Aestheti s for the Working Mathemati ian

Jonathan M. Borwein, FRSC

Canada Resear h Chair, Shrum Professor of S ien e & Dire tor CECM
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada
Prepared for Queens University Symposium on

Beauty and the Mathemati al Beast: Mathemati s and Aestheti s
April 18, 2001

William Blake
\And I made a rural pen,
And I stained the water lear,
And I wrote my happy songs,
Every hild may joy to hear."
From Songs of Inno en e and Experien e

AMS Classi

ations: 00A30, 00A35, 97C50
Key Words: aestheti s, experimental mathemati s, onstru tivism, integer

relations, pi

Resear h supported by NSERC, MITACS-NCE and the Canada Resear h Chair


and in lined lazily to attribute to in apa ity in myself or to a literary temperament that dullness whi h perhaps was due simply to la k of initiation. In this attempt. Mathemati s is logi al to be sure. I might have be ome a good mathemati ian. the real pie e of art. and wholly in the air. Yet the whole of it. to his listeners. as I hope to indi ate. aestheti notions have always permeated (pure and applied) mathemati s. And the top resear hers have always been driven by an aestheti imperative: \We all believe that mathemati s is an art. Nonetheless." (George Santayana1) Most resear h mathemati ians neither think deeply about nor are terribly on erned about either pedagogy or the philosophy of mathemati s.1 Introdu tion \If my tea hers had begun by telling me that mathemati s was pure play with presuppositions. the le turer in a lassroom tries to onvey the stru tural beauty of mathemati s to his readers. is not linear. The author of a book. But they were overworked drudges. and I was largely inattentive. We have all experien ed on some rare o asions the feeling of elation in realizing that we have enabled our listeners to see at a moment's glan e the whole ar hite ture and all its rami. he must always fail. worse than that. ea h on lusion is drawn from previously derived statements. its per eption should be instantaneous.

1 Aestheti s(s) a ording to Webster Let us . geometry. 4 This is in part due to the in reasing power and sophisti ation of visualization. 1898-19622): I shall similarly argue for aestheti s before utility. I also will argue that the opportunities to tie resear h and tea hing to aestheti s are almost boundless | at all levels of the urri ulum. algebra and other mathemati al software. I aim to illustrate how and what that means at the resear h mine fa e." (Emil Artin. Through a suite of examples3 . 1. ations.

sfu. a/personal/jborwein/math amp00." for the learning of mathemati s. ompiled by Robin Wilson and Jeremy Gray. 2 .sfu. e m. 2000." 1945. Sele tions from The Mathemati al Intelligen er . New York. 25-32. expanding the presentation that this paper is based on are available at www. www. 4 An ex ellent middle s hool illustration is des ribed in Nathalie Sin lair's \The aestheti s is relevant.nish this introdu tion by re ording what one di tionary says: aestheti . pertaining to a sense of the beautiful or to the s ien e of aestheti s. 2 Quoted by Ram Murty in 238{9. Springer-Verlag. 3 The transparen ies. a/personal/jborwein/talks. adj 1. 21 (2001).html. and other resour es.sfu. e m.html and www. a/ersonal/loki/Papers/Numbers/. 1 \Persons and Pla es. Mathemati al Conversations. e m.

estheti . Syn 2. re. the study of the nature of sensation. pertaining to. Ar hai . a philosophi al theory or idea of what is aestheti ally valid at a given time and pla e: the lean lines. bare surfa es. 3.2. Also. having a sense of the beautiful. 6. and sense of spa e that bespeak the ma hine-age aestheti . involving. ultivated. or on erned with pure emotion and sensation as opposed to pure intelle tuality. 4. hara terized by a love of beauty. dis riminating. aestheti s. 5.

ned. the omi . the sublime. et . the ugly. noun 1. as appli able to the . aestheti s. the bran h of philosophy dealing with su h notions as the beautiful..

the study of the mind and emotions in relation to the sense of beauty. in 1799. Personally. I would require (unexpe ted) simpli ity or organization in apparent omplexity or haos. 2. with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of riti al judgments on erning works of art. was the relationship between the lemnis ate sine fun tion and the arithmeti -geometri mean arts. 2 Gauss. Hadamard and Hardy Three of my personal mathemati al heroes. I do believe deta hment is an important omponent of the aestheti experien e. stages. thus it is important to provide some urtains. and the prin iples underlying or justifying su h judgments. \I have the result. This was based on a purely omputational observation. Santayana and others. 2.1 Gauss Carl Friedri h Gauss (1777-1855) on e onfessed5 . The young Gauss wrote in his diary that the result \will surely open up a whole new . all testify interestingly on the aestheti and the nature of mathemati s." One of Gauss's greatest dis overies. s a olds and pi ture frames and their mathemati al equivalents. Fear of mathemati s does not hasten an aestheti response. onsistent with views of Dewey. very di erent men from di erent times. but I do not yet know how to get it. We need to integrate this aestheti into mathemati s edu ation so as to apture minds not only for utilitarian reasons.

" He was right. Gauss's spe i.eld of analysis. as it pried open the whole vista of nineteenth entury ellipti and modular fun tion theory.

was that the re ipro al of the integral 2  Z 0 1 p dt 1 t4 5 See \Isaa Asimov's Book of S ien e and Nature Quotations. Shulman (eds. A. based on tables of integrals provided by Stirling (1692-1770). Weiden. dis overy." Isaa Asimov and J.).

eld and Ni olson". New York (1988). 115. 3 .

(J.agreed numeri ally p with the limit of the rapidly onvergent iteration given by a0 := 1. until the seventh grade. is more familiar. in arithmeti . Whi h obje t. I was last or nearly last" whi h should give en ouragement to many young students. the integral or the iteration. Hadamard6 ) Ja ques Hadamard (1865-1963) was perhaps the greatest mathemati ian to think deeply and seriously about ognition in mathemati s7 . and there was never any other obje t for it. Hadamard was both the author of \The psy hology of invention in the mathemati al .. experimental and aestheti driven rationale for mathemati s ould hardly do better than to start with: The obje t of mathemati al rigor is to san tion and legitimize the onquests of intuition. whi h is more elegant | then and now? Aestheti riteria hange: ` losed forms' have yielded entre stage to `re ursion' mu h as biologi al and omputational metaphors (even `biology envy`) have repla ed Newtonian mental images with Ri hard Dawkin's `the blind wat hmaker`. He is quoted as saying \. b0 := 2 and omputing an+1 := an + bn 2 .. bn have a ommon limit 1:1981402347355922074 : : : . 2.2 Hadamard A onstru tivist. bn+1 := p an bn The sequen es an .

Hardy (1877-1947)." This was one of the ulminating results of 19th entury mathemati s and one that relied on mu h preliminary omputation and experimentation. a book that still rewards lose inspe tion. H. 2.eld" (1945).3 Hardy's Apology Correspondingly G. and o-prover of the Prime Number Theorem (1896): \The number of primes less than n tends to 1 as does n log n . the leading British analyst of the .

pp. and tea hing problem solving (Combined Edition). Borel.rst half of the twentieth entury was also a stylish author who wrote ompellingly in defense of pure mathemati s. 7 Other than Poin ar e? 4 . \Le ons sur la theorie des fon tions. 2-126. He noted that \All physi ists and a good many quite respe table mathemati ians are ontemptuous about proof. New York." 6 In E." 1928. learning. John Wiley (1981). quoted by George Polya in Mathemati al dis overy: On understanding.

The Apology is a spirited defense of beauty over utility: \Beauty is the .in his apologia. \A Mathemati ian's Apology".

.rst test. There is no permanent pla e in the world for ugly mathemati s." That said.. . means that I an be less than thorough with my bibliographi details without derailing a reader who wishes to . And the existen e of Amazon. his omment that \Real mathemati s : : : is almost wholly `useless'. But he does a knowledge that \If the theory of numbers ould be employed for any pra ti al and obviously honourable purpose." has been over-played and is now to my mind very dated. given the importan e of ryptography and other pie es of algebra and number theory devolving from very pure study. or Google. The Apology is one of Amazon's best sellers." even Gauss would be persuaded.

li 108 = 5. 762. in his tribute to Ramanujan entitled \Ramanujan. 455 while  (108 ) = 5.nd the sour e. Skewes in 1933 showed the . the number of primes not ex eeding x. 209: It was onje tured that li x >  (x) holds for all x and indeed it so for many x. 761." page 15. Hardy. gives the so- alled `Skewes number' as a \striking example of a false onje ture". The integral li x = Z x 0 dt log t is a very good approximation to  (x). Thus. Twelve Le tures : : : .

And sadly or happily depending on one's attitude even 101166 may be a small number.rst 1034 expli it rossing at 1010 . many are primes and dire t experien e is a poor guide. Su h examples show for ibly the limits on numeri experimentation. at least of a naive variety. still vastly beyond dire t omputational rea h. a mere 101167 . This has by now been now redu ed to a relatively tiny number. Here we see what some number theorists all the `Law of small numbers': all small numbers are spe ial. 3 Resear h motivations and goals As a omputational and experimental pure mathemati ian my main goal is: insight. Many will be familiar with the `Law of large numbers' in statisti s. Insight demands speed and in reasingly parallelism as des ribed in an 5 . We shall meet Ramanujan again in the sequel.

arti le I re ently oauthored on hallenges for mathemati al omputing.8 Speed and enough spa e is a prerequisite:   For rapid veri.

For validation and falsi. ation.

10 ISC spa e limits have hanged from 10Mb being a onstraint in 1985 to 10Gb being `easily available' today. Borwein and Robert Corless. ation. Borwein.9 It is based on:  Meshing omputation and mathemati s | intuition is a quired. Inform all mathemati al modalities omputationally: analyti . May/June 3 (2001). 106 (1999). 889-909. algebrai . My own methodology depends heavily on: 1. What is `easy' is hanging and we see an ex iting merging of dis iplines. 8 J. sounds and other hapti stimuli. Two parti ularly useful omponents are: { graphi he ks: omparing 2py y and py ln(y). 6 .. Blake's inno ent may be ome the shepherd. history & philosophy. Pattern Re ognition of Real Numbers (e. or primality an provide enormously se ure knowledge or ounter-examples when deterministi methods are doomed. This is leading us towards an Experimental Mathodology as a philosophy and in pra ti e.g.  Visualization | three is a lot of dimensions. proofs and refutations." Ameri an Mathemati al Monthly. 2. [CECM Preprint 98:110℄. Nowadays we an exploit pi tures. Mat h elegan e and balan e to utility and e onomy. linear algebra. using Salvy & Zimmermann's `gfun' or Sloane and Plou e's Online En y lopedia).. { randomized he ks: of equations. 0 < y < 1 pi - torially is a mu h more rapid way to divine whi h is larger that traditional analyti methods. Borwein and P. using CECM's Inverse Cal ulator and 'RevEng')10 . [CECM Preprint 00:1605℄ 9 Jonathan M. We are more and more able to:    Marry theory & pra ti e. (High Pre ision) omputation of obje t(s) for subsequent examination. \Emerging tools for experimental mathemati s. proofs & experiments.M. 48-53." Computing in S ien e & Engineering. \Challenges for Mathemati al Computing.B. geometri & topologi al.  `Caging' and `Monster-barring' (in Imre Lakatos' words). or Sequen es (e'g. levels and ollaborators.

be ause that gives you an expli it riterion of what's going on. But symbols are often more reliable than pi tures. B." Random Samples. But ultimately su h a onstru tion fails and produ es a right ir ular one.g. The false eviden e in this pi ture held ba k a resear h proje t for several days! 11 Des ribed as one of the top ten \Algorithm's for the Ages.sfu. Springer-Verlag. I'm rather an addi t of doing things on the omputer. But if I an get a on rete. 3. 1 7 .. ISBN 3-540-66913-2." in Mathemati s Unlimited | 2 1 and Beyond. Some automated theorem proving (using methods of Wilf-Zeilberger et ). S hmid (Eds. 4. su h as LetsDoMath. Borwein. Platoni solids o er virtual manipulables that are more robust and expressive that the standard lassroom solids!). It is the steps up to pixel level of ins ribing a regular 2n+1 -gon at height 21 n . e m. 2000. We have been building edu ational software with these pre epts embedded. a/interfa es/.). Bailey and J.M.g. I'm reasonably happy. Feb. omputational proof and a tually produ e numbers I'm mu h happier. through allowing subtle exploration within the `Game of Life') while making things tangible (e.mathresour es. Engquist and W.14 The intent is to hallenge students honestly (e. S ien e.13 In this ase graphi output allows insight no amount of numbers ould. 13 D. 2000.3..11 Ex lusion bounds are espe ially useful and su h methods provide a great test bed for `Experimental Mathemati s'.H. Extensive use of Integer Relation Methods: PSLQ & LLL and FFT. 4. \Experimental Mathemati s: Re ent Developments and Future Outlook. The following pi ture purports to be eviden e that a solid an fail to be polyhedral at only one point. [CECM Preprint 99:143℄ 14 See www. I have a visual way of thinking. All these tools are a essible through the listed CECM websites. 12 Quoted in Who got Einstein's OÆ e? by Ed Regis { a delightful 1986 history of the Institute for Advan ed Study. om.1 Pi tures and symbols \If I an give an abstra t proof of something. and I'm happy if I an see a pi ture of what I'm working with. These images are also shown and des ribed in my re ent survey paper." (John Milnor12 ) Let us onsider the following images of zeroes of 0=1 polynomials that are manipulatable at www.

3.2 Four kinds of experiment Medawar usefully distinguishes four forms of s ienti.

1. either gives us on. it \is the onsequen e of `trying things out' or even of merely messing about. Aristotelian demonstrations: \apply ele trodes to a frog's s iati nerve." 2. ellipti ) by repla ing Eu lid's axiom of parallels (or something equivalent to it) with alternative forms. The most important is Galilean: \a riti al experiment { one that dis riminates between possibilities and. in doing so. the leg ki ks. and lo. The Kantian example: generating \the lassi al non-Eu lidean geome- tries (hyperboli . experiment. the bell alone will soon make the dog dribble. The Ba onian experiment is a ontrived as opposed to a natural happening." 4." 3. always pre ede the presentation of the dog's dinner with the ringing of a bell. and lo.

" The .den e in the view we are taking or makes us think it in need of orre tion.

the fourth is not.rst three forms are ommon in mathemati s. It is also the only one of the four forms whi h has the promise to make Experimental Mathemati s into a serious repli able s ienti.

enterprise.1516 4 Two things about p2 : : : Remarkably one an still .

ments and Future Outlook. Borwein." \Experimental Mathemati s: Re ent Develop- 8 . 15 From Peter Medawar's wonderful 16 See also: D.H. Harper (1979).M.nd new insights in the oldest areas: Advi e to a Young S ientist. Bailey and J.

The square root of 2 is irrational The smaller iso eles triangle is again integral    4. Tom Apostol's lovely new geometri proof p 17 rationality of 2. Cir ums ribe a ir le of length the verti al side and onstru t the tangent on the hypotenuse.2 Rationality p 2 also makes things rational:  p p2 p2 2 p p p ( 2 2) = 2 = Hen e by the prin iple of the ex luded middle: p p2 p p 2 2 = 2: p2 Either 2 2 Q or 2 62 Q: In either ase we an dedu e that there are irrational numbers and . of the ir- PROOF.1 Irrationality We present graphi ally.4. Consider the smallest right-angled iso eles integral with integer sides.

with .

But how do we know whi h ones? One may build a whole mathemati al philosophy proje t around this. rational. Compare the assertion that p := 2 and .

:= 2 ln2 (3) yield .

241-242. 9 . = 3 17 MAA Monthly. November 2000.

as Maple on.

This illustrates ni ely that veri.rms.

ation is often easier than dis overy (similarly the fa t multipli ation is easier than fa torization is at the base of se ure en ryption s hemes for e- ommer e). There are eight possible (ir)rational triples: .

= . and .

nding examples of all ases is now a .

4.3 and two integrals Even Maple knows  = 6 sin e ::: 22 7 0< Z 1 (1 0 22 x)4 x4 dx = 1 + x2 7 .ne student proje t. though it would be prudent to ask `why' it an perform the evaluation and `whether' to trust it? In ontrast. 0 x n=1 n and students asked to on. Maple struggles with the following sophomore's dream: Z 1 1 1 X 1 dx = x n.

suggesting for the . e m.rm this typi ally mistake numeri al validation for symboli proof. making on rete the abstra t. and makes some hard things simple. a/interfa es/ a ords an emphati example where deep fra tal stru ture is exhibited in the elementary binomial oeÆ ients. Berlinski writes \The omputer has in turn hanged the very nature of mathemati al experien e. This is strikingly the ase in Pas al's Triangle: www.sfu. Again we see that omputing adds reality.

rst time that mathemati s. 1995 10 . But the era in thought that the al ulus made possible is oming to an end." (David Berlinski18 ) 18 Two quotes I agree with from Berlinski's \A Tour of the Cal ulus. a pla e where things are dis overed be ause they are seen. It is a style that has shaped the physi al but not the biologi al s ien es." Pantheon Books. Everyone feels this is so and everyone is right. like physi s. at on e bold and dramati . in large measure. given over to large intelle tual gestures and indi erent. and its su ess in Newtonian me hani s. general relativity and quantum me hani s is among the mira les of mankind." and ontinues \ The body of mathemati s to whi h the al ulus gives rise embodies a ertain swashbu kling style of thinking. to any very detailed des ription of the world. may yet be ome an empiri al dis ipline.

1 A quarti algorithm Set a0 = 6 p p 4 2 and y0 = 2 yk+1 = (1) (Borwein & Borwein 1984) 1.5  and friends My resear h with my brother on  also o ers aestheti and empiri al opportunities. 2) that written out in full still . We have exhibited 19 pairs of simple algebrai equations (1. Iterate 1 (1 1 + (1 yk4 )1=4 yk4 )1=4 ak+1 = ak (1 + yk+1 )4 b 22k+3 yk+1 (1 + yk+1 + yk2+1 ) (2) Then ak onverges quarti ally to 1= . 5. The next algorithm grew out of work of Ramanujan.

The 50 billionth de imal digit of  or of 1 is 042 ! And after 18 billion digits. with the Salamin-Brent s heme. A billion (230 ) digit omputation has been performed on a single Pentium II PC in under 9 days. Kanada omputed over 51 billion digits on a Hita hi super omputer (18 iterations. In 1997.t on one page and di er from  (the most elebrated trans endental number) only after 700 billion digits. After 17 years. this still gives me an aestheti buzz! This iteration has been used sin e 1986. 25 hrs on 210 pu's). by Bailey (Lawren e Berkeley Labs) and by Kanada (Tokyo). 0123456789 has . His present world re ord is 236 digits in April 1999.

Watson. 11 . Watson. based upon the ellipti and modular fun tion theory initiated by Gauss. N.sfu. e m. des ribes: \a thrill whi h is indistinguishable from the thrill I feel when I enter the Sagrestia Nuovo of the Capella Medi i and see before me the austere beauty of the four statues representing `Day.1.1 A further taste of Ramanujan G. 1  19 Details p 1 (4k)! (1103 + 26390k) 2 2X : = 9801 k=0 (k !)4 3964k about  are at www.html. dis ussing his response to su h formulae of the wonderful Indian mathemati al genius Ramanujan (1887-1920).' `Evening.' and `Dawn' whi h Mi helangelo has set over the tomb of Guiliano de'Medi i and Lorenzo de'Medi i. a/personal/jborwein/pi over." (G.nally appeared and Brouwer's famous intuitionist example now onverges!19 5. 1886-1965) One of these is Ramanujan's remarkable formula. N.' `Night.

For n  3. 5. Again everyone knows this is true. via the (AGM).    . Ramanujan prefers related expli it forms su h as log(6403203) p = 3:1415926535897930164  . If not. Perron. Bill Gosper used this formula to ompute 17 million terms of the ontinued fra tion for  in 1985.2. and many others sought methods. One `di erentiates' e t to obtain algorithms su h as above for  . Eu lid's algorithm gives a solution.1 The uses of LLL and PSLQ DEFINITION: A ve tor (x1 . x2 . The number e is the easiest trans endental to fast ompute (by ellipti methods). xn ) of reals possesses an integer relation if there are integers ai not all zero with 0 = a1 x1 + a2 x2 +    + an xn : PROBLEM: Find ai if su h exist. That said. The . Poin are.21 5. 163 orre t until the underlined pla es. Ja obi. obtain lower `ex lusion' bounds on the size of possible ai . SOLUTION: For n = 2.2 Integer relation dete tion We make a brief digression to des ribe what integer relation dete tion methods do. This is of interest be ause we still an not prove that the ontinued fra tion for  is unbounded. Euler.Ea h term of this series produ es an additional eight orre t digits in the result p | and only the ultimate 2 is not a rational operation. Minkowski.20 We then apply them to  .

20 These may be 21 See also J. Dongarra and F. Borwein and P. PSOS. Sullivan in Computing in S ien e & Engineering. Krylov Subspa e. 65-82.. parallelized '99)." by J. QR De omposition." Mathemati s. Dis rete tried at www.. Sin e '77 one has many variants: LLL (also in Maple and Mathemati a). HJLS. .rst general algorithm was found in 1977 by Ferguson & For ade.M. \Appli ations of Integer Relation Algorithms. Qui ksort.sfu. Simplex. 22-23. Fast Multipole Method. e m.. a/proje ts/IntegerRelations/. Integer Relation Dete tion was re ently ranked among \the 10 algorithms with the greatest in uen e on the development and pra ti e of s ien e and engineering in the 20th entury. 217 (2000). Lisonek. 2 (2000). [CECM Resear h Report 97:104℄ 12 . PSLQ ('91. FFT. Also listed were: Monte Carlo.

2 . ai . are oeÆ ients of a polynomial likely satis.5.2 Algebrai numbers Asking about algebrai ity is handled by omputing to suÆ iently high pre ision (O(n = N 2 )) and apply LLL or PSLQ to the ve tor (1. N 1 ):  Solution integers.2. .    .

If one has omputed to n + m digits and run LLL using n of them.ed by . one has m digits to heuristi ally on.

ar tan(1=2). I have never seen this return an honest `false positive' for m > 20 say.  (Dase's Formula). 1℄. We try Maple's lin dep fun tion on [ar tan(1). 5.3 Finalizing formulae If we know or suspe t an identity exists integer relations methods are very powerful. That is. -4. the methods des ribed above started to be used instead. That is. 1℄. We try lin dep on [=4. ar tan(1=239)℄ and `re over' [1.  4 1 = 4 ar tan( ) 5 ar tan( 1 ): 239 Ma hin's formula was used on all serious omputations of  from 1706 (100 digits) to 1973 (1 million digits).  If no relation is found. 13 . 1. ar tan(1=5).2.  (Ma hin's Formula). ar tan(1=5). ex lusion bounds are obtained.rm the result. After 1980. ar tan(1=8)℄ and re over [-1.  4 1 1 1 = ar tan( ) + ar tan( ) + ar tan( ): 2 5 8 This was used by Dase to ompute 200 digits of  in his head in perhaps the greatest feat of mental arithmeti ever | ` 1/8' is apparently better than `1/239' for this purpose. 1. saying for example that any polynomial of degree less than N must have the Eu lidean norm of its oeÆ ients in ex ess of L (often astronomi al).

5.3 Johann Martin Za harias Dase Another burgeoning omponent of modern resear h and tea hing life is a ess to ex ellent (and dubious) databases su h as the Ma Tutor History Ar hive maintained at: www-history.a . One may .uk.m

While in Vienna in 1840 he was urged to use his powers for s ienti. Austria and England. We illustrate its value by showing verbatim what it says about Dase. \Za harias Dase (1824-1861) had in redible al ulating skills but little mathemati al ability. He gave exhibitions of his al ulating powers in Germany.nd details there on almost all the mathemati ians appearing in this arti le.

Dase also onstru ted 7 . purposes and he dis ussed proje ts with Gauss and others. Dase used his al ulating ability to al ulate to 200 pla es in 1844. This was published in Crelle's Journal for 1844.

This took 12 days on 20 work-stations working in parallel over the Internet. This was a most su essful ase of REVERSE MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING This is entirely pra ti able. God rea hes her hand deep into  : in September 1997 Fabri e Bellard (INRIA) used a variant of this formula to ompute 152 binary digits of  . it is easy to prove in Mathemati a. although they agreed to this. as des ribed above. The key. On e found. P. in Maple or by hand | and provides a very ni e al ulus exer ise. Borwein and Plou e (1996) dis overed a series for  (and orresponding ones for some other polylogarithmi onstants) whi h somewhat dis on ertingly allows one to ompute hexade imal digits of  without omputing prior digits. Gauss requested that the Hamburg A ademy of S ien es allow Dase to devote himself full-time to his mathemati al work but. 14 .\ 5. Dase died before he was able to do mu h more work. is: = 1 X k=0 1 16 k 4 8k + 1 2 8k + 4 1 8k + 5 1  8k + 6 Knowing an algorithm would follow they spent several months hunting by omputer for su h a formula. Bailey. The running time grows only slightly faster than linearly in the order of the digit being omputed. The algorithm needs very little memory and no multiple pre ision. found by `PSLQ'. starting at the trillionth position (1012 ).4 `Pentium farming' for binary digits.gure log tables and produ ed a table of fa tors of all numbers between 7 000 000 and 10 000 000.

5.1 Per ival on the web In August 1998 Colin Per ival (SFU.4. age 17) .

nished a similar naturally or \embarrassingly parallel" omputation of the .

997th bit of  one has: 111000110001000010110101100000110: 6 Solid and dis rete geometry 6. in studying the elements of Solid Geometry. of never submitting to the eye of the student. the quadrillionth bit had been found to be `0' (using 250 pu years on 1734 ma hines from 56 ountries). Starting at the 999. the . one of the most in uential edu ators of his period. from the pra ti e whi h has hitherto uniformly prevailed in this trillionth bit (using 25 ma hines at about 10 times the speed of Bellard). In hexade imal notation he obtained: 07E 45733CC 790B 5B 5979: The orresponding binary digits of  starting at the 40 trillionth pla e are 00000111110011111: By September 2000. 999. 999.1 De Morgan Augustus De Morgan. wrote: \Considerable obsta les generally present themselves to the beginner. 999.

but of drawing perspe tive representations of them upon a plane. . I hope that I shall never be obliged to have re ourse to a perspe tive drawing of any .gures on whose properties he is reasoning...

15 . This is Konrad Polthier's modern version of Felix Klein's (1840-1928) famous geometri models. whi h is illustrated at personal/jborwein/ ir le. \What Makes a Great Mathemati s Tea her?" MAA Monthly.gure whose parts are not in the same plane." (Augustus De Morgan. a/interfa es/. like DeMorgan. 22 From Adrian Ri e. 540. e m. p. Klein. was equally in uential as an edu ator and as a resear her. a modern intera tive version of Eu lid is provided by Cinderella.sfu. First London Mathemati al So iety President.22 ) I imagine that De Morgan would have been happier using JavaViewLib: www. Correspondingly. and is largely omparable to Geometer's Sket hpad whi h is dis ussed in detail in other papers in this volume.html. June 1999.

It was . Given N non- ollinear points in the plane there is a proper line through only two points. 1814-97.23 ) But dis rete geometry (now mu h in fashion as ` omputational geometry' and another example of very useful pure mathemati s) was di erent: THEOREM.24 Sylvester's onje ture was it seems forgotten for 50 years.2 Sylvester's theorem \The early study of Eu lid made me a hater of geometry.6." (James Joseph Sylvester. Se ond London Mathemati al So iety President.

Kelly's proof was a tually published by Donald Coxeter in the MAA Monthly in 1948! A .rst established |\badly" in the sense that the proof is mu h more ompli ated | by Gallai (1943) and also by Paul Erdos who named `the Book' in whi h God keeps aestheti ally perfe t proofs. Erdos was an atheist.

59 (1893). 6. Consider the point losest to a line it is not on and suppose that line has three points on it (the horizontal line). 24 Posed in \Comi Se tions" (1993). The middle of those three points is learly loser to the other line! 23 In D.3 Kelly's \Proof from `The Book' " Sylvester PROOF. Ma example of how the ar hival re ord may get obs ured. The Edu ational Times. 16 .

 As with our proof of the irrationality of minimal on.

or use physi al intuition to tea h students how to avoid tedious al ulations? 7 Partitions and patterns Another subje t that an be made highly a essible is additive number theory. is generated by Y P (q) := (1 qn ) 1 : n1 Thus p(5) = 7 sin e 5= 4+1 =3+2 =3+1+1 = 2+2+1 = 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1: QUESTION: How hard is p(n) to ompute | in 1900 (for Ma Mahon) and in 2000 (for Maple)? ANSWER: Se onds for Maple. It is interesting to ask if development of the beautiful asymptoti analysis of partitions.pdf). espe ially partition theory.sfu.guration. months for Ma Mahon. a/personal/jborwein/pi. p 2 we see the power of the right Two more examples that belong in `the Book' are a orded by:  Niven's marvellous half page 1947 proof that  is irrational (See www. p(n). Ramanujan and others. The number of additive partitions of n. would have been helped or impeded by su h fa ile omputation? Ex post fa to algorithmi analysis an be used to fa ilitate independent student dis overy of Euler's pentagonal number theorem: Y n1 (1 qn ) = 1 X n= 1 ( 1)n q (3n+1)n=2 : Ramanujan used Ma Mahon's table of p(n) to intuit remarkable and deep ongruen es su h as p(5n + 4)  0 mod 5 p(7n + 5)  0 mod 7 and p(11n + 6)  0 mod 11. e m. by Hardy. 17 . and  Snell's law | does one use the Cal ulus to establish the Physi s.

from data like P (q) = 1 + q + 2 q2 + 3 q3 + 5 q4 + 7 q5 + 11 q6 + 15 q7 + 22 q8 + 30 q9 + 42 q 10 + 56 q 11 + 77 q 12 + 101 q 13 + 135 q 14 + 176 q 15 + 231 q 16 + 297 q 17 + 385 q 18 + 490 q 19 + 627 q 20b + 792 q 21b + 1002 q 22 + 1255 q 23 +    If introspe tion fails.html.resear h.att. om/personal/njas/sequen es/eisonline. Here we see a very . we an re ognize the pentagonal numbers o urring above in Sloane and Plou e's on-line `En y lopedia of Integer Sequen es': www.

Metaphori al thought. In re ent years. as when we on eptualize numbers as points on a line. human beings on eptualize abstra t on epts in on rete terms.. Most thought is un ons ious | not repressed in the Freudian sense but simply ina essible to dire t ons ious introspe tion. p." Basi Books. For the most part. May 7. 2000. 1999). And mu h more may similarly be done. Nunez \Re ent Dis overies about the Nature of Mind."26 They later observe: 25 More serious urri ular insights should ome from neuro-biology (Dehaene et al. there have been revolutionary advan es in ognitive s ien e | advan es that have a profound bearing on our understanding of mathemati s. 5." S ien e. 18 . We annot look dire tly at our on eptual systems and at our low-level thought pro esses. The embodiment of mind. The detailed nature of our bodies. \Sour es of Mathemati al Thinking: Behavioral and Brain-Imaging Eviden e. This in ludes mathemati al on epts and mathemati al reason. using ideas and modes of reasoning grounded in sensory-motor systems. 2.25 Perhaps the most profound of these new insights are the following: 1. 26 From \Where Mathemati s Comes From. our brains and our everyday fun tioning in the world stru tures human on epts and human reason. This in ludes most mathemati al thought. 3. The me hanism by whi h the abstra t is omprehended in terms of the on ept is alled on eptual metaphor. The ognitive un ons ious.1 George Lako & Rafael example of Mathemati s: the s ien e of patterns as is the title of Keith Devlin's 1997 book. Mathemati al thought also makes use of on eptual metaphor. 8 Some on luding dis ussion 8.

\What is parti ularly ironi about this is that it follows from the empiri al study of numbers as a produ t of mind that it is natural for people to believe that numbers are not a produ t of mind!"27 I .

nd their general mathemati al s hema persuasive but their spe i.

2001. 1264." (Arturo Rosenblueth and Norbert Wiener28 ) 8. how will mathemati al thought patterns hange? \The idea that we ould make biology mathemati al. C. and quantum omputing (`sorting algorithms'). Compare a more traditional view whi h I also espouse: \The pri e of metaphor is eternal vigilan e. DNA omputation (`traveling salesman problems'). all these are so many riddles of form.  in these matters neither proof nor error is at issue. p. 30 In Who got Einstein's OÆ e? 19 . but what is happening. strangely enough. the sweeping urve of the sandy bay between the headlands." (Thomas Kuhn30 ) 27 Lako and 28 Quoted by Nunez. (The Human Genome Issue. 8.) 29 In Philip Ball's \The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. and all of them the physi ist an more or less easily read and adequately solve. \On Growth and Form" 1917)29 ) A entury after biology started to think physi ally. p." http://s oop. geneti algorithms (`s heduling problems').net/books/tapestry." (D'Ar y Thompson. R. Interview. is that maybe mathemati s will be ome biologi al!" (Greg Chaitin. the little ripples on the shore. so many problems of morphology. 2000) Consider the metaphori al or a tual origin of the present `hot topi s`: simulated annealing (`protein folding'). rosswinds. the outline of the hills. perhaps is not working. The transfer of allegian e from paradigm to paradigm is a onversion experien e that annot be for ed. neural networks (`training omputers'). Leowontin in S ien e.3 Kuhn and Plan k Mu h of what I have des ribed in detail or in passing involves hanging set modes of thinking. the shape of the louds. a ounting of mathemati s for ed and un onvin ing. Feb 16.2 Form follows fun tion \The waves of the sea. I think. Many profound thinkers view su h hanges as diÆ ult: \The issue of paradigm hoi e an never be unequivo ally settled by logi and experiment alone.html. 81.

and \: : : a new s ienti.

be ome more onvin ing in our setting: 1. truth does not triumph by onvin ing its opponents and making them see the light. Indeed Reuben Hersh's arguments for a humanist philosophy of mathemati s. mathemati s is and will remain a uniquely human undertaking. as paraphrased below. Mathemati s is human. It is part of and ." (Albert Einstein quoting Max Plan k31 ) 8. but rather be ause its opponents die and a new generation grows up that's familiar with it.4 Hersh's humanist philosophy However hard su h paradigm shifts and whatever the out ome of these dis ourses.

As in s ien e. and other things. 3. 2. There are di erent versions of proof or rigor. tenseless. timeless. It does not mat h Frege's on ept of an abstra t. exempli. pla e. Standards of rigor an vary depending on time.ts into human ulture. Mathemati al knowledge is fallible. The \fallibilism" of mathemati s is brilliantly argued in Lakatos' Proofs and Refutations. The use of omputers in formal proofs. mathemati s an advan e by making mistakes and then orre ting or even re- orre ting them. obje tive reality.

mathemati s annot be dismissed as merely a new form of literature or religion. 4. Mathemati al obje ts are a spe ial variety of a so ial- ulturalhistori al obje t. Major. \Fresh Breezes in the Philosophy of Mathemati s. many mathemati al obje ts an be seen as shared ideas.G. 32 The re ognition that \quasi-intuitive" methods may be used to gain mathemati al insight an dramati ally assist in the learning and dis overy of mathemati s. 589{594. 1998. like Moby Di k in literature. Contrary to the assertions of ertain post-modern detra tors. Aestheti and intuitive impulses are shot through our subje t. Empiri al eviden e. or the Imma ulate Con eption in religion. 20 Ameri an Mathemati al . and honest mathemati ians will a knowledge their role. 5. Aris- totelian logi isn't ne essarily always the best way of de iding." by F. is just one example of an emerging nontraditional standard of rigor." Monthly. Springer. Nevertheless. numeri al experimentation and probabilisti proof all an help us de ide what to believe in mathemati s. 31 From 32 From \The Quantum Beat. August-September 1995.ed by the omputer-assisted proof of the four olor theorem in 1977.

8.5 Santayana \When we have before us a .

It may be old fashioned and unde onstru ted but to me it rings true: And yet. and it attra ts like a magnet all the values of things it is known to symbolize. A map is not naturally thought of as an aestheti obje t . now ro ky. I . en ounter with aestheti philosophy. but whi h nevertheless pleases us in the same way as a pi ture or a graphi symbol might please. let the lines be a little deli ate. This was my earliest.. that we gaze at it with delight. the elevations of the land. a thing the harm of whi h onsists almost entirely in its meaning. the sense of mastery over so mu h reality. together with the winding of the rivers. and the masses of the land and sea somewhat balan ed. line and olor. and we really have a beautiful thing. and need no pra ti al motive to keep us studying it. we have the simultaneous suggestion of so many fa ts. in whi h the line of the oast. let the tints of it be a little subtle. now sandy. and the distribution of the population. Give the symbol a little intrinsi worth of form.." (George Santayana33) To avoid a usations of mawkishness. is learly indi ated. It be omes beautiful in its map. perhaps for hours altogether. and still favourite.

nish by quoting Jerry Fodor34 : \: : : it is no doubt important to attend to the eternally beautiful and true." 8.6 A few . But it is more important not to be eaten.

g. in press. 21 . `You an't go home again' (Thomas Wolfe).   `We are Pleisto ene People' (Kieran Egan). is not. 33 From \The Sense of Beauty.nal observations  Draw your own | perhaps literally    !  While proofs are often out of rea h to students or indeed lie beyond present mathemati s. understanding.  Good software pa kages an make diÆ ult on epts a essible (e.  Progress is made `one funeral at a time' (this harsher version of Plan k's omment is sometimes attribute to Niels Bohr). Mathemati a and Sket hpad).." 34 In Kieran Egan's book 1896. Getting it Wrong from the Beginning. even ertainty.

Frontpie e of William Blake's Songs of Inno en e and Experien e (Combined (1825) edition) 22 .