1

Review of Semiconductor Review of Semiconductor
Physics, PN Junction Diodes Physics, PN Junction Diodes
and Resistors and Resistors
  Semiconductor fundamentals Semiconductor fundamentals
  Doping Doping
  Pn Pn junction junction
  The Diode Equation The Diode Equation
  Zener Zener diode diode
  LED LED
  Resistors Resistors
What Is a Semiconductor? What Is a Semiconductor?
• •Many materials, such as most metals, allow electrical current to Many materials, such as most metals, allow electrical current to
flow through them flow through them
• •These are known as conductors These are known as conductors
• •Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through
themare called insulators themare called insulators
• •Pure silicon, the base material of most transistors, is consider Pure silicon, the base material of most transistors, is considered ed
a semiconductor because its conductivity can be modulated by a semiconductor because its conductivity can be modulated by
the introduction of impurities the introduction of impurities
Semiconductors Semiconductors
  A material whose properties are such that it is not quite a A material whose properties are such that it is not quite a
conductor, not quite an insulator conductor, not quite an insulator
  Some common semiconductors Some common semiconductors
– – elemental elemental
» Si - Silicon (most common)
» Ge- Germanium
– – compound compound
» GaAs- Galliumarsenide
» GaP - Galliumphosphide
» AlAs- Aluminumarsenide
» AlP - Aluminumphosphide
» InP - IndiumPhosphide
Crystalline Solids Crystalline Solids
  In a crystalline solid, the periodic arrangement of atoms In a crystalline solid, the periodic arrangement of atomsis is
repeated over the entire crystal repeated over the entire crystal
  Silicon crystal Silicon crystal has a has a diamond lattice diamond lattice
Crystalline Nature of Silicon Crystalline Nature of Silicon
  Silicon as utilized in integrated circuits is crystalline in nat Silicon as utilized in integrated circuits is crystalline in nature ure
  As with all crystalline material, silicon consists of a repeatin As with all crystalline material, silicon consists of a repeating g
basic unit structure called a basic unit structure called a unit cell unit cell
  For silicon, the unit cell consists of an atomsurrounded by fou For silicon, the unit cell consists of an atomsurrounded by four r
equidistant nearest equidistant nearest neighbors neighborswhich lie at the corners of the which lie at the corners of the
tetrahedron tetrahedron
What What’ ’s so special about Silicon? s so special about Silicon?
Cheap and abundant
Amazing mechanical, chemical
and electronic properties
The material is very well-known
to mankind
SiO
2
: sand, glass
Si is column IV of
the periodic table
Similar to the
carbon (C) and the
germanium (Ge)
Has 3s² and 3p²
valence electrons
2
Nature of Intrinsic Silicon Nature of Intrinsic Silicon
  Silicon that is free of doping impurities is called Silicon that is free of doping impurities is called
intrinsic intrinsic
  Silicon has a valence of 4 and forms covalent Silicon has a valence of 4 and forms covalent
bonds with four other bonds with four other neighboring neighboring silicon atoms silicon atoms
Semiconductor Crystalline Structure Semiconductor Crystalline Structure
 Semiconductors have aregular Semiconductors have aregular
crystalline structure crystalline structure
– – for for monocrystal monocrystal, extends , extends
through entire structure through entire structure
– – for for polycrystal polycrystal, structure is , structure is
interrupted at irregular interrupted at irregular
boundaries boundaries
 Monocrystal Monocrystal has uniform3 has uniform3- -
dimensional structure dimensional structure
 Atoms occupy fixed positions Atoms occupy fixed positions
relative to one another, but relative to one another, but
are in constant vibration about are in constant vibration about
equilibrium equilibrium
Semiconductor Crystalline Structure Semiconductor Crystalline Structure
 Silicon atoms have 4 Silicon atoms have 4
electrons in outer shell electrons in outer shell
– – inner electrons are very inner electrons are very
closely bound to atom closely bound to atom
 These electrons are shared These electrons are shared
with neighbor atoms on with neighbor atoms on
both sides to both sides to “ “fill fill” ” the shell the shell
– – resulting structure is resulting structure is
very stable very stable
– – electrons are fairly electrons are fairly
tightly bound tightly bound
»no “loose” electrons
– – at roomtemperature, if at roomtemperature, if
battery applied, very battery applied, very
little electric current little electric current
flows flows
Conduction in Crystal Lattices Conduction in Crystal Lattices
 Semiconductors ( Semiconductors (Si Si and and Ge Ge) have 4 electrons in their outer shell ) have 4 electrons in their outer shell
– – 2 in the s 2 in the s subshell subshell
– – 2 in the p 2 in the p subshell subshell
 As the distance between atoms decreases the discrete As the distance between atoms decreases the discrete subshells subshells
spread out into bands spread out into bands
 As the distance decreases further, the bands overlap and then As the distance decreases further, the bands overlap and then
separate separate
– – the the subshell subshell model doesn model doesn’ ’t hold anymore, and the electrons t hold anymore, and the electrons
can be thought of as being part of the crystal, not part of the can be thought of as being part of the crystal, not part of the
atom atom
– – 4 possible electrons in the lower band ( 4 possible electrons in the lower band (valence band valence band) )
– – 4 possible electrons in the upper band ( 4 possible electrons in the upper band (conduction band conduction band) )
Energy Bands in Semiconductors Energy Bands in Semiconductors
 Thespace Thespace
between the between the
bands is the bands is the
energy gap energy gap, or , or
forbidden band forbidden band
Insulators, Semiconductors Insulators, Semiconductors, , and Metals and Metals
 This separation of the valence and conduction bands determines This separation of the valence and conduction bands determines
the electrical properties of the material the electrical properties of the material
 Insulators Insulatorshave a large energy gap have a large energy gap
– – electrons can electrons can’ ’t jump fromvalence to conduction bands t jump fromvalence to conduction bands
– – no current flows no current flows
 Conductors Conductors(metals) have a very small (or nonexistent) energy gap (metals) have a very small (or nonexistent) energy gap
– – electrons easily jump to conduction bands due to thermal electrons easily jump to conduction bands due to thermal
excitation excitation
– – current flows easily current flows easily
 Semiconductors Semiconductorshave a moderate energy gap have a moderate energy gap
– – only a few electrons can jump to the conduction band only a few electrons can jump to the conduction band
»leaving “holes”
– – only a little current can flow only a little current can flow
3
Insulators, Semiconductors, and Metals Insulators, Semiconductors, and Metals
(continued) (continued)
Conduction
Band
Valence
Band
Conductor Semiconductor Insulator
Hole Hole - - Electron Pairs Electron Pairs
  Sometimes thermal energy is enough to cause an electron to Sometimes thermal energy is enough to cause an electron to
jump fromthe valence band to the conduction band jump fromthe valence band to the conduction band
– – produces a hole produces a hole - - electron pair electron pair
  Electrons also Electrons also “ “fall fall” ” back out of the conduction band into the back out of the conduction band into the
valence band, combining with a hole valence band, combining with a hole
pair elimination
hole electron
pair creation
Improving Conduction by Doping Improving Conduction by Doping
  To make semiconductors better conductors, add impurities To make semiconductors better conductors, add impurities
( (dopants dopants) to contribute extra electrons or extra holes ) to contribute extra electrons or extra holes
– – elements with 5 outer electrons contribute an extra electron to elements with 5 outer electrons contribute an extra electron to
the lattice ( the lattice (donor donor dopant dopant) )
– – elements with 3 outer electrons accept an electron fromthe elements with 3 outer electrons accept an electron fromthe
silicon ( silicon (acceptor acceptor dopant dopant) )
Improving Conduction by Doping Improving Conduction by Doping
(cont.) (cont.)
 Phosphorus and arsenic are Phosphorus and arsenic are
donor donor dopants dopants
– – if phosphorus is if phosphorus is
introduced into the silicon introduced into the silicon
lattice, there is an extra lattice, there is an extra
electron electron “ “free free” ” to move to move
around and contribute to around and contribute to
electric current electric current
» very loosely bound to
atomand can easily jump
to conduction band
– – produces produces n type n type silicon silicon
» sometimes use+symbol
to indicateheavier
doping, so n+silicon
– – phosphorus becomes phosphorus becomes
positive ion after giving up positive ion after giving up
electron electron
Improving Conduction by Doping Improving Conduction by Doping
(cont.) (cont.)
 Boron has 3 electrons in its outer Boron has 3 electrons in its outer
shell, so it contributes aholeif it shell, so it contributes aholeif it
displaces asilicon atom displaces asilicon atom
– – boron is an boron is an acceptor acceptor dopant dopant
– – yields yields p type p typesilicon silicon
– – boron becomes negativeion boron becomes negativeion
after acceptingan electron after acceptingan electron
Epitaxial Epitaxial
Growth of Growth of
Silicon Silicon
 Epitaxy Epitaxy grows silicon on top of grows silicon on top of
existingsilicon existingsilicon
– – uses chemical vapor uses chemical vapor
deposition deposition
– – new silicon has same new silicon has same
crystal structure as crystal structure as
original original
 Silicon is placed in chamber at Silicon is placed in chamber at
high temperature high temperature
– – 1200 1200
oo
C (2150 C (2150
oo
F) F)
 Appropriategases arefed into Appropriategases arefed into
thechamber thechamber
– – other gases add other gases add
impurities to the mix impurities to the mix
 Can grow n type, then switch to Can grow n type, then switch to
p typevery quickly p typevery quickly
4
Diffusion of Diffusion of Dopants Dopants
 It is also possibleto introduce It is also possibleto introduce
dopants dopantsinto silicon by heating into silicon by heating
themso they themso they diffuse diffuseinto the into the
silicon silicon
– – no new silicon is added no new silicon is added
– – high heat causes diffusion high heat causes diffusion
 Can bedonewith constant Can bedonewith constant
concentration in atmosphere concentration in atmosphere
– – close to straight line close to straight line
concentration gradient concentration gradient
 Or with constant number of atoms Or with constant number of atoms
per unit area per unit area
– – predeposition predeposition
– – bell bell- -shaped gradient shaped gradient
 Diffusion causes spreadingof Diffusion causes spreadingof
doped areas doped areas
top
side
Diffusion of Diffusion of Dopants Dopants (continued) (continued)
Concentration of dopantin
surrounding atmosphere kept
constant per unit volume
Dopantdeposited on
surface - constant
amount per unit area
Ion Implantation of Ion Implantation of Dopants Dopants
  One way to reduce the spreading found with diffusion is to use i One way to reduce the spreading found with diffusion is to use ion on
implantation implantation
– – also gives better uniformity of also gives better uniformity of dopant dopant
– – yields faster devices yields faster devices
– – lower temperature process lower temperature process
  Ions are accelerated from5 Ions are accelerated from5 Kev Kevto 10 to 10 Mev Mevand directed at silicon and directed at silicon
– – higher energy gives greater depth penetration higher energy gives greater depth penetration
– – total dose is measured by flux total dose is measured by flux
»number of ions per cm
2
»typically 10
12
per cm
2
- 10
16
per cm
2
  Flux is over entire surface of silicon Flux is over entire surface of silicon
– – use masks to cover areas where implantation is not wanted use masks to cover areas where implantation is not wanted
  Heat afterward to work into crystal lattice Heat afterward to work into crystal lattice
Hole and Electron Concentrations Hole and Electron Concentrations
 To produce reasonable levels of conduction doesn To produce reasonable levels of conduction doesn’ ’t t
require much doping require much doping
– – silicon has about 5 x 10 silicon has about 5 x 10
22 22
atoms/cm atoms/cm
3 3
– – typical typical dopant dopant levels are about 10 levels are about 10
15 15
atoms/cm atoms/cm
3 3
 In In undoped undoped(intrinsic) silicon, the number of holes and (intrinsic) silicon, the number of holes and
number of free electrons is equal, and their product number of free electrons is equal, and their product
equals a constant equals a constant
– – actually, actually, n n
i i
increases with increasing temperature increases with increasing temperature
 This equation holds true for doped silicon as well, so This equation holds true for doped silicon as well, so
increasing the number of free electrons decreases the increasing the number of free electrons decreases the
number of holes number of holes
np =n
i
2
INTRINSIC (PURE) SILICON INTRINSIC (PURE) SILICON
At 0 Kelvin Silicon
density is 5*10²³
particles/cm³
Silicon has 4 valence
electrons, it covalently
bonds with four adjacent
atoms in the crystal lattice
Higher temperatures create
free charge carriers.
A “hole” is created in the
absence of an electron.
At 23C there are 10¹º
particles/cm³of free carriers
DOPING DOPING
The N in N-type stands for negative.
A column V ion is inserted.
The extravalence electron is free to
move about the lattice
There are two types of doping
N-type and P-type.
The P in P-type stands for positive.
A column III ion is inserted.
Electrons fromthe surrounding
Silicon move to fill the“hole.”
5
Energy Energy- -band Diagram band Diagram
  A very important concept in the study of semiconductors is the A very important concept in the study of semiconductors is the
energy energy- -band diagram band diagram
  It is used to represent the range of energy a valence electron c It is used to represent the range of energy a valence electron can an
have have
  For semiconductors the electrons can have any one value of a For semiconductors the electrons can have any one value of a
continuous range of energy levels while they occupy the valence continuous range of energy levels while they occupy the valence
shell of the atom shell of the atom
– – That band of energy levels is called the That band of energy levels is called the valence band valence band
  Within the same valence shell, but at a slightly higher energy Within the same valence shell, but at a slightly higher energy
level, is yet another band of continuously variable, allowed ene level, is yet another band of continuously variable, allowed energy rgy
levels levels
– – This is the This is the conduction band conduction band
Band Gap Band Gap
  Between the valence and the conduction band is a range of energy Between the valence and the conduction band is a range of energy
levels where there are no allowed states for an electron levels where there are no allowed states for an electron
  This is the band gap This is the band gap
  In silicon at roomtemperature [in electron volts]: In silicon at roomtemperature [in electron volts]:
  Electron volt Electron volt is an atomic measurement unit, 1 is an atomic measurement unit, 1 eV eV energy is energy is
necessary to decrease of the potential of the electron with 1 V. necessary to decrease of the potential of the electron with 1 V.
E
G
E eV
G
= 11 .
1eV 1.602 10 joule
19
= ×
÷
Impurities Impurities
  Silicon crystal in pure formis Silicon crystal in pure formis
good insulator good insulator - - all electrons are all electrons are
bonded to silicon atom bonded to silicon atom
  Replacement of Replacement of Si Si atoms can alter atoms can alter
electrical properties of electrical properties of
semiconductor semiconductor
  Group number Group number - - indicates number indicates number
of electrons in valence level ( of electrons in valence level (Si Si - -
Group IV) Group IV)
Impurities Impurities
 Replace ReplaceSi Si atomin crystal with Group V atom atomin crystal with Group V atom
– – substitution of 5 electrons for 4 electrons in outer shell substitution of 5 electrons for 4 electrons in outer shell
– – extraelectron not needed for crystal bondingstructure extraelectron not needed for crystal bondingstructure
» can moveto other areas of semiconductor
» current flows moreeasily - resistivitydecreases
» many extraelectrons --> “donor”or n-typematerial
 Replace ReplaceSi Si atomwith Group III atom atomwith Group III atom
– – substitution of 3 electrons for 4 electrons substitution of 3 electrons for 4 electrons
– – extraelectron now needed for crystal bondingstructure extraelectron now needed for crystal bondingstructure
» “hole” created (missingelectron)
» holecan moveto other areas of semiconductor if electrons continually
fill holes
» again, current flows moreeasily - resistivitydecreases
» electrons needed --> “acceptor”or p-typematerial
COUNTER DOPING COUNTER DOPING
Insert more than one
type of Ion
The extra electron and
the extra hole cancel out
A LITTLE MATH A LITTLE MATH
n=number of free electrons
p=number of holes
ni=number of electrons in intrinsic silicon=10¹º/cm³
pi-number of holes in intrinsic silicon=10¹º/cm³
Mobile negative charge =-1.6*10
-19
Coulombs
Mobile positive charge =1.6*10
-19
Coulombs
At thermal equilibrium(no applied voltage) n*p=(ni)
2
(roomtemperature approximation)
The substrate is called n-type when it has more than 10¹ºfree
electrons (similar for p-type)
6
P P- -N Junction N Junction
  Also known as a diode Also known as a diode
  One of the basics of semiconductor technology One of the basics of semiconductor technology - -
  Created by placing n Created by placing n- -type and p type and p- -type material in close type material in close
contact contact
  Diffusion Diffusion - - mobile charges (holes) in p mobile charges (holes) in p- -type combine with type combine with
mobile charges (electrons) in n mobile charges (electrons) in n- -type type
P P- -N Junction N Junction
  Region of charges left behind ( Region of charges left behind (dopants dopantsfixed in crystal fixed in crystal
lattice) lattice)
– – Group III in p Group III in p- -type (one less proton than type (one less proton than Si Si- - negative negative
charge) charge)
– – Group IV in n Group IV in n- -type (one more proton than type (one more proton than Si Si - - positive positive
charge) charge)
  Region is totally depleted of mobile charges Region is totally depleted of mobile charges - - “ “depletion depletion
region region” ”
– – Electric field forms due to fixed charges in the depletion Electric field forms due to fixed charges in the depletion
region region
– – Depletion region has high resistance due to lack of mobile Depletion region has high resistance due to lack of mobile
charges charges
THE P THE P- -N JUNCTION N JUNCTION The Junction The Junction

The “potential” or voltage across
the silicon changes in the depletion
region and goes from+in the n
region to – in the p region
Biasing the P Biasing the P- -N Diode N Diode
Forward Bias
Applies - voltage
to then region and
+voltageto thep
region
CURRENT!
Reverse Bias
Applies +voltage
to n region and –
voltageto p region
NO CURRENT
THINK OF THE
DIODE AS A
SWITCH
P P- -N Junction N Junction – – Reverse Bias Reverse Bias
  positive voltage placed on n positive voltage placed on n- -type material type material
  electrons in n electrons in n- -type move closer to positive terminal, holes type move closer to positive terminal, holes
in p in p- -type move closer to negative terminal type move closer to negative terminal
  width of depletion region increases width of depletion region increases
  allowed current is essentially zero (small allowed current is essentially zero (small “ “drift drift” ” current) current)
7
P P- -N Junction N Junction – – Forward Bias Forward Bias
  positive voltage placed on p positive voltage placed on p- -type material type material
  holes in p holes in p- -type move away frompositive terminal, electrons in n type move away frompositive terminal, electrons in n- -
type move further fromnegative terminal type move further fromnegative terminal
  depletion region becomes smaller depletion region becomes smaller - - resistance of device decreases resistance of device decreases
  voltage increased until critical voltage is reached, depletion r voltage increased until critical voltage is reached, depletion region egion
disappears, current can flow freely disappears, current can flow freely
P P- -N Junction N Junction - - V V- -I characteristics I characteristics
Voltage Voltage- -Current relationship for ap Current relationship for ap- -n junction (diode) n junction (diode)
Current Current- -Voltage Characteristics Voltage Characteristics
THE IDEAL DIODE
Positive voltage yields
finite current
Negative voltage
yields zero current
REAL DIODE
The Ideal Diode Equation The Ideal Diode Equation
I I
qV
kT
where
I diode current with reverse bias
q coulomb the electronic ch e
k
eV
K
Boltzmann s cons t
=
|
\

|
.
| ÷

¸

(
¸
(
=
= ×
= ×
÷
÷
0
0
19
5
1
1602 10
862 10
exp ,
. , arg
. , ' tan
Semiconductor diode Semiconductor diode - - opened region opened region
  The p The p- -side is the cathode, the n side is the cathode, the n- -side is the anode side is the anode
  The dropped voltage, V The dropped voltage, V
D D
is measured from the cathode is measured from the cathode
to the anode to the anode
  Opened: V Opened: V
D D
  V V
F F
: :
V V
D D
= =V V
F F
I I
D D
=circuit limited, in our model the V =circuit limited, in our model the V
D D
cannot exceed V cannot exceed V
F F
Semiconductor diode Semiconductor diode - - cut cut- -off region off region
  Cut Cut- -off: 0 off: 0< <V V
D D
< <V V
F F
: :
I I
D D
  0 0mA mA
8
Semiconductor diode Semiconductor diode - - closed region closed region
  Closed: V Closed: V
F F
< <V V
D D
  0: 0:
– – V V
DD
is determined by the circuit, I is determined by the circuit, I
DD
= =0 0 mA mA
  Typical values of V Typical values of V
F F
: 0.5 : 0.5 ¸ ¸0.7 V 0.7 V
Zener Effect Zener Effect
  Zener break down: V Zener break down: V
D D
<=V <=V
Z Z
: :
V V
D D
=V =V
Z Z
, I , I
D D
is determined by the circuit. is determined by the circuit.
  In case of standard diode the typical values of the break In case of standard diode the typical values of the break
down voltage V down voltage V
Z Z
of the Zener effect of the Zener effect - -20 ... 20 ... - -100 V 100 V
  Zener diode Zener diode
– – Utilization of the Zener effect Utilization of the Zener effect
– – Typical break down values of V Typical break down values of V
ZZ
: : - -4.5 ... 4.5 ... - -15 V 15 V
LED LED
  Light emitting diode, made from Light emitting diode, made from GaAs GaAs
– – V V
FF
=1.6 V =1.6 V
– – I I
FF
>=6 >=6 mA mA
Resistor in an Integrated Circuit Resistor in an Integrated Circuit

interrupted at irregular boundaries  Monocrystal has uniform 33dimensional structure  Atoms occupy fixed positions relative to one another. very little electric current flows Ge) have 4 electrons in their outer shell Ge) – 2 in the s subshell – 2 in the p subshell  As the distance between atoms decreases the discrete subshells spread out into bands  As the distance decreases further. through entire structure – for polycrystal. extends monocrystal. not part of the atom – 4 possible electrons in the lower band (valence band) (valence band) – 4 possible electrons in the upper band (conduction band) (conduction band) Energy Bands in Semiconductors  Insulators. if battery applied.Nature of Intrinsic Silicon   Semiconductor Crystalline Structure  Silicon that is free of doping impurities is called intrinsic Silicon has a valence of 4 and forms covalent bonds with four other neighboring silicon atoms Semiconductors have a regular crystalline structure – for monocrystal. structure is polycrystal. or gap. forbidden band separation of the valence and conduction bands determines the electrical properties of the material a large energy gap – electrons can’t jump from valence to conduction bands can’ – no current flows  Conductors (metals) have a very small (or nonexistent) energy gap – electrons easily jump to conduction bands due to thermal excitation – current flows easily  Semiconductors have a moderate energy gap – only a few electrons can jump to the conduction band » leaving “holes” – only a little current can flow  Insulators have 2 . Semiconductors. and the electrons doesn’ can be thought of as being part of the crystal.  This The space between the bands is the energy gap. the bands overlap and then separate – the subshell model doesn’t hold anymore. and Metals Semiconductors. but are in constant vibration about equilibrium Semiconductor Crystalline Structure  Silicon atoms Conduction in Crystal Lattices  Semiconductors (Si and (Si have 4 electrons in outer shell – inner electrons are very closely bound to atom  These electrons are shared with neighbor atoms on both sides to “fill” the shell fill” – resulting structure is very stable – electrons are fairly tightly bound » no “loose” electrons – at room temperature.

Semiconductors.Insulators.electron pair Electrons also “fall” back out of the conduction band into the fall” valence band.)  Phosphorus and arsenic are donor dopants – if phosphorus is introduced into the silicon lattice. add impurities (dopants) to contribute extra electrons or extra holes dopants) – elements with 5 outer electrons contribute an extra electron to the lattice (donor dopant) (donor dopant) – elements with 3 outer electrons accept an electron from the silicon (acceptor dopant) (acceptor dopant) » very loosely bound to atom and can easily jump to conduction band – produces n type silicon » sometimes use + symbol to indicate heavier doping.)  Boron has 3 electrons in its outer shell. so it contributes a hole if it displaces a silicon atom – boron is an acceptor dopant – yields p type silicon – boron becomes negative ion after accepting an electron Epitaxial Growth of Silicon  Epitaxy grows silicon on top of existing silicon – uses chemical vapor deposition – new silicon has same crystal structure as original  Silicon is placed in chamber at high temperature – 1200 o C (2150 o F)  Appropriate gases are fed into the chamber – other gases add impurities to the mix  Can grow n type.Electron Pairs   Sometimes thermal energy is enough to cause an electron to jump from the valence band to the conduction band – produces a hole . so n+ silicon – phosphorus becomes positive ion after giving up electron Improving Conduction by Doping (cont. combining with a hole Valence Band Conductor Semiconductor Insulator pair elimination pair creation hole electron Improving Conduction by Doping  Improving Conduction by Doping (cont. then switch to p type very quickly 3 . and Metals (continued) Conduction Band Hole . there is an extra electron “free” to move free” around and contribute to electric current To make semiconductors better conductors.

” Higher temperatures create free charge carriers. The N in N-type stands for negative.constant amount per unit area Ion Implantation of Dopants  Hole and Electron Concentrations  To produce    One way to reduce the spreading found with diffusion is to use ion ion implantation – also gives better uniformity of dopant – yields faster devices – lower temperature process Ions are accelerated from 5 Kev to 10 Mev and directed at silicon – higher energy gives greater depth penetration – total dose is measured by flux » number of ions per cm2 » typically 1012 per cm2 . The extra valence electron is free to move about the lattice The P in P-type stands for positive. it covalently bonds with four adjacent atoms in the crystal lattice DOPING There are two types of doping N-type and P-type.1016 per cm2 Flux is over entire surface of silicon – use masks to cover areas where implantation is not wanted Heat afterward to work into crystal lattice reasonable levels of conduction doesn’t doesn’ require much doping – silicon has about 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3 – typical dopant levels are about 1015 atoms/cm 3  In undoped (intrinsic) silicon. A column III ion is inserted. A column V ion is inserted. At 23C there are 10¹º particles/cm³ of free carriers 4 . so increasing the number of free electrons decreases the number of holes INTRINSIC (PURE) SILICON At 0 Kelvin Silicon density is 5*10²³ particles/cm³ Silicon has 4 valence electrons. and their product equals a constant – actually. the number of holes and number of free electrons is equal.Diffusion of Dopants  It is also possible to introduce dopants into silicon by heating them so they diffuse into the silicon Diffusion of Dopants (continued) top – no new silicon is added – high heat causes diffusion  Can be done with constant concentration in atmosphere – close to straight line concentration gradient  Or with constant number of atoms per unit area – predeposition – bell-shaped gradient bell side Diffusion causes spreading of doped areas Concentration of dopant in surrounding atmosphere kept constant per unit volume Dopant deposited on surface . n i increases with increasing temperature np = ni2  This equation holds true for doped silicon as well. A “hole” is created in the absence of an electron. Electrons from the surrounding Silicon move to fill the “hole.

resistivity decreases » many extra electrons --> “donor” or n-type material Replace Si atom with Group III atom – substitution of 3 electrons for 4 electrons – extra electron now needed for crystal bonding structure » “hole” created (missing electron) » hole can move to other areas of semiconductor if electrons continually fill holes » again. current flows more easily . is yet another band of continuously variable.resistivity decreases » electrons needed --> “acceptor” or p-type material   Silicon crystal in pure form is good insulator .602  10 19 joule  Within the same valence shell.Energy-band Diagram Energy   Band Gap     A very important concept in the study of semiconductors is the energy-band diagram energyIt is used to represent the range of energy a valence electron can can have For semiconductors the electrons can have any one value of a continuous range of energy levels while they occupy the valence shell of the atom – That band of energy levels is called the valence band Between the valence and the conduction band is a range of energy levels where there are no allowed states for an electron This is the band gap E G . In silicon at room temperature [in electron volts]: E G  11 eV Electron volt is an atomic measurement unit.6*10-19 Coulombs At thermal equilibrium (no applied voltage) n*p=(ni)2 (room temperature approximation) The substrate is called n-type when it has more than 10¹º free electrons (similar for p-type) 5 .all electrons are bonded to silicon atom Replacement of Si atoms can alter electrical properties of semiconductor Group number . allowed energy energy levels – This is the conduction band Impurities   Impurities Replace Si atom in crystal with Group V atom – substitution of 5 electrons for 4 electrons in outer shell – extra electron not needed for crystal bonding structure » can move to other areas of semiconductor » current flows more easily . 1 eV energy is necessary to decrease of the potential of the electron with 1 V. but at a slightly higher energy level.indicates number of electrons in valence level (Si (Si Group IV)  COUNTER DOPING A LITTLE MATH n= number of free electrons p=number of holes Insert more than one type of Ion The extra electron and the extra hole cancel out ni=number of electrons in intrinsic silicon=10¹º/cm³ pi-number of holes in intrinsic silicon= 10¹º/cm³ Mobile negative charge = -1.6*10-19 Coulombs Mobile positive charge = 1. 1eV  1.

negative pSicharge) – Group IV in n-type (one more proton than Si . holes nin p-type move closer to negative terminal pwidth of depletion region increases allowed current is essentially zero (small “drift” current) drift” Forward Bias Applies .positive ncharge)  Also known as a diode One of the basics of semiconductor technology Created by placing n-type and p-type material in close npcontact Diffusion .voltage to the n region and + voltage to the p region CURRENT! Reverse Bias Applies + voltage to n region and – voltage to p region NO CURRENT 6 .P-N Junction      P-N Junction Region of charges left behind (dopants fixed in crystal (dopants lattice) – Group III in p-type (one less proton than Si.“depletion region” region” – Electric field forms due to fixed charges in the depletion region – Depletion region has high resistance due to lack of mobile charges THE P-N JUNCTION P- The Junction  The “potential” or voltage across the silicon changes in the depletion region and goes from + in the n region to – in the p region Biasing the P-N Diode P- THINK OF THE DIODE AS A SWITCH     P-N Junction – Reverse Bias positive voltage placed on n-type material nelectrons in n-type move closer to positive terminal.mobile charges (holes) in p-type combine with pmobile charges (electrons) in n-type n- Region is totally depleted of mobile charges .

electrons in npntype move further from negative terminal depletion region becomes smaller .resistance of device decreases voltage increased until critical voltage is reached.   kT   where I 0  diode current with reverse bias THE IDEAL DIODE Positive voltage yields finite current Negative voltage yields zero current REAL DIODE q  1602  10  19 coulomb .V-I characteristics Voltage-Current relationship for a p-n junction (diode) Voltagep- positive voltage placed on p-type material pholes in p-type move away from positive terminal. the n-side is the anode nvoltage.cut-off region cut Cut-off: 0 Cut- is the cathode. current can flow freely Current-Voltage Characteristics Current- The Ideal Diode Equation   qV   I  I 0  exp   1 .P-N Junction – Forward Bias     P-N Junction .62  10 5 . the electronic ch arg e . V D is measured from the cathode to the anode < VD < VF : ID  0 mA  Opened: VD  VF : VD = VF ID = circuit limited. eV k  8. depletion region region disappears. Boltzmann' s cons tan t K Semiconductor diode . in our model the VD cannot exceed VF 7 .opened region  The p-side p The dropped Semiconductor diode .

closed region  Zener  Closed: VF  Typical Zener Effect break down: VD <= V Z: VD = V Z..7 V LED  Light Resistor in an Integrated Circuit emitting diode.Semiconductor diode .6 V – IF >= 6 mA 8 . made from GaAs – VF=1.  In case of standard diode the typical values of the break down voltage V Z of the Zener effect -20 .5 ¸ 0.... -15 V < VD  0: – VD is determined by the circuit. -100 V  Zener diode – Utilization of the Zener effect – Typical break down values of V Z : -4. ID is determined by the circuit.5 . ID = 0 mA values of VF: 0.