A SHORT REVIEW OF MODAL AUXILIARIES 1.- The modal can shows (a) a physical ability: He can lift about fifty pounds without strain; A human being can go without water for several days; (b) a learned ability: She can speak five languages; She can sew, knit, and crochet beautifully; and (c) possibility: Canada can produce millions of tons of wheat a year; You can find a list of irregular verbs at the back of this book. Reminder: The idiom be able to is also used to show ability or possibility: The doctor is able to see you now; The patient isn’t able to get out of bed. 2.- Could, the past form of can, shows ability or possibility in past time; I couldn’t carry the package home because it was too heavy; We could go for a drive yesterday because our car was working. 3.- Could is also used to show slight probability (in a manner similar to may) in present time: Where’s the boss today? He could be sick, but I don’t think so. 4.- Could not means impossibility: This letter couldn’t be from John Smith; he’s been dead for ten years. 5.- May, and its other form might, also means slight probability in present time: They may (might) have a lot of money, but I don’t think so. 6.- May (and in very formal usage might) is also used for asking permission: May I please open the door? May I leave? Reminder: In less formal usage can may be used for asking permission: Can (may) I please leave the table? Can (may) I open the window? 7.- The modal must means (a) necessity: He’s very ill and must go to the doctor immediately; (b) strong recommendation: You must see that movie; it’s wonderful; and (c) strong probability (deduction): The President’s job must be very difficult. Reminder: Must for necessity has no past form. 8.- The idiom have to also shows necessity; however, it does not show the feeling of necessity as strongly as must: I have to pay$15.00 a month for my phone (but I must pay my taxes). 9.- Have to can appear in all verb tenses: I have to go to work every day; I had to go to work yesterday; I will have to go to work tomorrow; I have had to go to work every day this week; He was angry because he had had to go to work earlier than usual. Reminder: In the present and past tenses, have to requires the auxiliary do in questions and negatives: Do you have to go to work? I didn’t have to go to work yesterday. 10.- It is very important to remember that do not have to means lack of necessity: I don’t have to eat because I’m not hungry; while must not means prohibition: I mustn’t eat this food because it’s spoiled.

11. - Should and ought to mean (a) expectation: There shouldn’t be crime in the city, but there is; Our children ought to be good all the time, but sometimes they’re not; (b) advisability: You should take care of the problem now; You ought to buy a new dictionary; and (b) recommendation: You should read that book; You ought to see that movie. Reminder: (a) Should (ought to) does not express necessity and recommendation as strongly as must. (b) Should occurs more frequently than ought to in questions and negatives in American English.

REVIEWING MODAL AUXILIARIES AND RELATED IDIOMS Supply appropriate base forms in the blanks. EXAMPLES: a) There shouldn’t be a discipline problem at the school, but there is. (expectation) b) We might run out of money. (slight probability) (To run out of means to deplete the supply of something)

1.- I have to _________________ to the store because I’ve run out of sugar. I have to _______________ right away. (necessity) 2.- I didn’t have to _______________ any medicine. (lack of necessity) 3.- We must ______________ at the next gas station (necessity), or we might _________________ out of gas. (slight probability) 4.- You ought to _______________ that program on TV tonight. (recommendation) 5.- You should ______________ better care of your health. (advisability) 6.- We must _________________ the police about the crime. (necessity) 7.- We must _________________ to live. (necessity) 8.- We mustn’t _________________ to eat. (prohibition) 9.- You must ________________ this book; it’s about the present political situation in your native country. (strong recommendation) 10.- I don’t have to ______________ the book because I know all about the situation from personal experience. (lack of necessity) 11.- A camel can _______________ for days without water. (physical ability) 12.- A friend of mine can _______________ seven languages. (learned ability) 13.- Life in India for the poor must ______________ hard. (strong possibility) 14.- Dick may ____________ sick today, but I don’t know. (slight possibility) 15.- May I please ______________ the room? (polite request) 16.- Adjectives may _____________ or _____________ nouns. (possibility) 17.- He must ______________ a lot of money (strong possibility) because he doesn’t have to ______________ (lack of necessity) 18.- You mustn’t _________________ that medicine; it’s dangerous. (prohibition) 19.- She could ______________ in love, but I don’t know. (slight probability)

2. No. (e) Must (for strong probability) does not occur in questions. 3.. Note: It is customary to call be an auxiliary in a two. Could I be making an error? What could I be doing wrong? (d) Ought to rarely occurs in questions in American usage. (b) Might in direct questions is very formal.Negative verb phrases are formed by putting not after the modal: They might not be coming to tomorrow’s lecture. but I don’t know..Subjects follow the modal in yes-no and information questions: Should I be using this kind of paper in my typewriter? Could he be telling the whole truth? What should I be doing now? Who could he be talking to ton the phone at this late hour? 4. Sh! The baby may be sleeping. be can occur along with the modal.. but its use is optional: Should she be doing that job now? Yes.PRESENT CONTINUOUS FORMS WITH MODALS 1. Your lawyer could be making a mistake. . ( c) Could is the modal most often used for direct questions. Bob and Norma might be coming to the conference. You shouldn’t be sitting on the floor. she shouldn’t (be).. Special Reminder: (a) May (for slight probability) does not occur in questions. she should (be).or three-word verb phrase.In yes-no answers. children.Modal auxiliaries may occur in verb phrases that contain the verb be (as a secondary auxiliary) and a present participle (as the main verb): You can be fixing while I am washing the dishes.

hit _____________________________ 16.nap ___________________________ 6.kid ____________________________ 8...get _____________________________ ___________________________ 4.begin – beginning – doing 1..chew __________________________ 7....occur ___________________________ ___________________________ 10....put _____________________________ __________________________ .lie ____________________________ 3.turn ____________________________ 2.die _____________________________ 12.grin ___________________________ 5...stay ____________________________ _____________________________ 15. EXAMPLES: a.SPELLING BEE Make –ing forms (present participles) out of the base forms...

She shouldn’t be ______________ penicillin any more... 14.) 1..Listen! It must be _______________.Our guests should be coming any minute now (very soon).. but I don’t think so.. They shouldn’t be _______________ wasting their time...The patient must be _____________ better because her appetite has improved greatly.. . Can’t you hear the rain on the roof? Our garden furniture must be _______________ wet.I might be ____________ school tomorrow. 8.He may be ____________ a lot of money with his company.. 5.You must be kidding.. 17. 10. EXAMPLES: a..PRESENT CONTINUOUS FORMS WITH MODALS Supply appropriate present participles in the blanks. 7. 6. It should be _____________ on schedule.Where’s Dad? He could be _______________ in the garden. 15. 4..When we go to Europe next summer.Our neighbors must be _________________. 3.Because their products are so terrible..The world’s governments should be ______________ more about the problems of overpopulation and pollution. All their lights are off. but I don’t know..The rich nations should be _____________ more for the poor ones. They should be _____________ more for them. his company mustn’t be ______________ much money.. (To kid means to joke or to deceive. but I don’t believe so.They ought to be ____________ better care of their children. but they should be ____________ their homework.The bus should be ______________ any minute. we may be _____________ our children with us.Our neighbors upstairs must be ______________ a party. I can’t believe you’ve just inherited a million dollars.Hurry up! The plane should be _____________ off any minute now. b. They shouldn’t be ______________ so much noise. but we don’t know yet. 16.. 11.I could be ______________ a mistake in this matter. 9. it’s almost fifteen minutes late. 2. but I don’t think so.The turkey should be ___________________ out of the oven any minute now. 18.. but they’re not. 12.The children are watching TV.What kind of paper should the students be ______________ for their compositions? Should they be _____________ papers (long compositions) in ink or with a pencil? 13....

3. Before the French Revolution. Note: Not is inserted between ought and to. but they didn’t. I should’ve studied English when I was younger... but she did.. I ought to have given my plants more water. it is always in the base form. occurs in spoken informal usage: The children should’ve gone to bed much earlier than they did.. 4. the contraction of should have. but they did. but he didn’t. however. In negative verb phrases. . 2. so they all died.Shouldn’t have (sounds like shouldn’t-of) occurs in informal usage: Our team shouldn’t have lost the game. She shouldn’t have drunk so much at the party. I You He She It should (not) have gone We You should (not) have gone They Remember: Have is never an –s form in this pattern. it is understood that the advice was not followed or the obligation was not fulfilled: The President should have listened to his advisers. but he did. not follows the modal: They should have done something about the problem before it got serious.Should’ve (sounds like should-of).Subjects follow should in yes-no and information questions: Should I have done it in a different way? What time should the guests have arrived? Reminder: Questions with ought to in American English are seldom heard. but they didn’t. the aristocrats ought to have paid more attention to the needs of the common people. They ought not to have submitted the proposal..PAST FORMS OF SHOULD AND OUGHT TO 1. Note: Should’ve is not written unless dialogue is being quoted. have (as a second auxiliary) and a past participle (as a main verb) follow should and ought to. Pronunciation Note: There is no written contraction for ought to have.To form a past tense verb phrase. Ought not to occurs more frequently in British English. Nixon should not have listened to his advisers. Note: It is customary to call have a second auxiliary. it sounds like ought-to-of. but they did.When should and ought to are used for advisability and obligation in past time. but I didn’t. 5.

17.(use) You _________________ a dictionary when you wrote the composition.. but they didn’t.. 13. b.SHOULD AND OUGHT TO Fill in the blanks with past participles made out of the base forms given in the parentheses. (try) They __________________ harder. 12. . 9..(drink) I ___________________ less coffee last night. I _____________________ more salt in it.(practice) Our team _________________________ more before they played the champions.(go) I’m tired out (completely tired).(ask) You ought to have asked your boss for a raise. I didn’t sleep a wink (at all)..(wear) I ____________________ my glasses during the movie.(water) I ___________________ my house plants more than I did.. (call) I ought to have _____________ the store manager.. 1..(study) I _____________________ English when I was younger. but we didn’t. (be) I should have ____________ stricter with them. (type) Even better.....(drive) We should have driven up to the mountains.(put) This soup tastes bland. (wear) I ought to have _____________ a heavier coat. 8. Why didn’t you? Now supply should (ought to) + have + a past participle. 4. 5. but I didn’t have time. 14.. 6. too. 15.(leave) We ______________________ the party before the fight started. (take) I _________________________ a taxi. 11.(install) They should have ______________ our new stove last week.(get) Darn it! I _____________________ a haircut yesterday.(do) The children should have ____________ their homework before they went to bed.. you ______________________ it. 2.(put) I should have _____________ on my gloves when I left the house. 10. (give) I ______________________ them better care... (remind) You _______________________ me.(take) The children ___________________ a nap yesterday afternoon... I ___________________ go to bed earlier than I did. 3. but I forgot to.(get) I ______________________ to the meeting on time..(wear) He ______________________ a better-looking suit to the job interview.(write) You should have _____________ to your parents. 7. EXAMPLES: a. 16. (stay) I __________________ in bed. but I forgot to put them on. but my bus was late..

17. (take) I ______________________ a walk in the rain.(listen) I _____________________ to the weather forecast.. 9.(have) I’m a little drunk. and now it’s even worse. 5.(wear) I’m so warm.(waste) I __________________________ so much time yesterday.(go) I caught a bad cold.(reveal) He _____________________ the information to the authorities.(cheat) Your boss ________________________________ on his income tax.. 15. Pronunciation Reminder: Shouldn’t have sounds like shouldn’t-of.(be) I ___________________________ so foolish with my money. b. I shouldn’t have spent so much money last weekend.(waste) You _________________________ so much time yesterday.(put) I _____________________________ so much garlic in the stew. 22. 6.. 21. I ______________________ that last cocktail. 19.(make) I ______________________ so many mistakes on the test.(permit) The government _______________________ inflation to get so bad..(spend) I’m completely broke (without money). .(listen) The German people ________________________ to Hitler. 20... I _____________________ it so long..(sign) I ______________________ that contract without reading it more carefully.. 23. 2. 18.(permit) We ______________________ the children to see that movie. 24. (happen) It ____________________________. 3...(pay) I ______________________ any attention to the weatherman.(pardon) The President _________________________ that criminal.. 11..(wear) My feet ache.....(buy) I don’t like my car. 14.(drop) The United States ____________________ an atomic bomb on Japan.. 8....(bet) I ______________________ any money on that horse.SHOULD IN NEGATIVE VERB PHRASES Fill in the blanks with should + not + a past participle.. 12.(cook) This meat is tough. I ___________________ outside without a jacket.(join) Patricia Hearst ____________________________ the guerillas.. 10. They never got along before they were married. EXAMPLES: a. I ______________________ this heavy coat. Now I’m broke...(make) The judge __________________________ that decision. 7. 4. 16. I ______________________ those new shoes when I went Christmas shopping.(get) Bob and my sister ___________________ married. 13.. 1. but it did.. I shouldn’t have bought it.

4..They served a sweet white wine with the steak at dinner.Even though he had a high fever. and they had a big fight.He cooked the chicken for three hours... and it spoiled. EXAMPLES: a. 8. 13. 12. 2.She put the cat and dog in the same room. 10.I got up late and missed the train. 1. 9.He put the milk on the shelf.They served a large ham for dinner on Thanksgiving Day... 6.. I shouldn’t have stayed up so late last night.. .. 5..She wore a red dress to the funeral last week.. 11.I gave him a beautiful present. They ought to have served red wine. 3. and he said nothing..I’m very tired today. but they only visited Paris..It was a beautiful day.I used a pencil when I did my homework. but we stayed inside.. he went to work yesterday..They were in France for a month. he used an informal style of writing.. b. 7. Use should (not) or ought (not) to have + a past participle in your sentences.When he wrote the letter to the President.They served wine and beer at the wedding reception on Saturday.SHOULD AND OUGHT TO Compose (aloud and/or in writing) appropriate statements in response to the following stated situations. (To stay up can mean not go to bed: How long are you going to stay up? We’re going to stay up until our son gets home.

Why shouldn’t I have ______________ Jim’s typewriter? It doesn’t belong to him...We’re lost! What road should we have ________________ at the last intersection? Should we have gas station? Yes. you shouldn’t have.I don’t like my Ford. What should I have __________ instead? 13. she should have. 1... practice using the short answers: Yes. 4..Should I have sent a telegram to the company instead of a letter? No.How much should I have ________________ the waiter last night? I didn’t want to tip him too much. it belongs to the company.Should I have ________________ a blue jacket instead of a brown one? 8. did you? How should I have ______________ it? What else should I have ______________ on it? 6.Should I have ________________ it in butter instead of oil? 7..Should she have ________________ a different kind of dress to the job interview? Yes.I didn’t like the chicken at the restaurant last night. we should have.... EXAMPLES: a.You didn’t enjoy the party last night.Why shouldn’t you have _________________ your boss for a raise? You’re not making enough money to live on. What kind of car should I have ______________ instead? Should I have _______________ a European one? 14. did you? Where should we have __________instead? 12. are you? (Note the idiomatic expression money to live on: Everyone needs money to live on.Why shouldn’t she have married that man? b. I should (have). did you? What movie should we have _____________ to instead? . 11. Do you have enough money to live on?) 10. Pronunciation Reminder: Should have sounds like should-of.You didn’t like the chicken. 2.. or No...Why shouldn’t our children have _________________ to that movie? Was it too violent or pornographic? 3..You didn’t like the movie. When doing the exercises aloud. and shouldn’t have sounds like shouldn’t-of..QUESTIONS WITH SHOULD Supply appropriate past participles in the blanks... I shouldn’t (have). 5.Why shouldn’t you have _________________ a Christmas present to yourself? 9.

(b) Direct questions with might (e. and (c ) might not have sounds like might-not-of.PAST FORMS OF MAY AND MIGHT 1... seldom occur in American English. occurs in spoken informal usage: The baby might’ve eaten something bad. (May and might in indirect questions will be discussed in the chapter on noun clauses. Pronunciation Note: The following contractions occur in speaking: (a) may have sounds like may-of. uncertainty. 4.She may have (may-of) been angry at me.) Practice reading the following sentences aloud. 9.As with past forms of should and ought to. Reminder: (a) May does not occur in questions (only in requests).The children might not have (might-not-of) had enough to eat. 6.g. Mayn’t and mightn’t. Might the Ambassador have left?) are very formal. He didn’t say hello to me. 5.You may have had the wrong number when you tried to make the call... the contractions of may not and might not.The test might not have been difficult enough for the students.They may not have (may-not-of) taken the right bus.The past form of may (might) is used to express slight probability. 8.... have in the base form (as an auxiliary) and a past participle (as a main verb) follow may (might) in a verb phrase. 2. Singular Plural First Person I we Second Person you may (might) (not) have gone you may (might) (not) have gone Third Person he they she it 3. 1. I may (might) have said the wrong thing: He may (might) not have answered me right away because he hadn’t understood my question..You may have taken the wrong road. Event in Past Time Conjecture She didn’t come to work yesterday.The team might not have practiced enough.Might’ve (sounds like might-of). 3.You may not have had the right formula. Note: Might’ve is not written unless dialogue is being quoted.. We might’ve won the game. (b) may not have sounds like may-not-of. . She may (might) have been sick. 2... Not follows the modal in negatives: When I made that remark.I might have (might-of) made a few mistakes in the last test.. He may (might) have been angry. or conjecture (guess) about an event in past time. 7..

so I must have done something right. 7.(be) He didn’t say hello to me. (drink) I ___________________ polluted water. But it was still a fine movie. b..) 4. (have) The producer _____________________ enough time to supervise the production. (have) They _______________________ enough money to make a truly successful film. (have) I ___________________ good chocolate. I _________________ enough paint thinner. (mix) I ______________________ the paint long enough. (be) The actor’s role ____________________ large enough.(use) This paint isn’t going on the wall smoothly. 6. 11. 10.(put) These chocolates are a little bitter. but I’m not sure.The movie wasn’t entirely successful. but I’m a much happier person now. (follow) I ______________________ the directions as carefully as I should have {followed them}. (organize) The director ______________________ the plot carefully enough.(have) She was absent yesterday.SLIGHT PROBABILITY AND CONJECTURE WITH MAY / MIGHT Fill in the blanks with may (might) + have + a past participle.. 3. (To fill up means to fill completely.. 2. does he? He __________________ a happy childhood. there were only a few hard questions. 8. (have) I ___________________ the right recipe..(make) I ______________________ the right decision. 5... (be) One of her children _________________________ sick.(have) He doesn’t appear to be a happy man. She ______________________ a problem at home..) 1.. The actress _____________________ quite right for her role as a queen. . but I don’t care.. He may have been angry at me.(have) The experiment was a flop. I might have had the wrong formula. 9.(eat) I have a little bit of a stomach ache. I ____________________ in enough sugar when I made them.(make) I ______________________ any mistakes in the last test.(take) Are we lost? I _______________________ the right turn at the last intersection.(get) My car isn’t working right..(like) My boss ____________________ my decision to quit my job. (be) The music ___________________ right for the theme of the film. EXAMPLES: a. (Flop is informal for failure. I ___________________ something bad.. I _________________________ the right kind of gas when I filled her (it) up last...

9. 6. and I’ve been sneezing a lot for the past hour.I have a little bit of a hangover.For some reason. 5.S/he dropped out of school. but our teacher was late yesterday.I don’t know why. 1. but their company went out of business.) PAST FORMS WITH COULD .It’s hard for me to believe.He didn’t like his course in chemistry last semester..They haven’t received the letter yet.. EXAMPLES: a. but my boss was very tired a couple of days ago. Why? 12.SLIGHT PROBABILITY AND CONJECTURE WITH MAY / MIGHT Compare (aloud and/or in writing) appropriate statements containing verb phrases with may (might) (+ not) + have + a past participle in response to the following stated situations and questions.She didn’t speak to me when I saw her on the street yesterday...He wasn’t at work yesterday. b. 4. 2.Jack and his wife have recently gotten a divorce..I have a little bit of a fever. 11. 7.. You might have drunk too much last night... 8..My parents didn’t like that movie. they didn’t take a vacation last year..S/he quit his/her job.They left the theater in the middle of the movie. 3...I don’t know why. I might not have remembered to put a stamp on it. Why? (Reminder: To drop out of school means to quit school.... Why? 13. 10.

. the other form of can is combined with a base form: (a) to show ability and possibility in past time: No one could guess the riddle during the contest last night. but we stayed home instead. 1. Possibly. occurs in informal usage: Impossible! Hitler couldn’t have been sane at the end. it means impossibility. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular I You could have gone He She It Plural We You could have gone They 2. occurs in spoken informal usage: He could’ve committed the crime. but I doubt it.Could not + have + a past participle does not mean slight probability..Could’ve (sounds like could-of). You could not have received a letter from that company.Could have + a past participle is also used to express past opportunity not realized: We could have gone (we were able to go) to the mountains. but I didn’t accept their offer. 3. could’ve is not written unless dialogue is being quoted. the subject of a sentence usually occurs after could: Could I have made a mistake? Where could they have gone? How could Sarah have made such a foolish error? . he’s never been there. I could’ve had the job (they offered it to me). Our daughter could speak well before she was three. the contraction of could have. they could’ve reached the top of the mountain. the doctors could have done more for the patient.Reminder: Could. I You could not have gone He She It We You could not have gone They 5.Could + have + a past participle is used to express slight probability (conjecture) in past time: He could have been wrong in his decision.In yes-no and information questions with could have. 6. 4. but no one in the hospital thinks so. they’ve been out of business for years. Could + not + a base form is used to show impossibility in present time: He couldn’t know much about China. the contraction of could not have.Couldn’t have (sounds like couldn’t-of).... Perhaps. (b) to make polite requests in present time: Could I please leave the room? (c ) to show slight probability ( like may/might) in present time: She could be sick today. Note: Like should’ve and might’ve.. but the police don’t think so. but I don’t think so.

...What road should we have (should-we-of) taken? 13.. she could (have): No. 6. 5. but she was tired. 4.You may not have (may-not-of) understood my question... 7. 8.Why couldn’t you have (couldn’t-you-of) tried harder? 19.In yes-no answers.7. have may follow the modal: Could she have done such a terrible thing? Yes.You might not have (might-not-of) had the right map. but I don’t know... 11.. when an information word(s) is the subject of a sentence..Impossible! My boss couldn’t have (couldn’t-of) done that..You might not have (might-not-of) used the right ingredients.How should I have (should-I-of) written that letter? 20..I may have (may-of) made a mistake.What time should the movie have (should-the movie-of) begun? 18.. 2.You ought not to have (ought-not-to-of) used that method.Should I have (should-I-of) put more salt in the stew? 15.Might the teacher have (might-the teacher-of) made a mistake? 14.What might have (might-of) happened to them? .You shouldn’t have (shouldn’t-of) done that.She could have (could-of) gone to the party.Why shouldn’t I have (shouldn’t-I-of) told the neighbors? 16..... 10...However.. 9.. 1. she couldn’t (have). Practice reading the following sentences aloud. the usual question form does not occur: What could have happened to our guests? Who could have taken my wallet? 8. 3.They really ought to have (ought-to-of) taken the test.You should have (should-of) gotten to class on time..What could I have (could-I-of) done wrong? 12.Where could the children have (could-the children-of) gone? 17.

.. but I read the map very carefully. but I don’t think so. 12. I ___________________ the wrong size.. but we didn’t want to. but he didn’t try to.. 11.(be) He _______________________ the president.(steal) Where’s my watch? Someone in the office _____________________ it.(have) They ____________________ children.(send) Why didn’t they get the letter? I could have sent it to the wrong address. but he wasn’t interested.(be) Why didn’t she say hello to me? She ____________________ angry at me..SLIGHT PROBABILITY AND CONJECTURE WITH COULD Fill in the blanks with appropriate affirmative verb phrases containing could + have + a past participle.(get) Why isn’t our car working right? We _______________________ the wrong kind of gas at our last stop..(miss) Why haven’t they come yet? Well. but he married the woman he loved instead. Who knows? Note: The verb phrases in the remaining sentences of this exercise express past opportunity not realized.(stop) He ______________________ smoking. but I don’t think so. but I can’t believe that.(buy) We _______________________ an expensive car. 9.(buy) These new shoes aren’t very comfortable. they _____________________ the bus.(use) Why are these dishes still dirty? I could have used the wrong kind of soap when I washed them.. but I don’t think so. but I don’t think so. EXAMPLES: a. but I can’t believe it-she’s one of my best friends. 13. but I didn’t care to. 2.. 8. 5.(forget) Why hasn’t he shown up yet? He ___________________ our appointment. 6.. 14. but I doubt it because he always remembers. b. but she preferred to marry the man she loved instead.. 3.. 7. 10. 4. or they might have forgotten the date. I took a course in French instead.... We went to Japan instead. 15.. Practice using the contraction could’ve.(marry) He _________________________ the most beautiful and successful woman in town.. 1.(marry) She __________________________ the richest man in town.(take) I ____________________ another course in Spanish.(go) We _________________________ to Europe on our vacation last year. but we bought a cheap one instead. but they chose not to.(take) Why are we lost? We _____________________ the wrong road at the intersection. .

but you __________________________ me at that party because I wasn’t there. Dick _______________________ at the last meeting because I saw him in the park at the time.. EXAMPLES: a.Impossible! You _____________________ to him on the phone.. 4.Impossible! That student _______________________ on the final examination because s/he’s too honest. no matter how hard I tried.IMPOSSIBLIITY WITH COULD NOT Fill in the blanks with appropriate negative verb phrases containing could + not + have + a past participle. 2. she’s only eleven.Impossible! Einstein couldn’t have made a mistake. the competition was too good. . They must have done it for her.It was a terrible meal. 6. Practice using contractions.No. 7.. 9.Impossible! I ___________________________ such a foolish thing.I _____________________________ that race. he doesn’t have one.I’m sorry.It’s hard to believe.. It __________________________ better. He was in the hospital when it took place.. I couldn’t have made the right decision without your help and guidance. 13. 10. It ___________________________ worse. 8. I’m afraid you’re wrong.. 11..Their child ______________________ this beautiful letter...It was a wonderful movie. I wasn’t there. 5. 3. 15. They are almost three inches of solid steel.No! S/he _________________________ that money from the company. S/he ________________________ drunk at that party because s/he never drinks. That writer _______________________ this book.Thank you so much. but I’m afraid you’re wrong.He __________________________ that crime. 12. and the book is about current events.. 16. b.. He’d already been dead for thirty years when the book was published. 1.Impossible! The thieves ____________________ the bank through those doors.When we saw our son/daughter receive the prize for the best student in the graduating class we _______________________ happier......I’m sorry. I know s/he would never do such a thing.We ___________________________ this exercise at the beginning of the course.. 14..

10.When I got back to my apartment...ASKING QUESTIONS WITH COULD Make (aloud and/or in writing) appropriate yes-no questions with could + subject + have + a past participle and any other necessary words in response to the following stated situations and questions.. 12. PAST FORMS WITH MUST ... the door was open. 9... 6...Don/Jill was in a very quiet mood all day long yesterday. 2.Why hasn’t she come yet? I’ve been waiting here for an hour..He didn’t say hello when I saw him on the street.She’s always here.He didn’t say much when I made the suggestion. 3.I sent them a letter a week ago. but for some reason she wasn’t here yesterday. isn’t it? 5.My stomach is a little upset.Most of my house plants died. Could she have missed her train? 1.. 4. 11. but they haven’t gotten it yet. EXAMPLES: a.Why haven’t our guests come yet? They should have been here two hours ago.This soup is a little bland.. 7..This steak is a little tough. Could he have been angry at me? b.These new shoes are a little tight/loose.. 14.Our car isn’t working right. 8..The patient didn’t feel well yesterday. 13.The teacher hasn’t come yet..

First Person Second Person Third Person Singular I You must have gone He She It Plural We You must have gone They 2..The general mustn’t have listened to his advisors.It must have (must-of) been terrible to fight in the war. When Neil Armstrong first stepped on the moon..Life for the rich before the revolution must have been wonderful.Must’ve (sounds like must-of). 8.You mustn’t have (mustn’t-of) had the right formula in the experiment. occurs in spoken informal usage: What a mess the kitchen is in! The children must’ve had some kind of cooking project. occurs in informal usage: They mustn’t have practiced much before the game.Reminder: Must may be used to express necessity in present time only: We must protect out freedom at all costs. 7. 3. the contraction of must not. 5.. Reminder: No question forms occur when we use must for strong probability (deduction). the contraction of must have. 6. 2...Mustn’t. Practice reading the following sentences aloud. We must use had to...He mustn’t have done enough homework for the course. Before the Cuban Revolution. the past form of the idiom have tom for necessity in past time: I myself had to tell my parents the bad news about my sister.... Pronunciation Note: Mustn’t have sounds like mustn’t-of. Note: Like should’ve. STRONG PROBABILITY (DEDUCTION) WITH MUST . 4.The judge mustn’t have made the right decision. might’ve. the rich must not have understood the problems of the poor..Not follows must in negative verb phrases: Che Guevara must not have had accurate information when he decided to start a revolution in Bolivia. must’ve is not written unless dialogue is being quoted.The last exercise must have been difficult for some of the students. 1.. must combined with have and a past participle occurs in a verb phrase: Building a pyramid must have been a long and hard job. he must have been thrilled. and could’ve. they didn’t score one point. 4. 1. 3.To show strong probability (deduction) in past time.You must have said the wrong thing to her.

.(give) Their little boy is very spoiled. 10. 4. (get) It ________________________lost.(say) Everyone in the other room is laughing. I _____________________ it to the wrong address.. 9.. They ____________________ him too much when he was younger. (appreciate) He __________________________ your visit..(buy) This shirt doesn’t fit. I ____________________ it too long. 14. 3.(have) They _____________________ a good time on their vacation in Europe. EXAMPLES: a.(go) All the lights in our neighbors’ house are off. Someone _______________________ something funny. (spend) They __________________ a great deal of money.(be) The Pilgrims must have been thrilled when their ship. 13. (be) You ______________________ afraid for your life. They ______________________ to bed... It _____________________ a lot. It’s excellent! b. weren’t you? It _________________ terrible.(study) She got a high grade. I ______________________ something wrong..(do) My boss is angry at me. (get) She ________________________ some bad news.. 1.. 12. 2. they’re still talking about it...(be) You were in the battle zone. the Mayflower.. (enjoy) He _____________________ it. (be) Our map _____________________ wrong. She ______________________ hard. 11. I _____________________ the wrong size. 8.. 6.Fill in the blanks with must + have + a past participle. 7.(be) Visiting your friend at the hospital ____________________ a depressing experience. first landed in the New World.. 5.(work) You must have worked very hard on that project. 15.(cost) Look at her beautiful coat.(cook) This meat is tough..(happen) Why is she crying? Something terrible ______________________ to her.(take) We’re lost! We ___________________ a wrong turn at the last intersection. I ____________________ something wrong. .(send) They never got the letter.(say) She seems angry at me..

(have) He ____________________________ the right parts. 1..STRONG PROBABILITY (DEDUCTION) WITH MUST Fill in the blanks with must + not + have + a past participle.(have) I wasn’t able to find their house. I ________________________ the right ingredients. 5.(fix) My TV still doesn’t work right.. (have) I ___________________________ the right directions. The cook _____________________ any salt in it. 6.. 10. 11.(sleep) Our boss looks very tired today..(feed) The dog still acts hungry. 9.(like) I haven’t received an answer from my girlfriend yet. 4.(study) It’s one of the easiest courses at school. 8. 12. He ____________________ well last night. He __________________..(cook) This meat is very tough.(pay) Their house isn’t very nice.. They ___________________ a good time..(pick) I mustn’t have picked out (chosen) the right thing.. and it’s been two months.(put) This soup tastes bland..(have) They never talk about their vacation in Mexico. (be) The recipe ____________________________ right. STRONG PROBABILITY (DEDUCTION) WITH MUST .(use) The cake was terrible. I ________________________ her enough.. but she Didn’t seem to like it.. EXAMPLES: a. I __________________________ it at the right temperature.. I mustn’t have chosen the right color. The TV man ___________________________ it right. but she got a bad grade. She _____________________ hard enough. (explain) I _______________________ myself clearly. (look) They _______________________ for it for very long. (say) I _____________________ the right thing. They ________________________ much money for it. 2. Pronunciation Reminder: Mustn’t have sounds like mustn’t-of... I ______________________ enough stamps on it.(enjoy) He doesn’t want to talk about the party last night. b.(choose) I gave her a blue sweater for her birthday.. 3. 13. She __________________________ it. 7. I ___________________________ the right directions.(put) I got the letter back from the post office. (have) He ________________________ the right recipe. (be) It __________________________ the right place for them.

10... but he ended up in a factory instead. 7. 8. (To end up in a place can mean to arrive at a place by accident or surprise: Columbus wanted to get to India. 2. but he ended up in America instead. EXAMPLES: a.We wanted to take a drive to Smithtown. 5. Pronunciation Reminder: Must have sounds like must-of.I wanted to get to the east side of town. He must have been crazy..That politician wanted to make a lot of money. They must have had a good time while they were away. he said he was George Washington. they looked very refreshed. but he ended up in jail instead.) 4. but I ended up on the west side. but we ended up in Bordentown instead.... and mustn’t have sounds like mustn’t-of. or drunk.When I first met my new neighbor..The bride/groom was crying and standing alone at the altar..They didn’t want to talk about the party.When they returned from their vacation.The aristocrats had everything before the revolution took place. 9.. 6.Compose (aloud and/or in writing) appropriate statements containing verb phrases with must (+ not) + have + a past participle in response tot he following stated situations. 3.Thousands of people bought tickets for that show.I asked for a steak at the restaurant. but he ended up with nothing..He wanted to get a job in an office. . 1... b.He wanted to have everything. but I ended up with (finally got) chicken.

. they couldn’t have (been).Negative verb phrases are formed by placing not after the modal: It must not have been raining very much before we arrived in Turkey because the countryside was dry.Yes-no and information questions are formed by placing the subject of a sentence after the modal: Should we have been using that technique during the experiment? What could I have been thinking about when I made that stupid mistake? 4. I You He She It We You They should ought to may might could must have been going 2. a modal + have follows the subject of the answer.. I You He She It We You They should ought may might could must not (to) have been going 3. Note: Not is inserted between ought and to in a negative verb phrase: They ought not to have been insulting the King.. This kind of verb phrase is used to emphasize the duration of an event in past time: I should have been thinking more carefully while I was taking the test. Been can also be used. been (as a third auxiliary). they could have (been). but its use is optional: Could they have been making a mistake? Yes. The kids shouldn’t have been playing around while the teacher was out of the room.Modal auxiliaries may also occur in verb phrases combined with have (as a secondary auxiliary). No.In yes-no answers. and a present participle (as a main verb).. Should they have been finishing the job by that time? Yes. they should have (been).PAST CONTINUOUS FORMS WITH MODALS 1. they shouldn’t have (been). Reminder: Negative verb phrases containing ought to rarely occur in American English. but I was tired. REVIEWING PAST FORMS OF MODALS . A lot of thoughts must have been running through Marie Antoinette’s mind as she was waiting for her execution at the guillotine. No.

. (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 5.. (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 2... (should) She should have taken cotton clothes.. (must) Someone in his family must have died. Use the modals given in parentheses.The teacher was angry at all of the students.She took woolen clothes when she went to Florida on her trip. EXAMPLES: a.The dishes weren’t clean after I washed them. he was wearing a black arm band. but she didn’t get a good grade in the course.Timmy got a spanking when his father came home. (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 3. some of the students were speaking Spanish and French... b.She’s a very good student. she slapped my face.During the break in my English class. 1. (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 7.. and s/he’s never gotten angry before.He put all his money into one business and lost it all. (must) ____________________________________________________________ . (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 6.When I last saw John.When I asked her the question. (must) ____________________________________________________________ _____ 4.Compose (aloud and/or in writing) appropriate statements in response tot he following stated situations and questions..

used to is used for a condition that existed in past time and still does: When I was a child.Sometimes. but now I do. 5. I used to feed the chickens before I did my homework. we will discuss certain expressions and idioms that are closely related to modal auxiliaries in that they give special meanings to the base forms they precede. I used to study hard. Compare: Correct I used to go to school every day when I was little. the idiom does not change in form when the information word is the subject: When you were a baby.Used to + a base form is used for (a) a condition that once existed but which no longer does: People used to believe the world was flat (we now know it is round). When I got home. and I still do..USED TO + A BASE FORM Note: In the remainder of this chapter. but he doesn’t any longer. Pronunciation Note: Used (before to) sounds like use (pronounced as a noun. I didn’t use to appreciate classical music. Wrong I used to go to school every day now.. who used to take care of you when your parents were not at home? 6. London used to be the largest city in the world (Tokyo is now the largest). . He used to teach at a university. I used to ride a bicycle to school. will be discussed in the chapter on gerunds. I used to do these things every day. I used to ride my bike to school every day. but they occur in sentences like: I didn’t used to like Chinese food. used to becomes a base form in questions: Did you use to play with dolls when you were a little girl? What time did you use to get up every morning while you were at school? However..Negative statements with used to are seldom used. 4. I usually eat my native food now.. but they don’t any more. 1. I used to eat my native food now. while usually may refer to a habitual activity in past or present time. 3. and (b) a past custom (habitual activity) that occurred with regularity in past time but now no longer does: When I was a child. which has a completely different meaning from used to.) 2. but now I do. Note: The idiom be used to.Any more and any longer are adverbial expressions frequently found in sentences containing used to (most often in negative but clauses): Women used to ear hats a lot. Used to refers only to a habitual activity in past time. and I still do..Students sometimes confuse used to with the adverb usually..As in negative statements.

. 9. .While s/he was studying to be a doctor.When I was in the mountains on my vacation.. people used to believe that the world was flat.. 13. but when I meet people now. 4. we used to _____________________ all our food at open markets. 7.When I was younger.He used to _______________________ a lot of baseball when he was younger. 5.When he was much younger... my parents used to ________________________ stories to me before I went to sleep. s/he used to ______________________ hours and hours at the library. 12. my grandmother used to tell me stories about cowboys and Indians..When I was a child on a ranch in the Far West. I used to _______________________ nervous in a social situation. before I became an English teacher.. EXAMPLES: a. I used to __________________________ a calculator all day long.. b... and he still does. I used to _______________________ long hikes through the forests...When I was a child in the western part of the United States. they used to ________________rice every day.Before Columbus discovered America. 14..PAST CUSTOM WITH USED TO + A BASE FORM Supply appropriate base forms in the blanks. 6.Because Mary had a lot of sun in her old apartment.While I was working at a bank.When I was little.While we were living in Mexico. She used to _______________________ in comedies. a lot of cowboys used to ________________________ for my father on our ranch.When they were in China on their vacation. 11. 1. 8.A horse used to ____________________ an important means of transportation. he used to _____________________ in God. she used to ___________________________ a lot of house plants. but now she’s retired. but now he doesn’t... I’m more confident of myself.My grandfather used to ______________________ a lot of chess..That actress used to ________________________ in a lot of movies. 3. but now he’s completely satisfied with checkers. 2. 10.

__________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (The New York Yankees is a famous baseball team in the United States. _____________________________________ 9.When I was on my vacation in Hawaii. I used to eat pineapple for breakfast every morning..When I first started this course.When I spent that summer in France.When I first started to speak English..When I was in elementary school..When I was on my last vacation (in the mountains/ at the beach/ in Europe/ in the Orient). __________________________ 4. _____________ 13. 1....While Mary was still working at the United Nations in New York. I used to drink wine with all my meals except breakfast. b.. ________________________________________________________________ 7.When I was in high school. _____________________________________ 8...When Bob was working for the government.When my teacher was younger.When my mother/ father was a child..When my grandfather/ grandmother was still alive. _____________________________________________ 5... ___________________________________________________ 2. _______________ 12. _________________________________________ ..) 3. EXAMPLES: a.When our son was still at the university.. ________________________________________ 6..When I was a child..USED TO + A BASE FORM IN MAIN CLAUSES Complete the following sentences with appropriate main clauses containing verb phrases with used to + a base form. __________________________________ 14. ______________________________ 11.While we were living in New York/ London/ Paris/ Tokyo/ Rio. __________________________________________ 10.While he was playing with the New York Yankees.

No. 9.. 3..Do not confuse like (enjoy) with would like (want). a subject is inserted between would and like: Would you like some advice? What kind of house would you like? Would follows subjects in yes-no answers: Yes.Wouldn’t. 4. When ‘d is followed by like (or another base form). would you? Singular First Person Second Person Third Person I You would (not) like He She It Plural we You would (not) like They 5. 7. I like (enjoy) wine with my meals. please. When ‘d is followed by a past participle (or better). it is a contraction of a subject pronoun and had: She’d (had) gone by that time. please.Would like most often is accompanied by an infinitive (never a base form): We’d like to take a break now. Would you like to have another Coke? Wouldn’t you like to go for a walk? 8. . 2.. (b) would you sounds like wouldjew. for example. it is the contraction of a subject pronoun and would: I’d (would) like to go home. occurs in informal usage: I wouldn’t like another cocktail. 6.... be careful not to confuse the contractions ‘d (would) with ‘d (had)... please. I would like (want) another cocktail. She’d (she would) like to take a trip around the world. I’d like (want) another glass of wine.. I would.Not is inserted between would and like in negative verb phrases: I would not like (do not want) an argument. (c ) wouldn’t you sounds like wouldn’t-chew.We usually contract would and subject pronouns when we speak: I’d (I would) like a new car for Christmas.Would (another form of will) + like is a polite synonym for want: I would like (want) an ice cream cone. You’d (had) better be good.Wouldn’t precedes a subject in negative questions: Wouldn’t you like another piece of cake? Why wouldn’t you like it? Pronunciation Note: (a) Would sounds like wood. the contraction of would not.Also.WOULD LIKE 1.In questions. I wouldn’t.

) 1. Practice questions and answers. but she won’t be able to. EXAMPLES: a. 2.You’d like to have another piece of cake..She’d like _________________________ another course..WOULD LIKE + AN INFINITIVE Supply appropriate infinitives in the blanks.. wouldn’t you? b. (To be in someone’s shoes is a figurative expression meaning to be in someone’s position.I wouldn’t like to be in the President’s shoes during this crisis.- .