SULPHURIC ACID

by : Aliyah Ilmi Bte Nordin 4 Alpha

WHAT IS IT?
Sulphuric acid is a very important chemical compound and more sulphuric acid is produced each year than any other chemical. In fact, the quantity of sulphuric acid produced or used by a country is an indicator of economic development of the country. Almost every manufacturing process makes use of sulphuric acid, either directly or indirectly at some stage. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid. It is corrosive and causes severe burns if it comes into contact woth the skin.

FOR WHAT?

INDUSTRY !
 Manufacture fertilisers such as CALCIUM HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE Ca(H2PO4)2 and        
AMMONIUM SULPHATE (NH4)2SO4 Manufacture soaps and detergents manufacture synthetic fibres such as RAYON (artifical silk) manufacture pesticides and plastics manufacture drugs and medicines manufacture explosive to clean metals called pickling (remove the metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating) as an electrolyte in lead acid accumulators remove waxes , gums and dark-coloured compounds during petroleum refining.

LABORATORY !
✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ As a strong acid as an oxidising agent drying or dehydrating agent as a catalyst

THE CONTACT PROCESS :) Raw materials are sulphuric. 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) . water. ZnS 2 ZnS(s) + 3 O2 (g)  2 ZnO(s) + 2 SO2(g) 2 PbS(s) + 3 O2 (g)  2 PbO(s) + 2 SO2 (g) STAGE II THE CONVERSION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE INTO SULPHUR TRIOXIDE  The sulphur dioxide and oxygen (from the air) is passed into a catalytic converter where the sulphur dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide. STAGE I THE FORMATION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS  Burning sulphur in air S(s) + O2(g)  SO2 (g)  Burning metal sulphides for example lead (II) sulphide. or zinc sulphide. This is a revisible reaction. air. PbS .

Catalyst : Vanadium (V) oxide V2O5 . Oleum is also known as fuming sulphuric acid. About 98% of the sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphur trioxide under the following conditions : . H2S2O7 a viscous liquid.Pressure : 1 atmosphere STAGE III THE FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID  The sulphur trioxide produces is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form oleum.Temperature : 450 ̊C .  Oleum is then diluted with an equal amount of water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.500 ̊C . 98 % H2SO4 H2S2o7 (1) + H2O (1)  2 H2SO4 (aq) SULPHURIC DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION ! It released to atmosphere when :      Volcanic eruptions occur sulphur is burned in the Contact Process fossil fuels are burned metal sulphides are roasted in air manufactured goods are burned in air Why it's known as harmful gas? ∆ Poisonous ! It affects the respiratory system and can cause lung diseases and bronchitis :O ♂ Acidic ! It dissolves readily in rainwater to form sulphurous acid H2SO3 So2 (g) + H2O (1)  H2SO3 (aq) .

2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 SO3 (g) The sulphur trioxide gas formed can dissolve in rainwater to form sulphuric acid H2so4 SO3(g) + H2 O  H2SO4(1) ≈The presence of sulphurous acid and sulphuric acid in rainwater results in acid rain. The reaction occurs on the surface of dust particles.Sulphur dioxide can be oxidised to sulphur trioxide. .

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