TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

Definition of TECHNOLOGY
Managers have much more control and influence over technological forces. Technology is developed by organization, for organization, who may adopt a technology earlier or sometimes later in their life cycle. Consequently, the health of the economy will influence the amount that organizations invest in technology. According to the GailBraith, “The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task.” According to Monck Etal, “Technology is both a body of knowledge concerned with the solution of practical problems, the systems and also the tools and artifacts which are used to achieve those solutions.” According to Gillespie & Mileti,

“The types and patterns of activity, equipments and material and knowledge or
experience to perform the task” By analyzing the above definitions, technology is the combination of: 1) KNOWLEDGE: It is a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject such as chemistry, mathematics, sociology. For example, identifying a particular gene. 2) TECHNOLOGY: It is the application of knowledge into some practical form, typically applied to industrial and commercial use. For example, test for specific genes. 3) INNOVATION: It is the spread at diffusion of technology into society and organization. For example, gene modifying drugs.

Technology & Modern Organization / Modern Society
1) Governments are anxious to raise living standards. It requires sound economy in terms of job availability, working condition and public spending. 2) Sometimes technology accelerates the decline of particular industry. 3) Technology also adds new sectors. 4) Technology can help to extend the lifetime of certain industries facing strong competition. 5) Now-a-days, technology is the major change agent in the world market.

FUNDING OF RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES
1) At national level, individual government operates a structure of managing and funding R & D. 2) The main sources of R & D funding are government and business enterprises. 3) Universities & non-profit organizations also carry out some of the investments. 4) Countries also defer in the way they fund and perform R & D. For example, labor-intensive vs. capital-intensive organization and country.

TYPES OF RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

RESEARCH

BASIC OR FUNDAMENTAL

APPLIED

EXPERIMENTAL

1) BASIC OR FUNDAMENTAL: It is experimental or theoretical work undertaken mainly to collect or acquire new knowledge. Such work would be undertaken without a particular and use in mind. For example, assessing or evaluating new chemicals but without any form of its use.

2) APPLIED RESEARCH: This research is undertaken with some application in mind. For example, investigating the usefulness of chemicals to medicine or materials technology. 3) EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: This research consists of both basic and applied research in the development of materials, process and this work can be extended to the pilot stage.

REASONS FOR INVESTMENT ON R & D BY ORGANIZATIONS
1) THE CRISIS HYPOTHESIS: Major technologies such as petro-chemicals have lifecycle. So, replacement of technology is essential. 2) THE SUSTAINED PROGRESS HYPOTHESIS: Now-a-days for technological advancement the time lag between discovery of new knowledge and commercial application is shortening. Thus, the investment is needed to generate new technologies have increased. 3) THE GLOBAL COMPETITION HYPOTHESIS: The newly industrialized countries compete strongly in low technology industries.

SECTORAL DIFFERENCES OF USING TECHNOLOGY
1) Technology is not equally important to all sectors. 2) Labor-intensive sectors are characterized by small firms that are not large enough to maintain own research and development department. 3) Many large companies want to maintain in house research and development department because of keeping more control over complex project.

VARIOUS TYPES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY
INFORMATION BASED TECHOLOGY: 1) It contributes largely on financial sectors such as banking, insurance and mortgage services. 2) This technology also contributes largely on communication sectors. 3) This technology may be act as a substitute of labor. 4) This technology is also important for decision making in the organization to create short-term as well as long term decisions.

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY: 1) Now-a-days organization requires continuous product innovation and renewal of existing product to sustain in the competitive environment. 2) Flexible manufacturing system can help manufacturers to respond quickly and cost effectively. 3) This technology also creates new opportunities such as: Machines can be easily re-programmed to cope with changes to processing requirements of different products. Machine reset can be possible quickly. Machines can share and exchange information about the specification and processing needs of different products. Advanced manufacturing technology also involves with CAD and CAM. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE

THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE ORGANIZATION 1) The impact of technology may be supported by the level of investment of the organization. 2) Normally large technological project can be backed by size and strength of the organization. 3) Technology must be implemented by proper strategy. 4) Some issues for implementing technology in the organization; --- Job evaluation and grading system. ---Career development and training. ---Remuneration and working condition. ---Personnel planning. ---Labor relationship. 5) Technology implementation can lead to a loss of jobs as well as create the new opportunities. 6) Job security and the skills of workers are necessary for technological implementation. 7) Technology can be implemented as the way of rising labor productivity.

THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1) For raising the status of social and economic system, technological change is must. 2) Innovation can be possible by the technology in the society and economic system. 3) There are some social resistances in implementing technology such as culture. 4) Technology can be a driving force in the economic system. 5) Through technology, social and economic objectives can be achieved.

TELEWORKING: Managers of organization will have to increasingly accept the employees can be as effective at home as in an office. Normally, teleworking reduce the work pressure of employees at office. To use teleworking, organizational structure must be reorganized.
In this process, lair of management will be eliminated. In this process, flexible and home based employees can be cultivated.

How can an organization manage technology?

Research funding by govt. and organization Discovery Problem solving

 Supporting technology