Classical physics The aims are to enable pupils to identify the contact forces and gravitational forces acting

on bodies, draw force vectors and apply Newton's three laws to account for the energy concept and the concepts of work and power and mak e calculations and discuss the situations in which mechanical energy is conserve d to account for situations where friction and air resistance means that the m echanical energy is not conserved, and do calculations in situations of constant friction reproduce and discuss qualitatively thermodynamics, first and second law define the concepts of current, voltage and resistance, and use the principl es of conservation of charge and energy in simple and branched DC circuits define and calculate the terms frequency, period, wavelength and wave speed, and explain qualitatively inflectional and interference phenomena Modern Physics The aims are to enable pupils to describe the Bohr atom model and calculate the frequencies and wavelengths o f spectral lines in emission and absorption spectra from the use conservation laws to describe fission and fusion processes and calculate the energy liberated in such processes do calculations with the Stefan-Boltzmann law and Wien displacement explain how information about stars is systematized in a HR diagram describe the star life cycles and explain how elements are built up in stars describe and discuss the standard model of the Universe To describe the nature of mathematics The aims are to enable pupils to use the parameter representation to describe the rectilinear motion of a par ticle, and using derivatives to calculate speed and acceleration when the positi on is known, both with and without digital tools create one or more mathematical models of the relationships between physical quantities that are found experimentally use mathematical models as a source of qualitative and quantitative informat ion, present results and assess the scope of the models The young scientist The aims are to enable pupils to to explain and discuss key features of the scientific method in physics give examples of some alternative explanations that are not compatible with explanations of physics, and not based on scientific methodology explain how the researchers' attitudes, expectations and experiences may aff ect research plan and conduct its own investigations and carry out relevant experiments i n the various main areas of the subject collect and process data and present and evaluate the results and conclusion s of experiments and surveys, with and without digital tools use simulation programs to show phenomena and physical contexts Physics and Technology The aims are to enable pupils to explain the difference between leaders, semiconductors and insulators from t he current atomic model, and explain the doping of semiconductor compare the structure and explain the behavior of a diode and a transistor,

and give examples of their use to explain the behavior of light detectors in digital photography or digital video to explain how modern sensors characterized, and how the sensor's characteri stics is the limit for measurements