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Chapter 4.

Technology and society Different types of technology Labor-based technology Labor/equipment mix technology: a technology which gives priority to labor, supplementing with appropriate equipment Advantages Creation of more employment (mostly unskilled) Reduction of environmental impact Increased use of associated local resources, contributing to local economy Labor intensive technology Involvement of large numbers of workers to produce goods or services High labor cost relative to capital Physical and manual job Labor intensive industries include restaurants, hotels, agriculture and mining Advantage: Control of expenses during market downturns by controlling the size of the employee base Appropriate technology Technology that is appropriate to the environmental, cultural and economic situation Requirement of fewer resources, as well as lower cost and less impact on the environment. Considered to be suitable for use in developing nations or underdeveloped rural areas of industrialized nations, which they feel cannot operate and maintain high technology Usually labor-intensive Some appropriate technologies Information and communication technology Construction Solar cell, biogas, bio-fuel, wind power, micro hydro Smokeless and wood conserving stoves Rainwater harvesting, fog collection Levels of technology 1. Low level technology Up to 3200 BC Tools and machines developed by earlier human beings Primitive tools and simple machines that served as the foundations for other tools and machines Type of tools Natural tools: no modification, naturally available, e.g. stone piece

Adapted tools: modified in size and shape, e.g. sharpened bone at one end Manufactured tools: developed tools, e.g. arrow, bow, spear Human and animal powered machines

2. Intermediate level technology From 3200 BC to industrial revolution in some countries, to present in most of the countries Tools that are more sophisticated or complex than those currently in use in a developing nation but still much less costly, or more accessible, than those tools that would be used in a developed nation Improvement/modification of primitive tools and machines Axe and hammer made of metal Compound or complex machines powered by humans, animals or other forces Steam power, diesel engine, steam turbine Civilizations in this technological period 3. High level technology Technology of post-industrial era More sophisticated tools and machines Prevalent in mostly western societies Sources of power: no human power, e.g. electric power, mechanical power, steam power Three sub-divisions Assembly line: group of complex machines working in conjunction Automation Computer technology Technology as a curse or as a blessing Handling of technology decides whether it is curse or a blessing. Technology for betterment of life: blessing, technology for negative effects, e.g. destruction: curse e.g. blessing: material things, airplane for easy transport, easy life, freedom from heat/cold, great human achievements curse: airplane to carry bombs for war, pollution and other destructive effects Technology is now irreversible The development of the technology: result of development human civilization. From the early to the todays modern technology, the technological development continued and obviously not reversed. To develop a new technology, the knowledge and resources are needed. But to reverse a technology, we can have the resource of old days but the knowledge can not be. Technology creates the opportunity for society change

Families and modern technology Due to technology people migrating for job, carrier, better opportunity, breaking the tradition of joint family Greater number of working women Sense of companionship is taking place on the society among the family members Economy Change in economy due to technology, broader market, wide area of global economy High productivity due to technology High consumption due to low price Politics By using technology more resources are used to generate wealth and wealth gives the power. Periodic reorganization of political forces due to technology Technology occasionally becoming a political asset Education Technology development processes started because of education. Easier methods of learning , e.g. audio visual aids Easy distribution of information distribution Technology has made education essential to earn living. Models of education o Classical model: history, literatures, philosophy, language , focus on past achievements o Religious model: focus on holy books of religion o Managerial model: focus on vocational education o Humanistic model: making the people more human, focus on arts and science Religion Technology helps to unmask old social problems. For a large number of people in modern societies, religion is neither good nor bad but simply irrelevant, given the many alternative ways to find meaning in various forms of cultural pursuits, ethical ideals, and lifestyles. The technology has changed the spiritual beliefs to the business opportunities. Importance of technology in controlling prices Increase in the production rate at low price with the help of modern tools like automation, management techniques etc. More consumption of goods due to reduction in price According to supply-demand chain, low price due to more consumption For example, electronic goods are cheaper now than yesterday.

Interaction between technology and the labor force With the development of technology, the uses of muscle power is decreasing day by day The automatic system, robots etc displacing the labor force. Creation of new types of job opportunities requiring qualified people in less numbers Societys control on technology The technology should be adaptable to the society according to the social status and needs E.g. sustainable development for rural society, dynamic technologies for urban society If the technology does not cope with the social requirement then it goes out. Benefits of society from new technological inventions Acceleration of social growth e.g. social transformation due to the invention of steam power, petrol car, diesel engine, increase in interaction due to the invention of television, computer, airplanes Technological innovation can unmask the old social problems Unmasking of cast discrimination and superstitions by education with the help of modern technology Unmasking of chronic social problems by regular advertisement and awareness programs using modern technology like television, internet etc. Impact of industrialization of societies that are not yet technologised Positive: opportunities, growth in trade and economy, infrastructures development, acceleration of human civilization Negative: water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, ozone layer depletion, deforestation etc. Shifts in employment opportunities Creation of new kinds of jobs and businesses due to transportation, communications, and computer International competition in businesses Shifting from farming in rural areas to industrial jobs in cities and suburbs in western countries. Change in production and employment patterns as a result of technological advances, increased levels of world trade, and a rapid increase in the demand for services. Change in the education pattern due to the shift in employment opportunities

Chapter 5. Nepalese perspective on technology, environment and society Economic development and economic growth Economic development refers to the problems of underdeveloped countries while economic growth refers to the problems of developed countries. The raising of income levels is generally called economic development in rich countries and in poor ones it is called economic growth. Economic growth: more output, Economic development: more output and change in technical and institutional arrangement by which it is produced and distributed

Nepal: Least developed country Least developed/underdeveloped countries/Third world countries/Developing countries Countries in the intermediate level of technological developments Some criteria for measuring underdevelopment Poverty: high Per capita income: low Ratio of capital to per head of population: low Ratio of industrial output to total output: low Main features of an underdeveloped country Poverty: low GNP per capita Agriculture based economy: 2/3 people in rural areas and involved agriculture Dualistic economy: developed urban area(market economy) and less developed rural areas (subsistence economy) Underdeveloped natural resources: unutilized or underutilized or misutilized Population: Rapidly increasing Unemployment: high Economic backwardness: low labor efficiency due to poverty Backward in technology Lack of enterprise and initiative Insufficient capital equipment: capital poor, low saving and low investing Foreign trade orientation: export of primary products and import of goods and machinery, neglect of other sectors of economy Economic planning Deliberate control and direction of the economy by a central authority for the purpose of achieving definite targets and objectives within a specified period of time Objectives of planning in underdeveloped countries To increase the rate of economic development for increasing national income and per capita income

To reduce inequalities of income and wealth and concentration of economic power To strengthen market mechanism To remove unemployment To develop agriculture and industrial sector To develop infrastructure and manpower To remove poverty To expand domestic and foreign trade To achieve balanced regional development To achieve self-reliance

Plan formulation and requisites for successful planning Planning commission: setting up of a Planning commission with work divisions for professionals of various sectors Statistical data: Data related to natural resources, agriculture, industry, transport, technical and non-technical personnel etc. Setting of objectives Fixation of targets and priorities Mobilization of resources Balancing in the plan: balance in economy, balance between saving and investment, supply and demand, manpower requirements and availabilities, demand for import and available foreign exchanges Incorrupt and efficient administration Proper development policy Economy in administration An education base Public cooperation Theory of consumption: LDCs should not follow the consumption pattern of developed countries. Strategic plan Process of defining strategy, or direction and making decisions on allocating resources to pursue the strategy, including capital and people Organizations future course Three Steps of strategic plan 1. Evaluation of current situation 2. Definition of goals and objectives 3. Mapping of possible routes to the goals and objectives Periodic plan Plan for a fixed time, e.g. for a year or less Three steps of periodic plan o Goal, o Subject

o Deadline Sustainable development Economic development without polluting environment Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Ways to achieve sustainable development 1. Economic growth and poverty reduction 2. Better health service and balanced population growth 3. Emissions control 3. Conservation of forests, ecosystems and biodiversity 4. Education base 5. Good governance 6. Infrastructure: roads, railways, electricity, communication 7. Peace and security Development strategy a. Quick transition strategy Big transitional jump from intermediate level to high level of technological development To cope with the problems of overpopulation, energy, health and pollution, need of quick transition strategy Focus on science and technology for development b. Slow transition strategy Slow and more gradual transition Societies of especially third world countries not ready to cope with big jump Technology suitable for local condition: labor intensive, low cost, use of local materials, simply constructed, simple to maintain and operate Planned development in Nepal Strategy of planning in Nepal Socioeconomic growth with basic needs fulfillment Rural development Equity distribution Peoples' participation Employment generation First five year plan: started from 1956 Tenth plan: 2002-2007

Objectives of the tenth plan To alleviate poverty To mobilize available physical and human resources To strengthen institutional and administrative sector To attract private sector To encourage proper and qualitative researches To focus on development; and extension and use of information technology and biotechnology To create conducive environment for transfer of technology and foreign investments To produce highly skilled manpower To enhance local technology Targets of the tenth plan To achieve GDP growth of seven percent during the plan period and the following consecutive two plans To reduce poverty to 10 percent by 2017 from over 38% in 2004

Energy sources Nonrenewable Energy source which will be exhausted Coal, petroleum products Renewable Energy source which can supply continuously Hydropower (including micro-hydro), biogas, solar, and wind energy Biomass: fuelwood, agricultural residues, and animal waste Biogas Methane-rich gas produced by methanogenic bacteria by anaerobic digestion of animal and human excreta Use: for cooking Solar Traditional use: drying crops, clothes, fuelwood, and others. Two methods of utilizing solar energy: solar thermal systems for heating water and solar photovoltaic systems for generating electricity Wind Wind power for grinding grains, generating electricity

Hydropower Electricity from hydropower, clean energy Impact of technology in Nepal Economy: economic development, increase in GDP and per capita income Employment: Numerous employment opportunities in several sectors, e.g. cottage industries, transportation industry, some manufacturing industries Social value: decline in the population growth and increase in literacy rate, comfortable life, social transformation due to electricity, telephone, radio, televisions, rise in life expectancy, decrease in child mortality rate Environmental pollution . Water Quality situation in Nepal Degradation in the quality of surface and groundwater and drinking water Deterioration of water quality in urban and riverside settlement areas o Sewage and solid waste, industrial waste o Use of agro-chemicals o Haphazard urbanization and inadequate sewerage facilities: Discharging domestic sewers, wastewater and industrial wastes directly into the local rivers without pre-treatment For example, the Bagmati River, which drains the Kathmandu Valley, is highly polluted. In Kathmandu the quality is inferior due to the presence of different contaminants such as coliform bacteria, Iron and Ammonia. Biological contamination in rural parts : due to open defecation Natural cause of water pollution: not so significant o Landslides, soil erosion, and floods have often caused turbidity of river water o In the absence of proper protection, floods induce turbidity and add various nutrients to the river water In the Terai, groundwater is a major source of drinking water: arsenic contamination, high iron and Manganese, coliform bacteria Biological contamination causing water-borne diseases in both urban and rural areas Air Quality situation in Nepal Deteriorating air quality in urban areas and indoor air pollution in rural areas of Nepal. Urban air pollution o causes Vehicular emission Heavy vehicular traffic in major towns such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar and Birgunj Industrial emissions Construction work Poorly maintained and narrow roads Old vehicles and poor vehicular maintenance

o High Particulate matter o Effect: Respiratory problems Indoor air pollution in rural area o Reason: burning of firewood in closed, improperly ventilated rooms. o Effect: Bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory problems among rural women and children Natural process: seasonal dust storm in the valleys. Indoor pollution in industries: threat to the health of workers