APA Research Style Crib Sheet

by Russ Dewey Georgia Southern University Psychology Department [Emeritus] [This page is a summary of rules for using APA style, updated for the 6th edition. I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction. I am grateful to them and invite additional feedback to me at psywww@gmail.com. This document may be reproduced freely if this paragraph is included. --Russ Dewey, host of Psych Web [psywww.com]] APA Crib Sheet Contents
• •

Introductory Information Rules o Abbreviations o Avoiding biased and pejorative language o Capitalization o Commas o Hyphenation o Italics (underlining) o Miscellaneous o Numbers

• •

Quotation marks

Page Formats o Title & text pages (graphic) o Headings o Text details o References & tables (graphic) o Tables (notes) Reference Citations (In-Text) Reference Formats o Abbreviating within a reference o Alphabetizing within reference lists

APA reference style & examples

Contents | Back to top

APA style is the style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). The style is documented in the APA Publication Manual (5th ed., 2001). The APA Manual began as an article published in Psychological Bulletin in 1929. That article reported results of a 1928 meeting of representatives from anthropological and psychological journals, "to discuss the form of journal manuscripts and to write instructions for their preparation" (APA, 2001, p. xix). By 1952 the guidelines were issued as a separate document called the Publication Manual. Today the manual is in its sixth edition, and the APA format is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing in psychology and education.

Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. However, this web page is no substitute for the manual itself, which should be purchased by any serious psychology student in the U.S., or by students in other countries who are writing for a journal that uses APA format. The APA Manual can be found in almost any college bookstore as well as in many large, general-purpose bookstores in the reference and style guide section. Used copies of the manual are commonly available at Amazon.com. The most notable additions and changes to sixth edition of the APA Manual (2001) include:

References to online sources now use a DOI (digital object identifier) that does not change even if the document changes location online. See the International DOI Foundation (IDF) web site at http://www.doi.org for an explanation. If no DOI is available, the URL is cited, but no date of access is required unless the material is the type that changes over time, such as a program listing. Formatting of headings has changed, along with several minor punctuation rules. These are noted in approach sections of the updated crib sheet.

Contents | Back to top

Following is a summary of rules and reference examples in the APA style manual. The manual itself contains all this information and more, organized and worded differently, indexed and illustrated. If in doubt about a specific rule or example, consult the manual itself.

Contents | Back to top Abbreviations
• • • • •

Avoid abbreviations (acronyms) except for long, familiar terms (MMPI). Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA). If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP). Do not use the old abbreviations for subject, experimenter, and observer (S, E, O). The following abbreviations should NOT be used outside parenthetical comments: o cf. [use compare]

geographical labels (e. add s alone. as in this example from the Publication Manual: "sexual orientation rather than gender accounted for most of the variance in the results. The style manual makes the following suggestions: DO NOT use . just give the numbers themselves. o Contents | Back to top Avoiding Biased and Pejorative Language In general. Use s for second." for magazine or journal citations. p. [use that is] o viz. Do use "pp. 63). avoid anything that causes offense. when referring to several pages in a reference or citation.) Do not use periods within degree titles and organization titles (PhD.g. [use and so forth] o i. . Use two-letter postal codes for U. 2001. Do not use periods within measurements (lb. most gay men and lesbians were for it. "Mexican Americans" if from ethnic labels (e. APA). without apostrophe (PhDs. [use versus] Use periods when making an abbreviation within a reference (Vol. . vols.g. "sex differences in hormone production. use the abbreviation pp. like m for meter. chapters or articles in edited books. most heterosexual men and women were against it" (APA.). m for meter. Eds). state names (GA)." for citations of encyclopedia entries. Do not use the abbreviation "pp.g. 6. p. [use for example] o etc. (with a period after it and a space after the period). 3. The term "sex" refers to biology and should be used when biological distinctions are emphasized. [use namely] o vs. To form plurals of abbreviations. do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s)." .e. multi-page newspaper articles. ft. IQs. . when you can use . s) except inches (in. for example. . "Hispanic") Mexico) "men" (referring to all adults) "men and women" "homosexuals" "gay men and lesbians" "depressives" "people with depression" Correct use of the terms "gender" and "sex" The term "gender" refers to culture and should be used when referring to men and women as social groups. In using standard abbreviations for measurements. 2nd ed.S.• • • • • • • • e..

and Chicano are preferred by different groups. and bisexual women and men" (APA. while "Negro" and "Afro-American" are not. p. the manual suggests replacing "An American boy's infatuation with football" with "An American child's infatuation with football" (see APA. This type of difficulty is avoided by using geographical references. These things change. Just say "Cuban American" if referring to Americans from Cuba. The manual specifies that hyphens should not be used in multiword names such as Asian American or African American." not "sexual preference. and the manual has a lot to say about them. so specific group names are far more informative. The safest procedure is use geographical references. For example." Use the term "sexual orientation. Currently both the terms "Black" and "African American" are widely accepted. Alaska. and Greenland. "American Indian" and "Native American" are both acceptable usages. including Hawaiians and Samoans." Avoid equating people with their conditions. and do not contrast one group of people with another group called "normal" people. when this is known (for example. Do not use color words for other ethnic groups. call people what they want to be called. Chinese or Vietnamese)." say "people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Write "we compared people with autism to people without autism" not "we contrasted . eastern Siberia. in place of "Eskimo" or "Inuit" one could use "people from northern Canada. so use common sense. for example. For example." To refer to all people who are not heterosexual. A person in a clinical study should be called a "patient. Sensitivity to labels Be sensitive to labels. eastern Siberia. gay men. and again the manual recommends being specific about country of origin." But some Alaska natives are non-Inuit people who prefer to be called Eskimo. Labels can be tricky.Avoid gender stereotypes. 66). Alaska. p. People from northern Canada. the manual simply recommends that we respect current usage." The phrase "gay men and lesbians" is currently preferred to the term "homosexuals. the manual suggests "lesbians. 2001." not a "case. Capitalize Black and White when the words are used as proper nouns to refer to social groups. In racial references. The term Asian American is preferable to Oriental." In general. The terms Hispanic. and Greenland often (but not always!) prefer Inuk (singular) and Inuit (plural) to "Eskimo. Latino. but the manual notes that there are nearly 450 Native American groups. 2001. 67). For example. do not say "schizophrenics.

and subtitles outside reference lists. avoid open-ended definitions like "under 16" or "over 65. Special Olympics). (Group A was the control group. Capitalize nouns before numbers." Avoid the term elderly. In referring to age." Capitalize specific course and department titles (GSU Department of Psychology. an Age x Weight interaction showed lower weight with age. Psych 150). For example. it begins a complete sentence. Contents | Back to top Capitalization • • • • • • • • • Capitalize formal names of tests (Stroop Color-Word Interference Test). as a rule." Use a more neutral terminology such as "people who have had a stroke. Boy and Girl are acceptable referring to high school and and younger. in headings." Do not use pejorative terms like "stroke victim" or "stroke sufferers. trial x). so it remains capitalized. ." Capitalize names of conditions. "Stroop" is a name. Do not capitalize generic names of tests (Stroop color test).) Capitalize the first word after a comma or colon if. any introductory course). use the phrase "people with _______" (for example. Use the metric system. groups. "no capitalization here. and variables only when definite and specific. Contents | Back to top Commas • Do not use commas to separate parts of measurement (9 lbs 5 oz). For persons 18 and older use men and women.autistics to normals. and only if. Do not capitalize when referring to generalities (any department. Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more. "people with AIDS." As a counter example. titles. Do not capitalize names of laws. Older person is preferred. so it is capitalized. "This is a complete sentence." Avoid the terms "challenged" and "special" unless the population referred to prefers this terminology (for example. and hypotheses (the law of effect). "A Study of No-Win Strategies. effects. theories. As a rule. but not before variables (Trial 2. for example. be specific about age ranges." not "AIDS sufferers").

in the middle of the item. two-way analysis). Standards change." Contents | Back to top Italics (Underlining) ." and "life-style" is now "lifestyle. width. letter. Type A behavior) when the meaning is clear without it (least squares solution. Contents | Back to top Hyphenation • • • • • • • • • • Do not hyphenate -ly and superlative words (widely used test. numeral terms (a priori hypothesis.453. Hyphenate if the base is an abbreviation or compounded (pre-UCS. consult a recently published dictionary. Hyphenate adjectival phrases (role-playing technique." Use semicolons for seriation if there are commas within the items. co-worker). non-college bound). best informed students). Hyphenate if the base word is capitalized or a number (pre-Freudian. 1. (c) so we use semicolons throughout. April 18. for example. and (c) don't know.• • • • • Use commas before "and" in lists. Do not hyphenate common prefixes (posttest. For example. for example. For example. post-1960). Do not hyphenate foreign. for example. (a) here. high-anxiety group. there are commas. Use commas in exact dates. results of t tests). "three choices are (a) true. 1993). prewar. un-ionized. Hyphenate if the words could be misunderstood without a hyphen (repair. (b) false. heart rate scores). If in doubt. Use commas between groups of three digits. Do not hyphenate if a noun comes first (a therapy was client centered. For example. (b) here there are not. 1992 (but not in April 1992). multiphase. and depth. Use commas for seriation within a paragraph or sentence. nonsignificant) unless needed for clarity (pre-existing). height. Use commas to set off a reference in a parenthetical comment (Patrick. t-test scores) unless the compound adjective involves a superlative (best written paper). "data base" is now "database. Hyphenate compound adjectives preceding nouns (client-centered therapy.

"Monday. Phenomenon is the singular form of the plural phenomena. Italicize or underline the titles of books and articles. B. numbering paragraphs • • • • Use 1 or 2 spaces after period at the end of sentences in the text of a paper. Watson). colons. use a number and a period. species names. Use parentheses to introduce an abbreviation. Overuse "weakens the flow of the writing" (APA. 2. 81). words and phrases used as linguistic examples. the galvanic skin response (GSR). or any other sentence in the body of text which flows into an extended quote.. as this makes it easier for reviewers to mark up the manuscript. • • • • Use a dash (rendered on typewriters and some word processors as a double hyphen) when there is a sudden interruption like this one-zoiks!--in the flow of a sentence. Use matrix as singular. colons. For example. and volume numbers in reference lists. letters used as statistical symbols. 2001. 1. and semicolons and between periods separating parts of a reference citation or parts of a personal name (J. dashes. -Continue to use 1 space after commas. Contents | Back to top Miscellaneous: Spacing. introduction of new terms and labels (the first time only). not parentheses. Use appendixes (appendices) as the plural of appendix. The second paragraph goes here. Contents | Back to top . p.• • • Do not italicize or underline common foreign abbreviations (vice versa. or both" is preferable to "Monday and/or Tuesday. The first paragraph goes here. Use schemaas singular." Do not use a colon or other punctuation after an introduction which is not a complete sentence such as this one. The quote "picks up where the sentence leaves off" and provides the punctuation. The APA recommends (but does not require) 2 spaces after sentences if submitting the article for peer review. Do not italicize or underline for mere emphasis. data as plural. parentheses. matrices as plural. schemas (not schemata) as plural. Do not use "and/or." Write things out. Tuesday. When listing separate paragraphs in a series. et al. a priori). Use datum as singular. for example.

or 5% of the sample)." computers were described as "here to stay" (p. scores. . "APA Style and Personal Computers. Use metric abbreviations with figures (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant).) Extended quotations • If you use italics to add emphasis to part of an extended quotation put [italics added] immediately afterward. Treat ordinal numbers like cardinal numbers (the first item of the 75th trial . and they spent an average of 1 hr 20 min per day crying. 311). Use combinations of written and Arabic numerals for back-to-back modifiers (five 4-point scales).). . or below 10 and not grouped with numbers over 10 (one-tailed t test. with no apostrophe (the 1950s). Spell out numbers which are inexact. Spell out large numbers beginning sentences (Thirty days hath September . . five trials). eight items. Use the percent symbol (%) only with figures (5%) not with written numbers (five percent). for example. three-way interaction. and sums (multiplied by 3. the good-outcome variable predicts trouble later on . or lower numbers grouped with numbers 10 and above (for example. . To make plurals out of numbers. Use numerals for exact statistical references.Numbers • • • • • • • • • • • Spell out common fractions and common expressions (one-half. nine pages. sample sizes. Fourth of July). . from 6 to 12 hours of sleep).). . (In Smith's (1992) article." Use quotation marks for article and chapter titles cited in the text but not in the reference list. "This is the "good-outcome" variable. all two year olds. . Contents | Back to top Quotation Marks • • Use quotation marks for an odd or ironic usage the first time but not thereafter. Use combinations of numerals and written numbers for large sums (over 3 million people). Use numerals for numbers 10 and above. but as it turns out. add s only. Here is another example: "We used 30 subjects.

the font should be Times Roman. double space the extended quotation. Use four dots. . If there are errors. hedge. "They [the Irish Republican Army] initiated a cease-fire." Reproduce a quote exactly. . p. Leave off the quotes. identify endpoints on a scale. . indent the first line after the paragraph break five more spaces (one-half inch. The APA manual encourages singlespaced block indents only in final publications. . Use three dots with a space before. block indents. This is called a block quotation or block indent. underline or italicize instead (poor to excellent). . 1.• • • • • • • • Brackets are not necessary when changing the first letter of a quotation to upper case. which are the final printed copies of a paper. underline or italicize the term (the verb gather). If the paper will be reviewed or edited prior to publication. APA policy allows quotation of up to 500 words from copyrighted articles in APA journals without obtaining permission. . with no space before the first. Expand or clarify words or meanings in a quotation by placing the added material in quotes. . If in doubt. 12 points" (2001. . Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in mid-sentence. indent the whole quoted passage. cite a linguistic example. Always provide author.) Some professors expect single-spaced abstracts. For example. Do NOT use quotes to . As of the 6th edition. and after each dot (ellipsis points) when omitting material. instead. not . . and page citation. . . If there are paragraph breaks within an extended quotation. • • • • . ask your professor.25 cm). if produced from a word processing program. year. introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for exammple [sic]--immediately after the error to indicate it was part of the original source. 285). and references in the final print-out. between. or apologize (he was "cured"). introduce a key term (the neoquasipsychoanalytic theory). For quotations over 40 words in length. cast doubt. Contents | Back to top PAGE FORMATS The APA Manual notes that "the size of the type should be one of the standard typewriter sizes (pica or elite) or. if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence. (See Chapter 6 of the APA manual. in which case double spacing is expected throughout. . . Others want their students to practice the rules for submitting a article to a publication.

and 4. However. extended quotations. in that order. as levels 5. with provision for up to five levels. 114-115). 1. In those manuscripts. But. interleave level 2 between levels 1 and 3. 3. or three levels of headings are required in a paper. including the abstract. If five levels are required. B. 3. which are print-outs in their final form such as term papers.Courier. 1. [Note from Dr. 4. APA style encourages this within final publications. If four levels are required. . start with level five and work down the remaining hierarchy in order (5. 2. Lettering on figures should be in a sans serif typeface (such as Helvetica or Arial). he used single spacing in the abstract and the extended quotation. many professors expect students to follow the rules for articles submitted to journals. 3. To avoid confusion these are labeled A. Confused? Most papers will need no more than three levels. if one. two. 2001. pp.] Contents | Back to top Headings APA headings follow a complex hierarchy. in descending order. 3. 4). and reference lists. 2. and 4 respectively) (see APA. use levels 1. everything is double spaced. These come. and C below (APA levels 1. Dewey: When Doc Scribe generated the following helpful images.

Margins should be at least 1" all around (about 2. a ragged right margin). Although they end with a period (or other punctuation) they need not be complete sentences or grammatically correct. If you need just two levels. Use headings in the order presented. Your professor may give you different instructions. the APA Manual says that single spacing is preferred in several places: the abstract. Contents | Back to top Text details • • • • • • • • Abstracts are limited to 120 words (APA. with single spacing in the areas mentioned. with Major Words Capitalized Level C headings are boldfaced. and hanging indents one-half inch (1. such as a term paper.25 cm or five to seven spaces). 2001.Level A Headings have All Major Words Capitalized and are Centered Level B Headings are Flush Left. block quotes. Footnotes are rarely used in APA papers. Do not begin a paper with the heading Introduction. or your professor may want you to practice using the rules for articles submitted to journals. Boldfaced. Keyword emphasis requires the use of italics. use Level A and Level B headings.5 cm). If in doubt. It is understood that all papers begin with an introduction.These headings are sometimes referred to as paragraph or run-in headings. and reference list items. extended quotations. Indent paragraphs. and end with a period. If yours is a "final publication" which will not be edited or submitted to a journal. double space everything. Your professor may want you to treat a term paper as a final publication. except for author affiliation and contact information--the author note visible at the bottom of title pages. p. tables. See Chapter 6 of the APA manual. Level A and B headings do not end with punctuation except to add emphasis with an exclamation point or question mark. indented five spaces. Justification should be set to "off" or "left margin only" (the right margin should be uneven. Hyphenation should not occur at the end of lines. but only the first time a term is used. only between words when necessary. in which case you should double space everything. however. . 13).

Word processor features--such as bold and italic fonts and hanging indents--should be used as appropriate. Contents | Back to top Table notes . Number pages consecutively.• • • Page numbers are required on every page. double spaced above the text. double space everything. The header and page number go inside the margin space. (See Chapter 6 in the APA manual. as would normally be allowed in a final publication such as a student term paper.) In papers submitted for publication or review. the following image shows single spacing within the table and within the individual reference items. Contents | Back to top References and tables Again. Many professors prefer that students practice formatting papers as if they will be submitted to a journal. The page header summarizes the title in a few words. which are subject to editing. In that case. next to the right margin. This includes all text within tables and all reference items. everything must be double spaced.

23" not ". p. a recent study (Smith. Each row and column must have a heading.." Use asterisks to indicate statistical significance explained in the probability level note at the bottom of the table. etc. p. 2001.) Label each table beginning with the table number followed by a description of the contents. "%" or "nos. Add notes to explain the table contents.05 and **p < . The latter are labeled "a.") may be used.Number tables consecutively as they appear in your text. Every source cited in your text--and only those sources cited in your text--are referenced in the reference list. Abbreviations and symbols (e. 2001. 55. (Tables in papers submitted for review or publication are placed on separate pages at the end of the paper.23" unless the number is a statistic that cannot be larger than one. 1990) shows. 170). but do not split a table across pages. See recent issues of the American Psychologist or other APA journals for more complex table layouts. 5b. . . Contents | Back to top REFERENCE CITATIONS (IN-TEXT) Use the author-date format to cite references in text. Do not change the units of measurement within a column. Write "0. For example: as Smith (1990) points out.01. the largest probability receives the fewest asterisks [the smaller probability get more asterisks]" (APA.01. Do not change the number of decimal places within a column. c. Tables in papers submitted for review or publication must be double spaced throughout. 2001. such as *p < . Horizontal rules (lines) should be typed into tables. do not draw them in by hand. b. Use only whole numbers. for example a correlation r = . p. etc. enabling the researcher to present a large amount of data in a small amount of space" (APA.g. . • • • • • • • • • • Place tables close to where they are first mentioned in your text. no 5a. These may be general notes or footnotes. "Assign a given alpha level the same number of asterisks from table to table within your paper. In "final publications" (see above) you may use single spacing and double spacing as appropriate within a table to achieve a pleasing appearance and clarity. or a probability p < . 147). "Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than one" (APA. 128). "Tables are efficient. .

give as many author names as necessary to make them distinct. For multiple-author citations (up to five authors) name all authors the first time." reference is used in a paragraph. For example: Several studies (Johnson. "The previously cited study (NIMH. the first time and give the full citation in references. use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year. then use et al. . "As reported in a government study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. ." form. If the author is unknown or unspecified. . before et al. Pearson and Sherwin (1990). and is a complete sentence not merged into the flow of the text. The sentence quoted is capitalized only if it follows a comma. "The effect disappeared within minutes" (Lopez. Burke. et al. but the second time it is Smith et al. Jones. et al. 1990b. 311). The first time an "et al. so the first time it is Smith. with a period after "al" but no underlining. p. 1991) found that . 311).. 1991) to distinguish it from (Smith. " and thereafter. blah blah .. arrange dates in order. For example. In general. For six or more authors." 1992). Jones. For example: (Smith. 1990). Include a page reference after the year.. 1991). outside quotes. 1993. use et al. . Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p. If a group is readily identified by its initials. 1991). For example: As Smith and Sarason (1990) point out. making it ambiguous. thereafter (if the citation is repeated in the paragraph) omit the year. the same argument was made by in an earlier study (Smith & Sarason. 1995 in press-a. for example: ("Study Finds. If citing multiple works by the same author at the same time. spell it out only the first time. spell out both authors on all occurrences. . but she did not say which effect. For example: The author stated. give the year. Join names in a multiple-author citation with and (in text) or an ampersand (&) in reference lists and parenthetical comments. If two or more multiple-author references which shorten to the same "et al. 1990a. use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title)..• • • • • • • • • • For two-author citations. 1995 in press-b) showed the same thing. 1988.

4). ed. Method section. 332) or (Shimamura. para. Rep. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text" (APA. 2001. III. for a specific Volume • rev. 2000. for Number • Ed. for page number. cite paragraph number using the abbreviation "para" (e.. Abbreviating within a reference Here are approved abbreviations for use in a reference list: • chap. See the section on Reference citations for citing references in text. F." for page numbers in encyclopedia entries. p. L. von). 5). for second edition • No. 1993). Smith.g. with a space after the period Use the abbreviation "pp.• • • • For old works cite the translation or the original and modern copyright dates if both are known. Do not use von in alphabetizing (Helmholtz. multi-page newspaper articles. 1989. Mac comes before Mc. for chapter • pp. for a work with xx volumes • 2nd ed. but not in journal or magazine article citations. or Sr. Smith. for Translated by • Tech. for Part • (Eds. where numbers alone should be used (see examples of reference formats). 2000. for example: (Cheek & Buss.g. 215).) for multiple editors • Suppl. for Edited by • Pt.-G. para.. for revised edition • vols. Nguyen. 1890/1983). for example: (V. For quoting electronic documents without page numbers. p. for edition • Vol. cite the nearest preceding section heading and count paragraphs from there (e. September 28. . chapters or articles in edited books. trans. 17). or Jr. For e-mail and other "unrecoverable data" use personal communication. personal communication. chap. Always give page numbers for quotations. "References cited in text must appear in the reference list. for example: (Aristotle. Contents | Back to top REFERENCE FORMATS Your text and the reference list must agree. Treat Mc and Mac literally. 1931) or (James. p. 3. for Supplement. In a long document. conversely. for page numbers (plural) • ed. These do not appear in the reference list. 1981. Contents | Back to top Alphabetizing within reference lists • • • Use prefixes in alphabetizing names if commonly part of the surname (De Vries). H. • Trans. for Technical Report • p..

Here are a few examples of the most commonly used formats. Single-author citations precede multiple-author citations of the same year (Zev. Note: "Author" is used as above when author and publisher are identical. . Decker comes after de Chardin. The APA Publication Manual (2001) contains 95 examples of different reference types (pp. The phrase "hanging indent" refers to a first line which sticks out one-half inch (1. Hanging indents are preferred. you should use either hanging indents or regular indents on your reference list. reprint/translation. 1990). (1991. Citation: ("Caffeine Linked. but they should be used in your paper. B13. Anonymous or unknown author (common in newspapers): Caffeine linked to mental illness. Use heading caps (each important word capitalized) when citing titles in text citations. edition other than first): American Psychiatric Association.You will notice hanging indents are not used below. 240-281).25 cm) to the left.) All titles in references are set in sentence caps (only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized) but titles quoted in the text are set in heading caps (all major words capitalized). because they are difficult to simulate on a resizable web page. pp. 1990). go to Format/Paragraph and one of the formatting options under "Special" is "Hanging" which will set up an appropriate hanging indent for that paragraph. in Microsoft Word. Citation: (American Psychiatric Association [APA]. DC: Author. Alphabetize corporate authors by first significant word. and they are easy to set up in word processors. Contents | Back to top APA reference style The APA Publication Manual now instructs authors to use hanging indents for references and to use italics for titles. and capitals in alphabetizing. Books (Group author. Remember that hanging indents are not used in these examples. However. spaces. Washington. next citation (APA.. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. D'Arcy comes after Daagwood. July 13). but quotes are used when citing article titles in the text. No quotation marks are used around titles of articles in the references list. Double space within reference items if your paper will be submitted to a publication for editing or review. Do not use abbreviations in corporate names. 1990 then Zev et al." 1991). 1990). B15.).• • • Disregard apostrophes. (1990). New York Times. 3 to 5 authors. (For example.

Canada. E. P. from NIMH Web site via GPO Access: http://purl. next citation (NIMH.. breaking through: The strategic plan for mood disorders research of the National Institute of Mental Health (Publication No. Breaking ground. New York: Teachers College.).. from http://www.. & White.. use just the lead author plus "et al.. 189). 2002). Colomb. (Stephan. A. In The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy (17th ed. 1985).). W. Citation: (Strunk & White. G. New York: Macmillan. M. 0507-B-05). If there are more than six. (2002). M. 1999. add et al. 15. pp. Toronto. Retrieved January 19. C. Memory (H. (1999).gpo. sec.access.gov/GPO/LPS20906 Citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. Mood disorders. 1996). & Williams. J. August). (1996. & Berkow. 2003.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter189/189a.merck. Strouss. G. Note: Break a URL to wrap a line only after a slash or before a period. The handbook of social psychology (3rd ed. (1913). In G. H. Significance tests: Should they be banned from APA journals? Symposium conducted at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved January 17. et al. Citation: (Shrout et al. (1995). E. Conference paper (unpublished): Shrout. W. Ebbinghaus. I. M. The craft of research. J. New York: Random House. 1995). Citations: (Beers & Berkow. Contents | Back to top . next citation (Booth et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. R.. 1979). APA references list up to the first six authors to a work. 1995). E. G. Harris.Booth. Strunk. Colomb. & Williams. R... W. Lindzey & E. J. chap... Vol. For citations in your text.." Government report online accessed through GPO database: National Institute of Mental Health. E. Citation: (Booth.. 189). L. Intergroup relations. (Original work published 1885) Citation: (Ebbinghaus. Applebaum. ("and others") after the first six names. Aronson (Eds. Do not add a hyphen or any other punctuation.htm Stephan. Wilkinson. 599ñ658). (1979). Rueger & C. chap. Bussenius. E..). Jr. 1885/1913). Hunter. The elements of style (3rd ed. M. 2002). (1985).. Trans. Chapter or section in a book (online & print): Beers. H. 2003. B. (Chair). 2.

Citation: (Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. W. paged by issue): Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group.jama. 287. from http://www. 2002). the document is not an exact copy of a print version. 5(4). Kortepeter & Parker. JAMA. Many documents are now available online as exact copies of the print original (usually in Adobe's PDF format). shortening the author to "Hypericum Depression Trial" in subsequent citations would probably be acceptable to editors of APA journals. Note: Occasionally a research journal may be paged by issue. from the journal) are treated as normal journal references with the bracketed phrase "Electronic version" added to the reference as above. and the paragraph number to the citation (e. & Parker.g.htm Citation: (Kortepeter & Parker. JAMA. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. (2002). If. add the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. 1807-1814. (2002). 287.org/articles.g. electronic copy. electronic facsimile: Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Retrieved January 20. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial [Electronic version]. that is. a page number or other means of identifying a specific passage is required. 1999. Method section. however. the acronym HDTSG would not be easily recognized. changed/doubtful source: Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. etc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/kortepeter. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. in plain text. However. 1999. online journal. In the absence of page numbers. JAMA. Potential biological weapons threats. Contents | Back to top . 4). G. Kortepeter & Parker. (1999). 1999). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Journal article. treat it as a web reference and add the usual information for electronic references: the date you retrieved the document and the URL. There is no period after the URL in a reference. retrieved from a database: Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. para. 287.Journal articles (Print. 287. 1807-1814. Retrieved July 7. Online only journal (paged by issue): Kortepeter. 2002. Note: When directly quoting or citing a document. Journal article. 1807-1814.. (2002). 1807ñ1814. page numbering in each issue begins at page one. from http://www. 2003.. G. 2002..cdc. In these cases add the issue number in parentheses. If there is no paragraph number. The APA Manual requires citing the full name of a corporate or group author like this. changed source. M. after the volume number as in the example above. cite the nearest preceding section heading and count paragraphs from there (e. if paragraph numbers appear in an electronic document. JAMA. Retrieved July 7. ¶ 17).html Journal article. References to exact reproductions of journal articles (which include page numbers. from MEDSYS database..

New York Times. S. you should not cite a source if the document cannot actually be retrieved. & Kulik. 4-5.html The date is given as it appears on the publication. D1.Letter to the editor: O'Neill. Goleman. volume(number). 7076. (date). doi: 10.225 [Without doi number] . October 24). and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today. (1993. For anonymous newspaper articles. therapists: Cost control pitted against proper care. My research with orangs. from http://www. U. (1991. 24. R. Title of Journal. Saving our youth. A. L. J. D. or put that phrase in parentheses in the text where you refer to the newsletter and leave it off your reference list. D9. L.) [Brochure]. Title of article.. (1992. G. Unpublished conference papers are OK to include in reference lists and citations because they are generally available as reprints from the lead author. New York Times. (1992). see the previous section on "Anonymous or unknown authors. pp. Retrieved April 1. Magazine article: Gardner. APA Monitor. Washington. 3. In support of DSM-III [Letter to the editor]. Spring). page numbers. W." Pamphlet: Just Say No Foundation. 1996. December).nytimes. doi: xx.2.1037/0278-6133. Battle of insurers vs. marital status. The Psychology Department Newsletter.xxxxxxx Example: Herbst-Damm.com/library/cyber/week/yo5dat. and you have a copy of that newsletter in your possession (as you should if quoting from it) you could put "Available from the author by request" in brackets after the reference list entry. January). Note: As a rule. (1996. Health Psychology. Volunteer support.24. (1991. What is the chance of retrieving a copy of a 1993 issue of a Psychology Department newsletter? Such a document probably is not retrievable. 225229. DC: Author. K. H. Web page: [With doi number Author. (9th ed. June 5). Newsletter/newspaper articles: Brown. Voluntary rules proposed to help insure privacy for Internet users. 2. If it is an important reference in your paper for some reason. (2005). Markoff. J.

A.htm . Retrieved from http://www. APA Style Resources by Russ Dewey.Dewey. R. (2004).psywww.com/resource/apacrib.