..

Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
FINAL REPORT OSD
Vietnam Task Force & Index
TLE
F<HM
RTC
JC
[J
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Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT
JJ RMM KDA
AL LA
NP S/ S-I
S/ S-O
HH8 8F
PW S/ S-S
TMT JM
HC8 SI S-EX
ACTION [J INFORMATION
COMMENTS PLEASE [J YOUR FILES
[J FOLLOW UP [J PER CONVERSATION
3' PLEASE SEE! ME [J
REMARKS
I
T. L . ELIOT, JR.
R. H. MILLER
R.T.CURRAN
X22S40 X23126
X28448
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 2011
S8c:::Jef /CCS Regr ading Action II 35-71
OAT E
OFFICE Or: THE SECRETARY OF DEFEt-tSE REGRADING
23 1971

FROM: Top Secret Control Officer , SecDefl Classi f i ed Control Secti on , Room 3A948 , The
Pent agon, Washington, D. C. 20301
TO: 0tate Department, ATTENTION: Document Control/Sec r't Off ' W h' t D C
U l Y lcer, as l ng on, • •
20520
DOCUMENT
(TYPe, Ollice oi OrigIn, Date, Subj fie :)
CONTROL
"nvmaER
Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense , SecDefControl#
Thru: ASD/I SA and DASD(Policy Planni ng and 1x- 0295/69
Arms Control) , OASD (I Sh ) , From Chai rman, OSD
.Task Force l si Leslie H. Ge l b, dated 15
Januar y 1969 , Subject : Fi nal Report, OSD
Viet nam Task Force (U) \., / 1 Inclosure :::::::::
I NCLOSURE # 1:
Document, Subject : OSD Vi et nam Task
Force Outline of St udi es (U), dtd 10 Januar y
1969-----------------------------------------
/i/ii//III/NOTHING FOLLowsllllll/IIIIII/I/II/
"
I CLASSI FICATION REGRADED TO
CONFI DENTIAL UNCLASSIFIED !
WHEN SEPARATEI'
FROM I NCLOSURl
REMAINS
CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL
Document was forwarded to both Mr. Bundy and Katzenback ,' n 1969
If you have any questions concerning this reg ading action contact
SFC William C. Holzer, US Army, Chief Clerk, : Control Sec ·ion, Rm3A948 ,
The Pentagon. Phone : OX- 76131
I
-: ,TATE
JuL 1 b 1871
OFFI f OF - - RITY
The doeument(s) listed sbave has/ have be en regraded and seHan should be taken to mark copies offi ce. It i s re-
quested that you natiiy all recipients to whom addit.ional di s t ribution was furnished.
T. B. EDWARDS , MAJ , USA, Top Secret Control Officer
P r inted 0' t yped n ame of offi cI a l SI QnLJ ture
S O
FORM 375-
1 I.I A '( 60
G44763
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
FINAL REPORT - OSD Task Force, Vietnam
&
INDEX ·
'.. ;; . .
cant ~ .
..
_ ..... -
I: _-------:----
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEfENSE
WASHINGTON; D.C. 20301
15 January 1969
MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
,
THROUGH: Mr. Paul C. Warnke, ASD/ISA .
Dr. Morton R. Halperin, DASD/Policy Planning and Arms Control/ISA
I
SUBJECT: Final Report, OSD Vietnam Task Force
On June 17, 1967, Secretary Robert S. McNamara directed that a Task Force
be formed to study the history of United States involvement in Vietnam
from World War II to the present. Mr. McNamara's guidance was simply to
do studies that were "encyclopedic and objective." With six full-time
professionals assigned to the Task Force, we vrere to' complete our work in
three months. A year and a half later, and with the involvement of six
times six professionals, we are finally done to the tune of thirty-seven
studies and fifteen collections of documents contained in forty-three volumes.
In the beginning, MY. McNamara gave the Task Force full access to OSD files,
and the Task Force received access to CIA materials, and some use of State
Department cables and memQranda. We had no access to White House files.
Our guidance personal interviews with any of the prinCipal partici-
pants. .
- The result ioras not so much a documentary history, as a history based solely
on documents -- checked and rechecked with ant-like diligence. Pieces of
paper, formidable and suggestive by could have meant much or ·nothing.
Perhaps this document was never sent anywhere, and perhaps that one, though
commented upon, was irrelevant. Without the memories of people to tell us,
we were certain to make mistakes. Yet, using those memories might have been
misleading as ioTell. This approach to research was bound to lead to distortions,
and distortions we are sure abound in these studies.
To bring the documents to life, to fill in gaps, and just to see what the
"outside world" was thinking, we turned to newspapers, periodicals, and books.
We never used these sources to supplant the classified documents, but only to
supplement them. And because these documents , sometimes ioTTitten by very clever
men who knew so much and .desired to say only a part and sometimes ioTTitten very
openly but alsQ contradictorily, are not immediately self-revealing or self-
explanatory, we tried both to have a number of researchers look at them and
to quote passages liberally. Moreover, when we felt we could be challenged
with taking something out of context, we included the whole paper in the
Documentary Record section of the Task Force studies (Parts V and VI. A and B) •
. Again seeking to fend off inevitable mistakes in interpretation and context,
what seemed to us key documents were reviewed and included in several over-
lapping in substance, but separate, studies.
If
r.' .. , ..
'L .. .. ..i .. '_"".::; 4 J .a.--Io4 •
UNCLASSIfIED '
WHEN SEPARATED FROM

Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 2011
r
!
I '
"
" "I
.. ' . . : _ ..... _ ) .1
The people who worked on the Task Force were superb--uniforrnly bright and
interested} although not always versed in the art of research. We had a
sense of doing something important and of need to do it right. Of course,
we all had our prejudices and axes to grind and these shine through clearly
at times, but we tried} we think} to suppress or compensate for them.
These outstanding people came from everywhere--the military services} State}
OSD} and the "think tanks." Some came for a month} for three months} for
six months, and most were unable} given the unhappiness of their superiors}
to finish the studies they began. Almost all the studies had several authors,
each heir dutifully trying to pick up the threads of his predecessor. In all,
we had thirty-six professionals working on these studies, with an average of
four months per man.
The quality, style and interest of the studies varies considerably. The
papers in Parts I, II} III} and IV.A} concerning the years 1945 to 1961 tend
to be generally non-startling--although there are many interesting tidbits.
Because many of the documents in this period were lost or not kept (except
for the Geneva Conference era) we had to rely more on outside resources.
From 1961 onwards (Parts IV.B and C and VI.C)} the records were bountiful,
especially on the first Kennedy year in office} the Diem coup} and on the
' subjects of the deployment of ground forces} the decisions surrounding the
bombing campaign against North Vietnam} US-GVN relations, and attempts at
negotiating a settlement of the conflict.
Almost all the studies contain both a Summary and Analysis and a Chronology.
The chronologies highlight each important event or action in the monograph
by means of date} description} and documentary source. The Summary and
Analysis sections, which I wrote, attempt to capture the main themes and
facts of the monographs --and to make some judgments and speculations which
mayor may not appear in the text itself. The monographs themselves stick,
by and large} to the documents and do not tend to be analytical.
":-.
Writing hist017} especially where it blends into current events, especially
where that current event is Vietnam} is a treacherous exercise. We could
not go into the minds of the decision-makers, we were not present at the
deCisions, and we often could not tell whether something happened because
someone decided it, decided against it, or most likely because it unfolded
from the situation. History, to me, has been expressed by a passage from
Herman Melville's Moby Dick where he writes: "This is a world of chance,
free will, and necessity -- alL interweavingly working together as one;
chance by turn rules either and has the last featuring blow at events."
Our studies have tried to reflect this thought; inevitably in the organizing
. and writing process, they appear to assign more and less to men and free
will than was the case.
..
Encl - Outline of Studies LESLIE H. GELB
Chairman, OSD Task Force
I
.. ,'lJ1iJCLASSIFIED
C· • ;._" I • SEPARATED FROM
2 ' ENCLO?URE',
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
:z:
o
fT1
><
Declassified per Executi ve Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011
OSD VIETNAM TASK FORCE
OUTLINE OF S':ru1)IES
1/10/69
INDEX (1 Vo 1 • )
I. Vietnam and the U.S., 1940-1950 (1 Vol.)
A. u.S. Policy, 1940-50
B. The Character and Power of the Viet Minh
C. Ho Chi Minh: Asian Tito7
II. U.S. Involvement in the Franco-Viet Minh War, 1950-1954 (1
A. U.S., France and Vietnamese Nationalism
B. Toward a Negotiated Settlement
III. The Geneva Accords (1
A. U.S. Military Planning and Diplomatic Maneuver
B. Role and Obligations of State of Vietnam
C. Viet Minh Position and Sino-Soviet Strategy
D. The Intent of the Geneva Accords
rv . Evolution of the War (26; Vols.)
A. U.S. MAP for Diem: The Eisenhower Commitments, 1954-1960 (5 Vols.)
1. NA'ID and SEATO: A Comparison j
2. Aid for France in Indochina,
3. U.S. and France's Withdrawal from"Vietnam, 1954-56 "/
4 • U • S. Training of Vietname se National Army, 1954-59 ./ .
5 • Origins of the Insurgency -/
B., Counterinsurgency: The Kennedy Commitments, 1961-1963 (5 Vols.)
1. The Kennedy Commitments and Programs, 1961/
2. Strategic Hamlet Program, 1961-63 "/
3. The Advisory Build-up, 1961-67 /
4. Phased Withdrawal of U.S. Forces in Vietnam, 1962-64--"
5. The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-Nov. 1963
C. Direct Action: The Johnson Commitments, 1964-1968 (16 Vols.)
1. U • S. Programs in South Vietnam, November 1963-April 1965: /
NSAM 273 -- NSAM 288 -- Honolulu
. 2. Military Pressures Against." NVN (3 Vols.)
a. February - June 1964
b. July - October 1964 ./
c. November - December 1964 V /
. J. ROLLllfG THUNDER Program Begins: January - June 1965
Declassified per Executi ve Order 13526, Secti on 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 2011
r
", ---, ....
C
;' "
.,


4. Marine Combat Units Go to DaNang, March 1965 /
5. Phase I in the Build-Up of U.S. Forces: March - July 1965 /
6. u.s. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments: 1965 - 1967 (3 Vols.)
a. Volun:e I: Phase II, Program 3, Program 4 ./
b. Volume · II: Program 5 /'
c. Volume III: Program 6 ../
7. Air War in the North: 1965 - 1968 (2 Vols)
a. Volume I ./
b. Volun:e 11 ./
8. Re-emphasis on Pacification: 1965-1967 ./
9. U.S.-GVN Relat ions (2 Vols.)
a. Volume 1: December 1963 : June 1965 ../
b. Volume 2: July' 1965 - December 1967 /
10. Statistical Survey of the War, North and South: 1965 - 1967 '/
V. Justification of t he War (11 Vols.)
A. Public Statements (2 Vols.)
Volume I: A--The Truman Administration }
B--The Eisenhower Administration /.
C--The Kennedy Administration
Volume II: D--The Johnson Administration ~
B. Internal Docun:ents (9 Vols.)
l.
2.

The Roosevelt Administra tion
The Truman Administra tion: (2 Vols.)
a. Volun:e I: 1945-1949
b. Volume II: 1950-1952
The Eisenhower Administration: (4 Vols.)
a. Volume I: 1953 . ./
... ..
b. Volume II: 1954-Geneva vi'
c. Volume III: Geneva Accords 15 March 1956 ./
d. Volume IV: 1956 French Withdrawal - 1960 /'
4. The Kennedy Administration (2 Vola.)
Book I
Book II
VI . Settlement of the Conflict (6 Vols.)
A. Negotiations, 1965-67: The Public Record
. ~
B. Negotiations, 1965-67: Announced Position Statements .,/
C. Histories of Contacts (4 Vola.)
1. 1965-1966
2. Polish Track
3.
4.
Moscow-London Track
1967-1968
'"
LESLIE H. GELB
Chairman, OSD Task Force
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011

T. By: NWD Date: 2011 EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT TLE JJ AL HH8 TMT RMM LA 8F JM KDA F<HM RTC JC NP PW HC8 S/ S-I S / S-O S / S-S S I S-EX [J [J [J ACTION COMMENTS PLEASE FOLLOW UP ME 3' PLEASE SEE ! [J [J [J [J INFORMATION YOUR FILES PER CONVERSATION REMARKS I T. JR. Section 3. ELIOT . MILLER R. H. R.CURRAN X22S40 X23126 X28448 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . L .

~~~~~--~~~-~~~~----~~~~--~~~~~--~~~~--~~~~~---------{ 23 JU~1e 197 1 Top Secret Control Officer . Date. Se cDefl Classi f i ed Control Secti on . The Pentagon. iurnish. ATTEN TION: 20520 Document Control/SecUr't Y Off lcer.Ta sk Force l si Leslie H. EDWARDS . Room 3A948 .TATE I JuL 1 b 1871 OFFI f OF .0295/69 Arms Control) . / 1 Inclosure ::::::::: I NCLOSURE # 1: CONFIDENTIAL Document. US Army. Katzenback . O Viet nam Task Forc e (U) \. OSD . W ACTIO~ TO: 0tate Department.ional di s t ribution was furnished. 20301 Pent agon . Top Secret Contro l Offic er P r inted 0' t ype d n ame of offi c I a l SI QnLJ ture SO 1 I. Chief Clerk. Bundy and ~. Holzer. Rm3A948 . W h' ng t on. By: NWD Date: 2011 S8c:::Jef /CCS Regr ading Action II 35 -71 O AT E OF FICE Or: THE SECRETARY OF DEFEt-tSE REGRADING FROM: ~ .' n 1969 If you have any questions concerning this reg ading action p~ease contact SFC William C. D• C• ' l as l DOCUMENT (TYPe.76131 -: . Subject : Fi nal Report. MAJ .Declassified per Exec utive Order 13526. C. Ollice oi OrigIn.v~ offi ce.ed. : ecDeflC lassifi ~ d Control Sec ·ion. Subject : OSD Vi et nam Ta sk " Force Outline of St udi es (U). OASD(I Sh ) . D. The ashington.. From Cha i rman. It i s re- T.I A '( 6 0 FORM 375- G44763 . USA . B. Ge l b.RITY The doeument(s) listed sbave has/ have be en regraded and seHan s hould be taken to mark copies quested that you natiiy all recipients to whom ad dit. dated 15 SD J anuar y 1969 . SecDefControl# CONFI DENTIAL Thru: ASD/I SA and DASD (Policy Planni ng and 1x. Su bj fie :) CONTROL " nvm a ER I CLASSI FICATION REGRADED TO M emorandum for the Secretary of D efense .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . Sectio n 3. Phone : OX. dtd 10 Januar y 1969----------------------------------------- UNCLASS IFIED ! W HEN SEPARATEI' FROM I NCLOSURl REMAINS CONFIDENTIAL /i/ii//III/NOTHING FOLLowsllllll/IIIIII/I/II/ Document was forwarded to both Mr..

By: NWD Date: 2011 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316.

. I: _-------:---- ... ..Declassified per Executive Order 13526. . Section 3. By: NWD Date: 2011 FINAL REPORT . cant ~.. _ ...OSD Task Force. Vietnam & INDEX · ' .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316. - ..

THROUGH: SUBJECT: Mr. Our guidance prohibi~ed personal interviews with any of the prinCipal participants.Declassified per Executive Order 13526. and the Task Force received access to CIA materials. and distortions we are sure abound in these studies..::. we included the whole paper in the Documentary Record section of the Task Force studies (Parts V and VI. was irrelevant. McNamara gave the Task Force full access to OSD files. we vrere to' complete our work in three months. what seemed to us key documents were reviewed and included in several overlapping in substance.desired to say only a part and sometimes ioTTitten very openly but alsQ contradictorily. ..checked and rechecked with ant-like diligence. but only to supplement them. . sometimes ioTTitten by very clever men who knew so much and . ""ltV ~ . By: NWD Date: 2011 OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEfENSE WASHINGTON. Morton R..' ~. 4 J ~j . but separate. and perhaps that one. Without the memories of people to tell us.C. ~ "' -~. A year and a half later. ' '_ "".:: ~! WHEN SEPARATED FROM 'L ." With six full-time professionals assigned to the Task Force. when we felt we could be challenged with taking something out of context. as a history based solely on documents -. Paul C. though commented upon. We never used these sources to supplant the classified documents. we turned to newspapers. Moreover. to fill in gaps. and some use of State Department cables and memQranda. Mr. To bring the documents to life. we were certain to make mistakes. .. Again seeking to fend off inevitable mistakes in interpretation and context. studies. Warnke. Secretary Robert S. Section 3. ASD/ISA . A and B) • . DASD/Policy Planning and Arms Control/ISA Final Report.' . we tried both to have a number of researchers look at them and to quote passages liberally. and with the involvement of six times six professionals. 1967.. and books.i . are not immediately self-revealing or selfexplanatory. I Dr.--Io4 • ENCLOSURE~ .. we are finally done to the tune of thirty-seven studies and fifteen collections of documents contained in forty-three volumes. using those memories might have been misleading as ioTell.. formidable and suggestive by th emselves~ could have meant much or ·nothing .-:~ ~ .The result ioras not so much a documentary history. 20301 15 January 1969 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE . periodicals. McNamara directed that a Task Force be formed to study the history of United States involvement in Vietnam from World W II to the present. And because these documents .a. OSD Vietnam Task Force On June 17. and just to see what the "outside world" was thinking. We had no access to White House files. Yet. This approach to research was bound to lead to distortions. MY. ~ . Perhaps this document was never sent anywhere. ~ . McNamara's guidance was simply to ar do studies that were "encyclopedic and objective. In the beginning. D.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316. Halperin. Pieces of paper. If UNCLASSIfIED ' r.

style and interest of the studies varies considerably. OSD Task Force I C· w~' 1 . The chronologies highlight each important event or action in the monograph by means of date} description} and documentary source.. to me. The papers in Parts I. with an average of four months per man. we all had our prejudices and axes to grind and these shine through clearly at times. ":-. and most were unable} given the unhappiness of their superiors} to finish the studies they began. We could not go into the minds of the decision-makers..Outline of Studies LESLIE H. and necessity -.'lJ1iJCLASSIFIED ~ JWHaEN SEPARATED FROM ' ENCLO?URE'.alL interweavingly working together as one. attempt to capture the main themes and facts of the monographs --and to make some judgments and speculations which mayor may not appear in the text itself.~ Encl .. especially on the first Kennedy year in office} the Diem coup} and on the ' subjects of the deployment of ground forces} the decisions surrounding the bombing campaign against North Vietnam} US-GVN relations. We had a sense of doing something important and of t~e need to do it right.. each heir dutifully trying to pick up the threads of his predecessor.C)} the records were bountiful. : _ ." Some came for a month} for three months} for six months." Our studies have tried to reflect this thought. The quality.A} concerning the years 1945 to 1961 tend to be generally non-startling--although there are many interesting tidbits. and attempts at negotiating a settlement of the conflict. chance by turn rules either and has the last featuring blow at events. The monographs themselves stick.Declassified per Executive Order 13526. II} III} and IV. we were not present at the deCisions. . especially where that current event is Vietnam} is a treacherous exercise. free will. . by and large} to the documents and do not tend to be analytical..3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 .B and C and VI. From 1961 onwards (Parts IV. Of course. decided against it. we had thirty-six professionals working on these studies. Because many of the documents in this period were lost or not kept (except for the Geneva Conference era) we had to rely more on outside resources. and writing process. inevitably in the organizing . In all. ' ._" I • 2 . and we often could not tell whether something happened because someone decided it. Almost all the studies contain both a Summary and Analysis and a Chronology. Writing hist017} especially where it blends into current events. or most likely because it unfolded from the situation. they appear to assign more and less to men and free will than was the case. History.1 The people who worked on the Task Force were superb--uniforrnly bright and interested} although not always versed in the art of research. _ ) .~ . has been expressed by a passage from Herman Melville's Moby Dick where he writes: "This is a world of chance. GELB Chairman. By: NWD Date: 2011 ! I r I. . but we tried} we think} to suppress or compensate for them. which I wrote. Section 3. These outstanding people came from everywhere--the military services} State} OSD} and the "think tanks.~ " "I " ' ... ~\i . Almost all the studies had several authors.. • . The Summary and Analysis sections.

By: NWD Date: 2011 :z: o fT1 >< . Section 3.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526.

. Section 3.S. MAP for Diem: 1. Policy. C.S. 1962-64--" The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem. .S. U. .. 3. July .December 1964 V / ROLLllfG THUNDER Program Begins: January .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . Vietnam and the U. D. 4.) A. Vols. France and Vietnamese Nationalism Toward a Negotiated Settlement V01.October 1964 .Honolulu Military Pressures Against. C.) ~ III./ c. 4• 5• The Eisenhower Commitments.) A.) B. J. U. February ./ . 5.S. ~ u. Involvement in the Franco-Viet Minh War.) NA'ID and SEATO: A Comparison j Aid for France in Indochina. 1940-1950 (1 Vol. U• S.NSAM 288 -. By: NWD Date: 2011 1/10/69 OSD VIETNAM TASK FORCE OUTLINE OF S':ru1)IES INDEX (1 Vo 1 • ) I. The Kennedy Commitments and Programs. 1940-50 The Character and Power of the Viet Minh Ho Chi Minh: Asian Tito7 II. Programs in South Vietnam. 1961-63 "/ The Advisory Build-up. 1954-59 .June 1965 . May-Nov. Counterinsurgency: 1. U. B.) a. 1950-54 ~ U. Forces in Vietnam. 1954-1960 (5 Vols. 1961-1963 (5 Vols. 1961/ Strategic Hamlet Program. B. 3. Origins of the Insurgency -/ The Kennedy Commitments. 1954-56 "/ U• S. C.S.Declassified per Executi ve Order 13526. 1950-1954 (1 A. November 1963-April 1965: / NSAM 273 -. Training of Vietname se National Army. 1963 ~ The Johnson Commitments.June 1964 ~ b. 2." NVN (3 Vols.S. 1964-1968 (16 Vols. November . 2.S. Evolution of the War (26. B.) Direct Action: 1. 2. U. and France's Withdrawal from "Vietnam. The Geneva Accords (1 Vol. Military Planning and Diplomatic Maneuver Role and Obligations of State of Vietnam Viet Minh Position and Sino-Soviet Strategy The Intent of the Geneva Accords rv .S. 1961-67 ~ / Phased Withdrawal of U.) ~ A..

~ Internal Docun:ents (9 Vols. Forces: March . Volume I: 1953 . Program 4 .1960 / ' The Kennedy Administration (2 Vola. Volume · II: Program 5 /' c. B. GELB Chairman. / d. Volume 1: December 1963 : June 1965 .. 1965-67: The Public Record Announced Position Statements . ---.-GVN Relat ion s (2 Vols..s..) ar A. North and South: 1965 . OSD Task Force . Marine Combat Units Go to DaNang. Volume I: Truman Administra tion } Eisenhower Administration Kennedy Administration Johnson Administration /.3 NND P roject Number: NND 633 16 ./ Air War in the North: 1965 .. 9./ . 1965-67: Negotiations. Volun:e I: Phase II.. 3.

Related Interests

r".1967 ' / Justifica tion of t he W (11 Vols.) a.) a..1968 (2 Vols) a. Volume III: Geneva Accords 15 March 1956 .December 1967 / Statistical Survey of the War.) a. 3· 4.) A.S. Volume II: 1954-Geneva vi' c. Sectio n 3. 4.. Volun:e 11 . .) Book I Book II .1967 (3 Vols. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments: 1965 .S./ U. 5. Program 3./ b. . Volume IV: 1956 French Withdrawal . 7./ Histories of Contacts (4 Vola. Volun:e I: 1945-1949 b. Negotiations. Volume 2: July' 1965 . 6. / Re-emphasis on Pacification: 1965-1967 ... 4.' " C . Settleme nt of the Conflict (6 Vols.~ VI .) l. Volume II: 1950-1952 The Eisenhower Administration: (4 Vols.) A--The B--The C--The Volume II: D--The B. The Roosevelt Administra tion The Truman Administra tion: (2 Vols. V.. Public Statements (2 Vols. By: NWD Date: 2011 . / b.Declassified per Exec uti ve Order 13526. 8. Volume I .) a. .July 1965 / u. Volume III: Program 6 . C. b. 10. 1965-1966 Polish Track Moscow-London Track 1967-1968 '" LESLIE H. 2. 2.) 1./ b. March 1965 / Phase I in the Build-Up of U.

Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3. By: NWD Date: 2011 .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316.

Related Interests


4. Marine Combat Units Go to DaNang, March 1965 /
5. Phase I in the Build-Up of U.S. Forces: March - July 1965 /
6. u.s. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments: 1965 - 1967 (3 Vols.)
a. Volun:e I: Phase II, Program 3, Program 4 ./
b. Volume · II: Program 5 /'
c. Volume III: Program 6 ../
7. Air War in the North: 1965 - 1968 (2 Vols)
a. Volume I ./
b. Volun:e 11 ./
8. Re-emphasis on Pacification: 1965-1967 ./
9. U.S.-GVN Relat ions (2 Vols.)
a. Volume 1: December 1963 : June 1965 ../
b. Volume 2: July' 1965 - December 1967 /
10. Statistical Survey of the War, North and South: 1965 - 1967 '/
V. Justification of t he War (11 Vols.)
A. Public Statements (2 Vols.)
Volume I: A--The Truman Administration }
B--The Eisenhower Administration /.
C--The Kennedy Administration
Volume II: D--The Johnson Administration ~
B. Internal Docun:ents (9 Vols.)
l.
2.

The Roosevelt Administra tion
The Truman Administra tion: (2 Vols.)
a. Volun:e I: 1945-1949
b. Volume II: 1950-1952
The Eisenhower Administration: (4 Vols.)
a. Volume I: 1953 . ./
... ..
b. Volume II: 1954-Geneva vi'
c. Volume III: Geneva Accords 15 March 1956 ./
d. Volume IV: 1956 French Withdrawal - 1960 /'
4. The Kennedy Administration (2 Vola.)
Book I
Book II
VI . Settlement of the Conflict (6 Vols.)
A. Negotiations, 1965-67: The Public Record
. ~
B. Negotiations, 1965-67: Announced Position Statements .,/
C. Histories of Contacts (4 Vola.)
1. 1965-1966
2. Polish Track
3.
4.
Moscow-London Track
1967-1968
'"
LESLIE H. GELB
Chairman, OSD Task Force
Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011

T. By: NWD Date: 2011 EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT TLE JJ AL HH8 TMT RMM LA 8F JM KDA F<HM RTC JC NP PW HC8 S/ S-I S / S-O S / S-S S I S-EX [J [J [J ACTION COMMENTS PLEASE FOLLOW UP ME 3' PLEASE SEE ! [J [J [J [J INFORMATION YOUR FILES PER CONVERSATION REMARKS I T. JR. Section 3. ELIOT . MILLER R. H. R.CURRAN X22S40 X23126 X28448 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . L .

~~~~~--~~~-~~~~----~~~~--~~~~~--~~~~--~~~~~---------{ 23 JU~1e 197 1 Top Secret Control Officer . Date. Se cDefl Classi f i ed Control Secti on . The Pentagon. iurnish. ATTEN TION: 20520 Document Control/SecUr't Y Off lcer.Ta sk Force l si Leslie H. EDWARDS . Room 3A948 .TATE I JuL 1 b 1871 OFFI f OF .0295/69 Arms Control) . / 1 Inclosure ::::::::: I NCLOSURE # 1: CONFIDENTIAL Document. US Army. Katzenback . O Viet nam Task Forc e (U) \. OSD . W ACTIO~ TO: 0tate Department.ional di s t ribution was furnished. 20301 Pent agon . Top Secret Contro l Offic er P r inted 0' t ype d n ame of offi c I a l SI QnLJ ture SO 1 I. Chief Clerk. Bundy and ~. Holzer. Rm3A948 . W h' ng t on. By: NWD Date: 2011 S8c:::Jef /CCS Regr ading Action II 35 -71 O AT E OF FICE Or: THE SECRETARY OF DEFEt-tSE REGRADING FROM: ~ .' n 1969 If you have any questions concerning this reg ading action p~ease contact SFC William C. D• C• ' l as l DOCUMENT (TYPe.76131 -: . Subject : Fi nal Report. MAJ .Declassified per Exec utive Order 13526. C. Ollice oi OrigIn.v~ offi ce.ed. : ecDeflC lassifi ~ d Control Sec ·ion. Subject : OSD Vi et nam Ta sk " Force Outline of St udi es (U). OASD(I Sh ) . D. The ashington.. From Cha i rman. It i s re- T.I A '( 6 0 FORM 375- G44763 . USA . B. Ge l b.RITY The doeument(s) listed sbave has/ have be en regraded and seHan s hould be taken to mark copies quested that you natiiy all recipients to whom ad dit. dated 15 SD J anuar y 1969 . SecDefControl# CONFI DENTIAL Thru: ASD/I SA and DASD (Policy Planni ng and 1x. Su bj fie :) CONTROL " nvm a ER I CLASSI FICATION REGRADED TO M emorandum for the Secretary of D efense .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . Sectio n 3. Phone : OX. dtd 10 Januar y 1969----------------------------------------- UNCLASS IFIED ! W HEN SEPARATEI' FROM I NCLOSURl REMAINS CONFIDENTIAL /i/ii//III/NOTHING FOLLowsllllll/IIIIII/I/II/ Document was forwarded to both Mr..

By: NWD Date: 2011 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316.

. I: _-------:---- ... ..Declassified per Executive Order 13526. . Section 3. By: NWD Date: 2011 FINAL REPORT . cant ~.. _ ...OSD Task Force. Vietnam & INDEX · ' .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316. - ..

THROUGH: SUBJECT: Mr. Our guidance prohibi~ed personal interviews with any of the prinCipal participants.Declassified per Executive Order 13526. and the Task Force received access to CIA materials. and distortions we are sure abound in these studies..::. we included the whole paper in the Documentary Record section of the Task Force studies (Parts V and VI. was irrelevant. McNamara gave the Task Force full access to OSD files. we vrere to' complete our work in three months. what seemed to us key documents were reviewed and included in several overlapping in substance.desired to say only a part and sometimes ioTTitten very openly but alsQ contradictorily. ..checked and rechecked with ant-like diligence. but only to supplement them. . sometimes ioTTitten by very clever men who knew so much and . ""ltV ~ . By: NWD Date: 2011 OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEfENSE WASHINGTON. Morton R..' ~. 4 J ~j . but separate. and perhaps that one. Without the memories of people to tell us.C. ~ "' -~. A year and a half later. ' '_ "".:: ~! WHEN SEPARATED FROM 'L ." With six full-time professionals assigned to the Task Force. when we felt we could be challenged with taking something out of context. as a history based solely on documents -. Paul C. though commented upon. We never used these sources to supplant the classified documents. we turned to newspapers. Moreover. to fill in gaps. and some use of State Department cables and memQranda. Mr. To bring the documents to life. we were certain to make mistakes. .. Again seeking to fend off inevitable mistakes in interpretation and context. studies. Warnke. Secretary Robert S. Section 3. ASD/ISA . A and B) • . DASD/Policy Planning and Arms Control/ISA Final Report.' . we tried both to have a number of researchers look at them and to quote passages liberally. and with the involvement of six times six professionals. 1967.. and books.i . are not immediately self-revealing or selfexplanatory. I Dr.--Io4 • ENCLOSURE~ .. we are finally done to the tune of thirty-seven studies and fifteen collections of documents contained in forty-three volumes. using those memories might have been misleading as ioTell.. formidable and suggestive by th emselves~ could have meant much or ·nothing .-:~ ~ .The result ioras not so much a documentary history. 20301 15 January 1969 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE . periodicals. McNamara directed that a Task Force be formed to study the history of United States involvement in Vietnam from World W II to the present. And because these documents .a. OSD Vietnam Task Force On June 17. and just to see what the "outside world" was thinking. We had no access to White House files. Yet. This approach to research was bound to lead to distortions. MY. ~ . Perhaps this document was never sent anywhere. ~ . McNamara's guidance was simply to ar do studies that were "encyclopedic and objective. In the beginning. D.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316. Halperin. Pieces of paper. If UNCLASSIfIED ' r.

style and interest of the studies varies considerably. OSD Task Force I C· w~' 1 . The chronologies highlight each important event or action in the monograph by means of date} description} and documentary source.. to me. The papers in Parts I. with an average of four months per man. we all had our prejudices and axes to grind and these shine through clearly at times. ":-. and most were unable} given the unhappiness of their superiors} to finish the studies they began. We could not go into the minds of the decision-makers..Outline of Studies LESLIE H. and necessity -.'lJ1iJCLASSIFIED ~ JWHaEN SEPARATED FROM ' ENCLO?URE'.alL interweavingly working together as one. attempt to capture the main themes and facts of the monographs --and to make some judgments and speculations which mayor may not appear in the text itself.~ Encl .. especially on the first Kennedy year in office} the Diem coup} and on the ' subjects of the deployment of ground forces} the decisions surrounding the bombing campaign against North Vietnam} US-GVN relations. We had a sense of doing something important and of t~e need to do it right.. each heir dutifully trying to pick up the threads of his predecessor.C)} the records were bountiful. : _ ." Some came for a month} for three months} for six months." Our studies have tried to reflect this thought. The quality.A} concerning the years 1945 to 1961 tend to be generally non-startling--although there are many interesting tidbits. and attempts at negotiating a settlement of the conflict. chance by turn rules either and has the last featuring blow at events. The monographs themselves stick.Declassified per Executive Order 13526. II} III} and IV. we were not present at the deCisions. . especially where that current event is Vietnam} is a treacherous exercise. free will. . by and large} to the documents and do not tend to be analytical..3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 .B and C and VI. From 1961 onwards (Parts IV. Of course. decided against it. we had thirty-six professionals working on these studies. Because many of the documents in this period were lost or not kept (except for the Geneva Conference era) we had to rely more on outside resources. and writing process. inevitably in the organizing . In all. ' ._" I • 2 . and we often could not tell whether something happened because someone decided it. Almost all the studies contain both a Summary and Analysis and a Chronology. Writing hist017} especially where it blends into current events. or most likely because it unfolded from the situation. they appear to assign more and less to men and free will than was the case. History.1 The people who worked on the Task Force were superb--uniforrnly bright and interested} although not always versed in the art of research. _ ) .~ . has been expressed by a passage from Herman Melville's Moby Dick where he writes: "This is a world of chance. GELB Chairman. By: NWD Date: 2011 ! I r I. . but we tried} we think} to suppress or compensate for them. which I wrote. Section 3. These outstanding people came from everywhere--the military services} State} OSD} and the "think tanks.~ " "I " ' ... ~\i . Almost all the studies had several authors.. • . The Summary and Analysis sections.

By: NWD Date: 2011 :z: o fT1 >< . Section 3.3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 .Declassified per Executive Order 13526.

. Section 3.S. MAP for Diem: 1. Policy. C.S. 1962-64--" The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem. .S. U. .. 3. July .December 1964 V / ROLLllfG THUNDER Program Begins: January .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316 . Vietnam and the U. D. 4.) A. Vols. France and Vietnamese Nationalism Toward a Negotiated Settlement V01.October 1964 .Honolulu Military Pressures Against. C.) ~ III./ c. 4• 5• The Eisenhower Commitments.) A.) B. J. U. February ./ . 5.S. ~ u. Involvement in the Franco-Viet Minh War.) NA'ID and SEATO: A Comparison j Aid for France in Indochina. 1940-1950 (1 Vol. U• S.NSAM 288 -. By: NWD Date: 2011 1/10/69 OSD VIETNAM TASK FORCE OUTLINE OF S':ru1)IES INDEX (1 Vo 1 • ) I. The Kennedy Commitments and Programs. 1940-50 The Character and Power of the Viet Minh Ho Chi Minh: Asian Tito7 II. Programs in South Vietnam. 1961-63 "/ The Advisory Build-up. 1954-59 .June 1965 . May-Nov. Counterinsurgency: 1. U. B.) a. 1950-54 ~ U. Forces in Vietnam. 1954-1960 (5 Vols. 1961-1963 (5 Vols. 1961/ Strategic Hamlet Program. B. 3. Origins of the Insurgency -/ The Kennedy Commitments. 1954-56 "/ U• S. C.S.Declassified per Executi ve Order 13526. 1950-1954 (1 A. November 1963-April 1965: / NSAM 273 -. Training of Vietname se National Army. 1963 ~ The Johnson Commitments.June 1964 ~ b. 2." NVN (3 Vols.S. 1964-1968 (16 Vols. November . 2.S. Evolution of the War (26. B.) Direct Action: 1. 2. U. and France's Withdrawal from "Vietnam. The Geneva Accords (1 Vol. Military Planning and Diplomatic Maneuver Role and Obligations of State of Vietnam Viet Minh Position and Sino-Soviet Strategy The Intent of the Geneva Accords rv .S. 1961-67 ~ / Phased Withdrawal of U.) ~ A..

~ Internal Docun:ents (9 Vols. Forces: March . Volume I: 1953 . Program 4 .1960 / ' The Kennedy Administration (2 Vola. Volume · II: Program 5 /' c. B. GELB Chairman. / d. Volume 1: December 1963 : June 1965 .. 1965-67: The Public Record Announced Position Statements . ---.-GVN Relat ion s (2 Vols..s..) ar A. North and South: 1965 . OSD Task Force . Marine Combat Units Go to DaNang. Volume I: Truman Administra tion } Eisenhower Administration Kennedy Administration Johnson Administration /.3 NND P roject Number: NND 633 16 ./ Air War in the North: 1965 .. 9./ . 1965-67: Negotiations. Volun:e I: Phase II.. 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r".1967 ' / Justifica tion of t he W (11 Vols.) a.) a..1968 (2 Vols) a. Volume III: Geneva Accords 15 March 1956 .December 1967 / Statistical Survey of the War.) a. 3· 4.) A.S. Volume II: 1954-Geneva vi' c. Sectio n 3. 4.. Volun:e 11 . .) Book I Book II .1967 (3 Vols. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments: 1965 .S./ U. 5. Program 3./ b. . Volume IV: 1956 French Withdrawal . 7./ Histories of Contacts (4 Vola. Volun:e I: 1945-1949 b. Negotiations. Volume 2: July' 1965 . 6. / Re-emphasis on Pacification: 1965-1967 ... 4.' " C . Settleme nt of the Conflict (6 Vols.~ VI .) l. Volume II: 1950-1952 The Eisenhower Administration: (4 Vols.) A--The B--The C--The Volume II: D--The B. The Roosevelt Administra tion The Truman Administra tion: (2 Vols. V.. Public Statements (2 Vols. By: NWD Date: 2011 . / b.Declassified per Exec uti ve Order 13526. 8. Volume I .) a. .July 1965 / u. Volume III: Program 6 . C. b. 10. 1965-1966 Polish Track Moscow-London Track 1967-1968 '" LESLIE H. 2. 2.) 1./ b. March 1965 / Phase I in the Build-Up of U.

Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3. By: NWD Date: 2011 .3 NND Project Number: NND 63316.

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