Cathodic Protection RP 651 Sand Pads, Inspections and Pitfalls

Louis Koszewski US Tank Protectors

API 651 Rev. 3 January 2007 Rev
• New Tank foundation/RW construction • Sand Pad Material • Sand Pad Construction • Inspection of Sand Pad and CP p

New Foundations slabs
• NEC 501 REV. 2008 REV
– Rebar in the concrete ringwalls and slabs must be bonded into electrical grounding system.

• Will cause galvanic couple – Rebar /Tank • Become a significant draw to the CP
system t • Shielding or De-coupling of the rebar Deshould be considered.

Sand Pad
• Chemical and Electrical Properties of Sand
– Values listed are from solution – Sand pad is not a solution

• Resistivity – Measures the dissolved salts
– ASTM G57 Wenner 4 pin method • Samples measured as received • Samples measured after saturation – ASHTO • Extracts /washes out contaminants

Sand Pad • pH – very time sensitive – pH < 4.5 very corrosive to steel p y • Chlorides -10 PPM or less – Depolarizer • Sulfate > 200 PPM organic matter • S lfid – reduced sulfate by bacteria Sulfide d d lf t b b t i • Sand should be tested at the source .

2 – Discussing new tank pad – (b) “Sand is often installed by loose lifts in ( ) y maximum layering of 6” – 8” thickness….2.3. • Refers to compaction of the sand pad to be 6” – 8” between lifts. .Sand Pad Construction • Section 5..” • Does not mean minimum sand pad to be p 6” or more.

3 – General concerns in this section – “Less than 12” …successful operation and p monitoring… shorting out of anodes….” • Installing plastic mesh (rock shield) will gp ( ) solve shorting problems.2. together .12 12” Sand Pad • 7. • Consider the cost of extra sand vs.4. cost of plastic mesh over anodes. • Consider spacing anodes closer together.

3.6 – Repair. replacement or adjustment of CP – Provide supplemental CP • Reference cell replacement • Great opportunity to inspect the Pad & CP .” • 11.5 – “Examination for bottom-side corrosion may bottomy be achieved by making coupon cutouts….2.Inspection Testing & p g Maintenance of CP Facilities • 11.3..2.

Inspection Testing & p g Maintenance of CP Facilities • Why Spend the time to inspect Pad & CP? – You won’t have the opportunity for 10 yrs. pp y y – Internal inspections show overall corrosion • Corrosion is usually averaged over time – Corrosion may have just started p y – Sand pad may have become contaminated – Confirms the chemical and electrical Properties of the sand pad – Only requires a few hours to complete .

What Information Will I Need To Perform ECDA? • Internal inspection report • Tank bottom construction plans – Cone up/down • Tank Pad specifications – Previous tank pad electrical/ chemical tests • CP system design/configuration t d i / fi ti – Anode configuration sizes/ratings (if present) – CP operating reports .

What Equipment Will I Need? • Tank crew (1-2 men) (1– Cut sample coupons (holes or patches) • Soil resistivity meter (soil box) • • • • – Distilled water – (high resistivity) ( g y) • 2 good locations • 2 corroded locations (if present) pH paper or test kit SRB test kit Soil sample jars (bags) S il l j (b ) Very High Impedance voltmeter & Cell – Meter > 20 MΩ MΩ .

Tank Pad Electrical / Chemical Test • NACE RP0502 – Has testing procedures • Tank Pad Resistivity – Static. Saturated – Use high resistivity distilled water – Soil box – 4 pin method in some cases • pH – pH paper or field test kit • SRB test kit • Send samples to lab for verification p .

shape. % corrosion Check anode/cable connection Anode potential Anode end effect / Attenuation • Impressed Current Anodes – Visual – Anode potential – Anode end effect / Attenuation .Anode Testing • Sacrificial Systems – – – – Visual test –color.

Ohio Tank • 90’ Diameter Flat bottom • Gasoline Service • Bottom Failure – 4 years of service • Zinc anode system • No cathodic protection reports • Sand pad with no chemical/electrical reports .

.

.

.

and properly connect the sacrificial anodes • Next Inspection 10 years .Ohio Results • Poor sand pad used • Poor electrical connections • Owner decided to install new clean sand with good electrical /chemical properties properties.

Illinois Tank • 200’ diameter • Hot service 200º F 200º • Bottom Failure 3 years • Zinc anode system • No CP reports • No Sand pad electrical/chemical tests .

.

.

.

.

Illinois Results • Poor sand pad used • Improper anode selection • Owner decided to: – Install new bottom with RPB – IC system – High temperature • N t iinspection 10 years Next ti .

Florida Tank #1 • • • • • • 100’ Diameter Gasoline Service Minor corrosion – 10 years service Impressed Current MMO Loop system Annual CP reports Silica sand – Sand tests – – – – pH – 7.1 PPM Resistivity 146.000 Ω-CM saturated .4 Chlorides 8 PPM Sulfides <.000 Ω-CM (dry) • 38.

.

.

.

Florida #1 Results • Very good sand pad used • Very good IC System • Patches where no contact and return to service • Next Inspection 10 years .

4 Chlorides 28 PPM Sulfides <.000 Ω-CM (dry) • 136.1 PPM Resistivity 864.Florida Tank #2 • • • • • • 90’ Diamter Gasoline Service Minor corrosion 10 year inspection Zinc anodes Annual CP reports Silica sand – Sand tests – – – – pH – 8.000 Ω-CM saturated .

.

.

.

.

.

Florida #2 Results • Very Good Sand Pad Used • Effective CP System • Installed patch plates and returned to service • Next Inspection 10 years .

New Jersey Tank y • • • • • • • 120’ Diameter Gasoline Service 10 year inspection – minor corrosion Tank leaked 2 years after placed back in service Zinc Anode system CP Annual surveys y No sand pad electrical/chemical tests .

.

New Jersey Results • Good sand pad used – Maybe? • Poor CP system selection • Owner decided to: – Replace tank bottom with RPB – Install IC system – Anode attenuation – Anode end effect – Pad became contaminated with sea water .

.

Conclusion Causes of Tank Bottom Corrosion • No Cathodic Protection • CP Not Connected • Insufficient Current Applied – Hot tanks – Sacrificial anodes • Zinc anodes/hot tank – Do not use • Magnesium anodes – in low resistivity tank pad. rapid anode consumption .

prevent very costly re-entry Most i t tl t tl re.t into the tank before the next internal inspection .Conclusion ECDA For Tank Bottoms Will: • D t i th cause(s) of past corrosion Determine the ( ) f t i – Determine the electrical/chemical tank pad condition • D t i th potentiall f f t corrosion on Determine the t ti for future i the tank tested and like service tanks • Confirm the condition of the CP (if present) • Establishes a baseline for future inspections • M t importantly .