures Attitude toward self employment Gundry and Welsch (2001) I would rather own my own business than earn a higher salary employed by someone else Subjective norms Kolvereid (1996) My closest family think that I should pursue a career as selfemployed * To what extent do you care about what your closest family members think as you decide on whether or not to pursue a career as self-employed Perceived behavioral control Ajzen (2002).

I will probably start and run my own business one day. Intentions . (2000) How likely is it that you will pursue a career as selfemployee.Caen 2008 Science to Market Measures Continued Desirability Kickul and Krueger (2004) How attractive is starting your own business/being selfemployed? Feasibility Kickul and Krueger (2004) How feasible would it be for you to start your own business/to become self-employed? Intentions Kolvereid (1996) and Krueger et al.

35 90 Percent Confidence Interval for RMSEA = (0.75 Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0. 0.05) = 0.26 Intentions .72 Standardized RMR = 0. The Test of the Initial Model Goodness of Fit Statistics Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.75 Relative Fit Index (RFI) = 0.39 Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.00 Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.52 Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) = 0.36) P-Value for Test of Close Fit (RMSEA < 0.Caen 2008 Science to Market Table 2.52 Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI) = 0.33 .

05) = 0.00 Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.95 Relative Fit Index (RFI) = 0.Caen 2008 Science to Market Table 3.19) P-Value for Test of Close Fit (RMSEA < 0. 0.95 Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0. The Test of the Re-Estimated Model Goodness of Fit Statistics Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.42 Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.18 Intentions .15 .17 90 Percent Confidence Interval for RMSEA = (0.89 Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI) = 0.88 Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) = 0.50 Standardized RMR = 0.

45 D (se) + 0.57 A (se) + 0.067 F (se) + 0.019 F (su) Intentions .20 D (su) + 0.35 SN (se) Feasibility (se) = 0.Caen 2008 Science to Market Results Desirability (se) = 0.16 A (se) + 0.3011 SN (se) Feasibility (su) = 0.14 SN (se) + 0.46 PBC (se/su) Intentions (se) = 0.14 PBC (se/su) Intentions (su) = 0.38 SN (se) + 0.43 PBC (se/su) Desirability (su) = 0.

Caen 2008 Science to Market Discussion Test models of entrepreneurial intentions Multiple and competing explanations on the decision making process to launch a new venture Robust not only when participants from the 3 countries were analysed together. but also when separate analyses were carried out on respondents from each of the three countries Intentions .

the TPB and SEE models can be successfully integrated into one model Implications. Flash Eurobarometer But. start-up intentions Subjective norms – not significant Role of Feasibility? Intentions .Caen 2008 Science to Market Discussion As far as intention to become self-employed is concerned.