4 CHAPTER

Gentury, AmericanLife in the Seventeenth 1607-1692
PARTI: REVIEWING THE CHAPTER A. CHECKLIST LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OF
you shouldbe ableto After mastering this chapter, l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. and life of the seventeenthdescribe basiceconomy, the demographics, socialstructure and century colonies. compareand contrastthe different forms of society and ways of life of the southerncolonies and New England. explainhow the practice indentured servitude failed to solvethe coloniallaborproblem,and of why coloniststhen tumed to African slavery. describethe slavetradeand the characterof early African American slavery. summarizethe uniqueNew Englandway of life centeredon family, town, and church, and century. describethe changes that overcamethis comfortablesocial order in the late seventeenth describe role of family life and the rolesof women in the seventh the centurycolonies, and indicate how thesechansed over time.

B. GLOSSARY
familiarizeyourselfwith the following terms: To build your socialscience vocabulary, I. headright The right to acquirea ceftain amount of land grantedto the personwho financesthe passage a laborer."\{n5fs1s-not servants themselves-thus reapedthe benefitsof of (p.67) fandownership from the headright system." disfranchise To take away the right to vote. "The Virginia Assemblyin 1670disfranchised most ofthe landless . ." (p. 68) knockabouts. . civil war Any conflict betweenthe citizensor inhabitantsof the samecountry. "As this civil war in Virginia ground on . . . ." (p. 68) tidewater The territory adjoining water affbctedby tides-that is, nearthe seacoast coastal or rivers. "Bacon . . . had pitted the hard scrabblebackcountryfrontiersmenagainstthe haughty gentry of the tidewaterplantations."(pp. 68, 70) middle passage That portion of a slave ship's journey in which slaveswere carriedfrom Africa to the Americas.". . . the captiveswere herdedaboardswelteringshipsfor the gruesome'middle passage.'.." (p.71) . fertility The ability to mate and produceabundantyoung. "The captiveblack populationof the Chesapeake areasoon beganto grow not only through new imports but alsothrough its own fertili ty...;'(p.72)

2. 3. 4.

5.

:l l3

6.

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Chapter American in theSeventeenth 4: Life 1607-1692 Century,
7. 8. 9. humbleor low. "But chiefly they performed sweafytoil of clearing menial Fit for servants; the grubbingout trees.and other menial tasks."(p. 73) swamps, militia An armedforce of citizenscalledout only in emergencies. "[They] tried to marchto (p.73) Florida, only to be stopped the localmilitia." by Spanish

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in "The roughequality. . . was giving way to hierarchy A socialgrouparranged ranksor classes. a hierarchy wealthand status. . ." (p. 73) of .

activities. 10. corporation A groupor institutiongrantedlegalrightsto carry on certainspecified ". . . the Massachusetts Puritansestablished Harvard College,today the oldestcorporation in America. ..." (p.79) I l. jeremiad A sermonor prophecyrecounting wrongdoing, warningof doom,and calling for "Jeremiads repentance. continued thunderfrom the pulpits.. . ." (p. 80) to

person mob action,without due process law. of 12. lynching The illegalexecution an accused of by 'witch-hunt' ensued, "A hysterical leadingto the legallynchingin 1692of twenty individuals.. ." (p. 80) . I 3. hinterland An inlandregionqetback from a port, river, or seacoast. . . th.i, accusers '1. came farming families in Salem'shinterland." 80) (p. largelyfrom subsistence

14. socialstructure The basicpatternof the distribution statusand wealth in a society.". . . many of on settlers. . . tried to re-create a modified scalethe social structurethey had known in the Old World." (p. 83) descent. . . would-beAmericanblue bloodsresented 15. blue blood Of nobleor upper-class ". the pretensions the 'meanersort.'. . ." (p. 83) of

YOURPROGRESS PARTII: CHECKING A. True-False
is Wherethe statement true,circle T; where it is false,circle F. L 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F Life expectancyamongthe seventeenth-century sefflersof Maryland and Virginia was about sixty years. Because men greatly outnumberedwomen in the Chesapeake region, a fierce competitionaroseamong men for scarcefemales. By the eighteenth century,the Chesapeake population was growingon the basisof natural increase. Chesapeake Bay tobaccoplantersresponded falling prices by cutting back to production. The "headright" systemof land grantsto thosewho brought laborersto America primarily benefitedwealthy plantersratherthan the poor indenturedservants. Most of the European immigrantswho cameto Virginia and Marylandin the seventeenth century were indenturedservants. Bacon'sRebellioninvolvedan allianceof white indentured servants Indianswho and attackedthe elite planter class. African stavesbeganto replacewhite indenturedservantsas the primary labor supply in the plantation coloniesin the 1680s.

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9.

Chapter American in theSeventeenth 1607-1692 4: Century, Life
TF Slavesbroughtto North America developeda culturethat mixed African and American elements.

IO . T II. T

F F F

Directly beneath wealthy slaveowningplantersin the southernsocial structurewere the the white indenturedservants. New Englanders'long lives contributedto the generalstability and order of their childrearing and family life. pioneersand land New Englandexpansionwas carried out primarily by independent speculators who boughtup largeplots and then soldthem to individualfarmers. New Englandwomen enjoyedfewer rights to inherit and own properrythan women in the South. New England'scommercialwealth was basedon the export of agricultural crops to Englandand elsewhere.

12 . T 13 .TF 14 .TF 15. T

F

Seventeenth-century American life was generallysimple and lacking in displays of wealth or elaborateclassdistinctions.

B. Multiple Choice
Select bestanswerand circlethe corresponding the letter. l. For mostof their early history,the coloniesof Maryland andVirginia provideda healthyenvironmentfor child rearing. a. b. contained more men than women. far c. had harshlaws punishingpremarital sexualrelations. d. encouraged formation of stableand long-lastingmarriages. the The primary beneficiaries the "headright" systemwere of a. landowners who paid the transatlanicpassage indentured for servants. widows who acquirednew husbands b. from England. c. indentured who were able to acquiretheir own land. servants d. Englishship ownerswho transported new laborers across Atlantic. the The primarycause Bacon'sRebellionwas of a. GovernorBerkeley's harshtreatmentof the Indians. b. the refusalof landlordsto grant indenturedservantstheir freedom. c. the povertyand discontent many singleyoung men unableto acquireland. of d. the persecution the colonistsby King CharlesII. of African slaverybecamethe prevalentform of labor in the 1680swhen planterswere no longer able to rely on white indenturedservantsas a labor force. a. b. the first captiveswere brought from Africa to the New World. c. blackscould be brought to the New World in safer and healthiercondition. d. the once-clearlegal difference betweena servantand a slave beganto be blurred. The culturethat developed amongthe slavesin the Englishcolonies North America was of a. derivedprimarily from that of the white masters. b. basedmainly on the traditions of southernAfrica. c. a combinationof severalAfrican and American cultures. d. originally developedin the West Indies and spreadnorthward. Politicaland economic power in the southern colonieswas dominated by a. b. c. urban professional classes such as lawyers and bankers. small landowners. wealthy planters.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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Chapter American in theSeventeenth 4: Life Century, 1607-1692
d. the Englishroyal governors. Because therewere few urban centersin the colonial South. good roadsbetweenthe isolatedplantationswere constructed a. early on. b. a professional classof lawyersand financiers was slow to develop. c. the rural churchbecame centralfocus of southern the socialand economiclife. d. therewere almostno peopleof wealth and culturein the region. Puritan lawmakersin New England preventedmarried women from having propertyrights because a. b. c.

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7.

8.

they believedthat propertyshould be held by towns, not private citizens. they fearedthat too much property would fall into the control of the numerouswidows. they fearedthat separate properryrights for women would undercutthe unity of married couples. the Bible plainly prohibited d. women from owning properry. 9. In New England, elementary education was mandatoryfor any town with more than fifty families. a. b. failed to provide even basic literacy to the large majority of citizens. c. was lesswidespreadthan in the South. d. was orientedto preparingstudentsfor enteringcollege. 1 0 . The Congregational Church of the Puritanscontributedto the development basicdemocracyin the New Englandtown meeting. a. of b. the extremely hierarchical character ofNew Englandlife. c. the socialharmonyand unity displayed throughout seventeenth the centuryin New England towns. the growingmovement d. toward women's rights in New England. il. In contrastto the Chesapeake Bay colonists,thosein New England a. hadfewer women and more men in their population. had shorterlife expectancies. b. practicedbirth control as a meansof preventingoverpopulation. c. d. enjoyedlongerlives and more stablefamilies. 1 2 . The focusof much ofNew England'spolitics,religion,and education the institutionof was a. the coloniallegislature. b. the town. the militia company. c. d. the college. t 3 . The "Half-Way Covenant" provided a. baptismbut not "firll communion"to peoplewho had not had a conversion experience. partialparticipation politicsto peoplewho were not churchmembers. b. in admission communionbut not to voting membership the church. to c. in partial participationin church affairs for women. d. 1 4 . Thosepeopleaccused beingwitches in Salemwere generally of a. from the poorer and more uneducated segments the town. of notoriousfor their deviation from the moral norms of the community. b. c. outspokenopponentsofthe Puritan clergy. from families associated d. with Salem'sburgeoningmarket economy. 1 5 . English settlersgreatlyalteredthe characterof the New Englandenvironmentby a. b. c. d. raising wheat and oats ratherthan the corn grown by Indians. their extensiveintroductionof livestock. beatingtrails through the woods as they pursuedseasonal hunting and fishing. building an extensivesystemof roads and canals.

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Chapter American in the Seventeenth 4: Life Century, 1607-1692

G. ldentification
Supplythe correctidentification eachnumbered for description.
l

Early Marylandand Virginia settlers had difficulty creatingthem and even more difficulty making them last Primary causeof deathamong tobacco-growingsettlers Immigrants passage Americain exchange a fixed term of who received to for labor Marylandand Virginia's systemof grantingland to anyonewho would pay trans-Atlanticpassage laborers for Fateof manyofNathanielBacon'sfollowers,thoughnot of Baconhimself Americancolony that was hometo the Newport slavemarketand many slave traders Englishcompanythat lost its monopolyon the slavetradein 1698 African Americandialectthat blendedEnglishwith Yoruba,Ibo, and Hausa Uprisingsthat occurredin New York City in 17l2 and in SouthCarolina in 1739 Wealthyextended clanslike the Fitzhughs, Lees,and Washingtons that dominated politicsin the mostpopulouscolony Approximatemarriageage of most New England women The basiclocal political institution New England,in which alt freemen of gathered elect officials and debatelocal affairs to Formuladevised Puritanministersin 1662to offer partialchurch by membership peoplewho had not experienced to conversion judicial event that inflamed popularfeelings, led to Late seventeenth-century the deaths fwenty people,and weakened Puritanclergy'sprestige of the Primary occupationof most seventeenth-century Americans

2. 3.
4.

5. 6.
1

8. 9. 10 .
ll. t2.

r3 .
14. 15.

[rl t.I
Li Ei 81.

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Century, 1607-1692 Chapter American in theSeventeenth 4: Life

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D. Matching People, Places, and Events
Match the person,place,or event in the left column with the proper descriptionin the right column by insertingthe correct letter on the blank line.
l.

Chesapeake Indenturedservants NathanielBacon Berkeley Governon Royal African Company Middle passage Ringshout New York City slave revolt of

a. b.

2. 3.
A

rebellionthat Major middle-colonies causedthirty-threedeaths Helped erasethe earlierPuritan distinction betweenthe converted"elect" and other membersof society SmallNew York revoltof 1689-1691 that reflectedclassantagonism between Iandlordsand merchants Primary laborersin early southern colonies until the 1680s Experiencefor which human beings were brandedand chained,and which only 80 percentsurvived Author of a novel aboutthe early New England practiceof requiring adulterers to wear the letter "A" West African religious rite, retainedby African Americans,in which participants responded the shoutsofa preacher to girls' Phenomena started adolescent by accusations that endedwith the deathsof twenty people Virginia-Marylandbay are4 site of the earliest colonial settlements The legacyof Puritan religion that inspired idealismand reform among later generations Americans of ColonialVirginia official who crushed rebels and wreakedcruel revenge The oldestcollegein the South,founded in 1793 Organizationwhose loss of the slave trademonopolyin 1698led to freeenterpriseexpansionof the business Agitator who led poor former indentured servantsand frontiersmenon a rampage againstIndiansand colonial government The oldestcollegein America,originally basedon the Puritancommitment to an

5. 6. '7. 8. 9. 10. ll. 12.
ta lJ.

c.

d. e.

t2 17
NathanaelHawthorne "New Englandconscience" Harvard William and Mary Half-Way Covenant Salemwitch trials Leisler'sRebellion

f.

g.

14.

t5.

h.

i. j.

k. l. m.

n.

o.

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1607-1692 Chapter American in the Seventeenth 4: Century, Life

educated ministry

E. Putting Things in Order
Put the following eventsin correctorderby numberingthem from I to 10. l. witchesoccurs. "Legal lynching"of twenty accused Royal slavetrademonopolyends. First colonialcollegeis founded. Landless whites in Virginia losethe right to vote. Major rebellionby African Americansoccursin one of the middle colonies. Florida. Southemslavesin revolttry but failto marchto Spanish is Partialchurchmembership openedto the unconverted. 8. 9. African slavesbeginto replacewhite indenturedlabor on southernplantations. Poor Virginia whitesrevolt againstgovernorand rich planters. First Africansarrivein Vireinia.

2. 3.
1.

A

5. 6.

r0.

F. Matching Cause and Effect
Match the historicalcausein the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. Cause l. 2. The severe shortage femalesin of southern colonies Poorwhite males'angerat their inabilityto acquireland or start families Planters'fears of indentured rebellion, coupledwith servants' risingwagesin England The dramaticincrease colonial in after 1680s slavepopulation The growing proportionof female region slavesin the Chesapeake after 1720 New Englanders' introduction of livestockand intensive agriculture The healthier climateand more equalmale-female ratio in New England The declineof religiousdevotion and in numberof conversions in New Ensland f.
o D'

Effect a, b. c. d. Inspiredpassage ofstrict "slave codes" Bacon'sRebellion Sparked Producedlarge numberof unattached males and weak family structure in Thwarted success agriculture but helpedcreatethe toughNew England character Inspiredthe Half-Way Covenantand jeremiadpreaching Reducedforestsand damagedthe soil Producedhigh birthratesand a very stablefamily structure Fosteredstrongerslave families and growth of slave populationthrough natural reproductionof children Underlay the Salemwitchcraft persecutions Causedsouthernplantersto switch labor to from indentured-servant African slavery

3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

h.

t.

8.

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chapter American in the seventeenth 4: Life century, 1607-1692 9. Unsettled New Englandsocial conditions and anxieties aboutthe declineof the Puritanreligious heritage The rocky soil and harshclimate of New Encland

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10.

G DevelopingHistoricalSkills Learning Historical from Documents
The illustrations pp. 69 and79 reproduce on partsof fwo colonialdocuments: excerpts from an indentured servant's contract and somepages from children'sschoolmaterials.. carefullyexamining By eventhese small partialdocuments, can learnmore aboutearly colonialculfureand ideas. you Answeringthe following questions will illustrate kind of informationthat historicaldocuments the can provide. I' What are the principal goalsthat both the masterand the indenturedservantare seekins in the contract?

2.

What potentialproblems doeseachside anticipate?

3.

Whatdoesthe reference the mother'sconsent to suggest aboutthis servant's condition?

PARTIII:APPLYING WHATYOU HAVELEARNED
l. 2. 3. 4. 5. How did the factorsof population, economics, disease, climateshape and the basicsocial conditions and ways of life of early Americansin both the Southand New England? What was the underlyingcause the expansion African slaveryin EnglishNorth America? of of could the colonies'"labor problem"havebeensorvedwithout slavery? How did African Americansdevelopa culturethat combinedAfrican and Americanelements? What were someof the featuresof that culture? How did the numbersand conditionof women affect family life and societyin New England, amongsouthern whites,and amongAfrican Americanslaves? Compareand contrast typical the family conditions and ways of life amongvariousmembers thesethreegroups. of How did the harshclimateand soil, sternreligion,and tightly knit New Englandtown shapethe "Yankee character"? Compare conditions seventeenth-century the of social,economic, and religiouslife in New Englandand the Chesapeake region. How did the Salemwitch episode reflectthe tensions and changes seventeenth-century in New England life and thought? In what ways did the English and Africans who came to America in the seventeenth century have to shapetheir society and way of life to fit the conditionsthey faced in the New World?

6. 7. 8' 9.

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