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Indian radio industry - Document Transcript

1. Radio has made a comeback in the lifestyles of Indians. Radio has the reputation of being the oldest and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India. The radio industry has been completely reshaped by the various private players that entered the sector after the government allowed foreign investment into the segment and opened the licenses to the private players. DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BROADCAST RADIO The first one which was used in olden days for transmission purpose is AM. Amplitude modulation (AM)1 is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Today radio is used for many forms of communication from long distance satellite communications to the personal cell phones that are widely used. In addition to this wireless communications are becoming more important for data as demonstrated by the rapid growth in Wi-Fi Radio is also used for telecommunications links. Signals with frequencies in the microwave region are normally used. These signals have frequencies much higher than those in the short wave band and they are not affected by the ionosphere. However they provide reliable direct line of sight links that are able to carry many telephone conversations or other forms of traffic. Satellite radio Satellite radio is one of the fastest-growing entertainment services in the world and it is making its presence felt in a small but a positive way in India. A satellite radio is basically a digital unit that receives signals broadcast by communications satellite. This allows a person with a set to follow his favorite stations anywhere in the country unlike the terrestrial radio (AM and FM) whose signals are limited to a certain area depending on the power of the station. Some of the advantages of a satellite radio are that the sound is of digital quality and there are no commercials. But it is not for free, it is available on subscription for a fee. An example would be world space radio. Satellites, radar, communications, internet, message service are the effect of radio technology in our modern day life. With the growth of radio the requirement for mobile connectivity, it is certain that wireless technologies with radio at the core will continue to thrive and become more 1.2. widespread. To meet the demand it is likely that new technologies will be developed to maximize the use of the available radio spectrum. HD radio ("hybrid digital" or "high definition") is a brand name of a method of digital transmission of AM and FM radio stations. The HD Radio system is unique which allows stations to broadcast crystal-clear audio and a variety of text-based services, as well as more FM channels, without changing to new frequency bands. Hybrid system is a system in which digital signals are sent along with the analog carrier as the standard for AM and FM broadcasting in the United

A photomontage with Marconi and the yacht Elettra. The text with autograph signature: ... le mie invenzioni sono per salvare l'umanita', non per distruggerla. Date: March the 26, 1930. Marconis Family

The little daughter Elettra between his father Guglielmo and the second wife Maria Cristina.

Patent 7777-Oscillating sintonic circuit with inductance and capacity London 1898.Before, it was not only impossible to send a reserved message, it was also impossible to install more than one radio station in the same place because the transmission of one would interfere with the transmissions of the other and it was not even possible to select the signals on reception.

Magnetic detector "MARCONI", year 1903.This detector was conceived by Marconi in 1902 and used to receive radio signal on board of the Royal Ship CARLO ALBERTO.

Monday, September 5, 2011


Amateur Radio Astronomy by VU2FD

4. States. FM stations can offer multiple channels (called "Multicast" channels) on the same frequencies allocated to analog radio stations. Internet radio Internet radio e-Radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means but is delivered over the World Wide Web. The term "e-Radio" suggests a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous stream of audio to which they have no control much like traditional broadcast media. It is not synonymous with podcasting which involves downloading and therefore copyright issues. Nor does e-Radio suggest "on-

demand" file serving. Many Internet "radio stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional "terrestrial" radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are usually independent of such associations. Old media dont die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later new media were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. FM radio is a new entity altogether and has to deal with new market dynamics. Media owners dealing with new markets will virtually have to draw up their strategies as they go along, create programming that is new, innovative and grab away eyeballs from TV sets and make them tune into their radio sets. Its a whole new challenge and competition is never far away. Ad revenues will also not be easy to come by, as advertisers will expect media players to put their money where their speakers are before they commit large sums of money towards radio advertising. The other challenge for radio in attracting advertisers is the nature of the medium-radio has always 47. SEC ABC segments. The SEC ABC segments were earlier dominated by Big FM & now by Friends FM. However in the SEC D & E segments Radio Mirchi has total domination. Playing contemporary hits songs Radio Mirchi has always been the No 1 choice of listeners. IRS 2009 reiterates the same as Mirchi has more than 41 million listeners across 32 stations. Its lead over its nearest competitor is more than double. Its market share in revenue terms remains in excess of 40% of the private FM industry. Radio Mirchi is the number 1 radio brand in the private FM space. During the year, it won a plethora of awards. It has been recognition of the brand popularity and the creative talent behind the brand. Mirchi was voted the No. 1 media brand, ahead of iconic brands like The Times of India and Star Plus. This unique honor was bestowed on Mirchi by the Pitch-IMRB group's survey of the top service brands of the country. This endorses the vote of trust that the brand has built amongst its listeners. As per Brand Reporter October 2009 issue Mirchi was recognized as one of the game changers of the decade in the radio industry. In December 2008, Mirchis website was voted the most popular TV and Radio site in India. The survey was conducted by Metrix Labs and AC Nielsen. The survey had 1.5 million participants. The success of the website reflects the overall popularity of Mirchi, the brand. Over the years Mirchi have established two important landmarks i.e.: The Mirchi Kaan Awards acknowledges and honors the contribution of individuals and organizations that have led the way in developing clutter busting radio advertising. The awards have been instituted to encourage continued creative focus on radio advertising. While the parentage of the idea was that of Mirchi, the design was created and crafted by the music fraternity itself. The jury led by Chairman, Javed Akhtar, would make any recipient proud - the other members comprised the best in the industry: Prasoon Joshi, Anu Malik, Shankar Mahadevan, Louiz Banks, Lalit Pandit, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Sadhana Sargam, Sonu Niigaam, Kailash Kher, Suresh Wadkar, Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra, Ramesh Sippy and Kunal Kohli. The jury set tough standards. This initiative of Listen to my movie has been felicitated with one of the most prestigious Readers Digest Pegasus CSR Awards in the Silver Category. 48. As a part of its CSR Mirchi initiated a program to improve the quality of life of the visually impaired and the company came up with an initiative i.e. audio books. This initiative has already reached hundreds of schools across the country. Radio City: Radio City20 is a FM radio station in India. It broadcasts on 91.1 (earlier 91.0 in most cities) megahertz from Mumbai (where it was started in 2004), Bangalore (started first in 2001), Lucknow and New Delhi. It plays Hindi songs, English and regional songs. It was launched in Hyderabad in March, 2006, in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007. Radio City recently forayed into New Media in May 2008 with the launch of a new mega music portal that offers music related news, videos, songs, and other music-related features. Radio City has launched Fun Ka Antenna - Online Radio Station which plays hits across genres including International, Bollywood, Indipop and Sufi among others. Radio City Bangalore is India's first private FM radio station and was started on July 3, 2001. It launched with presenters such as Rohit Barker, Darius Sunawala, Jonzie Kurian and Suresh Venkat. Over the years, the station had been steadily losing popularity with the launch of newer stations in Bangalore. The station has been criticized for multiple format changes and presenter lineup. The Radio station currently plays a mix of Hindi and Kannada music. Recently as of July, 2006 it has announced plans to invest Rs. 700 to 800 million in the current fiscal year to set up 16 FM (Frequency Modulation) stations across India. The Chief Executive Officer is Ms Apurva Purohit. BIG FM 92.7: BIG FM 92.7 is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani21. It broadcasts at 92.7 MHz (92.7FM). Currently, it covers 45 cities. This is the only private FM radio station which is being broadcast from Srinagar and Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir state. It has made an announcement to invest Rs. 4,000,000,000 dedicated to transmission equipment, infrastructure and licensing; which would make the proposed network the largest ever. From July 1, 2008, BIG FM included Singapore, the first city outside India, in its broadcasting network. It

broadcasts its programs daily from 5 to 8pm on XFM 96.3, under the name of 'BIG Bollywood 96.3FM. Its main tagline is "Suno Sunao, Life Banao". Radio Active: Jain Group of Institutions (JGI)22 is a conglomerate of 35 mission driven institutions that spans the gamut of education, from primary to higher education, and charitable schooling to professional courses. JGI draws on the essence of tradition and sophistication of modernization to educate the professionals of tomorrow. Inspired by its dynamic founder and Chairman Mr. R Chenraj Jain, the JGI family is principled, proactive and

visionary. Its vision is to contribute leaders to a vibrant and responsive India. Its mission is to provide excellence in academic education and focuses on the holistic development of the individual. The Vision behind Radio Active is to empower every individual in society to become a winner and an achiever by harnessing and nurturing human potential; to sensitize society to global, national and local issues; to use technology and human enterprise in tandem to help create a meaningful and proactive social ambience where interdependence becomes mutually supportive and to focus on a universally responsive India. In keeping with its tradition of promoting the welfare and betterment of society, JGI has taken the initiative to launch a community radio station serving the cause of progress and development of the community at large. The community radio station, Radio Active will seek to reach out to Bangalores masses on issues concerning health, environment, development, scientific awareness, women, social issues etc, in turn seeking to inform, educate,

while entertaining the public. n 1954 Regency introduced a pocket transistor radio, the TR-1, powered by a "standard 22.5V Battery". In the early 1960s, VOR systems finally became widespread for aircraft navigation; before that, aircraft used commercial AM radio stations for navigation. (AM stations are still marked on U.S. aviation charts). In 1960 Sony introduced their first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable, because there were no tubes to burn out. Over the next twenty years, transistors displaced tubes almost completely except for picture tubes and very high power or very high frequency uses.
Color television and digital

1963: Color television was commercially transmitted, and the first (radio) communication satellite, Telstar, was launched. Late 1960s: The USA long-distance telephone network began to convert to a digital network, employing digital radios for many of its links. 1970s: LORAN became the premier radio navigation system. Soon, the U.S. Navy experimented with satellite navigation. 1987: The GPS constellation of satellites was launched. Early 1990s: amateur radio experimenters began to use personal computers with audio cards to process radio signals. 1994: The U.S. Army and DARPA launched an aggressive successful project to construct a software radio that could become a different radio on the fly by changing software. Late 1990s: Digital transmissions began to be applied to broadcasting.

Telex on radio

Telegraphy did not go away on radio. Instead, the degree of automation increased. On land-lines in the 1930s, Teletypewriters automated encoding, and were adapted to pulse-code dialing to automate routing, a service called telex. For thirty years, telex was the absolute cheapest form of long-distance communication, because up to 25 telex channels could occupy the same bandwidth as one voice channel. For business and government, it was an advantage that telex directly produced written documents. Telex systems were adapted to short-wave radio by sending tones over single sideband. CCITT R.44 (the most advanced pure-telex standard) incorporated character-level error detection and retransmission as well as automated encoding and routing. For many years, telex-on-radio (TOR) was the only reliable way to reach some third-world countries. TOR remains reliable, though less-expensive forms of e-mail are displacing it. Many national telecom companies historically ran nearly pure telex networks for their governments, and they ran many of these links over short wave radio.

Legal issues with radio

When radio was first introduced in the 1930s many predicted the end of records. Radio was a free medium for the public to hear music for which they would normally pay. While some companies saw radio as a new avenue for promotion, others feared it would cut into profits from record sales and live performances. Many companies had their major stars sign agreements that they would not appear on radio.[17][18] Indeed, the music recording industry had a severe drop in profits after the introduction of the radio. For a while, it appeared as though radio was a definite threat to the record industry. Radio ownership grew from 2 out of 5 homes in 1931 to 4 out of 5 homes in 1938. Meanwhile record sales fell from $75 million in 1929 to $26 million in 1938 (with a low point of $5 million in 1933), though the economics of the situation were also affected by the Great Depression.[19] The copyright owners of these songs were concerned that they would see no gain from the popularity of radio and the free music it provided. Luckily, everything they needed to make this new medium work for them already existed in previous copyright law. The copyright holder for a song had control over all public performances for profit. The problem now was proving that the radio industry, which was just figuring out for itself how to make money from advertising and currently offered free music to anyone with a receiver, was making a profit from the songs. The test case was against Bamberger Department Store in Newark, New Jersey in 1922. The store was broadcasting music throughout its store on the radio station WOR. No advertisements were heard, except for at the beginning of the broadcast which announced "L. Bamberger and Co., One of America's Great Stores, Newark, New Jersey." It was determined through this and previous cases (such as the lawsuit against Shanley's Restaurant) that Bamberger was using the songs for commercial gain, thus making it a public performance for profit, which meant the copyright owners were due payment. With this ruling the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) began collecting licensing fees from radio stations in 1923. The beginning sum wa

Cuts Like a Knife: India Radio Show Using Bryan Adams to Fight Climate Change

A band called Summersalt, named for Jesus and Gandhi, is adding to the chorus

Credit: AP Photo/Siddharth Darshan Kumar READ MORE ABOUT: Climate Change | Music | Music News Sigh. Another song about climate change. This one's going to be a bummer of a musical number. But maybe not. Sure, the situation is dire when it comes to the death grip that fossil fuels and greenhouse gases seem to have on planet Earth.

But in a little place call Meghalaya, in northeast India, a popular FM music radio show is making fun of Bryan Adams, and helping people learn about clean energy. The show is called "Mawsawa," which means a "tone that echoes back" in the local language, called Khasi. In other words, Mawsawa is an imitation or spoof. The joke is on Western music. "For instance, a Bryan Adams song is sung in the local language but in the same tune, using traditional musical instruments. And the lyrics would be something to do with the environment and climate change," Ian Khongmen, the head of 93.5 Red FM radio, the station that hosts the show, tells Reuters.

The area of India that this state-sponsored radio show reaches (and entertains) includes small remote villages that rely in battery-powered radios for information, rather than TV or the Internet, notes a story on the project, by Teresa Rehman.

Change is in the air.

Local musicians are becoming inspired, including Kit Shangpliang, who was named in The New York Times once for playing at an Indian festival honoring the birth of Bob Dylan. (So maybe he came pre-inspired.) Kit plays guitar and sings for a band called "Summersalt." The indigenous experimental rockers, fans of social activism set to music, are now including climate change in their playlist. The FM show goes beyond music, too, engaging listeners to become more familiar and appreciative of their local environments. Last year, for instance, the show aired bird calls and asked people to identify the tweeters to win prizes. There are even characters, like Kong Lor, that talk about environmental problems "with a lot of zest and spectacle," says Khongmen, the station head. If this can be done in remote Indian villages, how about a rollout in the United States? Did we miss a show out there that does something similar? Let us know. Or, better yet, request some awareness the next time you call your local station. Especially if they air shows with hosts named Glenn and Rush. More from Planet Green Instrumental Kitaro's "Enchanted Nature" to Help Provide Clean Water to Distressed Communities Farm Aid Turns 25, Still 'Growing Hope for America' In Honor of Earth Day Billboard Magazine Publishes 20 Green Music Tips
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. Taos, New Mexico's KTAO Radio Station

Billed as the largest solar powered radio station in the country, KTAO based out of Taos, New Mexico has been converting sunshine into 100,000 watts of radio waves via 140 photovoltaic panels since 1991. Conscientious consumers from here to Timbuktu can access their special brand of eco-tastic tunes thanks to the convenience of the internet, but if you live in the west, you can also catch their auditory waves as far as 40 miles from Southern Colorado to Espanola, Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and communities in between. Playing an eclectic mix of reggae, world folk, Celtic and rock, the radio station is also the brainchild of the upcoming Taos Solar Music Festival (June 26-27) and even rents out their solar center to the public for parties and other special events.

2. Hoopa, California's KIDE Radio Station

The Hoopa Valley Tribes California-based radio station, KIDE, is not only the very first to be owned by Native American Indians it also happens to be powered by solar panels. Broadcasting from the 12 mile Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation home to the very same indigenous people who have lived on the land for well over 10,000 years the intent of the radio station is to educate the public on their self-sustainability traditions while also offering a diverse range of programming that entertains, informs and touches on the latest breaking news of the day.

3) Fairfield, Iowa's KRUU-LP Radio Station

Grassroots community radio station KRUU-LP, 100.1 FM, is hitting the airwaves from the middle of corn country (or Fairfield, Iowa to be exact) with a modest solar powered system which covers approximately 25% of their energy requirements. Their website details their solar electric system as follows: 24 Photocomm solar panels each rated at 65 Watts for a total rated capacity of 1.6kW, 2 arrays, each holding 12 adjustable solar panels, 1 Trace 4kW inverter, and 10 Interstate GR12140 12-volt gel cell batteries with a total rated capacity of 700 amp hours installed in a 24 volt configuration. If youre curious to hear what kind of auditory vibe they generate, they also stream from the internet at

4) San Francisco, California's KGO Newstalk AM 810

For the last several years, San Francisco-based news talk radio station KGO Newstalk AM 810 has been generating 7,300 watts or 20 kilowatts of green power for their broadcast facility via three concentrated mirror and lens photovoltaic silicon based solar arrays. Taking the plunge into green power was considered to be a natural transition for the station, which has added green programming initiatives and internal recycling projects to their daily list of earth-friendly commitments. KGO is also planning to replace their three-tower lamp beacons with LEDs and install a more efficient air conditioning system among other green efforts.

5) Clinton, Tennessees WYSH 1380 AM Radio Station

Clinton, Tennessees country hits station, WYSH 1380 AM, meets approximately 60% of their electricity needs by powering their studios with 8 kilowatts of green power via 36 rooftop-installed

photovoltaic solar panels. Installed by Efficient Energy of Tennessee, the $80,000 project is just one of several eco-friendly efforts that WYSH has taken, including an energy audit and the installation of energy efficient air and heating systems.

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