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TRIGONOMETRY
Angle and Its Measurement Angle: an angle may be defined as a measure of the rotation of a half ray about its origin. An angle XOP is positive if it is traced by a ray revolving in the anticlockwise direction and negative if it is traced by a ray revolving in the clockwise direction.
P

Initial Position O X Negative Angle

Terminal Position Positive Angle X O Initial Position

Terminal Position P

Measurement of an Angle: There are three systems of measurement of an angle: i) Sexagesimal System or English System ii) Centesimal system or French System iii) Circular System Sexagesimal System (degree measure): In this system an angle is measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. One complete revolution is 360 0 where one degree is written as 10. Further. Thus 10 = 60 minutes (or 60 ) and 1 = 60 seconds (or 60 ). An angle of 900 is also called a right angle. Centesimal System (grade measure): In this system an angle is measured in grades, minutes and seconds. Here 1 right angle = 100 grades, written as 100g, 1 grade = 100 minutes, written as 100 , and 1 minute = 100 seconds, written as 100 . Circular System (radian measure): In this system an angle is measured in radians. A radian is an angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc whose length is equal to its radius. AOB = 1 radian (written as 1C). B Since the whole circle subtends an angle of 3600 (4 right angles) at the centre and the angles at the centre of a circle are in the ratio of r substending arcs, O arc AB AOB r so that A 4 right angles circumference AOB =

arc

AB 4

right 2 r

angles

1 radian =

r 2 4 right angles = right angle 2 r radians = 2 right angles = 1800 = 200 g

2
1 radian =

180

degree =

180 7 22

6300 = 57016 22 nearly. 11

Trigonometric Ratios or Circular Functions:


Y P r y X
X M O X P r Y

M O

In the above figures, Let OM = x, MP = y and OP = r > 0. The circular functions are defined as: PM y OM x (i). = sin (ii). = cos OP r OP r OM x PM y (iii). = tan , x 0 (iv). = cot , y 0 PM y OM x (v).
OP PM r = cosec , y y

(vi).

OP OM

r = sec , x x

Trigonometric ratios (or functions) may also be defined with respect to a triangle. In a right angled triangle ABC, CAB = A and BCA = 90 = /2. With reference to angle A, the six trigonometric ratios are: B BC opposite side
AB hypotenuse

is called the sine of A, and written as sinA. AC adjacent side AB hypotenuse is called the cosine of A, and written as cosA. BC opposite side AC adjacent side
A C

is called the tangnet of A, and written as tanA. sinA Obviously, tan A= . The reciprocals of sine, cosine and tangent are called the cosecant, secant and cosA cotangent of A respectively. We write these as cosecA, secA, cotA respectively. Since the hypotenuse is the greatest side in a right angle triangle, sinA and cosA can never be greater than unity and cosecA and secA

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can cos A Note: All the six trigonometric functions have got a very important property in common that is of periodicity. Remember that the trigonometrical ratios are real numbers and remain same as long as angle A is real. Signs of Trigonometric Ratios:

never 1, cosec A

be less than unity. Hence sin 1, sec A 1, while tan A and cot A may take any numerical value.

1,

The following table describes the signs of various trigonometric ratios: Ist quadrant IInd quadrant IIIrd quadrant All positive sin , cosec positive tan , cot positive Trigonometrical Identities:

IVth quadrant sec , cos positive

An identity is a relation which is true for all values of the independent variable. There are three fundamental identities involving trigonometrical ratios: i) sin2 + cos2 = 1 ii) 1 + tan2 = sec2 iii) 1 + cot2 = cosec2 Trigonometric Ratios of Standard Angles
Angle 0
0 0

Ratios

Sin 0

Cos 1

Tan 0

Cosec Not defined

Sec 1

Cot Not defined

30

1 2

45

1 2 3 2
1

3 2 1 2
1 2
0

1 3
1

2 3

3
1

2
2

60

3
Not defined 1

2 3

1 3
0

90

Not defined

Allied Angles Table I equals 90 90 + 180 180+ 360 360+ Note: Angle and 90 are complementary angles, and 180 are supplementary angles sin(n + ( 1)n ) = sin , n cos(2n ) = cos , n tan(n + ) = tan , n n i.e. sine of general angle of the form n + (1) will have same sign as that of sine of angle and so on. The same is true for the respective reciprocal functions also.

sin sin cos cos sin sin sin sin

cos cos sin sin cos cos cos cos

tan tan cot cot tan tan tan tan

cot cot tan tan cot cot cot cot

sec sec cosec cosec sec sec sec sec

cosec cosec sec sec cosec cosec cosec cosec

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Trigonometric Ratios of Compound Angles: The Addition Formulae: (i). (ii). sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B tan A tanB (iii). tan (A + B) = 1 tan A tanB Subtraction Formulae: sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B cos (A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B tan A tanB (iii). tan (A B) = 1 tan A tanB Some Important Deductions: (i). (ii). sin (A + B) sin (A B) = sin2 A sin2 B cos (A + B) cos (A B) = cos2 A sin2 B cot A cot B 1 (iii). cot (A + B) = cot B cot A cot A cot B 1 (iv). cot (A B) = cot B cot A Transformation Formulae: (i). (ii). (a) Transformation of products into sums or differences: (i). 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B) (ii). 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) sin (A B) (iii). 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B) (iv). 2 sin A sin B = cos (A B) cos (A + B) The above formulae can be easily derived by taking the sum and the difference of the addition and subtraction formulae. (b) Transformation of sums or differences into products: (i). sin (A + B) + sin (A B) = 2 sin A cos B C D C D or, sin C + sin D = 2 sin cos 2 2 (ii). sin (A + B) sin (A B) = 2 cos A sin B C D C D or, sin C sin D = 2 cos sin 2 2 (iii). cos (A + B) + cos (A B) = 2 cos A cos B C D C D or, cos C + cos D = 2 cos cos 2 2 (iv). cos (A B) cos (A + B) = 2 sin A sin B C D D C or, cos C cos D = 2 sin sin 2 2 C D D C Here A B = C and A + B = D A= and B = . 2 2 sin(A B) (v). tan A + tan B = . cos A cosB Trigonometric Ratios of Multiple Angles: (i). (ii). (iii). sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A 2 2 2 2 cos 2A = cos A sin A = 2 cos A 1 = 1 2 sin A 2 tan A tan 2A = 1 tan2 A

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sin 3A = 3 sin A 4 sin A = 4 sin (60 A) sin A sin (60 + A) 3 cos 3A = 4 cos A 3 cos A = 4 cos (600 A) cos A cos (600 + A) 3 tan A tan3 A (vi). tan 3A = = tan (600 A) tan A tan (600 A). 1 3 tan2 A Trigonometric Ratios of Submultiple of an Angle: (iv). (v). (i). (ii).
A A cos 2 2 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A cos A = cos sin = 2 cos 1 = 1 2 sin 2 2 2 2 A 2 tan 2 tan A = A 1 tan2 2 A A sin A = 3 sin 4 sin3 3 3 A 3 A cos A = 4 cos 3 cos 3 3 A 3 A 3 tan tan 3 3 tan A = 2 A 1 3 tan 3 A A sin cos 1 sin A. 2 2 A if 2n 2n A A or sin +cos = 1 sin A 4 2 2 2 otherwise
3 0 0

sin A = 2 sin

(iii).

(iv). (v).

(vi).

3 4

sin

A 2

cos

A 2

1 sin A

or sin

A A cos = 2 2

1 sin A

if

2n

A 2

2n

5 4

otherwise

tan

A = 2

tan2 A 1 1 tan A
A lies. 2

The ambiguities of signs are removed by locating the quadrant in which


A A sin + cos2 2 A A sin2 cos2
A A sin 2 + cos 2 is ve A A sin 2 - cos 2 is + ve

is + ve is + ve
A sin 2 A sin 2 A + cos 2 A cos 2

/4

is + ve is ve

A A 2 sin2 + cos is ve A A sin2 - cos2 is ve

| a cosA + b sinA |

a2

b2

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Also cosA Notes:

sinA =

2 sin

2 cos A

Any formula that gives the value of sin


n -1 A 2
n

A in terms of sinA shall also give the value of sine of 2

.
A in terms of cosA shall also give the value of cos of 2

Any formula that gives the value of cos


2n 2 A

.
n A A in terms of tanA shall also give the value of tan of 2 2

Any formula that gives the value of tan

(a) For any angles A, B, C: sin (A + B +C) = sinA cosB cosC + cosA sinB cosC + cosA cosB sinC sinA sinB sinC cos (A + B +C) = cosA cosB cosC- cosA sinB sinC - sinA cosB sinC sinA sinB cosC tanA+tanB+tanC-tanA tanB tanC ; tan (A+B+C)= 1-tanA tanB-tan BtanC-tanA tanC cotAcotBcotC-cotA-cotB-cotC cot (A+B+C)= cotA cotB cot BcotC cotA cotC-1 (b)

If A, B, C are the angles of a triangle ( or A + B + C = ), then sinA cosB cosC + cosA sinB cosC + cosA cosB sinC = sinA sinB sinC cosA sinB sinC + sinA cosB sinC + sinA sinB cosC = 1 + cosA cosB cosC tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1 B C C A A B tan tan +tan tan +tan tan =1 2 2 2 2 2 2 A B C A B C cot cot cot cot cot cot 2 2 2 2 2 2 sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = -1-4cosA cosB cosC cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 - 2cosA cosB cosC A B C sin A sinB sin C 4 cos cos cos 2 2 2 A B C cos A cos B cos C 1 4 sin sin sin 2 2 2

Graphs of Trigonometric Functions: We have seen that all trigonometric function are periodic. Since sin (2 + x) = sin x, cos (2 + x) = cos x, and tan ( + x) = tan x, the period of sine and cosine functions is 2 where as the period of tangent function is . 2 Moreover, period of sin ax or cos ax is and that of tan ax is . a a