VERSION 6.

1

6

ABAQUS/ Safe
V E R S I O N 6 . 2

ABAQUS

ABAQUS/Safe V E R S I O N 6 . 2

P R O D U C T

O V E R V I E W

Introduction
ABAQUS/Safe is the fatigue postprocessing module in ABAQUS. It has been developed by Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., based on technology supplied by Safe Technology Ltd. ABAQUS/Safe interfaces to ABAQUS output database (.odb) files and uses state-of-the-art techniques to determine the fatigue life of a component.

ABAQUS/Safe takes stress or strain results for different loading conditions from ABAQUS analyses, combines them with the time variations of the loading, and uses cyclic material data to predict the life of the component. The resulting damage and life results can then be plotted using ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer. The functionality of ABAQUS/Safe complements the fracture mechanics capabilities of ABAQUS/Standard, which can be used to investigate the behavior of a cracked component.

The ABAQUS/Safe user interface.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

1

F E A T U R E S

Fatigue Analysis
• Uniaxial analysis using stress life curves—Goodman, Gerber, or no mean stress correction. • Uniaxial analysis using strain life curves—Morrow, Smith-WatsonTopper, or no mean stress correction. • Biaxial fatigue analysis using local stress-strain analysis. - Maximum shear strain. - Maximum direct strain. - Brown-Miller combined shear and - normal strain. • Statistical analysis: statistical variability in loading and materials data can be combined to provide probability of survival analysis. • A critical plane procedure is used to calculate the orientation of the most damaged plane at each node. • Von Mises stress, Haigh diagrams, cycle and damage histograms, orientation of critical plane, biaxiality. • Analysis of welded structures using stress-life data from BS7608. • Modeling gray cast iron using an incremental damage procedure. • A rainflow counting algorithm is used to extract fatigue cycles. This algorithm is integrated with a cyclic stress-strain conversion (a biaxial Neuber’s rule) to convert elastic stresses from ABAQUS to elastic-plastic stresses, using material memory. • The stress history at each node is determined from the stresses stored in the ABAQUS output database and the loading sequence. A stress concentration factor and scale factor can be applied. • Fatigue evaluation can be performed for the whole model or only for specified element sets.

Component Loading
• Load histories The elastic stresses for unit load cases in each direction are calculated. These stresses are multiplied by the load history in each direction and then added to provide a stress history for the combined loading. • Sequence of results For example, ABAQUS is used to analyze an engine through three rotations of the crankshaft, with data output for every five degrees of rotation of the crankshaft. ABAQUS/Safe analyzes this sequence of results to determine the fatigue life at each node. Additional scale factors and repeat counts can be applied. • Block loading sequences Stresses from two sets of loads are calculated in two ABAQUS steps. A block loading sequence could then be defined as 1000 cycles of the stresses from Step 1 scaled by factors of 0.1 to 1.0, followed by 1000 cycles of the stresses from Step 2 scaled by factors of −1.0 to 2.0. • Complex load spectrum The ability to define complex spectra and to mix spectra and data sequences with scale factors and repeat counts.

2

ABAQUS/Safe V E R S I O N 6 . 2

Material Data
A database of fatigue data for many common materials is provided with ABAQUS/Safe. The database can be extended and modified by the user to add customer-specific materials. Test reports and background data can be used to define materials in the database, and material data can be plotted.

Additional Factors
• Initial residual stress can be included: this can be a single value or a data set of elastic FEA or elastic-plastic FEA stresses from a modeling process (e.g., press forming and springback). • Temperature-dependent fatigue data can be used, in which case the nodal temperatures calculated by ABAQUS are used to determine the appropriate fatigue data. • Effects of surface finish can be included for all or part of the component. The difference in fatigue life for machined and as-forged surfaces can, therefore, be evaluated. • Notch sensitivity effects can be included. These effects are important for cast irons, some aluminum alloys, and lower strength steels. • Different material data or surface finish corrections can be specified for each element set in the model (for example, to allow for machined and as-forged surfaces in the same model).

The ABAQUS/Safe materials database.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

3

Output
Once the fatigue analysis is complete, fatigue data are written either to the original output database or to a new output database. Fatigue life is provided at each node, expressed as the number of repeats of the defined loading. A design life can be specified. In this case ABAQUS/Safe predicts the factor that must be applied to the stresses at each node to achieve the specified design life.

You can display the results of the fatigue analysis using ABAQUS/Viewer or ABAQUS/CAE.

Contour of log of lives at nodes.

4

ABAQUS/Safe V E R S I O N 6 . 2

Hardware & Performance
Hardware Compatibility
ABAQUS/Safe Version 6.2 requires installation of ABAQUS/Standard Version 6.2 or later. ABAQUS/Safe is available on the following engineering workstations:
• HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX 11.0 • SGI IRIX 6.5 • Sun Solaris 2.7 (7.0) • Windows NT 4.0

Problem Size & Performance
ABAQUS/Safe has no built-in limits on problem size. Smaller problems run entirely in main memory. Buffering to secondary storage occurs automatically as the problem size increases.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

5

Documentation
The ABAQUS/Safe User’s Manual is available in print and online. It explains in detail how to use ABAQUS/Safe. Theoretical background to fatigue analysis is contained in the Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis manual available from HKS. For installation information, see the ABAQUS Site Guide.

Training & Support
ABAQUS/Safe is supported by HKS’s worldwide network of offices. The training courses for ABAQUS/Safe cover the fatigue analysis methods used by ABAQUS/Safe and provide “handson” training on program usage.

ABAQUS online documentation permits the user to electronically search through manuals for relevant topics.

5

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847 USA phone 401 727 4200 fax 401 727 4208

e-mail info@abaqus.com support@abaqus.com www.abaqus.com

ARGENTINA

I TA LY

S PA I N

KB Engineering S.R.L. Florida 274 Piso 3, Oficina 37 1005 Buenos Aires phone (54) 11 4393 8444 fax (54) 11 4326 2424 e-mail sanchezsarmiento@arnet.com.ar
AUSTRALIA

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Italia, S.R.L. Viale Certosa, 1 20149 Milano phone (39) 02 3921 1211 fax (39) 02 3921 1210 e-mail infohks@abaqus.it
JA PA N

Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. Velázquez, 94 E-28006 Madrid phone (34) 91 209 1482 fax (34) 91 575 1026 e-mail abaqus@principia.es
SWEDEN

Worley FEA (A Division of Worley Limited) Level 17, 300 Flinders Street Melbourne, Vic 3000 phone (61) 3 9280 2834 fax (61) 3 9205 0573 e-mail abaqus@worley.com.au
AUSTRIA VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH Department B3E

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 5-24, Akasaka 9-chome Minato-ku Tokyo, 107-0052 phone (81) 3 5474 5817 fax (81) 3 5474 5818 e-mail hksj@hksj.co.jp Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 2nd Floor, Ohmori Notock Building 6-10, Edobori 1-chome Nishi-ku Osaka, 550-0002 phone (81) 6 4803 5020 fax (81) 6 4803 5021 e-mail hksj.osaka@hksj.co.jp
KOREA

FEM-Tech AB Pilgatan 8 SE-721 30 Västerås phone (46) 21 12 64 10 fax (46) 21 18 12 44 e-mail femtech@femtech.se
TA I WA N

Postfach 3 A-4031 Linz phone (43) 732 6585 9919 fax (43) 732 6980 4338 e-mail edwin.till@voest.co.at
BENELUX

APIC 7th Floor, 131 Sung Chiang Road Taipei, 10428 phone (886) 2 25083066 fax (886) 2 25077185 e-mail wayne@apic.com.tw
UNITED KINGDOM

ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands phone (31) 35 52 58 424 fax (31) 35 52 44 257 e-mail support@abaqus.nl
CHINA

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Korea, Inc. Suite 306, Sambo Building 13-2 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku Seoul, 150-010 phone (82) 2 785 6707/8 fax (82) 2 785 6709 e-mail info@abaqus.co.kr
M A L AY S I A

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (UK) Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH phone (44) 1 925 810166 fax (44) 1 925 810178 e-mail hotline@hks.co.uk
U N I T E D S TAT E S

Advanced Finite Element Services Department of Engineering Mechanics Tsinghua University Beijing 100084, P. R. China phone (86) 10 62783986 fax (86) 10 62783986 e-mail zhuangz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
EUROPE

Worley Advanced Analysis 16B Damai Komplex Jalan Lumut 50400 Kuala Lumpur phone (60) 3 40412122 fax (60) 3 40412322 e-mail abaqus@po.jaring.my
NEW ZEALAND

ABAQUS Solutions Erie 3601 Green Road, Suite 316 Beachwood, OH 44122 phone (1) 216 378 1070 fax (1) 216 378 1072 e-mail info@abaqus-se.com ABAQUS Solutions Northeast, LLC Summit Office Park, West Building 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 02886-0201 phone (1) 401 739 3637 fax (1) 401 739 3302 e-mail support@abaqus-sn.com ABAQUS Solutions Rocky Mountains 2894 Hughs Drive Erie, CO 80516 phone (1) 303 664-5444 fax (1) 303 664-5445 e-mail info@abaqus-rm.com ABAQUS South Central 3700 Forums Drive, Suite 101 Flower Mound, TX 75028 phone (1) 214 513 1600 fax (1) 214 513 1700 e-mail info@abaqus-sc.com AC Engineering, Inc. 1440 Innovation Place West Lafayette, IN 47906-1000 phone (1) 765 497 1373 fax (1) 765 497 4444 e-mail info@aceng.com Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (Michigan), Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 48170-2408 phone (1) 734 451 0217 fax (1) 734 451 0458 e-mail hksmi@abaqus.com Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (West), Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 94538-1611 phone (1) 510 794 5891 fax (1) 510 794 1194 e-mail hkswest@abaqus.com

Abaqus Europe Gaetano Martinolaan 95 PO Box 1637 6201 BP Maastricht The Netherlands phone (31) 43 356 6906 fax (31) 43 356 6908 e-mail info.europe@abaqus.com
FRANCE ABAQUS Software, s.a.r.l.

Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. Postal: PO Box 56-316 Auckland Courier: Unit 2-5, 72 Dominion Road Mt. Eden, Auckland phone (64) 9 623 1223 fax (64) 9 623 1134 e-mail hks-sales@matrix.co.nz
POLAND

7 rue Jean Mermoz 78000 Versailles phone (33) 1 39 24 15 40 fax (33) 1 39 24 15 45 e-mail support@abaqus.fr
GERMANY ABACOM Software GmbH

BudSoft Sp. z o.o. 61-807 Poznan Sw. Marcin 58/64 phone (48) 61 852 31 19 fax (48) 61 852 31 19 e-mail budsoft@budsoft.com.pl
SINGAPORE Worley Advanced Analysis 491B River Valley Road #09-01 Valley Point Singapore, 248373

Theaterstraße 3032 D-52062 Aachen phone (49) 241 474010 fax (49) 241 4090963 e-mail abacom@abacom.de
INDIA ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions

phone (65) 735 8444 fax (65) 735 7444 e-mail abaqus@worleylimited.com.sg
SOUTH AFRICA

(Pvt.) Ltd. 3M, Prince Arcade 22-A, Cathedral Road Chennai, 600 086 phone (91) 44 8114624 fax (91) 44 8115087 e-mail abaqus@satyam.net.in

Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. Suite 20-303C, The Waverley Wyecroft Road Mowbray 7700 phone (27) 21 448 7608 fax (27) 21 448 7679 e-mail feas@feas.co.za

Copyright 2001 Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

MAR_DES_V62_SFE