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Zero Point Energy and Zero Point Field
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Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of what are usually called ''zero-point'' energies for the strong, the weak and the electromagnetic interactions, where ''zero-point'' refers to the energy of the system at temperature T=0, or the lowest quantized energy level of a quantum mechanical system. Although the term ''zeropoint energy'' applies to all three of these interactions in nature, customarily (and hereafter in this article) it is used in reference only to the electromagnetic case. In conventional quantum physics, the origin of zero-point energy is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states that, for a moving particle such as an electron, the more precisely one measures the position, the less exact the best possible measurement of its momentum (mass times velocity), and vice versa. The least possible uncertainty of position times momentum is specified by Planck's constant, h. A parallel uncertainty exists between measurements involving time and energy (and other so-called conjugate variables in quantum mechanics). This minimum uncertainty is not due to any correctable flaws in measurement, but rather reflects an intrinsic quantum fuzziness in the very nature of energy and matter springing from the wave nature of the various quantum fields. This leads to the concept of zero-point energy. Zero-point energy is the energy that remains when all other energy is removed from a system. This behaviour is demonstrated by, for example, liquid helium. As the temperature is lowered to absolute zero, helium remains a liquid, rather than freezing to a solid, owing to the irremovable zero-point energy of its atomic motions. (Increasing the pressure to 25 atmospheres will cause helium to freeze.) A harmonic oscillator is a useful conceptual tool in physics. Classically a harmonic oscillator, such as a mass on a spring, can always be brought to rest. However a quantum harmonic oscillator does not permit this. A residual motion will always remain due to the requirements of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, resulting in a zero-point energy, equal to 1/2 hf, where f is the oscillation frequency. Electromagnetic radiation can be pictured as waves flowing through space at the speed of light. The waves are not waves of anything substantive, but are ripples in a state of a theoretically defined field. However these waves do carry energy (and momentum), and each wave has a specific direction, frequency and polarization state. Each wave represents a ''propagating mode of the electromagnetic field.'' Each mode is equivalent to a harmonic oscillator and is thus subject to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. From this analogy, every mode of the field must have 1/2 hf as its average minimum energy. That is a tiny amount of energy in each mode, but the number of modes is enormous, and indeed increases per unit frequency interval as the square of the frequency. The spectral energy density is determined by the density of modes times the energy per mode and thus increases as the cube of the frequency per unit frequency per unit volume. The product of the tiny energy per mode times the huge spatial density of modes yields a very
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Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy
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high theoretical zero-point energy density per cubic centimeter. From this line of reasoning, quantum physics predicts that all of space must be filled with electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations (also called the zero-point field) creating a universal sea of zero-point energy. The density of this energy depends critically on where in frequency the zero-point fluctuations cease. Since space itself is thought to break up into a kind of quantum foam at a tiny distance scale called the Planck scale (10-33 cm), it is argued that the zero point fluctuations must cease at a corresponding Planck frequency (1043 Hz). If that is the case, the zero-point energy density would be 110 orders of magnitude greater than the radiant energy at the center of the Sun. How could such an enormous energy not be wildly evident? There is one major difference between zero-point electromagnetic radiation and ordinary electromagnetic radiation. Turning again to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle one finds that the lifetime of a given zero-point photon, viewed as a wave, corresponds to an average distance traveled of only a fraction of its wavelength. Such a wave ''fragment'' is somewhat different than an ordinary plane wave and it is difficult to know how to interpret this. On the other hand, zero-point energy appears to have been directly measured as current noise in a resistively shunted Josephson junction by Koch, van Harlingen and Clarke up to a frequency of about 0.6 Tz (see Abstract).
LORENTZ INVARIANCE OF THE SPECTRUM
That the spectrum of zero-point radiation has a frequency-cubed dependence is of great significance. That is the only kind of spectrum that has the property of being Lorentz invariant. The effect of motion is to Doppler shift detected electromagnetic radiation, but a frequency-cubed spectrum has the property that up- and downshifting of the radiation is exactly compensated, i.e. there is as much radiation Doppler shifted into a given frequency interval as there is shifted out by uniform motion. A remarkably different phenomenon occurs when accelerating through zero-point radiation. The zero-point radiation acts upon an accelerating detector as if the detector were immersed in a thermal spectrum, even though heat and temperature are not involved. The perceived ''temperature'' is directly proportional to the acceleration.
In 1947 Hendrik Casimir, once an assistant of Pauli, was working in applied industrial research at the Philips Laboratory in the Netherlands along with physicist J. T. G. Overbeek. They were analyzing the theory of van der Waals forces when Casimir had the opportunity to discuss ideas with Niels Bohr on a walk. According to Casimir, Bohr ''mumbled something about zero-point energy'' being relevant. This led Casimir to an analysis of zero-point energy effects in the related problem of forces between perfectly conducting parallel plates. The cavity between such plates cannot sustain all modes of the electromagnetic field. In particular wavelengths comparable to the plate separation and longer are
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Moreover the Casimir force (also called Casimir effect) has become relevant to micro-electro-mechanical structures in which it is both a problem (termed ''stiction'') and a possible mechanism for control. Adjusting the electrostatic force so as to permit the Casimir force to dominate will result in adding energy to the electric mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . A thought experiment for a device that readily demonstrates how the Casimir force could be put to use in principle was proposed by physicist Robert Forward in 1984 (see below). FORWARD THOUGHT EXPERIMENT There is growing interest concerning the possibility of tapping zero-point energy and many claims exist of ''over unity devices'' (gadgets yielding a greater output than the required input for operation) driven by zero-point energy. The actual noncontinuous nature of the plates. becomes an important factor for very short distances. It has the property of increasing in strength with the inverse fourth power of the plate separation.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 3 of 9 excluded from the region between the plates. as opposed to the true surface and molecular nature of the materials.. however. Applying the same polarity charge to all the plates would yield a repulsive force between plates. and the resulting effect is now called the Casimir force. Zero-point energy is not a thermal reservoir. This fact leads to the situation that there is a zero-point radiation overpressure outside the plates which acts to push the plates together. in which they concluded that ''extracting energy and heat from electromagnetic zero-point radiation via the use of the Casimir force'' is in principle possible without violating the laws of thermodynamics. again in agreement with Casimir's formula. In spite of the dubious nature of these claims (to date no such device has passed a rigorous. objective test). The Casimir force is widely cited as evidence that underlying the universe there must be a sea of real zero-point energy. It is not necessarily true. 8/19/2011 . This argument follows from Casimir's analysis and prediction. by U. the concept of converting some amount of zero-point energy to usable energy cannot be ruled out in principle. It has since been verified even more precisely. Lamoreux at the University of Washington verified Casimir's predictions to within five percent in the size range of a few microns. thereby opposing the Casimir force which is acting to push the plates together. This can be considered analogous to radiation pressure (radiation pressure from the Sun pushes comet tails away from the comet nucleus). In 1993 Cole and Puthoff published a thermodynamic analysis. when measurements by S. The force ceases when elements of the plates come into contact. It is perfectly possible to explain the Casimir effect by taking into account the quantum-induced motions of atoms in each plate and examining the retarded potential interactions of atoms in one plate with those in the other. ''Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum'' (see below).. A ''vacuum fluctuation battery'' could be constructed consisting of stacked conducting plates. the surface smoothness of the plates being a limiting factor. or when the plates are so close that the corresponding zero-point radiation wavelengths no longer ''see'' a perfectly conducting surface. and therefore does not suffer from the thermodynamic injunction against extracting energy from a lower temperature reservoir. Mohideen at the University of California at Riverside. The Casimir force was not measured to high precision until the mid 1990s.
At first glance one might assume that if there is an enormous amount of zero-point energy underlying the universe.. energy is equivalent to mass as a source of gravity. would have accelerated the universe into oblivion in microseconds. But for zero-point energy the ratio is w=-1. to separate the plates for a second cycle.e. counter-intuitively. which is customarily expressed in units whereby c=1. Nevertheless. this amount of zero-point energy. A further peculiarity is that a ratio of w=-1 implies that the zero-point energy exerts a negative pressure which. and thus the ratio is expressed as w=+1/3.) Zero-point energy has the desired property of driving an accelerated expansion. thereby converting zero-point energy to electric energy. there may be 120 orders of magnitude more energy per cubic centimeter than the observations of cosmic acceleration permit. and in practice somewhat more energy owing to frictional and other losses. (The universe now appears to consist of about 70 percent dark energy. According to relativity theory. Recent work by Christian Beck at the University of London and Michael Mackey at mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . Indeed. this would demonstrate the concept of conversion of zero-point energy in principle if the Casimir effect attribution to zero-point energy is correct (which is debatable). interpreted this way. Indeed. leads to an expansion of space-time. which is in effect a resurrection of Einstein's cosmological constant. if the spectrum of zero-point energy extends to the Planck scale. but instead more zero-point energy is assumed to be created out of nothing. and thus having the requisite properties of dark energy. which according to general relativity means producing a positive curvature in space-time. but to an absurdly greater degree than required. 8/19/2011 . the ratio of pressure to energy density is w=1/3c2. DARK ENERGY A major discovery in astrophysics in the late 1990s was the finding from type Ia supernovae redshift-luminosity observations that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. One can imagine an even simpler microdevice in which the Casimir force pushes two plates together thereby engaging some kind of lever which does work. its effect would be to dramatically curve the universe to a minute size. This led to the concept of dark energy. i. but unfortunately if the energy spectrum does continue up to the Planck frequency.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 4 of 9 field between the plates. Zero-point energy behaves differently. There is no practical application in these examples since ideally it would take just as much energy. Thus zero-point energy would appear to be identical with the mysterious dark energy. its energy density would be the mass equivalent of about 1093 grams per cubic centimeter which would reduce the universe to a size smaller than an atomic nucleus. For ordinary radiation. 25 percent dark matter and five percent ordinary matter. 120 orders of magnitude. thus zero-point energy should gravitate.. This is owing to the circumstance that the zero-point energy density is assumed to be constant: no matter how much the universe expands it does not become diluted.
the ground state electron is assumed to emit Larmor radiation which causes it to spiral inward. etc. although it is far from explaining most quantum effects.6 Tz to the proposed cutoff. In the 1960s British physicist Trevor Marshall and. but the concept of zero-point energy soon reemerged with a quantum interpretation.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 5 of 9 McGill University may have resolved the 120 order of magnitude problem. Zero-point photons continue to exist above the 1. The proposed phase transition should be testable in the near future when the Koch et al. the Lamb shift. American Timothy Boyer were two of the principal investigators who essentially took up the abandoned approach and pushed it much farther by asking the question: which quantum phenomena might be explained using solely classical physics plus an assumed classical representation of a zero-point field with zero-point energy? For the contribution of other researchers. Nernst and others in the context of blackbody radiation prior to the discovery of quantum mechanics. see the book "The Quantum Dice" by de la Pena and Cetto (below). and is treated as an ensemble of ordinary electromagnetic plane waves having an energy 1/2 hf in each and every mode. SED is useful as a computational tool since it involves well-known classical electrodynamics in place of more esoteric quantum laws and processes.7 THz are gravitationally active whereas above that they are not.. If this is the case. STOCHASTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS THEORY Although zero-point energy is usually regarded as a quantum phenomenon and a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty relationship.7 THz phase transition. separately. In that case dark energy is nothing other than zero-point energy. In the latter case. This line of investigation was abandoned with the advent of quantum mechanics. This became the discipline known as stochastic electrodynamics (SED. consistent with measurable QED effects such as the Casimir effect. Apart from its ontological aspirations of possibly doing away with quantum physics in favor of solely classical physics. then the dark energy problem is solved: dark energy is the low frequency gravitationally active component of zero-point energy. experiment is extended from 0. earlier sometimes referred to as random electrodynamics). In Measureability of vacuum fluctuations and dark energy and Electromagnetic dark energy they propose that a phase transition occurs so that zero-point photons below a frequency of about 1. Planck. the existence of zeropoint energy was inferred by Einstein. 8/19/2011 .. In the SED representation the zero-point field is taken to be a given. There is no quantum physics involved. This theory has had some success. Two noteworthy successes of SED are its derivation of the Planck blackbody function without assuming quantization and its suggestion that the Bohr orbit of hydrogen could arise without a quantum law. The calculation of the absorption was done by Boyer and later by Puthoff by treating the electron as undergoing harmonic oscillation rather than true motion in a Coulomb potential. Nernst in particular claimed in 1916 that the universe was filled with zero-point energy. but this does not lead to collapse of the orbit because the electron also absorbs zeropoint energy. The fact that the mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . This is a weakness in the analysis but nonetheless it is striking that the Larmor emission and harmonic-oscillator-type absorption prove to be in balance exactly at the Bohr radius. Einstein and Otto Stern came close to deriving the blackbody function without assuming quantization but with the presence of zero-point energy.
The representation of the zero-point field as an ensemble of plane waves each with an energy of precisely 1/2 hf in all possible directions and random phases was modified in 1995 by Ibison and Haisch. the electron in a Coulomb field is jostled by its emission and absorption to a range of radial distances which reproduce the Schroedinger probability. Hestenes. hence very energetic. which suggests a physical interpretation of the wave function and the associated probability density. Secondly. SPECULATIVE CONNECTION TO INERTIAL AND GRAVITATIONAL MASS Click here for a new popular-level overview on this topic by Marcus Chown. The connection in SED theory between zitterbewegung and the zero-point mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . etc.e. then at this level the electron would have to be massless. Weisskopf. the fluctuations smear out the average position over a volume the Compton radius in size. fluctuating point particle is accelerated in an electric field. This is an intriguing extension of the earlier result. but problems still remain such as the need to cut off the particle-field interactions to avoid autoionization. Huang. Zitterbewegung thus suggests possibly deep connections between zero-point energy and the mass-energy relationship of matter and with the quantum properties of particles. mass arising at some higher level of motion. In SED theory. the zitterbewegung acquires a helical motion suggestive of spin. the phenomenon of zitterbewegung is caused by the electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations. He dubbed this motion ''zitterbewegung'' (German for ''jitter motion''). zero-point fluctuation could free the electron. simulations that have recently been done show that if such a massless. speed-of-light fluctuations of a point-like particle. indeed point-like for all we know. The possible association of zitterbewegung with spin has been made by a number of authors over the years such as Barut and Zanghi.) Thirdly. ZITTERBEWEGUNG Schroedinger was apparently the first to note that solving the Dirac equation for the motion of the electron resulted in a necessary component that could be interpreted as random. In the SED case.. 8/19/2011 . Several things are interesting about zitterbewegung. thereby yielding a closer formal correspondence with the quantum behaviour. (Scattering experiments indicate that the electron is far smaller than its Compton size.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 6 of 9 orbital angular momentum is zero in the quantum ground state is mirrored in the SED orbiting-electron interpretation by random changes in the orbital plane (due to the zero-point fluctuations) yielding a time averaged zero net angular momentum.. First. a single very high frequency. since the fluctuations occur at the speed of light. Recent simulations by Cole have successfully modeled the electron motion in the Coulomb potential of a hydrogen atom and have thereby replicated the electron probability density predicted by the Schroedinger wave function. They added a parameter having a random distribution of energies with 1/2 hf as the mean. i.
The same result can be derived by considering the transformation properties of the electromagnetic field when experienced in an accelerating coordinate system. IS IT POSSIBLE TO TAP ZERO POINT ENERGY? As to whether zero-point energy may become a source of usable energy.. The Higgs field applies only to the electro-weak sector of the Standard Model. the gluon fields and other strong interaction energies would not be affected by a Higgs field. It should be noted that this unorthodox approach to mass based upon electrodynamics is not taken very seriously by the mainstream physics community.379. it is needed to confer the property of mass on the fundamental particles. The quantum of the Higgs field is the Higgs boson. 0. whose efforts remain focussed on superstring. The origin of inertial mass of ordinary matter is thus a wide open question. Patent 7. Nevertheless. Protons and neutrons are comprised of the two lightest quarks: the up and down quarks. have been unsuccessful. Click here for new popular-level overview by Marcus Chown.286). The remainder of the mass would have to be due to the gluon fields and strong interaction energies..938 and 0. SED interpretation of the Bohr orbit (above) does suggest a way whereby energy might be extracted.940 GeV/c2 respectively).005 and 0. allowing the derivation of the fundamental F=ma relationship of mechanics from electrodynamics. Primary Articles (See Scientific Articles for additional articles. that will still not explain the origin of inertial mass of ordinary matter. These as yet still speculative concepts suggest that zero-point energy may be involved in some of the most fundamental properties of matter. The Higgs field was first proposed in 1964 and is still a key element of the Standard Model of particle physics. The mass of ordinary matter is overwhelmingly due to the protons and neutrons in the nuclei of atoms. this is considered extremely unlikely by most physicists.) Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . The masses of their constituent quarks (approx. A recent study showed that such a zero-point field based mass-generating approach would explain the origin of Einstein's principle of equivalence. and in that case the proper four-vector relativistic equation of motion can be derived. Based upon this a patent has been issued and experiments have been underway at the University of Colorado (U.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 7 of 9 fluctuations have led to speculative investigations of a possible mass-generating role as an alternative to the Higgs field. however. The quark masses. This points to the electromagnetic quantum vacuum as the origin of forces which appear as inertial mass. and none of the claimed devices are taken seriously by the mainstream science community. Even if the Higgs field is experimentally discovered.010 GeV/c2 for the up and down quarks respectively) comprise only about one percent of the masses of the protons and neutrons (0.S. and therefore to verify the Higgs field as the mass-generating mechanism of the Standard Model. The current best hope is on the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider at CERN scheduled to go on line in May 2008. Attempts to detect the Higgs boson. SED studies published in the 1990s showed that a massless point-charge oscillator accelerating through the zero-point field will experience a Lorentz force (from the magnetic components of the zero-point fluctuations) that turns out to be directly proportional to acceleration.and M-theory. all particles are intrinsically massless until acted upon by the Higgs field. In the theory. 8/19/2011 .
(1998). Annalen der Physik. B. 5. Puthoff. Haisch & A. Rueda & B. Inertial mass and the quantum vacuum fields Bernard Haisch. Rueda & B. pp. Teofilo. pp. 1390 (2006). Konn Danley.5893 (2009). J. Physical Review E. arXiv:0910. No. Quantum and classical statistics of the electromagnetic zero-point-field M. Rueda.C. 8/19/2011 . Analysis of Orbital Decay Time for the Classical Hydrogen Atom Interacting with Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic Radiation Daniel C. On the relation between a zero-point-field-induced inertial effect and the Einsteinde Broglie formula B. 393-414 (2001). 2737-2744. Physical Review A. Vol. Haisch & A. (2004). 59 (2000). Alfonso Rueda & York Dobyns. Cole. 28.Haisch. Rueda and D. Inertial mass as reaction of the vacuum to acccelerated motion A. Stochastic nonrelativistic approach to gravity as originating from vacuum zeropoint field van der Waals forces Daniel C. 8. L. (1996).. No. vol. Rueda. 240. Alfonso Rueda. Rueda. Vol. W. pp. Ibison & B. A. (1997). Reply to Michel's "Comment on Zero-Point Fluctuations and the Cosmological Constant" B. Haisch. 69. B.Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 8 of 9 methods Garret Moddel. 7. 563. Physics Letters A. No. 268. Cole & Yi Zou. Rueda & B. 479-498 (2005). 7-16 (1995). Contribution to inertial mass by reaction of the vacuum to accelerated motion A. Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF 2006). Haisch. 054101. 016601. Haisch & D. Annalen der Physik. 14. 445. Foundations of Physics. (2000). Vol. 224. L. 1057-1108 (1998). 30. Foundations of Physics. 1. Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum Inertia Hypothesis Alfonso Rueda & Bernard Haisch. Physical Review A. pp. 63. No. 54. Physics Letters A. H. Haisch. The Case for Inertia as a Vacuum Effect: a Reply to Woodward & Mahood Y. (2001). Astrophysical Journal. No. 115-126. Dobyns. Review of Experimental Concepts for Studying the Quantum Vacuum Fields E. A. Vacuum Zero-Point Field Pressure Instability in Astrophysical Plasmas and the Formation of Cosmic Voids A. Haisch. 488. Vol. Vol. 10.. 3. V. p. Astrophysical Journal. Cole. C. E. Cole. Nickisch. Inertia as a zero-point-field Lorentz force mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . Davis.
8/19/2011 . Rueda & H. 678-694 (1994).E. Puthoff. Vol. 2. No. mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Calphysics Institute_ Introduction to . A..Calphysics Institute: Introduction to Zero-Point Energy Page 9 of 9 B. Physical Review A. pp. Haisch. 49..
Scientific American.A. 97). During the early years of quantum mechanics. which have rocked the U. Suite 100. Henry Moray for the idea. 8/19/2011 . How can the energy be converted to a usable form? What are the basic explanations of ZPE and the new discoveries. Washington. Dr. The Casimir force is also very powerful at small distances. 1948) not only predicted the presence of such a force but also explained why van der Waals forces dropped off unexpectedly at long range separation between atoms. it is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the distance between the plates! Therefore. and space travel? Depending on who we talk to. Rev. 73. Lamoreaux. free energy for homes. the virtual particles outside the plates increasingly overpower the decreasing quantity of virtual particles appearing between the plates with an exponentially increasing force.. 360. Besides being independent of temperature. Patent Office. 1. P. 126. 1930) thus giving rise to the concept of the "physical vacuum" which is not empty at all. R.S. and the New York Times? Why is ZPE implicated in the latest confirmation of cosmological antigravity? Can the Casimir effect be a source of energy? This article is intended to give a review of the latest developments (as well as an introduction to the topic for those who are non-specialists). there was always a scientific need for a verification of the Casimir force using conductive plates based on Casimir's 1948 paper. 360. M. predicting that force F=K/d4 where K=π hc/480. Physical Review Letters. 275. G. Soc. Vol. What is it? Many people are not sure what "zero point energy" (ZPE) is.. performed the experiment with less than one micrometer (micron) spacing between gold-plated parallel plates attached to a torsion pendulum (Phys. ZPE can do everything and ZPE can do nothing useful. Most agree that virtual particle fluctuation contributes to it and van der Waals forces don’t explain everything. a lot of media attention is being paid to the sea of energy that pervades all of space.E. (Credit due to The Sea of Energy by T. 78.) Not only is it big but its energy is estimated to exceed nuclear energy densities.. 1/10/97). For the first time. cars.. Though the Casimir effect subsequently was verified using non-conductive plates. Does it offer a source of unlimited. Hendrik B. It just happens to be the biggest sea of energy that is known to exist and we’re floating inside it. Casimir (Phys. 800-2957674 Introduction For the first time in history. 1220 L Street NW.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 1 of 10 Understanding Zero Point Energy © 1999 Thomas Valone. The Casimir Effect Zero point energy has been called "the ultimate quantum free lunch" (Science. Paul Dirac theorized that the vacuum was actually filled with particles in negative energy states (Proc. Quantum mechanics also predicted that invisible particles could become materialized for a short time and that these virtual particle appearances should exert a force that is measurable. DC 20005. Ltrs. The Casimir effect has been posited as a force produced solely by activity in the vacuum. London A. Science. as the plates are brought closer. Rev. now at the Los Alamos Labs. Integrity Research Institute. In retrospect. he found it to one of the most intellectually satisfying experiments that he ever performed since the results matched the theory so closely (within 5%). (Also notable is the fact that its frequency dependence is a third mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. so even a small piece of it is worth its weight in gold.
Furthermore. The electrons are slightly shifted upwards in their atomic orbits.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 2 of 10 power and the force can be altered with dielectrics or resonate with narrow-band mirrors—see Phys. note. since no violations have so far been found. The New Scientist (July 1987. far..) Physicist Margaret Hawton describes the Lamb shift as "a kind of one atom Casimir Effect" (Phys. The churning quantum foam extends throughout the universe even filling the empty space within the atoms. Their time of existence is strictly limited by the uncertainty principle but they create some havoc while they bounce around during their brief lifespan. Phys. Lett. 223. 1996. Lett. This suggests that we regard the spontaneous emission as being induced by the zero-point oscillations of the electromagnetic field. 8/19/2011 . that mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper.) Lamoreaux's results come as no surprise to anyone familiar with quantum electrodynamics (QED). This may lead everyone to believe that though it is random. "Why Atoms Don't Collapse") gives an impressive endorsement of the importance of ZPE: "There is a dynamic equilibrium in which the zero-point energy stabilises the electron in a set ground-state orbit. Another implication for free energy from ZPE comes from the fact that Casimir also mentioned a three-dimensional volume effect (Physica XIX. This has recently been used with the relativistic stress-energy tensor to analyze the quantum electromagnetic field inside any given volume. A 8/94) and predicts that the vacuum fluctuations of ZPE need only occur in the vicinity of atoms or atomic particles." Measured by Dr." Lamb Shift Another historically valid test in the verification of ZPE has been what's been called the "Lamb shift. which has been predicted to be "signed into law" someday soon. 1997. A diagram showing "The Shape of Nothing" (The New York Times 1/21/97) is pictured to be not only subatomic but subelementary particle in size. 188-194. Rev. far smaller than the diameter of atomic nucleus. (The implications of the Lamb shift were never fully explained when I took quantum mechanics except that the professor was forced mention God as he tried to explain the "all-pervading electromagnetic field" which caused the problem. A 225. even though there is a random quality to it. Textbooks on quantum theory already agree with this new interpretation: "The smallest possible energy of the field corresponds to the presence of one-half quantum per state. A. however. which seems to agree with Dr. Willis Lamb in the 1940's. Koltick's findings cited above. With a "relatively" simple calculation it has been shown that as the electron density increases due to gravitational compression. 163-166). it actually showed the effect of zero point fluctuations on atomic levels. it can no longer be called "spontaneous emission" but instead should properly be labeled "stimulated emission" much like laser light is stimulated emission. It seems that the very stability of matter itself appears to depend on an underlying sea of electromagnetic zero-point energy. 1956. The ZPE fluctuations are fundamentally based upon the uncertainty principle. the majority of physicists today attribute spontaneous emission and the Lamb shift entirely to ZPE (as noted in Hawton's paper). quantum fluctuations produce a foam of erupting and collapsing. visualized as a topographic distortion of the fabric of space time. but they serve as a material confirmation of an unusual theoretical prediction that QED predicts the all-pervading vacuum continuously spawns particles and waves that spontaneously pop in and out of existence. "The energy output produced by the Casimir effect during the creation of a neutron star turns out to be sufficient to explain nova and supernova explosions" (Sokolov. virtual particles. Physical theories predict that on an infinitesimally small scale. there is an energy creation. 846)..
. Right? Well. it was thought that a totally empty volume of space could be created by simply removing all matter and. in an article entitled. To paraphrase. It is interesting to note that the above-mentioned phenomena was first labeled the "Klein paradox" when the Klein-Gordon equation mysteriously predicted the "reflection" of an electron with more energy than the incident with a simultaneous "transmission" of the particle into a negative kinetic energy state. p. Phys. Another aspect of the vacuum is that the constant virtual particle flux of the vacuum ZPE can become less virtual (short-lived) near the boundaries of bigger particles. 1979. with atomic number Z=137 or higher. in his papers. 8/19/2011 . discusses mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. Boyer. 8/85. In retrospect. both theory and experiment have shown that there is a non-thermal radiation in the vacuum and that it persists even if the temperature could be lowered to absolute zero. Dec.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 3 of 10 these oscillations are twice as effective in producing emissive transitions as are real photons and are of course incapable of producing absorptive transitions. if superheavy atoms are created with Z=173. when physicists have cooled helium to within microdegrees of absolute zero and still it remains a liquid! Only ZPE can account for the source of energy is keeping helium from freezing. "Paradoxically. Z. This is because the intense electric field gradient causes a more prodigious decay of the vacuum when the binding energy equals or exceeds the rest mass of the electron. Amer. the binding energy then exceeds twice the rest mass of the electron and pair production ensues with matter and anti-matter appearing out of the vacuum. Therefore. Such a physics discovery certainly vindicates the name of Infinite Energy magazine. a tutorial and derivation of ZPE follows. a well-published and highly respected physicist.. 1929). he says that in the 17th century. The electron is driven into the nucleus and spontaneous positrons (anti-electrons) are produced constituting a true source of free energy. But it seemed that the radiation might be eliminated by cooling. Amer. in particular. 150). it became apparent that the region still contained thermal radiation. the vacuum near an over-critical charge is a vacuum that cannot be emptied" (Sci. only if the voltage barrier exceeded 2mc2 or twice the particle’s rest mass (Klein. That was our first concept of the vacuum. Late in the 19th century.. Boyer traces the historical "creation of the vacuum" as proceeding in stages in parallel with the historical development of ideas about the vacuum. 3rd edition The Classical Vacuum One of the best educational viewpoints on ZPE has been given by Dr. p. 70). Furthermore. as well as the energy and force. describes all of the features to be expected from ZPE including the frequency spectrum. this paradox helped physicists decipher a free energy source much as I hope the runaway solution of the Lorentz-Dirac equation will do someday. since then. all gases." – Schiff. Then we've got a real vacuum. Quantum Mechanics.) Dr. Timothy Boyer. Hal Puthoff. 157. Further proof is evident. (Note: this section can be skipped with no loss of continuity. it was simply called the "zero point" radiation. even in a moving reference frame. as Dr. Just go all the way to absolute zero. "The Classical Vacuum" (Sci. Just get rid of all the gas. Tutorial For those who may want more scientific detail. 53. Forward points out in his tutorial below. So the second concept of getting a real vacuum is to cool it down to zero temperature.
Cosmological ZPE mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. (the formal approach to translating into quantum mechanics). the answer is E = n(T) + hf/2. we're dealing with an amount of energy on the average that is available to only half the quanta. Forward mentions in his derivation. is "quantization of matter and energy". 1995. But what they do is describe the vibrational quanta in matter and also the radiational portion. In this case we're using it as the spring constant of the electron cloud. the photons. and the natural frequency of vibration is going to be quantized only if we're looking at the material part of it. B. We have both attractive and repulsive forces that are at play. 56). which is the standard force F equals the square root of k over the mass m. Basically. Therefore. quantum mechanics just simply deals with compartmentalizing energy and compartmentalizing matter. of course. that the real equation is E = hf. "the formality". even at zero temperature quantum mechanics predicts that each of the atoms will still have an average residual energy. and therefore energy or "radiation-type" of quantization. and also the next one will be as well.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 4 of 10 the fact that the existence of the electromagnetic zero point fluctuations is a clear prediction from quantum theory resulting from quantization. 8/19/2011 . then the number of phonons or photons that are being created also goes to zero. (as we can see if we let n go to zero) of hf/2. (Rigorously. "Mass Modification Experiment Definition Study" (#PLTR 963004). E = hf. However. we get the Einsteinian equation. and therefore "matter zero point fluctuation" as well as 2) energy quantization. so far. Ever since Casimir predicted it and various other scientists have verified it. we can actually use the equation applied to a spring. Another phrase called "partons" is used by Puthoff to indicate the smallest quanta of vibration oscillators: Planck oscillators that are available in a vacuum or in matter. Thus. Forward points out too. inside an atom. instead of half photons or half particles existing everywhere. we have to keep in mind. there is a little bit of give and take here. as we derive this in the quantum mechanical viewpoint as physicists say. 358. we're looking at only half of the possible photons or particles really being materialized at any one time. So that's the first lesson to keep in mind. is to help us understand the simple harmonic oscillator basis of ZPE: Quantum Lesson 101: we have two categories of phenomena that we're dealing with: 1) matter quantization. Now k normally designates the spring constant. as Dr. That's all we need to presume in order to derive the existence of zero point energy! What Dr. which is the electron cloud is acting as a spring in a crude terminology to react to the mass of the nucleus of the atom. Therefore. These are very simple equations. This relates energy to frequency in terms of Planck's constant (h). In regards to the material aspect. Robert Forward does in his very interesting Phillips Laboratory Report entitled. Lett. quantum field theory performs an infinite sum over eigenvalues of zero point field modes to obtain the vacuum energy—see "Absence of a zeropoint ambiguity". this simple equation is really all that is underlying the theory of the zero point field and zero point fluctuation. when equations of quantum mechanics are used to determine the average energy (with a bracket on both sides of the E) of the vibrations of the atoms. As Dr. Physicists have been grappling with this for years because there appears to be an infinite amount of energy available if f is allowed to increase without limit. Phys. when T goes to zero.. And. More tutorial information on ZPE is also available in the two-hour video for which I was the technical consultant: "Free Energy: The Race to Zero Point" produced by Lightworks Audio and Video also available from Integrity Research Institute. So really what we're talking about. What's funny about it is that the one-half is there.. So. So. in the vacuum. or inside matter (picture a crystal). which is a little bit deceiving.
282. could exert a gravitational force. one of the first journal articles to investigate the possibility is "The extracting of electrical energy from the vacuum by cohesion of charge foliated conductors" (Phys. Science News reports (2/8/97). 18. Phys. 4. 188) or the "Casimir forces between beads on strings and membranes" (Phys. like a bunch of flies buzzing around it. Opt. 8/19/2011 . for the first time. Theoretical insights may also be gained from Subquantum Kinetics by Dr. 1999. It seems mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. Dr. 1997. B. Koltick (Phys. As to the concept of free energy from ZPE. p. ZPE was mentioned in Science (Vol. 53): "The aggregate energy represented by these ‘virtual’ particles." Scientific American seems to agree ("Cosmological Antigravity". 517). Rev. 9. Ltrs. like other forms of energy. J. The fine structure constant equals the electron charge squared divided by Planck's constant and the speed of light. A. Paul LaViolette whose open system model of space permits localized ether concentration wave patterns (particles) to emerge in relation to the substrate field potential. Rev. 84). Lett. "Since the 1930's. It tends to compress upon dissipation and usage but expand physically with charge storage. 1974.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 5 of 10 Recently. January. Dec.5 instead of the smaller 1/137 that is traditionally observed for a fully screened electron. 2078 or Kupiszewska.. A.. The spring tends to be compressed from the Casimir force but the like charge from the electrons stored will cause a repulsion force to balance the spring separation distance. It is similar to the multilayer mirror in the article. in effect reducing the charge and electromagnetic force observed at a distance.virtual particles cloak the electron. 2/3 of all astronomers now acknowledge the data as valid. 2157) in an article called the "Breakthrough of the Year. theorists have proposed that. at this particular time in its evolution." Therefore. Physicists have also interpreted the force as "the evanescent particles that flicker in and out of existence in ‘empty’ space that gives space its springiness. 1998. Experimental ZPE Since ZPE is due to virtual particle flux and high electric field gradients cause the flux to increase. Thus the cosmological constant envisioned by Einstein is being reconsidered and an antigravity force being postulated. "The Casimir force for passive mirrors" (Phys. Furthermore. offering new insights. the ZPE virtual particle flux would be very high. 40. Lett." The cosmological constant represents energy inherent in space itself and coincidentally is almost exactly equal to the average density of ordinary matter in the universe (10-29 gm/cc).. 1/20/97) performed an experiment designed to penetrate the virtual particle cloud surrounding the electron with a particle accelerator at energies of 58 gigaelectronvolts without creating other particles. it is important to mention that a repulsive Casimir force may be experimentally obtained in the lab by utilizing a cavity built with a dielectric and a magnetic plate (see Boyer. it is reasonable to assume that near the surface of an electron. This systems science approach to cosmological and microphysical phenomena regards space as a vast nonequilibrium reaction-diffusion medium. Dr. 1993. To help explain the concepts raised above. shoving it apart. 225. Forward describes this "parking ramp" style corkscrew or spring as a ZPE battery that will tap electrical energy from the vacuum and allow charge to be stored. From his data. 347. the newly obtained value of the fine structure constant is 1/128. Rev. 56) where virtual particle exchange between the beads is analyzed. B 30. 1995. Mod. which could be either attractive or repulsive depending on physical principles that are not yet understood." Two teams of astronomers have confirmed that distant galaxies are accelerating apart. Thus the cosmological effects may be easier to explain than the popular journals are indicating at this time. p..
Another possible experiment for ZPE is the "Casimir Effect at Macroscopic Distances" (Phys. A. Puthoff's theory derives gravity. This article describes the process of squeezing energy states in quantized electromagnetic fields to distribute the uncertainty over position and momentum at will. The cutoff frequency (perhaps considering hf=mc2) is called the Planck frequency which is around 1043 Hertz. A. 4) diamagnetism. 215). has designed receivers to be spherical collectors of zero point radiation with hemisphere reflectors of beat frequencies. which is based on Sakharov's work. Dr. (To gain a mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. patent (#5.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 6 of 10 that any closely spaced matter in the submicron range will invoke the Casimir force. Phys. Lett. 6) microdegree liquid Helium." Proposing to convert zero point electromagnetic radiation to electrical energy. from Edwards AFB. and also electricity directly from ZPE considerations. Forward saying that there is an infinite amount of energy available. Mead grapples with the high frequencies that may extend up to around 1040 Hertz. ZPE was the subject of a U. 8/19/2011 . Puthoff's approach to this is that he supports the majority view of a cutoff. Tapping the Zero Point Energy) and Dr. In Dr. What we see from Dr. Further work is also suggested by the finding that "pressing zero point energy out of a spatial region can be used to temporarily increase the Casimir force" (Weigert. The last article could be useful for ZPE experimentalists since the Casimir force equations provided for the N "beads" allow for them to be stuck on a membrane or freely placed. He also points out that ZPE seems to have a definite potential as an energy source. heat.031).590. Dr. He states that "zero point electromagnetic radiation energy which may potentially be used to power interplanetary craft as well as provide for society’s other needs has remained unharnessed. such concepts as "virtual photon tunnel effect" and "virtual photon quantum noise" are being explored. with a variable D for the spatial dimension of interest. he suggests using microfabricated sandwiches of ultrafine metal dielectric layers. 5) spontaneous emission. 8) cosmological antigravity.93) which proposes observing the Casimir force at a distance of a few centimeters using confocal optical resonators within the sensitivity of laboratory instruments. 219). Frank Mead. a future job market may be opening for the quantum mechanic or the vacuum engineer with such precision in ZPE emerging. 7) quantum noise and most recently. Forward's paper. inertia. Rev. 1996. S. the experimental evidence for the existence of ZPE is: 1) the Casimir Effect. 3) Van der Waal's forces. To summarize. In a later section we will see that Dr. Forward subscribes to the classical notion that there is no known limit to the electromagnetic wavelength or frequency in the vacuum. 217. This opposes what we see as far as Moray King (in the book.1. Awaiting experimental verification is that inertia and gravity are also proof of ZPE The First ZPE Patent History was made on 12-31-96 when for the first time ever. Dr.. Since the ground-breaking work on the "one-atom micromaser" (Phys. A 48. In fact. 2) the Lamb shift. Lett.. 214. 1996.
2/89) explains how the bubbles 100 microns in diameter can implode violently creating temperatures of 5.. Patent #5. Mead has confided that he is interested in working with single particles like protons or neutrons that may be slightly different by parts per trillion for example. 3. 842. 8/5/96) that there is enough energy in the 1 mile per second shock wave to tear electrons off of the vapor atoms in the water (ionizing them) and heat them to lightemitting levels. 1996 & U. because the particles that react and create some of this energy are popping out of the vacuum and going back in. So there's a lot of potential for this invention. whether a conductor or dielectric. Amer. Mead a real step down frequency involving "frequency division" which would mean less accuracy is required in the machining of the hardware and a bigger difference in the frequency output.S. Frank Mead calls it "zero point electromagnetic radiation energy. This helps explain products such as Grigg's Hydrosonic Pump. 8/19/2011 . Mead realizes that the physical design of the conductor will determine resonant characteristics. whose water glows blue when in cavitation mode. I have recommended to Dr. However.090).188. is responding to the frequencies that it resonates with ZPE. For example. This raises the question of what type of antenna would be appropriate for such an atomic resonator. if 1 part in a million accuracy was achieved in making the microspheres. However. Dr. Visible light is about 1014 Hertz and gamma rays reach into the 20th power. Lett.500 degrees Celsius. Robert Forward's excellent paper. but the smaller you make it. But the important part about it. If using large spheres. is that "the quantum mechanical zero point oscillations are real.. The important part of his design is that the physical apparatus itself. down to submicron levels). And of course The New York Times simply calls it "quantum foam". then the subtraction of two 1020 Hz signals would yield a 1014 Hz beat frequency. which therefore must be a ZPE phenomena. The implications are that not only can it be made as a solid state device. gigahertz radar is only 1010 Hz or so.. the presence of argon dissolved in the water is a crucial ingredient for the visible/ultraviolet light to glow brightly. A difference frequency is produced with the rest of the circuitry amplifying that lower "step down frequency".Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 7 of 10 perspective. In fact. then as the frequency cubed (f3) dependence goes up very fast. from Dr. Lamoreaux wants to refer to it as "a flux of virtual particles". then it would resonate with very long. 76. is whether it matches the known spectra of ionized gases. Symp. Denver. if this is miniaturized (nano-lithography. low energy frequencies. he points out. and I think we're going to see other follow-up patents. that's another viewpoint. mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. Critical to the understanding of the nature of this light spectrum however. "The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound" (Sci. or about the temperature of the sun's surface! Physicist Seth Putterman from UCLA explains in "An Expanding Knowledge of a Tiny Bubble's Burst" (Washington Post. on New Energy." Dr.. As to understanding and concepts behind ZPE. So. that consistently has been measuring an over-unity performance of excess energy output (Inter. Apparently. Rev. the energy density is much higher. where the wavelength smaller than an atom) With slightly different sized receivers. Similar to the passive mirror article cited above. 10/96) describes her conclusion that only the ZPE spectrum matches the light emission spectrum of sonoluminescence. the system produces a beat frequency. Claudia Eberlein in her pioneering paper "Sonoluminescence and QED" (Phys." ZPE and Sonoluminescence Does sonoluminescence tap ZPE? This question is based upon the experimental results of ultrasound cavitation in water which emit light and extreme heat. the better it is.
The Yam article from Scientific American (12/97) continues the work of the late Noble prize winner Julian Schwinger and states. Morgan resurrected. When he talks about the concept of free energy." Scientists at UCLA have recently measured the length of time that sonoluminescence flashes persist. Thus.) In Puthoff’s theory.. He refers to the Gravitation text by Meisner. but it would cause the collapse of the world’s economies. Thorne and Wheeler.") The movie. There are basically six approaches to gravitation that are outlined in that book. a very fascinating new theoretical imagery is presented. Puthoff emphasizes is specifically the one that Sakharov developed. What I find memorable is Morgan Freeman who acts as the banker's representative. Dr.5. which is converted to light. "Zitterbewegung" or particle jittering may also be the result of that zero point fluctuations. Sonoluminescence and cavitation create the necessary shock waves to access zero point energy but some scientists claim that 100 times more heat is needed to create fusion. it starts to exclude the bigger modes of the vacuum energy. Barber and Putterman discovered that they only exist for 50 picoseconds or shorter. Atomic processes. he points out that Dr. For example. emit light for at least several tenths of a nanosecond which leads many to appreciate Eberlein's proposal that ZPE is the source of the radiation. often used in graduate courses on general relativity... which is too brief for the light to be produced by some atomic process (IEEE Spectrum 1/97). Low frequency. Puthoff. long range forces are now associated with van der Waal's forces. gravity is related directly to zero point fields. also discusses the possibility of the heat being sufficient for cold fusion as it reviews the movie "Chain Reaction" featuring Keanu Reeves. which is now causing shock waves even at NASA.1993). while the force of gravity is a long range effect. Andrei Sakharov's theories of gravity and inertia. Rev. (This movie is highly recommended because it is the first movie ever made to actually mention the words "free energy. The one that Dr. 8/19/2011 . In the paper. a veritable archetype of J. is that gravity has now been theoretically proven to relate directly to ZPE. Puthoff believes that it constitutes an already unified field. by the low frequency end of the zero point radiation mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. P.. ZPE). The fascinating part about this is that the mass is shown to correspond to the kinetic energy. What he has achieved. Sakharov regards gravitation as not a fundamental interaction at all. the zero point induced internal particle jittering. some cold fusion scientists who use "high pressure" cold fusion say that they have achieved that requirement. 3/89) points out that gravitational mass and its associated gravitational effects are shown to derive in a self-consistent way from electromagnetic zero point induced particle motion (in other words. "Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force" (Phys. "that's a noble concept. he says.000 degrees Kelvin. in his paper. Harold Puthoff’s ZPE Dr. (Van der Waal's forces are seen in colloids and various other liquids weakly interacting. However. In fact." This reminds us of how the utilities have a vested interest in energy consumption. but an induced effect that's brought about by changes in the vacuum when matter is present. A 39. Dr. "Gravity as a Zero Point Fluctuation Force". in comparison. "Basically the surface of the bubble is supposed to act as the Casimir force plates. which also was featured as a cover story of Infinite Energy magazine. Harold Puthoff is a physicist who has continued to develop Dr. the January 1997 issue of IEEE Spectrum cites UCLA physicist Robert Hiller's calculation that the black body equivalent of the sonoluminescence radiation corresponds to a temperature of 100. as the bubble shrinks. shows the demonstration of a cold fusion cell and the concept behind the frequencies and the power availability that makes it threatening. (Phys.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 8 of 10 The Post article. Rev.
S. (see Intro.) which also has been shown to be a 3rd derivative (3rd order) effect. "The ZPF could thus serve as the Machian cosmic reference frame…and the interesting point is that the bulk of the contribution to the effect. in this case the inertial mass. Forces in nature tends to create a constant acceleration. for example. when we have a charged particle moving in a perpendicular magnetic field and use the right hand rule to describe where the magnetic field is going to force that particle to go. Puthoff explains that the resistance to acceleration defines the inertia of matter and it appears to be an electromagnetic resistance. to ‘Free Energy: The Race to Zero Point’. The Lorentz Force now has been proven by Puthoff in his derivation in Physical Review A (49. military. 8/19/2011 . who promptly classified the report. When we consider ZPE as having a third order dependence on frequency. The Hutchison effect is used to explain an object (conducting or non-conducting) which repels gravity under the influence of high voltage AC-modulated DC fields. In this example. It is also worth noting that the "Free Energy: The Race to Zero Point" video shows the evaluation of the Hutchison effect by the U. or even for that matter. with the object continually and uniformly increasing its acceleration. Inst. 2.(due to F=ma) The third order effect predicted by the equation of motion in Puthoff's paper is directly related to zero point energy and also yields an insight into the Hutchison effect. This has been interpreted. the electric field.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 9 of 10 spectrum. but others since then to actually explain the principle of inertia. Perhaps there are ways to prevent that interaction. comes from the very-high-frequency components of the ZPF." He then demonstrates a causal and quantifiable basis for Mach’s principle and explains that the magnetic component of the Lorentz force arises in ZPE and matter interactions. since the distant stars can be regarded as a relatively stable reference frame in the universe from our perspective. 94). not only by Einstein. what is mass. It appears to be related to the known distortion of the zero point spectrum in an accelerated reference frame. accelerate really quickly and also take off on a space drive. He chose the distant stars as the reference frame. Ernst Mach was a philosopher more than a scientist and developed the concept that we could only understand inertia if we have some unmoving reference frame. The distortion of the ZPE field under acceleration is the cause of inertia that we feel from the bound electrons in our body reacting to the sudden change of direction. according to the Puthoff theory. according to Puthoff. magnetic field. to be directly responsible to what he calls the "electromagnetic resistance arising from the known spectral distortion of the zero point field in an accelerated frame.. and the force are all perpendicular to each other. Newton's Law as a ZPE Effect Another theoretical breakthrough by Puthoff is the derivation of Newton’s Law (F=ma) from ZPE electrodynamics.. report published by Integrity Res. Scientists have never seen that happen before except in the third order Lorentz-Dirac equation treating radiation reaction which may help explain the Hutchison effect. To summarize: the inertia effect is a distortion at high frequencies whereas. Maybe there are some ways that we can actually turn on a dime. it reminds me of the Hutchison effect." Physicists often hear that Einstein was very interested in Mach’s principle. Puthoff states. the gravity effect has been shown to be low frequency effect. This is what mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper. We therefore have an understanding as to why force and acceleration should be related. Inertia as a ZPE Effect The Lorentz force is used to describe Faraday's law.
. & Power. No. Dr.Zero Point Energy: Concept & Experiment Page 10 of 10 Arthur C. "Energy in the vacuum. The Final Odyssey. 13. in "Exploiting Zero-Point Energy" (Scientific American.. the vacuum energy must be able to create particles. That's the origin of all of us and of everything in the universe. Millis states. 3001. download from Los Alamos National Lab website. And given the equivalence of mass and energy. Study at Princeton (where Einstein worked) says. p. There his search for asymmetrical modifiers leads him to consider the "Remaining Research" of the ZPE field (which he calls the ZPF) "because of its high-energy density". Residual energy must therefore exist in empty space. 8/19/2011 . John Bahcall from the Inst. zero-point energy emerges from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. which limits the accuracy of measurements. 12/97) addresses the issue critically. Marc Millis of NASA's new Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Research Program has also addressed the above "emerging technology" in several articles in the past year." He then goes on to dryly summarize the Casimir effect and Puthoff's research with a demand for proof of principle." Further on he concludes. V. Lastly. Dr. Arthur C. Puthoff's theory with the idea that it is written in the 3001 era. Clarke pointed out years ago that the earth is the cradle of civilization but mankind cannot live in the cradle forever! ZPE Critical Acclaim Certainly such an impressive theoretical achievement as Puthoff's cannot go unnoticed.. He admits that. "We are all quantum fluctuations." Perhaps we can start a new trend by blaming everything on ZPE! For an interesting theoretical physics paper on zero point energy. He specifically cites Dr. alternative approaches to search for breakthrough propulsion physics.is very much real. including his "Challenge to Create the Space Drive" (J..577).. The ZPF is an electromagnetic phenomenon. They flash briefly into existence and expire within an interval dictated by the uncertainty principle. "Electromagnetism is also suggested as a target phenomenon for space drive research because of the ZPF.. Discovering any way to react asymmetrically with the ZPF would likely create a space drive. Clarke believes constitutes a space drive in his new book. 5... "Specifically. ".. Philip Yam.. looking back 1000 years as to what was most breakthrough news in making the space drive possible." Yam also explains.these theories provide new. 1997." mhtml:file://C:\Users\Makaliza\Desktop\free energy\Zero Point Energy_ Concept & Exper... Dr. Prop. for Adv.
hydrogen. we have about 20 years of oil remaining. Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is unlimited.. The ultimate energy source should be unlimited. [Aviation Week & Space Technology. similar to invisible radio waves." and We believe this time is now. The concept of Zero Point Energy is rooted in quantum theory. every industrial country quickly reverts to a third world style economy. everywhere and it's free. Even the oil companies admit that we have. or that the energy field is not strong enough to say power your home. There is no plausible alternative to hydrocarbon energy. and is difficult for even the technically minded to grasp.Zero Point Energy . throughout space. March 1. at most. natural. .. wind and nuclear. there is energy... amongst others.electric Power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need for coal.... our machinery will be driven by Power obtainable at any point in the Universe.. with the population explosion and economic growth of China and India. said in a 1891 speech before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. solar. non-polluting and inexpensive. and without it. But theories validated by meticulous experiments have confirmed that so-called "empty space" or what scientists call the "quantum vacuum" actually is teeming with activity.. 35 years under our current population. the genius who gave birth to alternating current which we all use to power our homes.Except now. The energy alternatives.. said "Ere many generations pass. 2004] ZPE is an energy source that surrounds everything on the planet. These energy waves are believed to eminate from the sun. Most scientists will acknowledge the existence of the ZPE field (that this energy source does exist).The Energy of the Vacuum and Space Our modern economy is based on oil. but many believe that the energy fields are either impossible to "tap" into. There has not been a major oil field discovered since the 1920s... which exist at extremely high frequency fields which have been difficult to create a "radio" to tune into these energy fields. and this energy source is ZPE. As Nikola Tesla. However. are either too expensive or environmentally destructive to our future. oil or gas. This source is Zero Point Energy.it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature..
Because it exists in a vacuum. The vacuum is now considered as filled with . To explain in further detail. This term Zero Point Energy has been based on the concept that even if matter were cooled down to absolute zero (minus 273oC). The existence of the zero point energy was discovered in 1958 by the Dutch physicist M. Mr. Sparnaay continued the experiments carried out by Hendrick B. and more specifically the conversion of an extremely high frequency bandwidth of the electromagnetic spectrum (beyond Gamma Rays) known as the zero point spectrum. quantum vacuum. in terms of its temperature. Sparnaay determined that not only did the zero point electromagnetic energy exist in a vacuum but also that it persisted even at a temperature of absolute zero. ZPE is the conversion of electromagnetic radiation energy to electrical energy. Physicists recognize that we are immersed in an energetic field. and Zero Point Energy (ZPE). J. dark energy. Mr. Mr. ZPE is homogeneous (uniform) and isotropic (identical in all directions) as well as ubiquitous (exists everywhere). this energy field still remains.Science Proves ZPE is Real Science employs a variety of names to describe this "new" energy field: space energy. G. vacuum energy. Sparnaay discovered that the forces acting on the plates arose from not only thermal energy (heat) but also from another type of radiation now known as classical electromagnetic zero point energy. Casimir in 1948 which showed the existence of a force between two uncharged plates which arose from electromagnetic energy surrounding the plates in a vacuum. Sparnaay.
Thermal (heating or cooling). In other words. and several USA national laboratories have or have had ZPE-related research underway. In essence. Some have been more successful than others. ZPower was founded to become a global leader in providing Zero Point Energy sources. ZPower envisions that through this ‘pipeline’ we can deploy numerous energy and propulsion innovations in a rapid manner. We are like fish. the U. the implication of this energy field (ZPE) is that if we can tap into the sea of energy that we are all floating in. possibly ushering a "Second Coming" of science. our current understanding of science is like a puzzle with a large missing piece. Integrity Research Institute] Two large U. It is clear that many different advanced energy technologies are being developed simultaneously. to power your home.S. the U. calculated that there is more than enough energy (from ZPE) in a coffee cup to evaporate all the worlds’ oceans.viable fuel-less and pollution-free energy alternatives. Military. Even data from the NASA Wilkinson Probe suggests that far more then 20 times the solar energy available. ZPower has focused on building the infrastructure necessary to successfully commercialize these technologies. ZPE is quite intense. In doing so. can be extracted from the Zero Point Energy field. Andre Sakharov. 2004] An Abundant Energy Source Ready for Commercialization There is a small group of inventors and researchers who have been investigating new forms of tapping into the Zero Point Energy field for some years.. March 1. We fail to easily recognize this immense energy source. that we could easily meet the world’s insatiable energy demand. thereby supporting a multiple technology umbrella. Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman and one of Einstein’s protégés.. [Aviation Week & Space Technology. to date not one has been commercialized. and many claims of efficiencies greater than 100% abound. argued that we should regard all matter as floating in a sea of energy. 2. and use our remaining oil supplies for essentials such as pharmaceuticals and plastics. aerospace companies. [Tom Valone. which include the production of energy in three main categories: 1. at the peak of a sunny day. unaware of the ocean (Paul Dirac). John Wheeler. seven days per week. Also.S. just as trying to weigh a bucket of water while in the ocean is difficult. and . However. ZPE would be the missing piece which completes the picture. It is also thought that discovering the secret of tapping ZPE could be the key to opening the door to a unified theory of the Universe. your vehicle and thousands of other energy dependent products. Defense Department. available around the clock.randomly fluctuating fields having the ZPE spectrum. ZPower has developed and attracted technologies for a range of revolutionary technologies.S. Various researchers around the world have been discovering scientific anomalies which are being attributed to the conversion of ZPE. the Soviet Physicist. your office. Electricity.
an effect is discovered which. the pressure is on to produce quick and dramatic results so that any investment money is accessible. which they may pursue for years. Further funding is needed to back the innovator's research.3. could radically change current technology. if reproducible in meaningful amounts. the support for which often comes from friends or family and is usually exhausted in a short period. will be quite extraordinary. Much of the innovator's time is spent searching for funding. allowing these creative scientists and inventors to share ideas and invent their dreams. thereby substantially distracting him from any meaningful research efforts. Not infrequently. Need for ZPower The benefit of developing a technology research organization. Mechanical power. Many inventors are wildly creative people who are often dedicated to a certain line of research. To fill these gaps. . ZPower was founded to assist inventors and globally commercialize ZPE generators. Instead.
8 SHEPHERD MARKET 3540 WEST SAHARA AVENUE #340 MAYFAIR.01) per KwH. NV 89102-5816. USA UK FACSIMILE: +44-870-138-3628 TEL: 1-800-ZPOWR07 (800-976-9707) FAX: 1-800-962-0448 ARIZONA USA REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE CALIF. Mayfair.com www. abundant and inexpensive energy. Project Overview Project Description: ZPower was founded 10-years ago to commercially develop and globally market a range of revolutionary energy technologies. Imagine a power system no larger than your home HVAC system. Las Vegas. our energy generators operate continuously. which provide clean. without fuel. NV 89102-5816.zpower. USA UK: Suite 343. LONDON W1J 7JY.ZPOWER. abundant and inexpensive Telephone: Facsimile: Email Address: Internet Address: Major Industry Category: Business Goals & Objectives: energy. AZ 85012-1505. and products will be ready soon after funding is provided. This process creates no pollution. and the cost of generated electricity is estimated to be less then 1 cent (>$0. Based on our scientific discoveries. U. Phoenix. LAS VEGAS.COM UK REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE NEVADA USA REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE SUITE 343.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Company Overview Company Name: Full Address: ZPower Corporation AZ: 5025 North Central #414. These technologies exist in the prototype stage. USA REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE 5025 NORTH CENTRALAVENUE #414 1804 GARNET AVENUE #500 PHOENIX. ARIZONA 85012-1505. yet costs just a few thousand dollars to install in your home. London W1J 7JY. CA 92109-3352.com Energy (more specifically Alternative Clean Energy) To supply the World with clean.K. UK 1-800-ZPOWR07 (800-976-9707) 1-800-962-0448 or (+001) 602-532-7517 or (+44) 870-138-3628 info@zpower. which provides all your home energy needs for 20 years without requiring any fuel or power bills. San Diego. USA NV: 3540 West Sahara #340. This will result in products ZPOWER TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED (UK) AND ZPOWER CORPORATION (USA) INTERNET: WWW. extracting electricity by converting abundant. CA 92109-3352.COM EMAIL: INFO@ZPOWER. USA SAN DIEGO. 8 Shepherd Market. an energy source that exists everywhere in the universe. USA CA: 1804 Garnet Avenue #500. clean Zero Point Energy (ZPE). USA TEL: 1-800-ZPOWR07 (800-976-9707) TEL: 1-800-ZPOWR07 (800-976-9707) FAX: (+001) 602-532-7517 FAX: 1-800-962-0448 . The company is developing this technology it calls Z-Power.
Arizona. ZPower Corporation was incorporated in Arizona on 4 April 1995 as a chapter C corporation. throughout the world. these scientists and inventors lack the financial and technical support to bring forward their technologies to the global marketplace. The following is a brief summary of this quest. cheap. which all “tap into” this ubiquitous ZPE field. vehicles and many other applications. abundant energy for buildings. inexpensive and abundant energy for all mankind. and Reed’s ability is in networking with dozens of inventors and new energy contacts throughout the world. The mission of ZPower is to provide the financial and technical support. a 501(c)3 NonProfit Corporation will be formed for the objectives outlined herein. There are literally thousands of bright and innovative individuals. each of whom has had business dealings in Asia over the last 15 years. LLC was “reincorporated” in January 1. However. and also ZPower Technologies Limited in England on 14 January 1999. During the development of this technology. were able to develop relationships with a diversity of very senior government and industrial contacts throughout the region. to proliferate these revolutionary clean energy products worldwide. and Reed met and structured a partnership. Mike and Michael. Mike Fisher and Michael Robison formed the Space Power Corporation in Australia to develop an electrical generator which appeared to have high efficiency output characteristics. These key leaders comprise an initial leadership team. working diligently to develop these energy generation technologies. Mike. Michael. Mike’s talents include his engineering background which enables him to understand and evaluate new technologies. With the right financial partner. At the same time in the United States. While searching for other technologies to develop. Summary History: Each of the associates of ZPower has been led on a synchronistic path to the vision of clean. Management & Employment Some key ZPower people include: Page 2 of 5 . as Michael’s strength is in global licensing and corporate structures. In 1993. 2005 in Nevada. ZPower. Reed Huish was funding the development of a magnetic generator in Phoenix.which can provide clean.
will create a historic leap in economic development. Mike has been working on the global transition to ecologically sustainable energy solutions. It is our intention to become a major source of energy generation technology in the twenty-first century. political. The World Energy Congress in Madrid and the World Renewable Energy Congress in the UK. As Technical Director of Global Energy Network International (GENI). Wingate Lambertson. Patrick Bailey. Mark Marchi and Bob St.Al received his education at the Illinois Institute of Technology.Daniel received his undergraduate education in Investment and Financial Analysis from George Washington University and a Master’s of International Mgt. and accounting firms. vice-president of marketing for Greyhound Corporation. Mike has a global perspective of energy issues and markets. Marchi – Financial Assistant . Bronk – VP Finance . Market Analysis The marketing potential is self-evident. a successful multi-million dollar company that provides unique and effective energy management and on-site power generation solutions for commercial and industrial customers in the U. scientific and even philosophical issues. Other Key Employees: Walter Rosenthal. The global implications are vast. encompassing economic. Mike R. Fisher – VP Technology . His extensive research and study of the energy industry led him to start The Energy Group. social.Reed has been involved in the energy field for several years. he represented GENI at the Earth Summit in Rio De Janeiro. Amand. Mike graduated from Cambridge University in 1977 with an Honors Degree in Engineering and won a nation-wide prize in designing and building an ultra economy motor vehicle. Daniel has extensive experience with several banks. from Thunderbird Graduate School. social and political issues relating to energy infrastructure and use. Bruce Perreault. He is a seasoned business executive whose early career has included positions as a corporate marketing executive with IBM. and vice-president and founder of Government Services Division for Greyhound.Since 1991. Daniel received his undergraduate education in Investment and Financial Analysis from George Washington University and his Master’s degree from Thunderbird Graduate School.S. economic. including undergraduate work in electronic and mechanical engineering. Justin Bronk. as well as a sound understanding of the technical. Huish – President . The advent of a technology.Reed N. Reed has developed numerous contacts among new energy leaders and scientists. investment companies. Melvin Ernster. Page 3 of 5 . Daniel J. He has extensive career achievements in financial and strategic planning. and Canada. Elmer (Al) G. which economically produces energy with no fuel or pollution. Al received his education at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Alexander Peterson. humanitarian. Brian Grindrod. the Cigre Conference in Paris.V. including undergraduate work in electronic and mechanical engineering.
These Territory Companies will be principally responsible for the licensing and implementation of our energy technologies within their territories.5 years. The Territories may not directly manufacture and market any products.08 per kWh or a monthly bill of $100. This structure will allow for the most rapid implementation of multiple revolutionary energy technologies through the Territory Companies into nations and joint ventures with industries throughout the world. 3 million home generators) ZMachine Automobile Power Generator Large Microwave Oven 75.250 kWh. has proved to be a very “high leverage” route involving thousands of entrepreneurs around the world in the profitable deployment of new technology. The enormous web of Page 4 of 5 .The value and application of our technology can be illustrated through the example of a 20 kW power system which allows the typical homeowner to disconnect from the utility grid.000 for retail sale. the payback for our power system will be about 2. but instead license.. The following lists three (3) initial products planned. the resulting cost per kWh would be app. and engineering programs. together with the oversight of manufacturing. which from the experience of many successful companies. with average residential power costs of $0. $0.A. for rural/poor areas within the U.001. thereby creating a high-growth phenomena similar to the personal computer or Internet industries. marketing. which compares favorably to traditional energy sources. Based on a typical monthly home usage of 1. The Z-Power System design is modular.e. outsource. solid-state. ZPower is developing advanced energy technologies which would be the ideal building power source.S. no fuel. Assuming this $3.000 Watts Mfg. so additional units can be connected in parallel to power needs from 15 kW to several megawatts if desired. Cost $150 $750 Marketing Strategy Our marketing structure is based on a program of global licensing. Preliminary cost estimates of a 20 kW power unit are $750 for manufacturing and $3. They appear suitable for the relatively small power needs of consumer devices up through the massive needs of power generation plants. Application ZIPPE Portable Power Cube ZPower Home Power Generator (this product to be manufactured and distribu at no charge. Approximately twelve (12) Territory Companies will be established throughout the world. unique financing strategies could be offered for customers who are unable to internally finance or pay cash for their system. and inexpensive to manufacture.000 cost to the homeowner with a 20 year estimated life. Also. or authorize other companies and groups within their territory to perform these responsibilities.250 Size Shoebox Large PC Tower Output 500 Watts 20. i.000 Watts $1. app. Z-Power Generators will be scaled to a wide range of applications.
The Energy Industry not allow our Fuel-Less Energy Technology: Several industries (such as petroleum) would have significant impact on their bottom line income.e. 3. Huish.licensing and sub-licensing agreements will allow for a flow of substantial revenues commensurate with the significance of our technologies.com Page 5 of 5 . President ZPower Corporation 5025 North Central Avenue #414 Phoenix. Singapore. USA Facsimile: (+001) 602-532-7517 Email: reed.. 2. Business Risks The following list includes the potential risks and our strategy to minimize those risks: Inventor Global Energy Stewardship Council Advanced Energy Institute ZPower 12 Territory Companies (only 4 shown) Territory 1. which is ZPower’s intention. The US Patent Law allows for inventors to file for foreign patents first. we will license the technology for proliferation in countries whereby the governments on dependent on outside oil and open to nonpolluting energy sources. which will be minimized by entering countries and industries where the potential industrial obstacles would be minimized. Difficulty in obtaining Intellectual Property protection in the US: Several inventors in the field of Partnerships/ National Product “alternative” energy have Licenses Development Joint-Ventures described difficulty in obtaining patent coverage on their inventions. and by garnering the public support for our energy technology. such as countries in Asia.huish@zpower. South America Territory North America Territory Southeast Asia Territory European Author / Contact for Further Information For additional information. if there is a foreign co-inventor. Malaysia. please contact: Reed N. The government will not allow our Fuel-Less Energy Technology: Due to the tremendous tax revenue from existing energy sources. i. Arizona 85012. etc.
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