# Considerations

60

2.0 uS

34 kA

1.25 ft

12 kV

Arrester and Line Lead Simulator 50 Voltage in kV and Current in kA

40

30

20

10

0
-1 -10 Time in uS 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

From IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Overhead Distribution Lines ****IEEE 1410-1997 ****
Enter lightning stoke level in kA This is the probability of any given stroke being of at least this magnitude 30 53%

Probability Io>i0 100%

io in kA 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

Peak Current Distribution of the First Stroke of a Lightning Flash

98% 93% 83%

140

68% 53% 39% 29% 21% 15% 11% 8% 7% 5% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

120

100

80

60

40

P ( Io>) = 1/1+ (i0/31)exp2.6

20

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Line Protection Calculators
The purpose of this section is to help the user determine the optimum location of arresters in long lines with few distribution transformers connected. In these cases, the calculators below reslove some of the questions, but in the next edition of the Optimizer, all the necessary modules will be availble.

Start Page

Rev 2008.1 9-08 Ruzensky

UltraSIL Catalog Literature

The Optimizer 2008.1
Maximize your System's Reliability with the Optimum Arrester!
Optimizer FAQ Losses Calculator Line Protection Calculators

Arrester Rating Recommendation Interactive Arrester Comparison New Features of this Edition

Lightning Simulation through an Arrester Overhead Margin of Protection Calculator

MOV AC Conduction

Power Systems

Page 4

New Features of 2003.8 released June 2003
1. Aged BIL can be selected 60-95% 2. The voltage drop across the lead length can be calculated based on faster rising lightning stroke. 3. Optimizer FAQ page

4. System characteristics are change on the screen where they are used.
5. Metal Oxide Varistor conduction simulation. See how to measure resistive and capacitive currents and how they are affected by applied voltage. 6. Lightning simulation and the effects of lead length with examples of how to idenfity the lead length to count. 7. Calculate the probability of a lightning strike in your area of the country. 8. Use the stand alone margin of protection calculator.

10. Links to the Cooper website are embedded.

22 and IEEE 1410-1997 If the screen is not sized correct. Functions of the Optimizer 1. students.About the Optimizer What is the Optimizer? This is a program that can assist users. specifiers. Joslyn and Ohio Brass distribution arresters. 2. and almost anyone involved in distribution arresters. sellers. Jon Woodworth . Recommends the optimum arrester rating from each manufacturer based on user entered data. Shows Lead length effects 5. use the excel zoom option to fit to screen. 3. Helps predict the occurance of a strike to a line Sources of Data All the data in this calculator is public and found in catalogs except the Watts Loss data which comes from lab tests. Clearly and easily compares all critical characteristics of Cooper. Runs simulation of the arrester 4. Calculation and Recommendation Methods The calculation methods are all from IEEE C62.

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the fault factor is 1.4kV.4 Step 3 From the TOV curves of the arrester type. it can withstand 14. This is also found in the Raw TOV data in the Optimizer Step 4 Based on the Fault Factor as determined from the system type. Page 10 .73.4kV) arrester. determine the TOV capability of the arrester. the UltraSIL VariSTAR Arrester can withstand a TOV of 1. Max L-G Voltage * Fault Factor = Expected temporary Overvoltage during a fault Fault Factors are shown to the right of the selected system type on Data Input Page For a Delta system.2kV for 100 seconds before failure.42 times its MCOV. so for a L-G voltage of 8.40 10. this value is Rating = MCOV = 10 8.92 Step 2 From the Rating/MCOV Table Find the MCOV rating of the arrester that exceeds the line to ground voltage of the system MCOV of the arrester must be greater than the Max L-G voltage long term For a Cooper VariSTAR arrester based on the inputted data.5% 7. Step 5 Using the published TOV data. This means for a 10kV (MCOV=8. the TOV can go to 14. Max L-G =( L-L Voltage / 1. calculate the voltage level attained across the arrester during a fault.52kV for the duration of the clearing device.73 ) *( Regulation Error +1) Based on the Data Input Screen the Values are as shown below System voltage= Regulation Error = L to G voltage = 12. Example: According the published data.Rating Recommendation Logic Arrester MCOV Selection Logic Step 1 Calculate the maximum line to ground voltage on the system. determine the necessary Arrester TOV rating that exceeds the maximum L-G voltage during a ground fault This is done by dividing the MCOV rating by the TOV factor on the TOV curve.

Page 11 .52kV which is beyond the capability of this rateing of arrester. Step 7 The final step is to determine the larger of the two MCOV ratings as calculated in Step 2 and 6. This means at least a 12kV arrester is needed for this application. Example: For a 100 second fault. The greater of these two is the minimum MCOV rating for this application. the TOV rating of a 10kV UltraSIL arrester is 14.Rating Recommendation Logic Step 6 Determine the Arrester rating that has at least the TOV rating as determined in step 5 and this is the arrester rating that can be used for this system in question.2kV but the voltage on the selected system can reach 14.

Rating Recommendation Logic Page 12 .

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Rating Recommendation Logic Page 18 .

0 8.5 27.0 24.5 36. value is kV kV Page 19 .0 10.0 30.10 9.0 24.2 15.7 18.0 15.0 2.0 17.0 19.4 33.0 12.0 22.Rating Recommendation Logic Data Input Screen e as shown below kV kV Arrester Rating MCOV kV kV 3.0 27.0 7.55 6.40 12.0 29.0 Cooper VariSTAR on the inputted data.0 5.65 10.3 21.

Rating Recommendation Logic Page 20 .

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Rating Recommendation Logic Page 36 .

9 9.Published Discharge Characteristics UltraSIL UltraSIL UltraSIL Normal duty Normal Duty Heavy Duty VariSTAR VariGAP VariSTAR Rating 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 10k A 1/10 13 25 36 37 47 59 71 75 87 99 110 123 132 Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariGAP UltraSIL Riser Pole VariSTAR UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP OB Normal OB Heavy Duty Duty Optima OB Riser Pole Joslyn Normal Duty 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 500 500 500 500 500 500 5kA 500 500 500 A 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 1/10 A A A 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 11 8.8 10 9.9 7.4 7.2 7 14 12 8.6 9.9 20 10 7.6 19 10 7.9 7.4 12 9.1 18 9.1 6.5 11 9.6 0 0 23 17 25 22 17 23 20 16 23 20 15 24 20 16 21 19 14 23 18 14 28 25 17 21 20 15 20 18 13 0 0 33 25 27 24 19 33 30 23 32 24 18 30 23 17 30 27 21 29 20 16 37 33 23 31 29 22 27 25 18 30 31 34 26 28 26 19 34 32 24 32 25 19 32 23 18 31 28 21 31 21 16 41 36 24 34 32 24 30 27 20 33 34 43 33 39 35 27 43 40 30 52 32 24 36 32 25 39 35 27 35 29 22 56 49 31 40 38 29 36 33 24 0 0 54 41 43 39 29 54 48 37 55 39 29 42 35 27 49 44 34 41 32 24 65 58 40 51 48 37 44 41 29 0 0 64 49 52 47 36 65 60 45 65 48 36 48 43 33 58 53 40 47 39 30 75 66 46 61 56 44 53 49 36 60 61 68 52 55 50 38 69 63 48 65 51 38 54 46 35 62 56 43 53 42 32 83 73 51 68 64 49 61 56 40 0 0 80 60 69 63 48 80 73 56 88 59 44 59 57 43 72 66 50 58 52 40 103 91 63 82 76 59 71 65 47 0 0 90 68 78 71 54 91 85 63 97 68 51 65 65 49 81 74 56 64 59 45 112 99 71 92 86 66 79 72 52 0 0 100 76 82 75 57 101 92 70 117 74 55 71 69 52 91 83 63 70 62 47 123 108 78 101 94 73 89 81 59 0 0 112 85 91 83 63 113 105 78 120 84 63 77 76 57 100 91 69 76 69 52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120 91 96 88 67 121 111 84 130 89 66 82 80 61 108 98 74 81 73 55 150 132 92 121 113 87 105 96 70 0 0 .7 12 11 8.

Joslyn Joslyn Joslyn Riser Normal Duty Heavy Duty Pole 500 A User Entered Arrester 1 User Entered Arrester 2 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 10k 500 500 500 500 Ratin A A A A A A A A A A A A g 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 1/10 8/20 0 10 10 8 9 9 6.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 21 21 16 17 19 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 24 31 30 23 26 25 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 26 35 32 26 29 27 21 0 0 0 22 20 14 10 0 41 39 31 34 33 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 52 48 39 43 41 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 47 62 58 47 51 49 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 72 62 54 60 56 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 83 78 62 68 66 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 0 93 87 70 77 73 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 0 103 97 78 86 82 62 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 0 124 116 93 103 97 75 114 96 75 0 0 0 36 .

5 1.26 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.34 1.TOV Data All TOV calculations in the Optimizer are based on this database.58 1.51 1.5 1.34 1.5 1.78 1.62 1.78 1.59 1.43 1.5 1.34 1.42 1.78 1.69 1.68 1.78 1.72 1.78 1.34 1.59 1.27 1.78 1.62 1.42 1.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 1000000 1.42 1.26 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.78 1.72 1.68 1.78 1.27 1.2 1. To change the data.35 1.5 1.33 1.5 1.6 1. just chang UltraSIL HeavyNormal Duty Arrester UltraSIL UltraSIL Normal Normal duty Duty VariSTAR VariGAP UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR Evolution UltraSIL URT Riser Pole Arrester VariSTAR UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP OB Normal Duty 0.01 0.2 .78 1.78 1.72 1.

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61 1.46 1.OB Riser 10kV Pole Joslyn Normal Duty Joslyn Heavy Duty Joslyn Riser Pole 1.3 1.18 1.22 1.16 1.29 1.45 1.46 1.3 1.705 1.43 1.52 1.46 1.2 1.46 1.2 .42 1.72 1.63 1.7 1.2 1.5 1.39 1.26 1. just change the data in the cell OB Heavy Duty Optima 9.4 1.31 1.45 1.2 1.47 1.45 1.33 1.622 1.46 1.47 1.533 1.change the data.7 1.45 1.72 1.54 1.

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80% 218.74% 39.8 32.0 42.96% 11.35% 5.2 6 22.01% 289.4 39.67% 15.83% 38.86% 326.04% 28.04% 45.24% 38.10% 6.15% 8.30% 365.73% 15.1 9.1 25.00% -15.85% 238.30% 19.36% 145.51% -2.18% -20.7 18.55% 195.13% 195.63% 139.81% -9.56% 52.1 37.48% 30.63% 178.60% URS 910.2 12 42.6 25.52% -14.3 28.74% UHG 831.75% 98.41% URT 831.5 32.6 39.8 20.9 25.3 35.35% 128.03% 142.50% 189.4 23.2 9.9 10.5 27 20.45% 77.15% 4.8 24.00% 34.33% 318.4 10 34.08% 168.59% 121.Calculator Evolution URT Arrester 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 UNS 733.37% 82.69% 348.92% 59.37% 26.2 10.9 35.7 31.90% 2.45% 272.44% -5.4 9.48% 25.69% 322.55% 168.58% 69.74% 146.38% 13.69% 61.16% 274.40% 50.00% 52.3 20.29% 97.7 22.8 22.4 29.75% 62.88% 121.3 19.4 29.12% 39.60% 379.95% 152.4 11.29% 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV DV Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 33.42% 79.02% 251.1 21.42% 66.49% Normal Duty 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Heavy Duty & URT 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV MOP Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 180.4 9 32.20% UHS 859.66% URG 932.34% 272.9 49.8 23.71% 28.79% 200.61% 416.36% 115.12% 168.98% 299.74% 87.66% 139.37% 365.08% 46.36% 120.70% 90.24% 47.64% 408.42% 107.4 Page 179 .32% 29.83% 18.7 Rating UltraSIL Normal duty VariSTAR UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAPEvolution URT Arrester Duty VariGAP VariSTAR VariGAP UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR Heavy UltraSIL UltraSIL Riser Pole Riser Pole UltraSIL 3 11.24% 93.11% 223.02% 198.73% 194.4 18.5 31.48% 101.22% 307.83% UNG 755.37% 367.

9 92.5 73.51% 119.08% UHS 823.7 47.04% 137.7 68.44% 405.08% 100.98% 191.9 56.2 73.2 41.1 52.83% 283.54% 165.6 64.57% 140.7 75 82.30% URG 891.20% 144.5 70.33% 97.5 47.15% 190.94% 233.17% 397.8 50.87% UNG 727.3 68.4 68.5 90.8 Input Options for Arrester Type This is the source data for comparative drop down list UltraSIL ND VariSTAR UltraSIL ND VariGAP Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL HD VariGAP UltraSIL RP VariSTAR UltraSIL RP VariGAP OB PDV-65 ND OB Optima OB PVR RP Joslyn ZNP ND Joslyn ZHP HD Joslyn ZRP Normal Duty Heavy Duty Riser Pole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 This is the kv to add to the dis voltage from the lead leng System Fault Factor Selection page) 1 2 3 4 5 Four Wire Multi-Grounded Spacer Cable Three Wire Low Impedance Grou Three Wire High Impedance Gro Delta 5 This is the logic and selection table for the competitive comparison calcu Arr 1 Arrester Type Drop down position selected and Type Name --------> Arrester Rating Drop down location and Rating -----------> Arr 2 6 UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 7 18 9 OB Optima 7 18 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 UNS 706.75% 357.2 79.8 82.18% 218.17% UHG 797.17% 301.1 100 112 120 38.6 90.76% 197.13% 340.6 68 74 84 89 35.50% 143.6 32.80% 357.68% 165.2 64.48% URS 871.35% 58.01% 96.50% 118.58% 186.6 72.72% 214.57% 78.01% Page 180 .6 63.5 87.1 44.9 97.34% 267.5 80.38% 318.1 84.8 57.75% 359.4 105 111 38.2 39.05% 165.50% 113.98% 46.30% 175.Calculator 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 53.13% 315.6 58.49% 75.31% 311.1 50 62.47% 195.1 45.34% 292.94% 370.8 62.4 43.85% 246.6 52 58.2 65.85% 268.8 48 59.6 75.38% URT 797.

72% 25.5 105 84 75.20% 28.39% -9.62% 4.99% -5.4 33 112 82.29% 105.4 29.2 18 64.1 21.04% 126.5 62.8 22.7 18.8 58.56% 51.62% 7.52% 51.34% 61.7 84.9 10.6 24 79.7 31.5 73.4 9.97% 37.07% 38.4 10 34.40% 2.4 15 53.85% -14.Calculator 21 24 27 30 33 36 38.3 47.1 70.7 73.2 50.6 82.2 65.4 9 32.2 9.5 90.4 29.93% 27.72% 12.6 Page 181 .6 62.6 25.5 52 27 90.04% 67.78% 4.5 31.8 20.28% 11.31% FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE 56.4 74 68.9 35.90% 44.31% 97.4 11.3 19.1 58.41% 29.08% 88.4 23.8 32.1 59.9 56.9 68.4 ARR 1 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT MOP DV ARR 2 Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT MOP DV ARR 3 Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE 67.2 12 42.30% 67.71% 86.8 56.29% 81.65% 26.1 52.08% 33.3 20.4 FALSE Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD MOP DV FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Rating UltraSIL Normal duty VariSTAR UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAPEvolution URT Arrester Duty VariGAP VariSTAR VariGAP UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR Heavy UltraSIL UltraSIL Riser Pole Riser Pole UltraSIL 3 11.7 22.19% 18.02% 14.8 30 100 75 92.07% -3.2 21 68.5 35.06% 14.8 23.6 45.36% -15.3 28.8 43.36% 60.98% 45.6 47.71% 64.2 50 63.72% 29.73% 49.32% 37.58% 6.9 39.81% 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR Optima OB Evolution URT ArresterUltraSIL RP VariSTAR OB Optima 78.5 27 20.52% 18.8 24.6 38.2 6 22.1 32.4 44.7 48 38.2 10.4 18.6 57.3 35.4 39.9 68 64.17% 52.1 9.1 25.2 41.47% -21.

26 1.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Infinite Output of above Inquire 3 TOV Data 0 UltraSIL Normal duty VariSTAR UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAP Heavy.000 0.000 0.455 0.01 1.000 0.34 1.43 2 100 1.103 23.000 0.26 1.5 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 0.5 2 1.78 1.Normal Duty Arrester UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR UltraSIL Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL Riser Pole VariSTAR 0.78 1.000 0.72 1.6 2 1 1.78 1.59 2 1.51 2 10 1.000 0.78 2 1.59 2 1.000 0.8 111 89 80.38 kV Data for input screen 0.2 1.42 2 1.000 0.34 1.78 1.72 1000000 1.1 1.8 TOV Data This is the kv to add to the discharge voltage from the lead length 0.72 1.42 2 1.6 72.78 2 1.5 1.000 0.35 2 1000 1.5 2 1.68 2 1.78 1.000 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 0.78 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR Optima OB Evolution URT Arrester 23.600 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Page 182 .27 1.000 0.000 0.5 1.000 0.27 2 10000 1.455 30.000 23.34 2 1.000 0.34 2 1.000 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 0.78 1.1 97.Calculator 36 120 87.01 0.78 1.69 2 0.68 2 1.

218 Page 183 .524 16.800 13.116 16.218 16.637 16.692 15.Calculator 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV Joslyn ZNP NDB PDV-65 ND O UltraSIL ND VariSTAR ND VariGAP OB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL Joslyn ZHP HD 13.

2 24.06% #VALUE! -15.57% 94.88% 65.04% 30.67% 11.5 33 29 24.37% 358.Calculator Evolution URT Arrester OB PDV-65 OB PDV-100 672.14% #VALUE! -2.01% 131.96% #VALUE! -18.04% -12.76% 379.5 35.99% 10 kV 192.74% 68.36% 859.70% 69.2 9.74% #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! Joslyn ZHP 831.9 9.4 21.33% 63.94% 17.13% 287.94% 220.76% 251.66% 98.6 32.5 19.3 32.5 33.51% 283.3 27.79% 52.73% 10 kV 247.14% 4.95% 146.7 18.34% 45.1 27.27% 70.44% 49.04% Joslyn ZNP #VALUE! #VALUE! 211.5 38.5 30.31% 134.38% 31.22% 43.17% Joslyn ZJP 932.99% 187.85% 192.1 10.71% 92.1 Page 184 .28% #VALUE! -1.61% 413.94% 30.24% #VALUE! #VALUE! 55.3 9.03% 152.85% OB PVR 943.2 OB Normal Duty OB Heavy Duty Optima OB Riser Pole Normal Duty Heavy Duty Riser Pole Joslyn Joslyn Joslyn 12.86% 46.06% 247.11% 10 kV UltraSIL EX UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 25.96% 419.82% -1.61% 24.9 32.3 20.5 29.06% 10 kV 10 kV Riser Pole 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 274.98% 22.8 18.89% 200.27% 8.36% 12 kV 348.31% 12 kV 168.8 36 31.88% 227.63% 93.75% 98.95% 195.6 24.67% 16.48% 180.59% 163.4 23.02% 10 kV 307.60% 287.6 27 33.04% #VALUE! -28.11% 1.80% 187.97% -4.3 49 37.

22% Page 185 .7 81.7 15.5 29 This is the kv to add to the discharge voltage from the lead length 0.8 97 Input Options for Arrester Type 2 Rating 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 MCOV 2.73 petitive comparison calculator Arr 3 3 Evolution URT Arrester 7 18 OB PDV-65 OB PDV-100 649.62% 216.72% Joslyn ZJP 891.5 99 108 132 47.09% 823.33% 161.1 41 49.1 65.33% 96.44% 403.11% #VALUE! #VALUE! 54.4 27.91% 132.51% 281.62% 177.73 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 System Fault Factor Selection Table (From input page) Fault Factor Four Wire Multi-Grounded 1 Spacer Cable 1.13% 97.38% 150.55 5.5 48.35 Three Wire Low Impedance Grounded 1.5 94 112.12% 277.9 58 62.6 64.5 72.65 8.9 116.12% 197.4 Three Wire High Impedance Grounded 1.76% 62.94% 188.73% 129.72% 184.5 66 73 90.2 12.3 17 19.04% 92.1 77.47% 144.9 55.31% OB PVR 901.5 76.77% Joslyn ZHP 797.25% 243.2 85.9 40.80% 246.90% 408.7 87.Calculator 57.11% 67.3 96.94% 281.3 56.86% 192.18% 183.4 10.1 7.80% 370.38% 92.5 22 24.9 72 81 96 61 47.17% 43.77% Joslyn ZNP #VALUE! #VALUE! 207.8 56.57% 91.4 63.73 1.75% 350.58% 223.12% 64.

67% 8.65% #VALUE! -16.5 47.04% 21.9 FALSE FALSE Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Riser Pole FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 97.1 90.5 19.7 65.3 20.9 32.5 29.4 48.8 36 31.3 73 63.53% -4.1 10.6 32.73% #VALUE! -1.8 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE OB Normal Duty OB Heavy Duty Optima OB Riser Pole Normal Duty Heavy Duty Riser Pole Joslyn Joslyn Joslyn 12.5 33 29 24.2 24.9 81.8 18.6 27 33.1 56.35% #VALUE! -18.35% -2.8 Riser Pole Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Riser Pole 78.46% 4.35% #VALUE! -28.5 38.14% 69.62% 0.1 57.5 76.41% -12.1 27.8 40.7 18.Calculator 29.44% 68.60% #VALUE! -2.3 9.5 30.2 9.6 24.05% 10.43% #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 52.30% 52.70% 45.9 61 58 49.17% 47.5 47.45% 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester 47.9 77.52% 31.3 49 37.5 99 85.9 41 66 56.20% 44.71% 24.5 72 87.99% 15.5 55.8 - Page 186 .6 62.2 64.5 33.24% 48.9 9.7 108 94 81 96.3 72.25% 16.20% 29.

43 1.45 1.47 1.2 1.000 0.33 1.000 0.103 0.2 1.7 1.26 1.600 0.000 0.54 1.72 1.705 1.9 96 116.29 1.3 1.45 1.5 1.45 1.52 1.000 Riser Pole 23.46 1.61 1.000 0.000 Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 30.2 1.72 1.3 1.000 0.31 1.46 1.7 1.4 1.1 97 Data for input screen Output of above Inquire 1 OB Normal Duty Duty Optima 9-10kV Pole Normal Duty Heavy Duty Riser Pole OB Heavy OB Riser Joslyn Joslyn Joslyn 1.2 1.533 1.22 1.46 1.45 1.000 Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 0.46 1.Calculator 132 112.62 1.62 1.000 0.622 1.58 1.46 1.000 0.39 1.000 Riser Pole 0.2 1.18 1.000 0.000 Riser Pole Page 187 .000 0.16 1.42 1.47 1.33 1.42 1.2 Riser Pole Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 0.000 0.5 1.63 1.000 0.

952 11.800 14.Calculator 10 kV 10 kV 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL HD VariGAP RPOB PVR RPUltraSIL RP UltraSIL RP VariGAP Joslyn ZJP VariSTAR 16.800 Page 188 .402 16.892 15.760 14.

04% 114.7 25.33% 199.15% 29.2 12.Calculator 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 UNS 566.4 33 10 34.61% UHG 645.63% #VALUE! -42.02% 93.87% 17.21% 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester Joslyn ZNP ND PDV-65UltraSIL ND VariSTARJoslyn ZHPOB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR OB ND UltraSIL ND VariGAP HD DV 33.03% 140.4 23.69% 96.25% 3.70% -9.6 39.67% UNG 584.52% -15.38% 61.42% 181.10% 32.80% 131.3 35.69% 11.36% 52.62% -31.0 42.7 31.68% 283.39% -22.10% 12 kV 77.81% 211.23% 16.55% 237.09% 313.50% 136.52% 20.69% 76.38% 219.4 11.8 24.40% OB PDV-65 517.30% 111.47% 10.3 19.4 29.04% 10 kV 136.4 29.00% 50.49% 158.00% 21.48% 198.21% 138.51% 306.46% 114.79% 10.8 22.48% 170.5 9 32.12% URS 708.78% 226.50% 1.55% 258.87% 77.23% -29.97% -10.88% -13.1 9.48% -17.67% 234.6 25.10% 274.5 27 20.68% 240.67% 35.42% Normal Duty 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Heavy Duty & URT 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester Joslyn ZNP ND PDV-65UltraSIL ND VariSTARJoslyn ZHPOB Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR OB ND UltraSIL ND VariGAP HD MOP 124.4 18.03% 2.69% 72.88% 82.65% -24.8 32.44% 58.1 25.5 31.79% 0.4 9.75% -27.16% 12 kV 198.88% -16.44% -4.79% 4.4 24.51% 91.18% 135.33% 27.34% 43.9 25.89% 210.9 10.84% 155.99% 97.11% 55.00% -32.4 Rating Normal duty Normal Duty VariGAP VariSTAR Heavy Duty VariGAP VariSTAR UltraSIL UltraSIL VariSTAR Heavy Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL Duty UltraSIL UltraSIL Riser UltraSIL Riser Pole OB Normal Duty Pole VariGAP 3 11.5 32.79% 18.20% 11.8 20.20% 130.98% -7.9 35.8 23.16% 41.53% URT 645.60% 7.13% URG 726.33% -7.11% -16.66% -5.3 6 22.9 49.71% 122.44% UHS 667.3 20.2 10.20% 29.29% 114.33% 65.13% 12 kV 91.2 36 12 42.3 28.7 18.02% -23.40% 59.4 39.52% -14.4 49 Page 189 .2 9.1 37.10% 272.7 22.44% 12 kV 199.04% 272.19% 10 kV 55.15% 4.25% 21.17% 15.76% 2.14% -36.69% 46.76% 10 kV 102.1 21.94% 32.

61% 57.4 43.13 North East US 0.70% 232.40% 94.22 Southeast Asia 0.90% 31.6 72.26 Lead Length Feet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 1 This table is only used for loss calculations Internal Watts Loss (w/kv) Evolution URT Arrester 0.06 0.40% 74.79% 17.55% 166.2 73.78% URS 676.9 56.6 90.14% 220.92% 132.40% 70.8 48 59.17 Coastal 0.67% 108.05 0.19% 133.1 44.9 92.1 84.03 1 Results of selection --> 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 UNS 545.8 57.04% 120.7 75 82.03 0.64% 265.5 99 108 132 Used for watts loss calculations 1 0.3 68.5 87.46% 60.7 68.07% 206.23 Tropic 0.26% 92.78% 136.5 90.46% 57.44% 127.5 73.003 Joslyn ZRP 0.1 45.17 Location % wet Florida 0.89% 53.63% 89.01 OB PVR RP 0.28% 177.26% 129.15% 304.26 Sub Tropic 0.1 Midwest US 0.70% URT 618.1 100 112 120 38.14 Joslyn ZNP ND 0.15% 155.64% URG 693.47% 214.06% UHS 639.9 97.4 68.59% 40.6 32.81% 137.20% 267.15% 276.5 66 73 90.06 UltraSIL HD VariSTAR Joslyn ZHP HD UltraSIL ND VariSTAR UltraSIL RP VariGAP UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 0.Calculator 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 53.84% 112.16 South East US 0.30% 14.5 80.8 82.6 58.01% OB PDV-65 499.02 0.50% UNG 561.6 75.16% 95.90% 235.6 63.6 68 74 84 89 35.2 41.6 52 58.1 50 62.08% 26.40% 75.20% 265.1 52.49% Page 190 .67% 193.64% 112.8 57.7 47.05 Coastal Northwest 0.2 79.94% 298.57% 151.5 70.2 65.5 47.2 64.02 OB Optima 0.4 105 111 38.05 OB PDV-65 ND 0.8 50.6 64.8 62.54% 112.02 UltraSIL HD VariGAP 0.86% 42.27% 205.2 39.70% 252.05% 229.74% UHG 618.03 UltraSIL ND VariGAP 0.28% 194.

7 18.9 39.5 35.4 108 33 112 82.09% -27.85% 56.6 73 24 79.82% -8.8 23.85% 3.9 FALSE FALSE ARR 1 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Evolution URT Arrester Joslyn ZNP ND PDV-65UltraSIL ND VariSTARJoslyn ZHPOB PDV-100 HD HD VariSTAR OB ND UltraSIL ND VariGAP HD UltraSIL MOP DV ARR 2 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Normal Duty FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Heavy Duty & URT Evolution URT Arrester Joslyn ZNP ND PDV-65UltraSIL ND VariSTARJoslyn ZHPOB PDV-100 HD HD VariSTAR OB ND UltraSIL ND VariGAP HD UltraSIL MOP DV FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE 33.82% -4.29% -32.3 28.87% 50.6 62.8 24.88% -31.4 44.57% -16.7 73.85% 57.2 36 12 42.74% 52.57% 31.86% 6.2 50.99% 16.98% -16.8 99 30 100 75 92.4 18.74% -22.57% 34.37% -36.85% 11.45% -8.78% 10.6 25.5 31.42% 21.05% 10.5 18 64.1 70.32% 15.5 73.81% 19.01% -24.5 9 32.53% -29.59% 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAREvolution URT ArresterUltraSIL RP VariSTAR Optima OB Optima OB Evolution URT Arrester 42.4 39.9 10.07% 28.2 9.7 31.4 9.4 29.1 52.88% #VALUE! -42.9 68.74% 47.8 22.8 56.Calculator 21 24 27 30 33 36 10.2 12.88% -18.5 52 90.2 65.53% 3.93% -14.14% 2.9 35.3 35.5 105 84 75.8 32.5 27 20.4 49 15 53.3 19.6 57.16% -5.7 48 38.3 6 22.2 57.5 62.38% -23.4 11.6 45.6 47.17% 3.03% 45.09% 28.7 84.85% 20.4 74 68.3 47.5 27 90.30% -13.17% 0.18% -9.1 59.2 66 21 68.92% 0.2 50 63.8 20.4 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE ARR 3 Normal Duty Heavy Duty & URT Evolution URT Arrester Joslyn ZNP ND PDV-65UltraSIL ND VariSTARJoslyn ZHPOB PDV-100 HD HD VariSTAR OB ND UltraSIL ND VariGAP HD UltraSIL MOP DV FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE 57.4 33 10 34.1 9.2 41.77% 49.8 58.4 24.1 25.1 32.4 23.5 90.8 43.1 21.9 68 64.6 38.2 10.43% 81.1 58.36% 2.64% 33.7 22.43% -10.8 Rating Normal duty Normal Duty VariGAP VariSTAR Heavy Duty VariGAP VariSTAR UltraSIL UltraSIL VariSTAR Heavy Evolution URT Arrester UltraSIL Duty UltraSIL UltraSIL Riser UltraSIL Riser Pole OB Normal Duty Pole VariGAP 3 11.3 20.97% 64.4 29.30% -16.6 Page 191 .6 82.

8 132 Page 192 .Calculator 36 120 87.1 97.6 72.8 111 89 80.

Calculator Page 193 .

15% 310.94% -21.5 29.3 27.68% 283.09% #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! -20.4 21.10% 5.75% 19.69% -0.5 38.39% 133.19% -12.1 27.10% 726.6 24.26% -11.30% #VALUE! 267.16% 35.8 18.1 10.Calculator Optima 667.54% -7.03% 22.17% #VALUE! #VALUE! 24.3 37.2 OB Heavy Duty Optima OB RiserJoslyn Normal Duty Pole Joslyn Heavy Duty Riser Pole Joslyn 9.85% 114.03% 4.83% #VALUE! -34.66% 31.69% 17.13% 59.5 33.48% 124.76% 178.61% 85.5 29 24.3 32.09% 315.84% 162.07% 140.5 35.37% 54.8 31.3 20.16% #VALUE! 645.19% 136.11% -19.39% 133.69% 258.42% 36.65% 55.7 18.6 27 33.76% 206.40% 58.59% #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! 97.00% 34.2 19.20% 149.54% -21.2 9.5 30.47% 16.85% 87.18% 156.6 32.51% 102.15% #VALUE! -32.56% -6.81% 210.9 9.9 32.65% Arrester Arrester Model 10 kV Riser Pole 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV VariStar UltraSIL HD VariGAP ZJP RP B PVR RP Joslyn O UltraSIL RPUltraSIL RP VariGAP VariSTAR 226.57% 129.49% 10 kV 10 kV 12 kV 12 kV 10 kV Evolution Joslyn OB UltraSIL HD VariGAP ZJP RP B PVR RP Joslyn O UltraSIL RPUltraSIL RP VariGAP VariSTAR 23.18% 178.45% 181.1 BIL Selection Table 1 70 2 95 3 125 4 150 5 200 Page 194 .38% -2.68% OB PVR Joslyn ZNPJoslyn ZHPJoslyn ZJP 735.

8 56.5 2.2 2.21% 23.52% #VALUE! 618.2 2.9 55.8 97 6 Selected Row-------> Selected Cost-------> 300 2 95 loss calculations Aged BIL Selection as a % of original 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 80 50 70 75 85 90 95 0.81% #VALUE! 260.99% 85.6 64.63% 100.75 2.50% 205.09% 57.46% 126.10% 153.49% 201.5 0.2 0.69% 133.13% #VALUE! 95.80% 177.74% 33.1 65.Calculator 47.15% 276.9 58 62.97% Page 195 .2 0.9 116.2 85.18% 52.75 0.2 1.1 41 49.5 0.90% #VALUE! 57.44% 146.5 94 112.5 72.57% 158.41% 83.5 48.66% 137.2 Selected line and value-------> Aged BIL----------------------------> OB PDV-100 639.20% 693.9 72 81 96 61 47.55% 121.3 96.1 77.65% 54.55% 131.9 40.4 63.81% 30.85% OB PVR Joslyn ZNPJoslyn ZHPJoslyn ZJP 701.7 81.15% 306.3 56.5 76.8 76 External Watts (w/kv) when wet 0.98% 174.2 0.50% 302.7 87.25 1.

8 18.1 56.1 47.5 38.91% 35.5 72 87.56% #VALUE! -2.42% 5.3 37.96% ution URT Arrester Riser Pole UltraSIL HD VariGAP ZJP RP B PVR RP Joslyn O UltraSIL RPUltraSIL RP VariGAP VariSTAR FALSE FALSE FALSE 42.3 72.9 32.5 47.52% #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! -34.88% -7.6 24.61% #VALUE! -21.6 62.5 85.76% 16.7 18.8 - Page 196 .7 94 81 96.5 55.00% -6.3 63.1 10.7 65.64% 34.2 9.9 61 58 49.1 27.5 29 24.48% #VALUE! -32.2 64.4 48.32% 3.9 FALSE Riser Pole UltraSIL HD VariGAP ZJP RP B PVR RP Joslyn O UltraSIL RPUltraSIL RP VariGAP VariSTAR FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE Riser Pole UltraSIL HD VariGAP ZJP RP B PVR RP Joslyn O UltraSIL RPUltraSIL RP VariGAP VariSTAR FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE OB Heavy Duty Optima OB RiserJoslyn Normal Duty Pole Joslyn Heavy Duty Riser Pole Joslyn 9.51% -19.8 40.6 27 33.2 19.75% -21.3 20.9 41 56.9 77.9 81.6 32.97% -0.1 76.Calculator 18.99% #VALUE! -21.5 29.15% #VALUE! 21.5 33.9 9.8 31.67% 15.36% #VALUE! -13.76% -11.64% FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE 52.5 30.

1 97 Page 197 .9 96 116.Calculator 112.

Calculator Page 198 .

69 8.69 7.93 10 10 12 10 10 12 Cross Reference table between MCOV and Rating Typical Arrester Ratings Rating MCOV 3 2.Calculator Arrester Selection Logic and Calculations Step 1: Maximum Line to ground voltage of the system based on regulation error (kV) Sep 3 Step 4 Step 5 TOV Maximum line Calculate The Ignoring Capabilities to ground Minimum MCOV TOV.69 13.1 Page 199 . Select @ the voltage the rating of an the Minimum Selected time unfalulted arrester of this type Arrester above (pu phase will that could Rating that MCOV) reach during a withstand a fault has an single line to for the given MCOV ground fault clearing time.69 8. above the on tnother (kV) line to phase ground 10 1.69 13.533 13.40 8.61 Step 2: Step 6 Step 7 Select the Select the Arrester arrester rating MCOV rating that meets of this type both the worst arrester that case TOV can withstand and the long the stated term line to TOV time and ground amplitude voltage 7.59 13.91 10 10 10 1.63 1.78 1.91 7.55 6 5.91 7.91 12 12 7.

3 17 19.5 29 Page 200 .7 15.2 12.5 22 24.Calculator 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 7.65 8.4 27.4 10.

Calculator Page 201 .

Calculator Page 202 .

Calculator Page 203 .

5 5 4 System Voltage 1 2.80 Page 204 .30 4 4.40 3 3.Calculator Cost of Energy 1 2 2 2.33 2 2.16 5 4.5 3 3 4 3.

00 20.60 33.40 13.4 Selected Row-------> Selected Error-------> Page 205 .20 13.60 6.00 12.32 10.00 24.5 7 7.5 5 5.00 20.00 11.5 13 13.00 34.Calculator 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Selected Row-------> Selected Cost-------> 4.5 11 11.90 8.00 12.5 9 9.5 6 6.00 12 12.50 44.80 22.90 23.5 16 9 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Selected Row-------> Selected Voltage-------> 6.90 27.5 10 10.5 15 15.80 15.5 8 8.00 22.5 14 14.5 12 12.

Calculator Page 206 .

Calculator Page 207 .

Calculator

Page 208

Calculator

Regulation Error 1 2.0 2 2.5 3 3.0 4 3.5 5 4.0

Page 209

Calculator

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Selected Row-------> Selected Error------->

4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 18 10.5

Page 210

Interactive Comparison

Interactive Arrester Comparison
Arrester #1
Type of Arrester kV Rating
Discharge Voltage (kV) of arrester only

Arrester #2
Type of Arrester kV Rating
New Margin Of Protection (%) Aged Margin Of Protection (%)

Arrester #3
Type of Arrester kV Rating
TOV (kV RMS) Annual Losses (watts) Internal on Top
10

60.0
55.0 50.0 45.0 40.0 #1 #2 #3

120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Min of 20% Recommended 80%

40.0
30.0

60% 40%
20% #1 #2 #3 0% #1 #2 #3

20.0
10.0 0.0 #1 #2 #3

5

0

#1

#2

#3

System BIL Modify Aged BIL as a % of original

Optima TOV only for 9kV or 10kV

Suggest

Page 211

Recommendations

`

Recommended Arresters Based on System Conditions
Select Arrester & System Characteristics
Recommended Arresters Joslyn ZHP HD OB PDV-100 Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL HD VariGAP Evolution URT Arrester kV Rating 10 12 12 10 10 Help Help Help Help Help Help
1.73

Preferred Arrester Class System Voltage System Type Gnd Fault Factor Regulation Error in % Max Fault Clearing Time (sec)

Arrester Model

Arrester Selection Logic and Calculations Sep 3 Step 4 Step 5 TOV Maximum line Calculate The Maximum Line to Ignoring TOV, Capabilities to ground Minimum MCOV Select the ground voltage of @ the voltage the rating of an Minimum the system based Selected unfalulted arrester of this type Arrester Rating on regulation time above phase will that could that has an error (pu MCOV) reach during a withstand a fault for MCOV above (kV) single line to the given clearing the line to ground fault on time. ground voltage in step 1 tnother phase (kV) Step 1:
Step 2: (kV)

Step 6 Select the Arrester MCOV rating of this type arrester that can withstand the stated TOV time and amplitude

Step 7 Select the arrester rating that meets both the worst case TOV and the long term line to ground voltage

Joslyn OB VariStar Evolution

Help 7.91 7.91 7.91 7.91

Help 10 10 10 10

Help 1.63 1.53 1.59 1.78

Help 13.69 13.69 13.69 13.69

Help 8.40 8.93 8.61 7.69

Help 10 12 12 10

Help 10 12 12 10

Page 212

0 6.50 0.05 \$ 0.WATTS LOSSES DUE TO INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LEAKAGE CURRENTS External (Housing) Losses When Wet Arrester Type Arrester Rating (kV) Housing Losses during wet weather (watts) Cost of Energy in Cents/kWh Annual % of Wet Conditions Cost of Annual HousingLosses Joslyn ZHP HD OB PDV-100 Optima UltraSIL HD VariSTAR UltraSIL HD VariGAP Evolution URT Arrester 10 25.00 \$ \$ 2.60 0.0 6.003 0.21 \$ 10 2.22 445 \$ 0.27 534 \$ \$ 0.00 \$ 0.03 0.05 \$ 0.03 \$ 0.0 17% #N/A \$ 12 2.60 0.0 6.24 #N/A 2000 4.18 \$ 10 2.18 \$ 362.23 12 #N/A 6.0 17% 0.050 0.0 17% \$ 2.0 17% 0.003 0.0 17% 0.4 6.66 .050 0.050 0.473 #N/A \$ \$ 0.18 Internal Gap and/or Disk Losses Watts Losses per kV of Arrester Rating Continuous Internal Watts Loss Cost per Annual Internal Watts Losses (in watts) Arrester Total Annual Watts Loss Cost per Arrester Enter Number of Arresters Used Annually Total Annual Loss on System 0.04 \$ 0.

18 5.02 3.15 76.89 8.44 0.49 80.07 122.52 29.70 9.27 69.15 5. the losses when wet and the cost of energy.74 65.20 6.84 Present Value 20 Year of this Savings Savings at the specified from using cost of money Silicone (%) housed arrester (\$) (\$) 73.65 108. Losses = time wet * cost of energy * losses when wet (\$\$\$\$) = hours * \$\$/kWh * kW Cost/kWh in cents Adjust energy cost here Select Arrester Rating Region of the world % of annual time in wet conditions Losses over Annual losses Annual losses 20 years of of the selected of the selected the selected EPDM housed Silicone rubber EPDM housed arrester housed arrester arrester (\$) (\$) (\$) 4.32 56.92 3.49 0.78 1.09 0.15 76.99 104.10 68.69 61.15 Data Source Florida Coastal South East US North East US Midwest US Coastal Northwest Tropic Sub Tropic Southeast Asia 17% 16% 13% 10% 5% 23% 26% 22% 26% Data Source 0.06 113.89 95.25 0.80 122.30 0.05 4.42 75.44 6. EPDM material changes its hydrophobicity with time as shown many times in lab tests. which leads to the higher losses of energy than silicone rubber that does not lose its hydrophobicity.89 .79 100.32 0.37 1.76 14.33 9.30 23.78 3. This summary sheet contrasts the cost to operate an arrester housed in EPDM vs.07 2. one housed in silicone rubber.44 43.19 0.43 6.42 0.50 47.84 8.63 47.57 21.Savings with arresters from using Silicone Rubber Basis of Calculations (housing losses only) Losses are simply calculated based on the time the product is wet.02 113.58 38.98 50.99 Losses over 20 years of the selected Silicone rubber housed arrester (\$) 6.

33 \$ 368.030 0.03 \$ 0.WATTS LOSSES DUE TO INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LEAKAGE CURRENTS External (Housing) Losses When Wet Arrester Type Arrester Rating (kV) Data Source UltraSIL RP VariSTAR OB Optima Evolution URT Arrester 18 3.32 Internal Gap and/or Disk Losses (Continuous) Internal Watts Losses per kV of Arrester Rating Continuous Internal Watts Losses (in watts) Annual Cost of Internal Watts Loss per Arrester Annual Watts Loss Cost per Arrester Enter Number of Arresters Used Annually Total Annual Loss on System 0.37 \$ 4.40 .054 \$ 0.32 \$ 4.05 1000 \$ 0.0 17% 18 45.54 0.00 6.02 \$ 0.0 17% 18 3.60 6.60 6.052.97 \$ 4.38 \$ 326.020 0.05 \$ 0.00 \$ 0.36 0.0 17% Housing Losses during wet weather (watts) Cost of Energy in Cents/kWh Data Source Annual % of Wet Conditions Cost of Annual Housing Losses \$ 0.003 0.

.

.

.

Annual Watts Loss 9 8 7 6 Watts Loss 5 4 3 2 1 0 Arrester Lower Watts Lost Is Better .

.

0 Discharge Voltage (kV) 52.0 Page 221 .0 42.0 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 50.0 46.Manual DV Comparison 10 kA.0 54.0 18 kV OB Optima 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester 48.0 44. 8/20 DISCHARGE VOLTAGES OF SELECTED ARRESTERS 58.0 Lower Values are Better 56.

Manual DV Comparison 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 18 kV OB Optima 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester Page 222 .

0 Page 223 .0 50.Recommended ND DV 10 kA. 8/20 DISCHARGE VOLTAGE OF RECOMENDED NORMAL DUTY ARRESTERS 60.0 12 kV UltraSIL ND VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL ND VariGAP 20.0 10 kV Joslyn ZNP ND 12 kV OB PDV-65 ND 30.0 Discharge Voltage (kV) 40.0 10.0 0.

Recommended ND DV UltraSIL ND VariSTAR UltraSIL ND VariGAP Page 224 .

0 0.0 40.0 12 kV OB Optima 12 kV UltraSIL HD VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL EX 10 kV UltraSIL HD VariGAP Page 225 .0 15.0 10 kV Joslyn ZHP HD 25.0 5.0 Discharge Voltage (kV) 30.Recommended HD DV 10 kA. 8/20 DISCHARGE VOLTAGE OF RECOMMENDED HEAVY DUTY ARRESTERS 45.0 35.0 10.0 20.

Recommended HD DV aSIL HD VariSTAR aSIL HD VariGAP Page 226 .

0 5.0 Page 227 .Recommended RP DV 10 kA. 8/20 DISCHARGE VOLTAGE OF RECOMMENDED RISER POLE ARRESTERS 40.0 35.0 10 kV Joslyn ZJP RP 12 kV OB PVR RP 20.0 10.0 Discharge Voltage (kV) 25.0 12 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL RP VariGAP 15.0 30.0 0.

LEAD LENGTHS AND SELECTED ARRESTER 120.00% Page 228 .00% System BIL % Margin of Protection 80.00% 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 60.00% 20.00% 20% is the minimum recommended Margin of Protection Higher Margin of Protection is Better 100.Manual MOP MARGIN OF PROTECTION BASED UPON NEW EQUIPMENT BIL.00% 0.00% 18 kV OB Optima 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester 40.

Manual MOP UltraSIL RP VariSTAR Evolution URT Arrester Page 229 .

LEAD LENGTHS AND SELECTED ARRESTER 70% Min of 20% Recommended 60% Higher Margin of Protection is Better Modify Aged BIL as a % of original 50% % Margin of Protection 40% 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 18 kV OB Optima 30% 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester 20% 10% 0% Page 230 .Manual MOP Aged MARGIN OF PROTECTION BASED ON AGED EQUIPMENT BIL.

Manual MOP Aged aSIL RP VariSTAR lution URT Arrester Page 231 .

00% 10 kV Joslyn ZNP ND 12 kV OB PDV-65 ND 150.00% 50.00% Page 232 .00% System BIL 250.Recommended ND MOP MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR NEW EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED NORMAL DUTY ARRESTERS 300.00% Modify Aged BIL as a % of original % Margin of Protection 200.00% 0.00% 12 kV UltraSIL ND VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL ND VariGAP 100.

Recommended ND MOP UltraSIL ND VariSTAR UltraSIL ND VariGAP Page 233 .

00% System BIL Modify Aged BIL as a % of original 200.00% Page 234 .00% 10 kV UltraSIL ND VariGAP 50.00% % Margin of Protection 150.00% 10 kV Joslyn ZNP ND 12 kV OB PDV-65 ND 12 kV UltraSIL ND VariSTAR 100.00% 0.Recommended MOP Aged MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR AGED EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED NORMAL DUTY ARRESTERS 250.

Recommended MOP Aged ltraSIL ND VariSTAR ltraSIL ND VariGAP Page 235 .

00% 12 kV OB Optima 12 kV UltraSIL HD VariSTAR 150.00% % Margin of Protection 10 kV Joslyn ZHP HD 200.00% 0.00% Page 236 .Recommended HD MOP MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR NEW EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED HEAVY DUTY ARRESTERS 350.00% 50.00% 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester 10 kV UltraSIL HD VariGAP 100.00% 250.00% 300.

Recommended HD MOP aSIL HD VariSTAR ution URT Arrester aSIL HD VariGAP Page 237 .

00% 10 kV Joslyn ZHP HD 12 kV OB Optima 12 kV UltraSIL HD VariSTAR 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester 100.00% 10 kV UltraSIL HD VariGAP 50.00% Page 238 .00% % Margin of Protection 150.00% 0.Recommended HD MOP Aged MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR AGED EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED HEAVY DUTY ARRESTERS 250.00% 200.

Recommended HD MOP Aged aSIL HD VariSTAR olution URT Arrester aSIL HD VariGAP Page 239 .

Recommended RP MOP MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR NEW EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED RISER POLE ARRESTERS 400.00% Min of 20% Recommended 350.00% 12 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL RP VariGAP 150.00% 300.00% % Margin of Protection 250.00% 0.00% Page 240 .00% 50.00% 100.00% 10 kV Joslyn ZJP RP 12 kV OB PVR RP 200.

00% 0.00% Min of 20% Recommended 250.00% 50.Recommended RP MOP Aged MARGIN OF PROTECTION FOR AGED EQUIPMENT USING RECOMMENDED RISER POLE ARRESTERS 300.00% 10 kV Joslyn ZJP RP 12 kV OB PVR RP 150.00% Page 241 .00% 12 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL RP VariGAP 100.00% % Margin of Protection 200.

00 18 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 18 kV OB Optima 15.00 Page 242 .Manual TOV TOV WITHSTAND ABILITY FOR SELECTED ARRESTERS AND FAULT CLEARING TIME 35.00 Higher TOV Withstand is Better 30.00 18 kV Evolution URT Arrester 10.00 Voltage Withstand (kV) 20.00 5.00 0.00 25.

Manual TOV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR Evolution URT Arrester Page 243 .

00 14.00 10 kV Joslyn ZNP ND TOV Withstand (kV) 10.00 8.Recommended ND TOV TOV WITHSTAND ABILITY OF RECOMMENDED NORMAL DUTY ARRESTERS BASED ON INPUT SYSTEM CONDITIONS 18.00 4.00 12.00 12 kV OB PDV-65 ND 12 kV UltraSIL ND VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL ND VariGAP Page 244 .00 6.00 16.00 2.00 0.

Recommended ND TOV OB PDV-65 ND UltraSIL ND VariSTAR UltraSIL ND VariGAP Page 245 .

000 14.000 6.000 12 kV OB Optima 12 kV UltraSIL HD VariSTAR 10 kV Evolution URT Arrester 10 kV UltraSIL HD VariGAP Page 246 .000 12.000 0.Recommended HD TOV TOV WITHSTAND ABILITY OF RECOMMENDED HEAVY DUTY ARRESTERS BASED ON INPUT SYSTEM CONDITIONS 18.000 16.000 TOV Withstand (kV) 10 kV Joslyn ZHP HD 10.000 2.000 4.000 8.

Recommended HD TOV raSIL HD VariSTAR olution URT Arrester raSIL HD VariGAP Page 247 .

00 12 kV OB PVR RP 12 kV UltraSIL RP VariSTAR 10 kV UltraSIL RP VariGAP Page 248 .Recommended RP TOV TOV WITHSTAND ABILITY OF RECOMMENDED RISER POLE ARRESTERS BASED ON INPUT SYSTEM CONDITIONS 18.00 0.00 16.00 12.00 4.00 TOV Withstand (kV) 10 kV Joslyn ZJP RP 10.00 14.00 2.00 8.00 6.

057 17.5 meters meters flashes/km2/yr flashes/100km/yr flashes/span(120m)/year years/flash/span(120) Page 249 .6 0.DirectStrikeCalc Direct Strike Calculator Enter structure height (h) in meters Enter Structure width (b) in meters Enter ground flash density flashes/km2/yr Flash Collection Rate (n) is calculated --> N=Ng((28hexp.6 + b)/10) 11 1 4 47.

1 Equipment Margin of Protection us 160 UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR 20% is the minimum recommended Marg 70 70 Select Current Level to Evaluate Margin (kA) 10 10 Default Value 140 120 Voltage in kV FP Margin % -43 Select Arrester Rating (kV) 9 36 Select Arrester to run Margin of Protection Calculation on 100 80 Arrester + Lead 60 40 20 UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariST Arrester Switching Protection Level 83.90 Switching Impulse % -31 Arrester Front of Wave Protection Arrester = 121.90 0.MOPCalculator Full Featured Margin of Protection Calculator for Overhead Equipment Chopped Wave Withstand (kV) 77 Select Equipment BIL (kV) Equipment Switching Withstand Level (kV) 58.00 83.50 Lightning Impulse % -38 5 0 Front of Wave Lightning Protective Impulse Margin L1 Protctive Margin L2 Page 250 .33 Front of Wave % -43 )Adjust Lead Length (ft Arrester Lightning Protection Level 111.00 2.50 113.00 Lead = 13.33 Total = 134.

MOPCalculator Overhead and Power Transformer Margin of Protection Calculator 150 Transformer BIL 165 Transformer CWW 135 Transformer BSL 80 Arrester LPL (Discharge Voltage at coordinating current) 90 Arrester FPL (Discharge voltage at fast rising time) 1-2 uS to crest of the current 72 Arrester SPL (Switching discharge voltage at 500 A Data from Published Discharge Page 251 .

6 90.5 62.9 51.1 91.9 37.9 80.0 62.4 26.5 76.9 15.4 22.3 90.9 25.9 36.6 64.8 47.8 70.9 70.1 131.7 7 11.5 19.5 87.5 47.9 2 10kA 8/20 11.9 53.4 16.4 90.4 105.9 29.7 75.5 26.8 54.8 34.7 82.5 51.9 87.0 111.0 9 7.7 32.4 25.7 77.7 96.1 42.4 44.0 85.3 54.5 70.6 63.0 38.0 77.9 68.7 66.8 38.5 99.4 35.2 79.5 68.9 18.0 120.1 84.8 60.7 48.8 28.5 53.9 22.0 121.0 112.1 100.9 23.0 37.8 29.8 6 8.3 24.9 92.2 73.8 31.0 3 500 UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAP 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A 8.0 62.2 24.9 32.7 57.3 24.8 83.0 8 9.3 68.6 40.7 47.4 38.7 17.1 64.9 123.6 55.9 19.1 22.0 82.1 50.0 109.8 29.0 47.5 5 11.1 34.2 4 12.7 74.MOPCalculator UltraSIL Normal Duty VariSTAR R at 10kA 1/10 in g 3 6 9 # # # # # # # # # # # 12.0 59.0 33.0 113.4 43.9 101.9 68.5 24.5 35.1 58.6 39.9 42.7 48.9 10 Arrester to use in the calculation 1 UltraSIL Normal Duty VariSTAR 2 UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAP 3 4 5 6 UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR UltraSIL EX Arrester UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariGAP UltraSIL Riser Pole VariSTAR Rating 3 6 9 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 36 36 Equipment BIL 70 95 125 150 200 Results = Num Val = 70 70 7 UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP 8 OB Normal Duty 9 OB Heavy Duty # # # # # OB Riser Pole Joslyn Normal Duty Joslyn Heavy Duty Joslyn Riser Pole User Entered Arrester 1 Results = Num Val = # User Entered Arrester 2 Results--> Heavy Duty VariSTAR UltraSIL Page 252 .5 23.

204 0.64 UltraSIL EX Arrester 11 12 13 UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariGAP 14 15 16 UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR 8 9 10 2.00 83.158 0. Arr Rating Enteri I1 Enter V1 Enter I2 Enter V2 n= k= k= if I is E will be 9 0.22 2 605.5 552 1 578 0.98 OB Normal Duty 23 24 25 1.28 UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP 20 21 21 1.2 The value of voltages used in the MOP calculations other than at 10kA is calculated using the generally accepted relationship E=ki^n The values of k and n are determined from the published data for that product.159 0.219 0.146 0.204 0.89 OB Riser Pole 29 30 31 1.2 0.159 0.204 0.219 0.066 578.31 UltraSIL Normal Duty VariGAP 5 6 7 UltraSIL Normal Duty VariSTAR 2 3 4 2.00 64.09 User Entered Arrester 1 41 42 43 User Entered Arrester 2 44 45 46 8 n 0.29 Joslyn Normal Duty 32 33 34 2.91 OB Heavy Duty 26 27 28 1.285 0.00 111.MOPCalculator Column that contains Selected Arrester Fast Front Data Column that contains Selected Arrester V10kA Column that contains Selected Arrester Switching Surge Discharge Boltage Fast Front Data Selected at 10kA V10kA data selected (8/20) Switching Surge Selected 8 9 10 121.21 Joslyn Riser Pole 38 39 40 1.90 1 2 3 5 6 7 Fast 4 Front V10kA Switching k= kV/kV Discharge Voltage Table Look Column Column Column rating up Key Joslyn Heavy Duty 35 36 37 2.57 UltraSIL Riser Pole VariSTAR 17 18 19 2.187 0.158 0.158 0.22 kV kA kV kA kV kV kV/kV rated Calculate the arrester voltage at (8/20) other currents based on n and V1 of the selected arrester Page 253 .

0 kV 3 Page 254 .159 Results 111.MOPCalculator product. Calculate the arrester voltage at (8/20) other currents based on n and V1 of the selected arrester V1 111 kV I1 10 kA I2 10 kA N 0.

MOPCalculator or for Overhead insulation uipment Margin of Protection using UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariSTAR is the minimum recommended Margin of Protection Equipment Withstand Arrester + Lead P Margin % LP Margin % -38 SP Margin % Arrester + Lead Lightning Impulse Protctive Margin L2 Switching Impulse Protective Margin S Note this model is not used for underground MOP calculations Arrester + Lead -31 Page 255 .

912621 ed Discharge Voltage Page of Optimizer Page 256 .MOPCalculator 0.

5 53.0 89.1 45.2 17.5 80.5 47.3 81.0 23.8 43.8 38.6 15.0 28.1 57.1 14.7 27.3 35.9 56.7 68.0 108.6 68.5 21.9 16 10.8 43.3 20.7 49.0 23.3 32.4 26.0 65.0 36.0 42.8 55.2 42.2 129.0 72.1 48.0 32.6 58.8 31.7 29.4 52.4 31.8 56.5 59.4 55.2 20.0 47.0 30.8 66.6 11 10.5 90.5 40.0 12 7.4 91.8 28.6 18 7.8 34.7 37.2 65.9 33.4 22.0 100.2 19 -43 Page 257 .0 74.4 13 18.1 35.5 24.1 62.8 50.5 17.8 50.5 49.1 52.2 64.2 20.2 20.8 19.0 32.6 75.8 64.8 82.2 52.5 73.9 97.4 60.5 23.0 84.3 23.7 58.0 17 9.4 32.1 17.5 26.0 14 10.2 120.8 35.5 76.4 44.0 39.0 70.1 74.1 15 7.3 62.5 82.4 18.8 97.4 64.9 32.7 24.7 69.8 87.8 25.8 15.MOPCalculator UltraSIL EX Arrester UltraSIL Heavy Duty VariGAP 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A UltraSIL Riser Pole VariSTAR 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A 20.4 43.8 57.2 117.4 62.

This corrected the issue of incorrect lookup of the values compared to the catalog section JJW 3-10-06 Calculate the arrester voltage at (1/10) other currents based on n and V1 of the selected arrester Page 258 .00 Switched these 3 index numbers with the HD Star numbers.90 0.MOPCalculator These values are derived from using k and n. K and n were both derived from V10kA and V40kA of published data and the power relationship. Calculated Lightning Protective Level at the entered Current (8/20) Calculated Fast Front Data Selected at Entered kA 83.

MOPCalculator Calculate the arrester voltage at (1/10) other currents based on n and V1 of the selected arrester 121 V1 at 1/10 of selected Arrester 1.00 arrester based on V1 and Ration Page 259 .00 8/20 Ratio of V1 to V2 of Selected Arrester V2 of the selected 121.

MOPCalculator Crest Current Selection 1.5 3 5 10 20 30 40 50 65 100 10 Results Results Lead Length Drop 0 1 2 3 4 5 7.5 10 40 100 5 Page 260 .

MOPCalculator Page 261 .

6 21.5 76.5 33.8 37.2 39.0 35.2 18.2 85.2 77.7 0.5 17.3 39.9 91.0 0.5 81.4 26 9.0 23.8 65.0 90.5 99.7 71.0 24 8.0 57.6 37.5 49.0 41.9 55.0 24.8 56.4 50.0 46.5 122.6 39.0 25 10.3 75.8 29.7 47.9 43.5 66.0 132.0 58.6 72.1 55.0 87.7 65.0 28 -43 Page 262 .3 22.0 108.6 52.9 101.0 64.3 22 14.0 27.0 92.5 62.5 75.9 72.2 29.4 21.0 36.6 15.1 0.5 29.9 27 7.4 52.0 73.5 23.4 20.5 44.0 20 9.0 58.4 51.0 0.0 31.1 22.5 40.0 31.6 47.0 82.4 24.0 14.2 34.3 24.9 19.0 29.4 60.0 40.3 31.4 32.4 63.5 58.5 94.8 112.6 68.2 41.9 102.5 0.0 36.5 52.8 31.3 24.4 68.0 150.9 46.0 15.MOPCalculator UltraSIL Riser Pole VariGAP 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A OB Normal Duty OB Heavy Duty 5kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500A 17.0 23 12.8 62.0 121.0 112.0 49.8 21 7.7 0.0 31.3 81.0 69.5 16.4 29.

MOPCalculator Page 263 .

MOPCalculator Page 264 .

MOPCalculator Time to Crest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Page 265 .

MOPCalculator Page 266 .

3 82.3 0.6 64.0 47.9 77.5 47.9 55.6 0.7 26.9 31.4 20.9 32.8 19.8 29.0 26.6 29.3 24.5 40.5 35.7 31 0.0 32 0.1 37 Page 267 .1 69.0 38.0 34.6 92.7 29.0 0.0 0.MOPCalculator OB Riser Pole Joslyn Normal Duty Joslyn Heavy Duty 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 9.0 59.5 48.0 0.5 44.0 0.9 0.0 0.2 58.9 78.0 0.0 23.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 62.0 35 10.0 30 6.0 0.3 25.0 0.0 30.3 62.0 0.9 0.8 46.9 103.9 116.7 62.0 61.0 96.0 69.0 0.4 0.7 0.6 88.1 36 7.8 15.9 58.3 47.5 54.7 31.3 51.1 38.0 105.0 0.5 40.0 0.5 41.3 96.0 93.9 20.0 0.6 13.3 0.0 0.5 33.0 81.0 29 9.5 27.3 17.0 0.0 32.6 32.0 124.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 34 10.1 52.6 23.4 60.0 0.7 70.7 87.4 35.1 77.0 0.5 23.0 29.9 72.1 18.0 33 0.0 0.2 20.2 53.0 0.0 72.

MOPCalculator Page 268 .

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MOPCalculator Page 270 .

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5 34.2 18.0 41 0.0 0.0 0.0 46 Page 272 .7 28.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 49.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 44 0.8 27.0 0.6 17.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 74.1 41.0 0.0 0.9 62.0 0.0 0.0 45 0.0 0.MOPCalculator Joslyn Riser Pole User Entered Arrester 1 User Entered Arrester 2 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 10kA 1/10 10kA 8/20 500 A 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 42.3 33.0 95.5 40 0.0 0.4 18.0 75.0 0.3 59.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 72.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.6 20.0 0.0 0.0 114.0 0.4 77.0 0.0 0.7 24.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 38 9.1 37.0 0.3 43.0 0.0 0.9 68.0 0.1 25.2 43 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.9 42 0.0 85.0 39 6.0 0.0 0.8 97.1 0.2 12.8 31.8 51.5 24.0 0.0 0.0 49.3 56.0 22.7 55.1 65.0 0.7 81.0 102.0 0.0 0.

577 0.25 0.230 0. Inductance= total inductance (uH) di = crest current (kA) .4 .83 250MCM 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Radius in inches 0. and dt = time to crest in us Enter Crest Current in kA ---.072 0.145 0.002L [ln(2L/r) .081 0.18 0.115 0. r = cm Wire Gauge # 1000MCM 500MCM Lead radius in cm Total Inductance in uH uH/m 0.255 Secondly find the voltage drop across the lead length selected above V= Inductance * (di/dt) V= total voltage (kV) .102 0.75] L = cm.288 0.77 1 1 2/0 0..183 0.3 -> Enter Time to Crest of the 2 current in uS Total lead voltage in kV 3 2 0.408 0.091 0.064 English units Input lead length (L) in feet > Select Wire Gauge (AWG) Lead radius (r) in Inches Total Inductance in uH uH/foot Suggested Values Metric Equivalent Lead length in centimeters 30.25 0.129 0.464 0.163 0.First find the Inductance of the lead wire Inductance in uH = 0.205 0.

Surge Surge Fuse Surge Surge Fuse Surge Line lead Identification The red lines indicate where the lead should be counted in the line lead length How to tell which lines are part of the line lead calculation: The best rule of thumb is to trace the surge current path and use the lead that is in parallel with the protected insulation. .

IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Overhead Distribution Lines ****IEEE 1410-1997 **** Basic Assumptions in the text are as follows 1.5 times CFO will result in flashover of the system 2.000002 400 35000 350000 40 36750 39% 525000 .000.13 Semi Constants Wave velocity c (meters/sec) Line SurgeCf (Seconds) Rise Time Impedance Zs (ohms) Variables below Vir arrester discharge voltage (kV at 10kA) (volts) input--> Structure CFO (volts) input--> Distance between poles (meters) input--> Output below Current at flashover point of adjacent pole (amps) in the line will be ------> Probability of Flashover of unprotected pole Pmid Incident voltage on system at current above (volts) 300.000 0.1 Equation B. 1.14 and B. Arrester discharge voltage is taken at V10kA 3.4. Zs is the system impedance and us usually 400 ohms Probability of Flashover with a midspan strike Section B.

4kA which is the current needed to reach 1. Probability of Flashover from an nearby strike This calculator determines what voltage will be induced on a line of given height when not striking the line.5* CFO on the unprotected pole there is a 98% probability of a flashover when struck one span away from an arrester protected pole.Interpretation This means that with the variables entered above. . there is a Pmid probability of flashover of the unprotected pole when a stroke hits the midspan between protected and unprotected poles Probability of Flashover from a direct strike one span away from a protected The probability of flashover is a strong function of the CFO of the unprotected pole and the ground resistance of the protected pole. but striking at the entered distance. Input below Vir (kV at 10kA) (volts) Unprotected Structure CFO (volts) Arrester Pole Gnd Resistance Rg (Low current gnd) ohms Output below Io at the flashover site (amps) Probability of Flashover of unprotected pole 40000 350000 10 48500 24% Interpretation This means that since 98% of all strokes are above 7.

000.000 150. Therefore if the above voltage is more than 1.Probability of Flashover from an nearby strike This calculator determines what voltage will be induced on a line of given height when not striking the line.000 30 Results V maximum induced voltage on a line under above circumstances (kV) 303 Interpretation It is assumed that there is a 100% probability of flashover of an insulator if the voltage across that insulator is 1. but striking at the entered distance.000.5 times its stated CFO. . Semi Constants vo v Zo Velocity of light in space (m/s) --> velocity of return stroke (m/s) Lightning impedance (ohms) -------> Input Variables y Io h shortest distance to line---> lightning current (kA) -------> height of line (meters) -------> 60 40 11 300.5 times the insulators used on the line then there will be a flashover.

563 1.5 Disk Current (mA) Disk Voltage (kV) 0.338 0.MOV Disk AC Conduction Simulation Voltage control Raise Lower Values Crest Voltage (kV) is Peak Capacitive Current (mA) is Peak Resistive Current (mA) is Peak Total Current (mA) is Losses (watts) 3.340 0.5 .5 Resistive Current 1 0 -0.58 kV rms MOV Disk AC Response Simulation Disk Voltage Capacitive Current Total Current 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 Resistive Current 1.45 kV rms Rated = 1.417 2.51 rms help help help help Disk Characteristics MCOV = 1.5 -1 -1.66 kV rms Vref = 2.55 1.