# AC (Alternating Current

)
An electric current that reverses directions at regularly occurring intervals.
AMP (Ampere)
A unit of flow of electrical current.
OHM'S LAW:

For three phase A.C. circuits

Armature
The rotating part of a motor or the moving part of a contactor or relay.
Bimetal
Two dissimilar types of metal fastened together, when heated they bend which can open or close a circuit.
Bleed Gas
A small flow of gas that assists a diaphragm of a bleed gas valve to operate.
Boiler Horsepower
One boiler horsepower equals 33,475 BTU/HR
Booster
An electric, gas or steam hot water booster for a commercial dishwasher that will supply 180�F minimum rinse
water.
Formula to size an electric booster.
G.P.H. / 10 = KW based on 40�F temperature rise.
BTU (British Thermal Unit)
The heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
One BTU per minute = 17.58 watts
Bypass
A small passageway machined in a valve to allow gas or water to bypass around a closed valve
Capacitor
An electrical device to store electrical energy, block the flow of dc current, and to act as a conductor of AC current.
Capillary
A hollow tube used to allow a liquid or gas to flow in a temperature control.
Metric system scale, 0 degrees being the freezing point and 100 degrees being the boiling point of water. Degrees
centigrade =.555 (degrees Fahrenheit -32)
CENT. FAHR.
-50
-58
-45
-49
-40
-40
-35
-31
-30
-22
-25
-13
-20
-4
-15
5
-10
14

CENT. FAHR.
50
122
55
131
60
140
65
149
70
158
75
167
80
176
85
185
90
194

CENT. FAHR.
150
302
155
311
160
320
165
329
170
338
175
347
180
356
185
365
190
374

CENT. FAHR.
250
482
255
491
260
500
265
509
270
518
275
527
280
536
285
545
290
554

CENT. FAHR.
350
662
355
671
360
680
365
689
370
698
375
707
380
716
385
725
390
734

D.-5 23 95 203 195 0 32 100 212 200 5 41 105 221 205 10 50 110 230 210 15 59 115 239 215 20 68 120 248 220 25 77 125 257 225 30 86 130 266 230 35 95 135 275 235 40 104 140 284 240 45 113 145 293 245 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) Measurement of air volume by an air handling device. . pressure regulator and pilot adjuster. Disposer Master disposer replacement work sheet. This sealed system is filled with a fluid which expands when heated to actuate electrical contacts. 383 392 401 410 419 428 437 446 455 464 473 295 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 335 340 345 563 572 581 590 599 608 617 626 635 644 653 395 400 405 410 415 420 425 430 435 440 445 743 752 761 770 779 788 797 806 815 824 833 Combination Gas Valve A control valve that consists of some or all of the following: manual valve. Diastat Part of a thermostat consisting of a sensing bulb.C. automatic safety shutoff. main actuator valve. Current The flow of electricity. measured in amperes. Direct Spark Ignition Two high voltage electrodes create a continuous spark to ignite a main burner. Contactor An electromagnetic actuated relay used to close an electrical circuit Continuity A continuous path for the flow of electricity. hollow capillary tube and a bellows.(Direct Current) A steady flow of electrical current in one direction only. Differential The difference between the on and off temperatures of an operating thermostat.

D. ECO Energy Cut-Off Device .D.P. Double Throw) A switch that opens or closes connections alternately in two conductors of the same circuit.P.S.D.D.T (Double Pole. (Double Pole) A switch device that opens or closes connections in two conductors of the same circuit.T. (Double Pole.P. Single Throw) A switch that opens or closes connections at one position in two conductors of the same circuit.

0 654 755 874 919 1163 1436 1583 1818 2068 2244 2427 2815 3062 3451 3518 3677 3910 4399 4654 4916 5185 5461 5745 6036 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � <LP> 11. 32°F being the freezing point and 212 °F being the boiling point of water.0180 .0350 . 150 302 155 311 160 320 165 329 170 338 175 347 180 356 185 365 190 374 195 383 200 392 205 401 210 410 215 419 220 428 225 437 230 446 235 455 240 464 245 473 CENT.0200 .8 x °Centigrade) + 32 CENT.0410 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � <--3. 350 662 355 671 360 680 365 689 370 698 375 707 380 716 385 725 390 734 395 743 400 752 405 761 410 770 415 779 420 788 425 797 430 806 435 815 440 824 445 833 Field Coil A coil of insulated wire wrapped around an iron core.0160 . When electric current flows through the coil.0330 . FAHR.0310 .5 463 534 618 650 823 1016 1120 1285 1462 1587 1716 1991 2165 2440 2487 2600 2765 3110 3291 3476 3666 3862 4062 4268 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � NATURAL 4.0360 .0280 .Fahrenheit Temperature scale. FAHR. FAHR.0210 .0 1273 1469 1700 1788 2263 2794 3081 3536 4024 4366 4722 5476 5956 6713 6843 7153 7607 8557 9053 9563 10087 10625 11176 11742 . Used in motors in conjunction with an armature.0 428 494 572 602 762 940 1037 1190 1354 1469 1589 1843 2004 2259 2303 2407 2560 2880 3046 3218 3394 3575 3761 3951 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3.0380 .0145 .0250 .0292 . 50 122 55 131 60 140 65 149 70 158 75 167 80 176 85 185 90 194 95 203 100 212 105 221 110 230 115 239 120 248 125 257 130 266 135 275 140 284 145 293 CENT. a magnetic field is produced. Gas Orifice Capacity Chart (BTU Ratings) No. -50 -58 -45 -49 -40 -40 -35 -31 -30 -22 -25 -13 -20 -4 -15 5 -10 14 -5 23 0 32 5 41 10 50 15 59 20 68 25 77 30 86 35 95 40 104 45 113 CENT.0 � 495 � 571 � 661 � 695 � 879 � 1086 � 1197 � 1374 � 1563 � 1696 � 1835 � 2128 � 2314 � 2608 � 2659 � 2779 � 2956 � 2235 � 3518 � 3716 � 3919 � 4128 � 4343 � 4563 � 4.5 525 605 701 737 933 1152 1270 1457 1658 1799 1946 2257 2455 2767 2820 2948 3135 3527 3731 3941 4157 4379 4606 4840 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ---> 7.0260 .0400 . 250 482 255 491 260 500 265 509 270 518 275 527 280 536 285 545 290 554 295 563 300 572 305 581 310 590 315 599 320 608 325 617 330 626 335 635 340 644 345 653 CENT.0320 .0240 .0313 .0135 . Degrees Fahrenheit = (1. FAHR. --80 79 1/64 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 1/32 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Size --.0225 .0156 .0390 . FAHR.0370 .

1540 � 5/32 � .5 25137 26157 27462 28798 30388 30722 31283 32420 34165 36562 39672 41924 46961 50120 50192 52649 54865 56747 58661 60215 62027 62584 64188 65813 69965 72946 75026 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 4788 � 5078 � 6334 � 5019 � 5323 � 6639 � 5869 � 6225 � 7764 � 5970 � 6333 � 7898 � 7339 � 7785 � 9709 � 8211 � 8709 � 10862 � 9609 � 10192 � 12712 � 10603 � 11246 � 14026 � 10945 � 11609 � 14479 � 12184 � 12924 � 16119 � 13300 � 14107 � 17594 � 14464 � 15342 � 19135 � 15678 � 16629 � 20740 � 16556 � 17560 � 21902 � 16726 � 17741 � 22127 � 17809 � 18889 � 235558 � 18251 � 19358 � 24144 � 20075 � 21293 � 26557 � 21500 � 22804 � 28442 � 23729 � 25168 � 31391 � 23882 � 25330 � 31592 � 25015 � 26532 � 33092 � 26068 � 27649 � 34485 � NATURAL ---> 4.1405 � 9/64 � .0785 � 46 � .1285 � 29 � .0890 � 42 � .0520 � 54 � .1015 � 37 � .1250 � 30 � .0935 � 3/32 � .0938 � 41 � .1610 � 19 � .0 23272 24217 25425 26662 28133 28443 28962 30015 31630 33849 36729 38815 43478 46402 46469 48743 50795 52538 54309 57748 57426 57941 59427 60931 64775 67535 69461 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 4479 4695 5490 5585 6865 7680 8989 9918 10238 11398 12441 13530 14665 15487 15646 16658 17072 18778 20111 22197 22339 23399 24384 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3.0635 � 51 � . Size --.0625 � 52 � .1100 � 34 � .58 � .0781 � 47 � .0 � � 26872 � 28502 � 35549 � � 27963 � 29660 � 36992 � � 29358 � 31139 � 38837 � � 30786 � 32654 � 40726 � � 32486 � 34456 � 42975 � � 32843 � 34835 � 43447 � � 33443 � 35472 � 44241 � � 34659 � 36761 � 45849 � � 36524 � 38739 � 48316 � � 39068 � 41457 � 51706 � � 42411 � 44984 � 56104 � � 44819 � 47538 � 59290 � � 50204 � 53249 � 66413 � � 53581 � 56831 � 70881 � � 53657 � 56912 � 70982 � � 56284 � 59698 � 74456 � � 58653 � 62211 � 77591 � � 60665 � 64345 � 80253 � � 62711 � 66515 � 82959 � � 64372 � 68277 � 85157 � � 66309 � 70332 � 87719 � � 66905 � 70963 � 88507 � � 68620 � 72783 � 90776 � � 70357 � 74625 � 93074 � � 74795 � 79332 � 98945 � � 77982 � 82713 � 103161 � � 80206 � 85072 � 106103 � 12322 12916 15104 15365 18888 21131 24730 27286 28167 31357 34228 37225 40347 42608 43045 45831 46969 51663 55331 61067 61460 64377 67087 <LP> 11.1160 � 31 � .0995 � 38 � .0730 � 48 � .0670 � 50 � .� --.1495 � 24 � .1065 � 7/64 � .0 4.1470 � 25 � .0700 � 49 � .0465 � 3/64 � .1200 � 1/8 � .1695 � 11/64 � .0760 � 5/64 � .0420 � 57 � .5 � � � 7.0469 � 55 � .0860 � 43 � .� 39 � .1040 � 36 � .0980 � No.0810 � 45 � .1094 � 35 � .1563 � 22 � .1590 � 20 � .1110 � 33 � .1406 � 27 � .0 69156 71964 75553 79229 83603 84522 86066 89195 93994 100588 109145 115343 129200 127992 138088 144847 150946 156123 161389 165664 170649 172181 176596 181066 192487 200690 206413 .1440 � 26 � .0430 � 56 � .1660 � 18 � .0550 � 53 � .0595 � 1/16 � .0960 � 40 � .1520 � 23 � .0820 � 44 � .1570 � 21 � .1719 � 4147 4346 5083 5171 6356 7111 8322 9182 9478 10552 11518 12527 13577 14338 14485 15423 15806 17385 18620 20550 20682 21664 22576 <--3.1130 � 32 � .1360 � 28 � .

2040 � .1875 � .17 16 15 14 13 3/16 12 11 10 9 8 � � � � � � � � � � .2 watts Horsepower to Kilowatt Chart Horsepower = KW 3 5 7.2210 � .036 psi. ID Internal Diameter Inches of Water Column A measurement of gas pressure.5 10 15 20 25 3 5 7 9.1850 � . 28 inches of water column equals 1 psi. Glow Coil A coil of fine wire which when heated by an electrical current glows and is used to light a pilot flame. per HR. Hp (horsepower) One horsepower = 2544 B.1730 � .2188 � . One horsepower = 745.5 18 HZ (Hertz) Frequency of ac power in cycles per second.1960 � 70353 73644 76161 77863 80451 82640 83968 85754 88014 90303 � � � � � � � � � � 75990 79544 82263 84102 86897 89261 90695 92625 95066 97538 � � � � � � � � � � 81236 � 85036 � 87943 � 89908 � 92897 � 95425 � 96957 � 99020 � 101629 � 104272 � 86164 � 90195 � 93278 � 95362 � 98532 � 101213 � 102839 � 105027 � 107794 � 110598 � 107465 � 112492 � 116338 � 118938 � 122891 � 126235 � 128263 � 130992 � 134443 � 137940 � 209063 218843 226324 231381 239072 245577 249522 254831 261546 268348 � .1770 � .U.2130 � .2010 � . GPH (Gallons Per Hour) The measurement of the flow of a volume of liquid.1910 � .2055 � .1935 � .1990 � 93088 � 100547 � 107489 � 114009 � 142194 � 276625 7 � 13/64 � 6 � 5 � 4 � 3 � 7/32 � 2 � 1 � . Intermittent Pilot Ignition Pilot flame ignites only when main gas burner is to be ignited.5 12.2090 � .2031 � . .1800 � . To convert GPH to GPM divide by 60. Usually 60 HZ in USA and 50 HZ overseas.2280 � 94969 � 96963 � 97825 � 99269 � 102679 � 106647 � 112534 � 114808 � 122196 � 102578 � 104732 � 105663 � 107222 � 110906 � 115192 � 121550 � 124007 � 131987 � 109660 � 111964 � 112958 � 114626 � 118563 � 123145 � 129943 � 132569 � 141100 � 116312 � 118755 � 119810 � 121579 � 125755 � 130615 � 137825 � 140611 � 149659 � 145067 � 148114 � 149430 � 151635 � 156844 � 162906 � 171898 � 175372 � 186658 � 282213 288141 290701 294991 305125 316916 334411 341169 363124 Please click here for chart.1820 � . Infrared Burner Heat is produced by a glowing burner surface which radiates infrared energy. GPM Gallons Per Minute Hot Surface Ignition A resistive element is used to heat and ignite a gas burner.1890 � .T. one inch of water column equals 0.5 15.

Manometer Instrument for the measure of gas pressure in inches of water column. Normally Closed A switch or other device which is in the closed position when not energized or activated. and resistance.C. kW (Kilowatt) One kW equals 1. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Referred to as propane. Ohm's Law Equations of relationship of voltage. Natural Gas Gas extracted from the earth. kWh (Kilowatt Hour) The amount of energy one kilowatt produces in one hour. Millivolt 1 /1000 of a volt Mini-Pilot A thermocouple and pilot combines in one device. Load Electrical power consumed by components of an electrical circuit.000 watts. NPT National Pipe Taper OD Outside Diameter OHM The resistance which will allow one ampere of current to flow when the voltage is one Volt. Milliamp 1 /1000 of an ampere.IPS Iron Pipe Size Jet Burner A burner in which gas and air mixtures combine in air above the burner ports to burn. current. N. OHM'S LAW: . N. KPA (Kilopascal) Metric pressure measurement.O. One kilowatt hour = 3412 Btu Per hour. Line Voltage The voltage level of the main power supply. Normally Open A switch or other device which is in the open position when not energized or activated.

Current and Resistance Common Equations Derived from OHM'S LAW: REMEMBER: I = AMPS: Measures Current E = VOLTS: Measures Electrical Force R = OHMS: Measures Resistance to Electric Current W = WATTS: Electric Power or Heat Energy If elements are designed for 3-PHASE DELTA connection. wattage output may be reduced to 1/3 by reconnecting to 3-PHASE WYE FOR CURRENT IN 3-PHASE CIRCUITS .Equations of Relationships of Voltage.

380 1. Nominal Pipe Size Threads per Inch Inside Diameter Inches Outside Diameter Inches 1/8" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2" 2-1/2" 27 18 18 14 14 11-1/2 11-1/2 11-1/2 11-1/2 8 .660 1.269 .067 2.050 1.405 .049 1.824 1.FOR RESISTANCE IN 3-PHASE CIRCUIT (ACROSS ANY TWO TERMINALS0 Ohm's Law Calculation Examples Open Circuit An electrical circuit through which a current can not flow because of an open switch or other break in the wiring.315 1.622 . .540 .840 1.675 .364 .900 2. Primary Side of Transformer The high voltage side of a step-down transformer. Pilot Safety Valve A valve of which closes when pilot flame does not exist.375 2.469 . valve automatically stops the flow of gas to the pilot and main burners.493 . Parallel Circuit An electrical circuit in which more than one path is provided for the current flow. Pipe Sizes Dimensions of standard pipe.875 Pressure Drop The decrease in gas pressure as gas passes through a control or piping.610 2.

Solenoid A wire wound coil that creates a magnetic field when energized.P. Series Circuit An electrical circuit in which only one continuous path is provided for the flow of current. Referred to as a start relay when used for a motor. Rheostat A type of resistor where the resistance can be adjusted to various levels. so that the current flows through all components in the circuit.G. water or steam to a Lower set pressure. Secondary Transformer Winding Low voltage side of a step down transformer.S.T.T. Standing Pilot Pilot flame remains lit whether main burner is off or on. (Single Pole) A switch device that opens or closes connections in a single conductor.P. Single Pole. Solenoid Valve A valve operated by a solenoid coil. Safety Pilot Valve See pilot safety valve.I. Steam Temperature/Pressure Table Gauge Pressure P. Solid-state Semiconductor type switching device with no moving parts to control an electrical circuit. S. Double Throw A switch that opens or closes connections alternately in two conductors of the same circuit.D. Single Throw A switch that opens or closes connections at one position in a circuit.PRV (Pressure Reducing Valve) A mechanical valve that reduces the incoming pressure of air.P. 0 2 Temperature Fahrenheit 212 218. S.S.5 . PSI Pounds Per Square Inch PSIG Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge Relay An electromagnet device used in a control circuit to provide electric current to a valve or switch. S. Single Pole. Resistor A device to limit the current flow in a circuit.

Thermocouple A device containing two different metals which produces a small amount of DC voltage when heated. VDC Volts Of Direct Current Venturi A piece of pipe that attaches to a burner. Tubing Sizes Type K and L Copper Water Tubing Nominal Size Inches Actual Outside Diameter Inches 1/4 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 1-1/4 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 2 2-1/8 Two-Stage Pilot A pilot ignition system that uses a small standing pilot flame to light a larger pilot.8 234. Because it narrows down then flares out it Increases gas velocity to create a negative pressure for combustion. OHM'S LAW . Thermopile A group of thermocouples contained in one unit. when heated by a pilot flame millivolts are generated to energize a pilot safety valve or power a millivolt operated control.7 266. Operates a pilot safety valve.7 Therm 100. Thermostat An automatic device actuated by temperature changes to control a preset operating temperature.6 239 249.7 297. Vac Volts Of Alternating Current Vacuum A pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. Transformer A device for changing one voltage to another voltage.4 6 8 10 15 25 30 40 50 224.8 274 286. Volt One volt will produce a flow of one ampere through a one OHM resistance.4 229.000 BTU's Thermal Overload Protector A device which trips an internal switch to interrupt electrical current to protect against an over current condition.

1 3.6 3. One Cubic Foot of Water = 7.VOLTS = AMPERAGE x OHMS Voltage The force of electric current through a circuit.0 115.3 0.0 30.0 24.0 14.5 20.0 57.0 95.7 20 1.0 60.4 100 5.000 30.66 Temperature Rise.5 16.3 4.34 lbs. One Cubic Foot of Water = 62. One gallon of water = 231 cubic inches.5 11.0 45.000 20.7 50 2.000 5-8 8-16 8-40 12.000 3-5 8.3 10 0.2 5.5 12.0 9.4lbs.5 3. Rate at which one volt can push one ampere through an electrical circuit One watt =.38 gallons.0 29.5 1.0 72.7 200 11.0 24.6 2.5 6.000 Watt A measurement of electrical power.7 2.0 48.3 25 1. °F Kilowatts to heat in one hour 20° 60° 100° 140° 170° 5 0.8 2.0 7.2 6. One BTU = The quantity of heat to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1degree between 32degrees and 212degrees F Kilowatt Heating Guide Amount of Liquid Cubic Feet Gallons .000 7.0 86.0 13.3 5.0 150 8.0569 BTU per minute Approximate Percent Rated Watts When Reduced Voltage Is Applied: 120 Volt Heater On 115 Volt = 92% 120 Volt Heater On 110 Volt = 84% 120 Volt Heater On 105 Volt = 77% 240 Volt Heater On 220 Volt = 84% .8 1.0 32.7 8.9 1.5 26.0 Gas Burner Approximate BTU/HR Heating Guide Gallons 1-3 3-4 BTU/HR 5. Water One gallon of water = 8.0 15.

Water Column .C.240 Volt Heater On 208 Volt = 75% 240 Volt Heater On 120 Volt = 25% 480 Volt Heater On 440 Volt = 84% OHM'S LAW WATTS = AMPERAGE² x OHMS WATTS = VOLTS x AMPERAGE W.

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