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Design of a protection system
The example installation
In this document, we design the protection system for a low-voltage installation. This consists in precisely determining the necessary protective devices while ensuring maximum discrimination at all points in the installation.
The low-voltage installation used for this example is supplied by two incoming feeders. The design objectives include coordination of the protective devices in the LV section with those located upstream of each MV/LV transformer. As indicated in the diagram below, the installation is made up of two 20 kV medium-voltage feeders protected by fuses, each supplying a MV/LV transformer (20 kV / 415 V, 1600 kVA), followed downstream by a low-voltage incoming circuit breaker (circuit breakers (A) and (B) respectively). A coupling circuit breaker (C) is used to interconnect or isolate the two parts of the installation, in view of optimising power availability if one of the incoming feeders fails.

20 kV 80 A 80 A

20 kV/415 V 1600 kVA In 2253 A Isc 36 kA

20 kV/415 V 1600 kVA In 2253 A Isc 36 kA

Main LV switchboard

A
NW25H1

B
NW25H1

C
Isc 72 kA Isc 36 kA Isc 72 kA

D
NT08L1 700 A

NW25H1

E
NW10H2 750 A

cable

cable

Isc 50 kA

Isc 50 kA

F
NS250H 185 A

G
NS250H 185 A

Installation diagram

DBTP107S0L1/En

Electrical distribution Solutions Industry-Building

Design of a protection system

Sizing of the protective devices


Discrimination is determined by selecting and setting the most downstream circuit breakers such that the forces exerted on the installation are limited in the event of a fault, then moving upstream to ensure the best possible discrimination between each pair of upstream and downstream circuit breakers.
Ratings of circuit breakers (A) and (B) on the LV feeders
The rated current on these LV incomers must be calculated: 1600 kVA at 410 V corresponds to a rated current of 1 600 000 / (410 x 3) = 2253 A. Circuit breakers with a 2500 A rating are suitable.

Ratings of fuses on the MV feeders


The rated current on the MV feeders must be calculated: In = 1 600 000 / (20 000 x 3) = 46 A. Fuses with an 80 A rating should be selected, in accordance with the manufacturer selection tables. The inrush current and the overload current have to be taken into consideration.

Breaking capacity of the various devices


c Short-circuit currents at various points in the installation: Each transformer has a short-circuit current Isc equal to 36 kA (due to the short-circuit power and voltage of the transformer). When the coupling circuit breaker is closed, the short-circuit power downstream of circuit breakers (A) and (B) is 2 x 36 = 72 kArms (if the busbar impedances are neglected). Taking into account the cable impedances, the short-circuit current flowing through circuit breakers (F) and (G) is only approximately 50 kA. c Breaking capacity of the devices: On the basis of the short-circuit currents at the various points in the installation, it is possible to determine the required breaking capacity for each device. Circuit breakers (D) and (E) must have a breaking capacity greater than 72 kA. Circuit breakers (A), (B) and (C) must have a breaking capacity greater than 36 kA. Circuit breakers (F) and (G) must have a breaking capacity of at least 50 kA.

DBTP107S0L1/En-page 2

Electrical distribution Solutions Industry-Building

Device selection to ensure discrimination


Principle
Discrimination is ensured by comparing the characteristics of each circuit breaker with the protective device (fuse or circuit breaker) located just upstream. The power circuit breakers located in the most downstream positions of the installation must be selected and set to trip as fast as possible in order to limit the forces exerted on the installation in the event of an overcurrent. Once the characteristics of these circuit breakers have been established, the system designer moves one step upstream to ensure discrimination between each circuit breaker pair (each downstream breaker and its upstream neighbour).
20 kV 80 A 80 A

Discrimination between circuit breakers (G) and (E)


c circuit breaker (G): In = 330 A, Isc = 50 kA A 400 A circuit breaker may be used, for example a Compact NS 400 H (breaking capacity = 70 kA at 415 V). c circuit breaker (E): In = 750 A, Isc = 72 kA The same circuit breaker as (D) may be used, however given that the current-limiting capacity of the Compact NS 400 H is less than that of the Compact NS 250 H, total discrimination would not be ensured between the two. A selective circuit breaker may be used, in which case the current-limiting capacity of (G) may be called on to provide pseudo-time discrimination, if necessary. For example, a Masterpact NW 10 H2 (In = 1000 A, breaking capacity = 100 kA at 415 V, Icw = 85 kArms/1 s). Discrimination system: Icw (85 kA) is less than the breaking capacity (100 kA). This device is therefore equipped with an instantaneous self-protection trip (DIN) with a threshold of 170 kA peak. With an Isc of 72 kArms, the maximum peak current at (E) is 72 x 2.3 = 165 kA peak. The DIN threshold will therefore never be reached, i.e. DIN tripping will never occur and discrimination is maintained. What is more, in the event of a short-circuit at (G), the maximum peak current corresponding to an Isc of 50 kA will be limited to 30 kA peak for (G). Discrimination is therefore total, on the condition, however, that circuit breaker (E) be equipped with a trip unit with an instantaneous setting higher than 30 kA peak, i.e. 30 / 2.04 = 14.7 kArms = 14.7 In, and that the time delay for the short-time protection function be set to 0.1 (time delay = approximately 100 ms). Alternative It is also possible to use a current-limiting device for (E), with a higher electrodynamic withstand than (D). For example, a Masterpact NW 10 L1 (In = 1000 A, breaking capacity = 150 kA at 415 V, Icw = 30 kA/1 s). Advantages of this alternative Due to its current-limiting capacity (125 kA peak at 72 kArms compared to 165 kA peak without current limiting), this type of circuit breaker significantly reduces the electrodynamic forces exerted on the cables between (E) and (G). This circuit breaker is equipped with an instantaneous self-protection control unit set to 80 kA peak, which will never be called upon in the event of a fault downstream of (G) because the Isc is limited to 30 kA peak. The result is again total discrimination, of the pseudo-time discrimination type, i.e. ensured by the current-limiting capacity of the downstream device. Note: in the event of a short-circuit, a non currentlimiting device at (G) would let through a peak current of 50 kA x 2.3 = 115 kA peak, which would trip circuit breaker (E).

20 kV/415 V 1600 kVA In 2253 A Isc 36 kA

20 kV/415 V 1600 kVA In 2253 A Isc 36 kA

Main LV switchboard
Isc 72 kA

A
NW25H1

B
NW25H1 Isc 36 kA Isc 72 kA

C D
NT08L1 700 A NW25H1

E
NW10H2 750 A

cable Isc 50 kA

cable Isc 50 kA

F
NS250H 185 A

G
NS400H 330 A

Discrimination between circuit breakers (F) and (D)


c circuit breaker (F): In = 185 A, Isc = 50 kA A 250 A circuit breaker may be used, for example a Compact NS 250 H (breaking capacity = 70 kA at 415 V). c circuit breaker (D): In = 700 A, Isc = 72 kA A 800 A circuit breaker may be used, for example a Compact NS 800 L or a Masterpact NT 08 L1 (breaking capacity = 150 kA at 415 V). Discrimination system: Device (F) is a current-limiting device (maximum let-through current = 22 kA peak for an Isc of 50 kA), which makes it suitable for pseudo-time discrimination in conjunction with circuit breaker (D). However, circuit breaker (D) is also a currentlimiting device with a low electrodynamic withstand capacity to ensure strong current limiting. Consequently, the SELLIM principle is implemented here to obtain total discrimination between (F) and (D). The SELLIM principle stipulates that the upstream circuit breaker (D) does not trip on the first current wave.
DBTP107S0L1/En-page 3 Electrical distribution Solutions Industry-Building

Discrimination between circuit breakers (E) and (C)


Discrimination is not indispensable between these two circuit breakers if the two incoming feeders are operational (in this case, opening of the coupling circuit breaker does not interrupt the supply of power via (A) and (B)). However, discrimination is indispensable if circuit breaker (B) is open, to avoid interrupting the supply of power to the entire righthand side of the installation. c Rated current In at (C): To ensure a maximum degree of flexibility, the coupling device has the same rating as the circuit breakers on the incoming feeders, i.e. In = 2500 A. Given that the Isc is 36 kA, a selective circuit breaker may be used, thus making possible time discrimination with (E) and of course with (D) because it is a current-limiting device. For example, a Masterpact NW 25 H1 (In = 2500 A, breaking capacity = 65 kA at 415 V, Icw = 65 kA/1 s). Discrimination sytem: As Icw is equal to the breaking capacity, the circuit breaker is not equipped with an instantaneous self-protection trip and time discrimination is maintained without any limitations up to the breaking capacity. Circuit breaker (C) is therefore equipped with a selective control unit, with the instantaneous setting turned to the OFF position and the short-time delay set to 0.2 (because the short-time delay on circuit breaker (E) is set to 0.1).

The tripping curve for circuit breakers (A) and (B) must be adjusted such that for a given current, the circuit-breaker tripping delay is less than the blowing time of the MV fuses (the circuit-breaker curve must remain to the left of the fuse curve in the figure below). Discrimination is evaluated for two types of control units, standard selective control units and IDMTLcurve control units.
10 000 HVF curve tr = 2 s 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.100 short time pickup = 4 Ir short time delay setting = 0.3 s I2t curve tr = 12 s 80 A MV fuse converted to BT Isc max = 36 kA

1000

10 000

100 000

Settings for standard selective control units c Long-time threshold The non-tripping current of the fuse is far greater than the tripping current of the circuit breaker. The long-time threshold can therefore be set to its maximum value (i.e. Ir = In). c Long-time delay and short-time pick-up The curve of the MV fuses is steeper that that of the long-time function (I2t curve). The time delay (tr) or the short-time pick-up (Isd) must be set to sufficiently low values. In this case, a good compromise would be Ir = 12 second (at 6 Ir) and Isd = 4Ir. (A detailed study taking into account the downstream loads should be carried out). c Short-time delay Given that the short-time delay is set to 0.3 (see above), the fuse and circuit-breaker curves intersect at approximately 11 In. The guaranteed level of discrimination must therefore be limited to approximately 10 In, i.e. 25 kArms for a maximum short-circuit current Isc of 36 kArms. Settings for IDMTL-curve control units With this type of control unit, it is possible to adjust the slope of the long-time curve. In this case, the HVF (High Voltage Fuse) curve could be selected because it is the most similar to the fuse curve (I4t curve). With the same 1-second time delay at 6 In, the sensitivity to high transient currents (switching or start-up currents) is reduced and discrimination with the fuse is improved. In this case, there is no longer any need to set the short-time delay to lower values.

Discrimination between circuit breakers (D) and (C)


The solution selected to ensure discrimination between (E) and (C) may also be used between (D) and (C) because (C) is totally selective up to its breaking capacity.

Discrimination between circuit breakers (C) and (B) and between (C) and (A)
(A) and (B) are selective circuit breakers, without an instantaneous self-protection control unit. Again, time discrimination is maintained up to the breaking capacity. Therefore, (A) and (B) are equipped with selective control units, with the instantaneous settings turned to the OFF position and the short-time delays set to 0.3 (because the short-time delay on circuit breaker (C) is set to 0.2).

Discrimination between circuit breakers (A) and (B) and the MV fuses
To ensure discrimination, the tripping curves of the LV circuit breakers and the MV fuses must be compared. For this, the curve of the MV fuses must be converted to low-voltage values by multiplying the current scale by the transformer ratio, i.e. in this case, 20 000 / 410 = 48.8.

DBTP107S0L1/En-page 4

Electrical distribution Solutions Industry-Building

Design of a protection system c In the event of a fault between (E) and (C): v if (C) is closed, it trips instantaneously and sends a signal to (A) and (B), which are delayed 200 milliseconds. In this way, the fault is no longer supplied by the two feeders in parallel. (A) remains closed and the left side of the installation remains in service. After 200 ms, (B) will trip to interrupt the supply of current by the transformer on the right. v if (C) is open, it will not send a signal to (B) and (B) will trip instantaneously. c In the event of a fault between (C) and (B), circuit breaker (B) trips instantaneously. It is clear that zone selective interlocking significantly limits the forces exerted on the installation and all the more so the higher the fault occurs in the system. Without this function, a fault occurring just downstream of (A) or (B) would produce tripping in over 300 ms, compared to just a few tens of milliseconds with the function.

Alternative with zone selective interlocking


This alternative requires that circuit breakers (A), (B), (C), (D) et (E) be equipped with control units offering the zone selective interlocking function (e.g. Micrologic 5.0 A). Description: Each control unit is equipped with two input terminals, connected to the downstream devices, and two output terminals, connected to the upstream devices. When a control unit detects a fault greater than its short-time threshold, it shorts its two output terminals. If an upstream control unit detects the shorted input terminals, it activates the short-time delay. Otherwise, its trips immediately. Implementation c The inputs on the first circuit breakers (D) and (E) are short-circuited on a permanent basis to ensure that their short-time delay is always activated. This guarantees discrimination with the downstream circuit breakers (Compact NS). c Next the various devices are wired as shown in the diagram opposite. The direct wiring between (E) and (B) and between (D) and (A) ensure discrimination between these devices when the coupling (C) is open. Diodes are used to maintain the independence of the two halves of the installation in this case by preventing (D) from acting on (B) and (E) from acting on (A).
out out

Alternative with two feeders with higher ratings


Consider the same installation as presented above, but in which the rating of the transformers is increased to 2500 kVA and the current of the circuit downstream of (E) is increased to 2200 A. Rating of the fuses on the MV feeders. The MV current is 72 A. Fuses rated 125 A are recommended, in compliance with the manufacturer selection tables. Breaking capacity of the various circuit breakers: c Circuit breaker (E) Given that the Isc is greater than 100 kA, a Masterpact NW 25 H2 (breaking capacity = 100 kA) cannot be used. A current-limiting circuit breaker cannot be used either, because the rated current does not exceed 2000 A (NW 20 L1). c Circuit breakers (A), (B) and (C) For the In = 3520 A rating, Masterpact NW 40 H1 circuit breakers (In = 4000 A, breaking capacity = 65 kA, Icw = 65 kA/1 s) are suitable. Device selection to ensure discrimination No fundamental modifications are required. The time delay on circuit breaker (E) must be set to 0.1s. The time delay on circuit breaker (C) must be set to 0.2s. On circuit breakers (A) and (B), the time delay must be set to 0.3s.

A
ST delay 2 IN

B
ST delay 2 IN

out

C
ST delay 2 IN

out

out

D
ST delay 1 IN

E
ST delay 1 IN

Operation c In the event of a fault downstream of circuit breaker (G): v if (C) is closed,(G) trips instantaneously and (E) is delayed 100 milliseconds, i.e. it does not trip. (E) sends a signal to (C) and (B), which are delayed 200 milliseconds and do not trip. In turn, (C) sends a signal to (A) and (B), which are delayed 200 milliseconds and do not trip. As a result, only circuit breaker (G) trips, v if (C) is open, it will not send a signal to (A), however (A) will not be subject to the short-circuit. c In the event of a fault between (G) and (E): v if (C) is closed, circuit breaker (E) is delayed 100 milliseconds and it sends a signal to (C) and (B), which are delayed 200 milliseconds and do not trip. In turn, (C) sends a signal to (A) and (B), which are delayed 200 milliseconds and do not trip, v if (C) is open, it will not send a signal to (A), however (A) will not be subject to the short-circuit.
DBTP107S0L1/En-page 5 Electrical distribution Solutions Industry-Building

Schneider Electric Industries SA


Merlin Gerin F - 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 Tl. : 33 (0)4 76 57 60 60 Fax : 33 (0)4 76 57 73 62
http://www.schneiderelectric.com

As standards, specifications and designs change from time to time, please ask for confirmation of the information given iin this publication

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Publication: Schneider Electric SA Design: AMEG Printed:

DBTP107S0L1/En

02/2000