The reasons over Australia's founding as a colony is an ongoing debate with many Historians using evidence that says

one thing and not another or even multitudinous ideas. With many primary sources available the points put forth in later argument contest reasons for Britain to colonise Australia. One side of this argument is that Australia was founded to be a place for Britain to place its unwanted felons. On the other hand there are reasons for trade and naval dominance, denial of the other imperial powers, whaling and a home for the loyalist Americans ostracized from the American colonies. New Holland discovered first, by European standings, in 1606 by Captain Willem Janzsoon, a Dutchman,1 followed by many landings which mapped the western, northern and southern coasts predominantly until Lieutenant James Cook sailed and landed on the eastern coastline2. Cook claimed New Holland's east coast naming it New South Wales, for King George III and the British Empire, as set out in his orders given to him by the "Lord High Admiral of Great Britain & c"3. The land was deemed "Terra Nullius" and deemed available and viable property to any sovereign power to claim ownership4. Britain was in a bind with its high demand on the convict system5 and an escalating population of nearly eight hundred thousand beyond 17606 with a need for a "new solution" since the loss of the American colonies7. It was discussed often by the politicians that a new site for a mass penal colony was needed and after great debate deemed many sites unsuited for the purpose8, but for New South Wales. Reasons for such a strain on the system were a lack of a strong police force and ever escalating crimes especially with regards to property9. This is often used as the sole or main reason for colonization. Shaw, in his book "Convicts And The Colonies", continues to put across the points that with the arrival of the First Fleet that it may or may not be entirely true. He surmised that since no skilled prisoners were among the deportees that a centre of trade was not viable as it lacked the foundations to build the required port facilities. Yet he also points out that this could be due to an inefficiency of government10. Among other reasons, Shaw puts forth the concept of propaganda, finding this "Great Southern Land" and the premise it would bring about the "ascension of commerce
1

Australian Discovery, Project Gutenberg Australia, http://gutenberg.net.au/aust-discovery.html (accessed 06 Sep 2011) 2 Landing list, Australia On The Map: A Division of the Australian Hydrographical Society, http://www.australiaonthemap.org.au/landings-list/
3

National Archives of Australia, [The Secret Instructions To Lieutenant Cook 30 July 1768 (UK)], [http://foundingdocs.gov.au/item-sdid-67.html], downloaded [14 Aug 2011].
4 5

Susan Janson and Stuart Macintyre: Through White Eyes p.64 Newgate Prison, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/newgate.html 6 A population history of London http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Population-history-of-london.jsp 7 A.G.L. Shaw, Convicts And The Colonies, Melbourne University Press, 1978, p45 8 Convicts And The Colonies, p45-48 9 Convicts And The Colonies, p39-40 10 Convicts And The Colonies, p53-54

and power"11. Claiming A Continent: A New History of Australia. described and referenced his journal entries14 on the position of Botany Bay as ideal for a penal settlement15. Cook 11 12 Convicts And The Colonies. The Admiral also declared that the convicts be gone for good due to the distance between Britain and New South Wales18. which would allow them to openly trade within the Asian Pacific region17. the possibility of the use of the region for whaling and sealing. supports the notion on how Sir Joseph Banks. Geoffrey Blainey.au/ebooks05/0501141h. Shaw then notes that James Mantra suggested that Australia could be a new home for those Americans still loyal to the crown." which fueled the theory of Australia as but a "dumping ground"16. Harper Perennial. Furthering the debate of Britain to use Australia comes from Day referring to Ken Dallas and his 1952 publication "Trading Post Or Penal Colony" and the discussion on the purpose of the colony19. The ideas of Admiral Sir George Young claimed that New South Wales should be used for trade and that convicts provide a workforce to build the colony. The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks. in 1979. p51-52 13 Convicts And The Colonies. http://gutenberg. in his book "Claiming A Continent". Shaw also states that the discovery of the flax and pines12 of Norfolk Island were of importance in refitting of naval ships even to build more. p28-29 16 Claiming A Continent. p29 19 Claiming A Continent. The Second Fleet was composed of whaling vessels converted into prison ships then turned back into whaling vessels for use in southern waters.net. p29-30 20 Claiming A Continent. which is foundations for a desire to be commercially strong and in a position of dominance in the region. The fact that those ships who left after the landings of the First Fleet went north onwards to China to collect a cargo of tea for return to England. On the other hand Day.html 15 David Day. p29 18 Claiming A Continent. The final point Shaw argues is that the government had rejected the proposition that this new harbor. p52 Convicts And The Colonies. Dallas also stated New South Wales could be used to grow crops of the temperate and tropical regions. 2005. p29 17 Claiming A Continent. was not allowed to be a port for refitting for whaling ships as this would encroach on the East Indies Trading rights and would contradict the restrictions imposed13. further enhancing the concept of dominating and monopolizing the region.Dallas discussed the options with evidence to trade of goods with China and South America. p30 . p54-55 14 Joseph Banks. Sydney. in 1966. His address to the House of Commons contributes to the debate over where the new colony for felons would be placed. argues the use of the new colony for a naval base with reference to the demand of the flax and pine that could be harvested from Norfolk and other regions20. The words of the Prime Minister William Pitt declares for the government after debate of all options that there was "No cheaper mode of disposing of the convicts could be found.

Britain sought to undermine the trade of Spanish and Dutch already in the region and to deny the French outright if possible from gaining a foothold in the Pacific. Cambridge University Press. for manufacturing. Suggestions of use of Australia as a new home on the frontier for the loyalist Americans is also debated and the idea they could utilize new trade regimes with China and other Pacific peoples. by European's. The overall view of British colonization of Australia is debatable on many levels as to what motivated the need to claim and build a new chapter in the British Empire's vastness. Furthermore harvesting the Norfolk and Australian flax and pines then shipping the raw materials to New Zealand. The predominant theories promote the sole use of colonization merely to remove Britain of undesirable felons and place them beyond reach of British European holdings. yet was. in 1994. A Concise History of Australia. p36 . New South 21 22 James Cook's Journal Transcript Chapter 8. Use of marines as guards allows a greater presence of authority and an armed force with which to control and impose law and order. Phillip was a military man who knew how to deal with French and had militaristic views to enforce law. 2009. a normal practice and process. Frost's continued studies in 1987 puts across the concept that Governor Phillip was no mere retiree put back into service to lead the colony. Whaling and sealing vessels where used to transport the convicts and alleged reverted to the role of whalers once again to promote that industry. particularly France. stating the purpose of the colony as best used to deter the French and more so deny them claim in the Pacific22. This is then further expanded upon by Alan Frost. p30-31 23 Stuart Macintyre. in 1980. http://ebooks. By providing Military overseers in the likes of Governor Phillip and his successors shows a potential for naval control especially with an emphasis on flax and pine cultivation.edu. Desire to expand and trade. The premise of actually claiming title is in many ways unorthodox by today's standards. and setting up a base for refitting the navy would enable the British to maintain control. Britain sought to gain a foothold within the Pacific theatre and stake its claim to opportunity and deny its rivals.documented in his journal entries the availability of large supplies of the flax and pine that could be used for naval purposes21. The fact of Cook and his orders inspires the idea Britain was looking for opportunity on trade and land title. Carrying on with Frost. Certainly the government used this as its major discourse to fix an escalating problem of crime in the industrialized cities. as a way of gaining prestige and power. further puts that all subsequent Governors were also military men of the navy which suggests that it was of military and strategic use as a base of operations23.html Claiming A Continent. Considering that the views in regard to unskilled workers and lacking the ability to build a base of operations seems plausible on one side of the argument.au/c/cook/james/c77j/chapter8. but was a very experienced naval officer and had campaigned in France. the Empire was clear through the use of authority within the address to Cook allowing him to modify and utilize his own judgment provided he addressed the correct process.adelaide. Dominion of trade and property ownership was important in European aspects of culture.

oldbaileyonline. 2005 Hogarth William.aspx Janson. By default the idea all these reasons seem viable and contributed to the ultimate decision for colonization of Australia by Britain. http://gutenberg.Bark "Endeavour" 176871.org/newgate. ability to trade with neighbors much more cheaply than Europe. David. http://gutenberg. R. Melbourne University press. harvest its own food sources. A Concise History Of Australia 3rd ed.au/ebooks05/0501141h. with notes and introduction edited by Captain W.L.gov.edu.au/landings-list/ (assessed 06 Sep 2011) Macintyre. http://www.Wales was indeed required to be self sufficient as to not be a burden on the British economy furthering the idea as more than just a penal colony.._gin_lane.S. Claiming A Continent: A New History Of Australia. Allen & Unwin.html Day.org/static/Population-history-oflondon. Australia On The Map: A Division of the Australian Hydrographical Society.org. Through White Eyes.britishmuseum. University of Adelaide http://ebooks..html].html Old Bailey Online. It could be viewed though with varying debate that Australia was founded to be a combination of all aspects discussed. Harper Perennial. grow to meet the demand of imported convicts.. A population history of London http://www. Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage around the world in H. 2009 Newgate Prison .Wharton . The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks.jsp Project Gutenburg Australia. 1990.A Literal Transcription of the Original Mss.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/pd/w/william_hogarth.html Shaw A. Rendered into HTML by Steve Thomas. p51-64 Landing list. http://www. Discovery Of Australia.net.australiaonthemap.capitalpunishmentuk. Sydney. Stuart. 1978 p45-55 The Secret Instructions To Lieutenant Cook 30 July 1768 (UK).N.adelaide. ebooks@Adelaide. Convicts And The Colonies. F.au/c/cook/james/c77j/chapter8. and protect itself from its enemies if it was to succeed in its purpose.net.L. Hydrographer to the Admiralty. Susan and Macintyre.G.J.M. What would a penal settlement be without the ability to survive self sufficiently. National Archives of Australia [http://foundingdocs. eds.R.au/aust-discovery. though certainly the British government to use convicts is a very strong argument. downloaded [14 Aug 2011].html Cook James. Gin Lane. Stuart. http://www. .au/item-sdid-67. Cambridge University Press. Bibliography Banks Joseph. govern and impose law and order.

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