THAMES WATER UTILITIES LIMITED Capital Delivery Rose Kiln Court, Rose Kiln Lane Reading Berkshire RG2

0HP

DOCUMENT REF: ISSUE DATE:

TWUL/E04 ISSUE 4.0 MAY 2009

STANDARD PRACTICE DOCUMENT E04 ZONING OF HAZARDOUS AREAS ISSUE 4.0

Date Issued Manual No.

May 2009 Uncontrolled Copy

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 ISSUE 4.0 0.1 CONFIDENTIALITY Title to and copyright in this document vest in Thames Water Utilities Limited (TWUL). This document is CONFIDENTIAL to the recipient and members of this organisation with a need to see it. All issued paper copies must be returned when the recipient has no further use for it, and if he/she is an employee, all copies (electronic or otherwise) shall be surrendered on leaving the Company. Reproduction of the whole or part thereof shall not be made without the express permission of the Head of Capital Delivery.

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 ISSUE 4.0 0.2 CONTENTS LIST SECTION 0.1 0.2 0.2.1 DESCRIPTION CONFIDENTIALITY CONTENTS LIST List of Tables 10 List of Figures 13 NOTES REGISTERED HOLDERS REVIEW AND AMENDMENT PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION ENQUIRIES AND AUTHORS GENERAL SPECIFIC MEANINGS GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS Definition of Area Classification Terms 18 Abbreviations (used within this SPD) 22 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.1 6.1.1 SCOPE REFERENCED MATERIAL LEGISLATION STANDARDS OTHER DOCUMENTS DSEAR COMPLIANCE DESIGN OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT STORAGE OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES CONTROL AND MITIGATION MEASURES MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROCEDURES MARKING OF HAZARDOUS AREAS PRINCIPLES OF AREA CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION KEY TERMS FOR AREA CLASSIFICATION HAZARDOUS AREA ZONING EXTENT OF ZONE NON- HAZARDOUS AREA GRADE OF RELEASE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRADE OF RELEASE AND CLASS OF ZONE PROCEDURE FOR AREA CLASSIFICATION ASSESSING THE RISK Risk Assessment Process 38 Flammable Liquids in Drainage Systems (FLIDS) 39 DETERMINING HAZARDOUS AREAS 41 24 25 25 25 25 27 27 28 29 30 31 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 38 38 15 15 15 17 17 17 18 18 2 3

0.2.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1

1.4.2

6.1.2 6.2

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2 6.4 7.4.2 7.2.3 7.4.3.5 6.2.0 ISSUE 4.5 7.3 6.2 7.3 7.3 6.2 7.4 7.4.4.2 7.3.4.6 Page 4 of 167 .1 7.4 6.1 Personnel 42 Timing 42 Information Required 43 Equipment Details 43 Recording Area Classifications 43 CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS WHERE FLAMMABLE GASES OR VAPOURS MAY BE PRESENT 45 CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS WHERE COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS MAY BE PRESENT 45 Classification Procedure for Explosive Dust Clouds 46 Dust Layer Hazard 46 7.4 6.0 7.4.0 6.2.2.1 MODEL SOLUTIONS FOR SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES INTRODUCTION VENTILATION AND ODOUR CONTROL SYSTEMS SEWERS Domestic Foul Sewer 49 Combined Sewer 50 SEWAGE PUMPING STATIONS Domestic Effluent Wet Well 52 Combined Effluent Wet Well 52 Combined Effluent Dry Well 52 Equipment in Wet Wells 53 Example Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations 54 STORAGE CHAMBERS AND CSO’S PRELIMINARY AND PRIMARY TREATMENT (INCLUDING STORM WATER STORAGE) 66 66 51 48 48 48 49 6.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.5 7.4.1 7.1 6.2.

0 ISSUE 4.0 7.4 7.7 7. SUMPS AND LAGOONS PIPEWORK CONTAINING DIGESTED SLUDGE DIGESTED SLUDGE CENTRIFUGES DIGESTED SLUDGE PRESSES AND PRESS HOUSES Press Liquors 81 GAS MAINS Definitions 82 Gas Pipework and Fittings 82 Condensate Drains 84 Low Pressure Gas Mains Installed in the Open Air 84 Medium Pressure Gas Mains Installed in the Open Air 85 Medium and Low Pressure Gas Mains Installed in Covered Ducts 86 Gas Mains Installed in Plant Rooms 86 Gas Receivers 87 GASHOLDERS GAS COMPRESSORS AND BLOWERS Gas Compressors and Blowers Installed in the Open Air 90 Enclosed Gas Compressors and Blowers 92 FLARES / WASTE GAS BURNERS 94 87 90 72 72 73 77 80 80 81 7.6.14.1 82 7.13.14.14.14.14.2 7.14 7.2 7.7 7.16.5 7.1 7.16 7.14.6.8 7.16. THICKENING/DEWATERING DIGESTERS DIGESTED SLUDGE VESSELS.14.13 7.3 7.2 7.6.14.6.1 General 66 Classification of Inlet Channels and Chambers Open to Atmosphere 67 Classification of Enclosed or Sheltered Inlet Channels and Chambers in Open Air 68 Enclosed.6 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.1 7. Open and Ventilated Channels in Buildings 69 Primary Settlement (including Storm Water Storage) 71 INTERSTAGE PUMPING STATIONS SLUDGE STORAGE.8 7.3 7.15 7.17 Page 5 of 167 .11 7.4 7.12 7.5 7.9 7.10 7.6.

3.1 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES 113 SOURCES OF IGNITION 113 99 102 102 102 103 103 103 105 106 106 106 106 106 108 108 108 109 98 7.18.0 7. BOILERS AND OTHER FIRED EQUIPMENT LPG FACILITIES OTHER PLANT CLASSIFICATION OF FACILITIES (WORKSHOPS AND LABORATORIES) INTRODUCTION WORKSHOPS LABORATORIES Fire Control Measures 110 Fume Cupboards 111 Releases into enclosed spaces 111 10.22 8.0 9.18 7.21 7.2 8.3.1 9.0 ISSUE 4.3 7.20 7.5 8.0 10.4 8.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.3.6 8.3 8.18.2 9.19 7.2 9.3 Page 6 of 167 .3 9.8 9.18.1 9.2 7. Boilers or Other Fired Equipment 98 Plant Rooms for Pumps 99 Other Enclosed Spaces 99 LPG FACILITIES DISTILLATE FUEL ROADWAYS AND VEHICLES FOR USE IN ZONED AREAS ODOUR CONTROL PLANT CLASSIFICATION OF FACILITIES (WATER TREATMENT) INTRODUCTION ELECTROCHLORINATION PLANT AMMONIATION FACILITIES UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES AND TUNNELS PUMPING STATIONS PLANT ROOMS FOR ENGINES.7 8.1 PLANT ROOMS Plant Rooms for Engines.0 8.1 8.

9 10.0 11.1.1.2.0 10.0 ISSUE 4.13 11.7 10.1 11.2.4 10.2.2 11.2 10. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING COMPETENCY AND TRAINING BASIS AND FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION FORMS OF INSPECTION 121 121 122 125 125 126 126 126 127 127 127 129 129 129 129 115 10.1.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.12 10.7 10.2.2.6 10.2 10.5 10.2.1.5 10.7 10.6 10.8 10.3 Page 7 of 167 .10 10.2.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.1.1.1 Unprotected Flames 113 Mechanically Generated Sparks 113 Static Electricity 113 Lightning 114 Electrical Equipment 114 Hot Surfaces (non-electrical equipment) 114 Other Ignition Sources 114 GAS DETECTORS Introduction 115 Use of Gas Detectors 115 Use of Gas Detectors in a Safety Instrumented System 116 Methods of Flammable Gas Detection 118 Response characteristics 118 Location of Sensors 119 References 120 SELECTION OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT CATEGORY SELECTION OF TYPES OF PROTECTION ACCORDING TO HAZARD ZONE SELECTION ACCORDING TO TEMPERATURE CLASS SELECTION ACCORDING TO APPARATUS SUBGROUP SELECTION ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS COMPLETION OF RECORDS MARKING OF APPARATUS INSTALLATION ELECTRIC LIGHTING LIGHTNING PROTECTION INSPECTION.1 10.11 10.4 10.2 10.3 10.1.

3.3. and Pressure 141 SOURCES OF BIOGAS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES Sewer Gas 141 Raw Sludge 142 Digested Sludge 142 Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia 142 OTHER SOURCES OF GAS Landfill Gas 142 Geological Methane 142 SOURCES OF FLAMMABLE LIQUID FROM ACCIDENTS Accident Spillages (WRc Data) 143 Flammable Liquids In Drainage Systems 143 Vapourisation Rates (Petrol) 144 143 142 141 130 132 132 132 133 133 133 133 133 134 134 134 134 135 138 138 138 A1.2 A1.3 Page 8 of 167 .0 A1.4 A1.4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 11.3.5.1 A1.2 A1.8 11.1 A1.1 A1.2 A1.10 11.0 ISSUE 4.4 11.2.2.3 A1.0 12. Temperature.5.7 11.2 A1.5 11.2.3 A1.4 A1.2.2 A1.1 12.4 A1.3 A1.11 11.3.3 12. Lubricating Oils and Treatment Chemicals 140 Effects of Oxygen Enrichment.4 A1.2 12.9 11.4.5 A1.6 11.5.1 A1.1 INSPECTION FINDINGS AND FAULT CATEGORIES ISOLATION MAINTENANCE OF INTRINSICALLY SAFE SYSTEMS ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS TO APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS INSULATION TESTING FASTENINGS AND TOOLS PORTABLE APPARATUS PERMITS TO WORK AND GAS FREE CERTIFICATES EQUIPMENT REPAIR REFERENCES THAMES WATER PUBLICATIONS HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE (HSE) PUBLICATIONS BRITISH STANDARDS MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS SOURCES OF RELEASE SOURCES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS Flammable Gases 139 Properties of Biogas 139 Properties of Fuels.12 12.

5 A2.0 A2.1 A2.1 A2.2 A2.4.5.2 A2.2 A2.3.3 A2.6 Page 9 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.2.2 A2.3 A2.2 A2.4.3 A2.2.4.0 A2.5.1 A2.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.3 A2.SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS Supply and Discharge Locations 149 Loss of Artificial Ventilation 149 Gas Detection 150 VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FACILITIES Wet Wells 150 Gas Compressors and Blowers 150 Plant Rooms 151 SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEMS 153 150 149 147 145 145 145 A2.1 A2.4 A2.3.2.5.1 VENTILATION AND AREA CLASSIFICATION GENERAL TYPES OF VENTILATION Main Types 145 Natural Ventilation 145 Artificial Ventilation 146 Specific Categories for Area Classification 147 CLASSIFICATION OF ENCLOSED AND SHELTERED AREAS Requirement and Definition 147 Classification Details 147 ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION .4 A2.2.

2.1 A3. 158 Conclusions.3 A3.3.6 A3.6. Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ warning signs on Electrochlorination Plants Typical Sources of Dangerous Substances Zone Extents for High Risk Combined Sewer Vents Page 28 28 28 33 46 Page 10 of 167 .1.1 7.2 4.1 4.1 Introduction 153 IEC 61508 requirements 153 Risk Reduction requirements 156 Technical Options 157 Summary of Reliability Calculations.1 List of Tables Table 4.1 Title Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ Warning Signs on Waste Water installations Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ warning signs on Digester/Sludge Installations.Submersible Pump and Motor Set (NOT domestic foul only) .6.3 6.2 A2.6.0 A3.4 0.6.5 A2.2(b) 163 Example 2: Floating Roof Digester .2 A3.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.3 A2.0 ISSUE 4.Hazardous Area Extents for PRV 165 FLARE MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCE 167 162 162 A2.see Figure 7.1.4 A2.6.1 HAZARDOUS AREA CALCULATIONS DISPERSION CALCULATIONS Dispersion from Release at High Velocity (more than 10m/s) 162 Dispersion from Release at Low Velocity 162 DISPERSION GRAPH FOR ZONE EXTENTS FROM COVERED WET WELLS 163 EXAMPLES OF HAZARDOUS AREA CALCULATIONS 163 Example1: Sewage Pumping Station .2 A3. 161 A3.3.6.1 A3.2 A3.0 A2.

16 10.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0. Ex “e” and Ex “n” Installations Inspection Schedule for Ex “i” Installations Properties of Flammable Materials .0 7.2 Zone Classification of Sewage Pumping Stations Hazard Distances from Openings in High Risk Wet Wells Zone Classification of Inlet Works.1 11.3 10.14 7.Gases Composition of Biogas 46 48 61 71 73 74 77 79 84 86 87 88 90 95 96 111 112 113 116 117 118 119 122 125 126 132 132 Page 11 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.2 10.10 7.5 10.5 7.8 11.2 A1.8 7.6 10.4 10.15 7.6 7.13 7.7 10.7 7.12 7.1 A1.2 7.3 7.11 7. Channels and Chambers Zoning Distance for Water Seal Leakage – Floating Roof Digesters Hazard Distances for Inadequately Ventilated Storage Vessels Containing Digested Sludge Hazard Distances for Open Sumps Containing Digested Sludge Zone 1 Distances for Gas Leakage from Condensate Drains Zone 2 Distances for Medium Pressure Gas Mains in Open Air Zone 2 Distances for Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors in Open Air Discharge radius from Compressor Vents Minimum Ventilation Rates (m3/s) for Enclosed Centrifugal Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors Zone 2 Distances for Enclosed Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors Flare Safety Distances (Minimum Separation Distances) Zoning Distances for LPG Storage Tanks in Open Air Zoning Distances for LPG Facilities in Open Air Safety Integrity Levels SIL Test Intervals Variation in Detector Response to Different Gases Categorisation of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Types of Protection Available for the Achievement of Safety when using Electrical Apparatus in Explosive Atmospheres Types of Protection Available for the Achievement of Safety when using Mechanical Apparatus in Explosive Atmospheres Relationship between Temperature Class and Maximum surface Temperature of the Apparatus Minimum Thickness of Metal Sheet or Metal Pipes Inspection Schedule for Ex “d”.1 10.9 7.4 7.

9 A3.5 A2.2 Properties of Flammable Materials .2 142 144 147 147 152 153 154 156 160 Page 12 of 167 .8 A2.4 A2.0 ISSUE 4.7 A2.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.1 A2.0 A1.3 A2.3 A2.Fuels Enclosed Area with an Internal Source of Release – Effect of Ventilation Type on Zone of Hazardous Area Enclosed Area with no Internal Sources of Release but Connected to an Outside Hazard Zone – Effect of Ventilation Type on Zone of Hazardous Area Precautions Applicable on Loss of Artificial Ventilation for Enclosed Areas Degree of Natural Ventilation (Digester Boiler House) Safety Integrity Levels Safe Failure Fractions Gas Detector Failure Rates Solenoid Valve Failure Rates System Test Intervals Hazard Distances for Sewage Pumping Stations Recommended Design Total Radiation 133 141 142 A2.1 A3.6 A2.

2 a to l 7.6 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.1 6.13 7.2 List of Figures Figure Title Page 4.2.1a to b 7.1 6.15 7.5a 7.4 7.8 7.9 7.16 7.7 7.14 7.0 0.12 7.11 7.2 7.3 7.10 7.5b 7.17 7.18 7.19 Type of Warning Sign FLIDS Assessment Process (New Build and Modified Installation) Shading convention for Hazardous Area Zones (BS60079-10 & BS61241) Zoning for Sewers Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Zoning of Medium Risk Inlet Channels or Chambers Open to Atmosphere Zoning of High Risk Enclosed or Sheltered Inlet Channels or Chambers Zoning of High Risk Enclosed Screen Channels in Buildings Zoning of Medium Risk Enclosed Screen Channels in Buildings Zoning for Fixed Roof Digesters Zoning for Floating Roof Digesters Zoning for Open Storage Vessels or Sumps Containing Digested Sludge Zoning for Covered Storage Vessels Containing Digested Sludge Zoning for Open Sumps Containing Digested Sludge Where Natural Ventilation is Restricted Zoning for Condensate Drains on Gas Pipework in Chambers Zoning for Condensate Drains on Gas Pipework in Freely Ventilated Areas above Ground Zoning for Water Sealed Gasholder Zoning for Double Skin Inflatable (Balloon) Type Gasholders Zoning for Compressors and Blowers Beneath a Canopy in the Open Air Zoning for Compressors and Blowers in the Open Air Zoning of Enclosed Compressors and Blowers with Inadequate Ventilation or No Flow Monitoring Open Flare Minimum Separation Distance Ground Flare Minimum Separation Distance 27 36 39 45 49 to 60 63 64 65 66 70 71 72 73 74 77 78 83 84 86 87 88 91 92 Page 13 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 ISSUE 4.0 7.20 7.21 8.1 8.2 8.3 A1.1 A3.1 Zoning for LPG Storage Tanks in the Open Air Zoning for LPG Storage Facilities in the Open Air Zoning for Open and Partially Enclosed Sodium Hypochlorite Storage Tanks Associated with Electrochlorination Plant. Zoning for Closed Top Sodium Hypochlorite Storage Tanks Associated with Electrochlorination Plant Oxygen Safety Distances in Metres Graph of Petrol (Heptane) Vaporisation Rates for Given Areas of Spill Hazard Distances from Sewage Pumping Stations 95 96 99 100 102 137 156

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 ISSUE 4.0 0.3 NOTES This document* is issued** by Capital Delivery on behalf of TWUL. Within Capital Delivery it forms part of the overall Records as required by BS EN ISO 9001. It demonstrates the Quality level of corporate expertise in the above field and represents the Department practices which are to be exercised on all projects. Additions and amendments will be controlled, by the Standards Co-ordinator as coordinating editor, to this document as required to reflect current practices and standards. Amendments will be made by replacement of the applicable section(s), each being identified by amendment letters, which are alphabetical, and the date of the amendment. The current changes will be identified by highlighting the changed text. In every case the document will be re-issued and shall be identified by issue, consecutively numbered. Each issue shall replace all previous issues and amendments.
*Document means both the electronically held version and the paper copy where this is formally issued.

**Issued means available on the Twexnet database or provided as a paper copy containing the same information. 0.4 REGISTERED HOLDERS NB The latest version of this document is always that held in the Twexnet database The register of those holding controlled paper copies of this manual is maintained by the Standards Co-ordinator, Rose Kiln Court. Only controlled copy holders will be advised of changes. All applications for either controlled or uncontrolled copies are to be directed through the Engineering Senior Managers to the Standards Co-ordinator at Rose Kiln Court. A full, controlled hard copy of the management system documents is held in the Thames Water library. 0.5 REVIEW AND AMENDMENT PROCEDURE This document will be reviewed by the owner periodically to ensure its continued effectiveness with regard to any changes in best engineering practice, standards policy and practical application problems. After changes are made, approved and issued, users will be notified via an intranet announcement. All controlled paper document holders will be issued with the amendment under cover of the amendment issue and record sheet, which will show the current status, for each section of the document. Registered paper copy holders shall acknowledge receipt of the amendments by signing and returning a copy of the amendment issue and record sheet to the Standards Co-ordinator. Amendments are identified by an ascending whole number and each issue of amendments cancels and replaces all previous issues. The registered holders list of the paper copies of this manual shall be updated, as changes occur.

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 0.0 ISSUE 4.0 To: Standards Section, Rose Kiln Court

Document Change Request
_____________________________________________________________________ _ PRIORITY Document Title ________________________________ Current Issue_____________ Change Requested by __________________________ Dept ________________

Location _____________________ Tel No __________________ Email Id__________ Reason for Change: Date ___________________

Details of Change:

____________________________________________________________________ Accept/Reject: Reason for Rejection:

Signed:

Date:

____________________________________________________________________ Date Incorporated* ______________________________ Updated document issue No.* _____________________ *To be inserted by <Issuing Authority>

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many processes either use or produce substances that have the potential to create a risk from energetic (energy-releasing) events such as fires.2 GENERAL Many gases.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1. This document also provides a standardised approach using ‘model solutions’ for the classification of areas where explosive atmospheres may occur. subject to approval by the Project Manager based on the information on hazardous area classification in the Technical Appendix section of this SPD. vapours. Where the standardised approach is inappropriate or creates difficulties. what work activities involve these substances and how they might give rise to a fire or explosion with potential harm to employees and the public.1.1 1. It is often necessary to use mechanical and electrical apparatus in locations where such flammable materials may be present. and appropriate precautions must therefore be taken to ensure that all such apparatus is adequately protected in order to reduce the likelihood of ignition of any explosive atmosphere. a classification from first principles approach can be followed. Derogation of the content or intent of this asset standard requires written consent from the Thames Water Progect Manager in accordance with the Contract Standard Practice Document (SPD) E04 provides information on the background to the Regulations and the requirements for compliance.2 ENQUIRIES AND AUTHORS All queries and clarifications should initially be raised through the Project Manager. they may burn readily and with considerable explosive force if mixed with air in appropriate proportions. 1. When ignited. DSEAR sets minimum requirements for the protection of workers from fire and explosion risks arising from dangerous substances and potentially explosive atmospheres. The purpose being to ensure that a consistent approach is used in the classification of hazardous areas and for the correct selection.0 ISSUE 4. mists and dusts encountered in industry are flammable and some of these occur in the water and sewage industry. explosions and exothermic reaction. installation and maintenance of electrical equipment and other sources of ignition. potential ignition sources include electrical arcs and sparks.1.1 1.0 1. This SPD was prepared by: Entec UK Ltd 17 Angel Gate City Road London EC1V 2SH Tel: 0207 8431400 Fax: 0207 8431410 1. Such substances are known as dangerous substances in the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR). When using electrical apparatus.0 INTRODUCTION In industry. hot Page 17 of 167 . This risk assessment needs to identify what dangerous substances are present in the workplace. The Regulations require Thames Water Utilities Limited (TWUL) to carry out a risk assessment on all of its assets.

0 surfaces and. hazardous area classification or the zoning of hazardous areas. This Standard Practice Document (SPD) has been developed as a standard for use in the water treatment. (see Section 5.0). alternatively the apparatus must be designed. the apparatus should be located outside hazardous areas. Certified A term applied as in ‘certified apparatus’. It is. Auto-ignition Temperature (AIT) See ignition temperature. Buoyancy of Release A gas or vapour should be considered as a buoyant and lighter than air if its density on release to atmosphere would be less than 0. necessary to identify areas within which such precautions are required. General guidance as to the main principles. Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Page 18 of 167 . or to a system. This is known as area classification. definitions and explanations of terms relating to area classification has been set out internationally and is followed in the UK by the British Standards Institution. installed and maintained in accordance with measures recommended for the area in which the apparatus is to be located.1 Definition of Area Classification Terms Adequate Ventilation This is ventilation (natural. Area Classification Area classification is the notional division of a facility into hazardous and non-hazardous areas. Apparatus Group (or subgroup) Certain electrical apparatus for use in hazardous areas is allocated to a group or subgroup depending on its suitability for use with specific gases. The guidance states that recommendations for specific industries should be provided by codes relating to those industries. (see Section A2. but can be applied to a component. therefore. ‘should’. in certain circumstances with mechanical equipment sparks caused by friction. Whenever practicable. 1.4. ‘shall’ and ‘must’ have the following specific meanings: • • • 1. and is defined in BS 5345 Code of Practice for Selection. In general. sewerage and sewage treatment activities of Thames Water Plc.4 ‘may’ ‘should’ ‘shall’ and ‘must’ where alternatives are equally acceptable where a provision is preferred where a provision is mandatory GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS 1.3 SPECIFIC MEANINGS In this Standard Practice Document (SPD) ‘may’. protection against mechanical and electrical ignition sources is achieved by implementing one of two procedures. but insufficient to avoid their initial formation and spread throughout the area. and the sub-division of hazardous areas into zones.75 relative to the ambient air.0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1. artificial or a combination of both) sufficient to avoid persistence of explosive atmospheres within sheltered or enclosed areas.2).

mist or dust. or one of relatively short duration which occurs frequently.2. Hazardous Area and Zone A hazardous area or zone is defined as a three dimensional space in which an explosive atmosphere is. Grade of Release See source and grade of release. (see Section 5. Dilution Ventilation Artificial ventilation sufficient to maintain. All other areas are refereed to as non-hazardous in this context.3).3). Continuous Grade Release A release that is continuous.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1. constructed to the certification documents. solid. generally. liquid. of flammable substances in the form of gas. (see Section A2. complies with a standard’. Hazardous Used only in this SPD for hazards due to the presence of an explosive atmosphere which might be ignited. Flammable Limits (or range) The limits of combustibility of flammable gases or vapours when mixed with air. Forced Draught Ventilation The provision of artificial ventilation by delivering air to the area to be ventilated. Synonymous with explosive limits (or range). or may be expected to be. The addition of the prefix ‘non’ indicates that the substances are not readily ignited. Flash Point The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapour to form a mixture with air that can be ignited momentarily in prescribed laboratory apparatus.0 ISSUE 4. combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed mixture. In a hazardous area three types of zone are recognised: Zone 0. asphyxiation. or nearly so.6). in which after ignition. It does not include those from other causes such as toxicity. etc. present in such frequencies as to require special precautions for the construction and use of mechanical and electrical apparatus. Zone 1 and Zone 2.0 (other than Mining Applications or Explosives Processing and Manufacture) Part 1 as ‘a formal attestation by a recognised testing station that a prototype or sample of apparatus (or component or system). Refers to any substance. under atmospheric conditions. Flammable Synonymous with inflammable. Explosive Atmosphere A mixture with air. Explosion Protected A general term for electrical apparatus suitably constructed and protected for use in a hazardous area. gas or vapour. Page 19 of 167 . that is easily ignited. as non-hazardous an enclosed area containing a source of release. vapour. or an aperture into a hazardous area. but does not necessarily indicate that they are non-combustible. See upper explosive limit and lower explosive limit. (see Section 5.

or the use of any equipment likely to cause heat.2. (see Section 5. Synonymous with auto and self ignition temperatures. It also includes caulking. Over-pressure Ventilation Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure above ambient pressure.5 ms-1 and should frequently be above 2 ms-1.0 ISSUE 4. chipping.2). vapour or liquid. (see Sections 5. It is usually expressed as a percentage by volume. Typically air velocities should rarely be less than 0. Permit to Work A document issued by an authorised person to permit work to be carried out safely in a defined area under specified conditions.4). The lowest concentration of a flammable gas or vapour in air at atmospheric pressure capable of being ignited.5). Ignition Temperature The temperature at which a substance will begin to burn without application of any source of ignition. or for the control of non-electrical sources of ignition are not required. Non-hazardous Area An area in which explosive atmospheres are not expected to be present such that special precautions for the construction and use of mechanical and electrical apparatus.0 Hot Work This includes welding. riveting and any other heat producing operation. natural or artificial.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1. (see Section A2. Open Area An area in an open air situation where vapours are readily dispersed by wind. Page 20 of 167 . Induced Draught Ventilation The provision of artificial ventilation by the removal of air from the area to be ventilated. Protection See types of protection. and providing dimensions of the surrounding hazardous area referred to the single point. drilling. Note: such an area may be part of a greater restricted area. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Synonymous with lower flammable limit. or the use of any flame or electric arc.6). Inadequate Ventilation Ventilation. Release An emission of flammable gas. Primary Grade Release A release that is likely to occur in normal operation. Point Source Method A method of determining the size of a hazardous area or zone by regarding all releases from a plant item as emanating from a single point. (see Section A1. which is insufficient to avoid persistence of an explosive atmosphere within sheltered or enclosed areas. (see Section A2. unless it is carried out in such a way as to keep the temperature below the level at which ignition of an explosive atmosphere could occur. flame or spark.2).

Electrical apparatus: Type of protection ‘d’ .1. Type of protection ‘p’ . (see Section 10. See primary grade release and secondary grade release. Self-ignition See ignition temperature.0 Secondary Grade Release A release that is unlikely to occur in normal operation and. Types of Protection Measures applied in the construction of electrical and mechanical apparatus to prevent the ignition of a surrounding flammable release.pressurisation. in any event. Source of Ignition Any phenomenon that may give rise to the ignition of an explosive atmosphere Static Electricity The build-up of an electrical difference of potential between or charge through friction or dissimilar materials or substances.flameproof enclosure (refer to BS EN 60079-1). continuous dilution and pressurised rooms (refer to BS EN 60079-2). Type of protection ‘q’ . ‘ib’ .oil immersion (refer to BS EN 60079-6).6). Type of protection ‘N’. Source and Grade of Release For the purpose of area classification. Sheltered Area An area within an open area where ventilation may be less than in a true open area but has adequate ventilation as defined in Section A2.type of protection N (refer to BS EN 60079-15).DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1.0 ISSUE 4.6).powder / sand filling (refer to BS EN 60079-5). Type of protection ‘m’ – encapsulation (refer to BS EN 60079-18).3. Type of protection ‘o’ . will be of short duration. a source of release is defined as a point from which flammable gas.increased safety (refer to BS EN 60079-7).6). Temperature Class (T class) One of six values of temperature allocated to electrical apparatus derived from a system of classification according to the maximum surface temperature of the apparatus.for use in potentially explosive atmospheres by use of a flow restricting enclosure (refer to BS EN 13463). Type of protection ‘i’. Type of protection ‘s’ – special (refer to BS EN 60079-14). vapour or liquid may be released to the atmosphere. ‘n’ . ‘ia’. Type of protection ‘e’ . (see Section 5.intrinsically safe apparatus or system (refer to BS EN 60079-11 and 25). These releases are graded in terms of their likely frequency and duration. Page 21 of 167 . (see Section 5. Mechanical / Non-electrical Apparatus: Type of protection ‘fr’ .

2 ACH BS DSEAR FLIDS HSE IChemE IGE IP LEL SPD TWUL Abbreviations (used within this SPD) Air Changes per Hour British Standard Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations Flammable Liquids In Drainage Systems Health and Safety Executive Institution of Chemical Engineers Institution of Gas Engineers Institute of Petroleum Lower Explosive Limit Standard Practice Document Thames Water Utilities Limited Page 22 of 167 .3). Zoning of Hazardous Areas Alternative title for area classification. Type of protection ‘k’ – by liquid immersion techniques (refer to BS EN 13463). Type of protection ‘d’ – by using flameproof enclosures (refer to BS EN 13463). Zone 2 That part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in operation and.2). Artificial ventilation refers to ventilation caused by air purges or mechanical means such as fans. (see Section 5. (see Section A1. The concentration of a flammable gas or vapour in air at atmospheric pressure above which combustion will not occur. Natural ventilation refers to ventilation caused by wind or convection effects. inadequate ventilation. will exist only for a short period. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) Synonymous with upper flammable limit. Ventilation Ventilation is a general term to indicate air movement and replacement by fresh air.3). 1. (see Section 5. Zone 1 That part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation.3).4.0 ISSUE 4. induced draught ventilation and over-pressure ventilation. dilution ventilation. (see Section 5.0 Type of protection ‘c’ – by application of constructional safety measures (refer to BS EN 13463). See adequate ventilation. if it occurs. forced draught ventilation.0). It is usually expressed as a percentage by volume.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1. Type of protection ‘b’ – by controlling the ignition source (refer to BS EN 13463). (see Section A2. Zone 0 That part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present or present for long periods.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 1.0 ISSUE 4.0 UEL Upper Explosive Limit Page 23 of 167 .

0 SCOPE This SPD applies to all of Thames Water’s facilities (except for sludge incineration plant). it does not provide guidance on the extra precautions to be taken where such substances involve a toxic or asphyxiation hazard. definitions and explanations of terms relating to area classification has been set out internationally and is followed in the UK by the British Standards Institution. modified and existing. including existing installations. TWUL need to assess incinerator risks with respect to suitably appropriate legislation.0 ISSUE 4. This SPD has been developed as a standardised approach to the assessment of fire and explosion risk and the classification of hazardous areas in all of Thames Water’s facilities. new. This SPD is intended to ensure compliance with DSEAR and therefore deals with fire and explosion hazards due to the presence of flammable or combustible substances including dusts. Page 24 of 167 . must meet the requirements of the Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmosphere Regulations 1996.0 2. as the regulations stipulate that all equipment and protective systems installed in places where explosive atmospheres may occur. where dangerous substances are present or may be produced that could give rise to a potentially explosive atmosphere.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 2. The guidance states that recommendations for specific industries should be provided by codes relating to those industries. The SPD also applies to the assessment of existing facilities. or any other type of hazard. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations deal with the health risks from substances that are toxic or present an asphyxiation hazard. General guidance as to the main principles.

Model Code of Safe Practice. 3. BS EN 60079-17:2003 .1 LEGISLATION A number of pieces of legislation exist that have relevance to potentially explosive atmospheres in the water industry: • • • • Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. codes of practice.0 3.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 3.Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. international standards. Basic concepts and methodology.0 REFERENCED MATERIAL This Standard Practice Document (SPD) has drawn on information available in current legislation. etc. Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations. WRC Report UM1208 .0 ISSUE 4. 2005). BS EN 13463 – Non-electrical Equipment for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. BS EN 61241-10:2004 . other industry guides. • • 3. Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR) – Implementing Explosive Atmospheres Directive 99/92/EC (ATEX137) and the Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC (CAD). Safety Principles also provides information on general safety requirements for wastewater treatment plant construction. Classification of hazardous areas. Explosion prevention and protection.Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas. Classification of areas where combustible dusts are or may be present.3 OTHER DOCUMENTS • • • Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers – IGE/SR/25:2000. BS EN 12255-10:2001 – Wastewater Treatment Plants. Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 1996. Quotations from such references have been limited to that necessary to inform and guide.Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust. other SPDs. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988. BS EN 60079-14:2003 . Hazardous Area Classification of Natural Gas Installations Institute of Petroleum . Page 25 of 167 . Electrical installations in hazardous areas. British Standards.Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres.Explosive atmospheres.Guidelines for the Identification of Flammable Atmospheres Arising in the Water Industry. 3.2 STANDARDS References from key British Standards which deal with explosive atmospheres and hazardous area classification are: • • • • • BS EN 1127-1:1998 . BS EN 60079-10:2003 . Part 15 (third edition.

0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 3. may also provide useful information after allowing for the differences in UK and American zoning designation.0 NOTE: The above report has been updated by WRc Report UC6549 . Standard for Fire Protection in Waste Water Treatment and Collection Facilities (2003 Edition). but UM1208 is still valid as a general reference document for hazardous areas the water industry. The American NFPA 820. Page 26 of 167 .Explosive Atmosphere Risk in the Water Industry.

Note that suppliers or manufacturers of powdered substances. methane (biogas. explosion. Information to show that equipment and protective systems within these zoned areas are designed.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4.0 DSEAR COMPLIANCE The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR) were made under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and their main provisions came into force on 9 December 2002. A dangerous substance is defined in the regulations as any substance or preparation (mixture of substances) with the potential to create a risk to persons from energetic (energy-releasing) events such as fires. such as polyelectrolyte powders should confirm whether or not their product must be regarded as a combustible dust. 4. guidance on technical measures for eliminating or reducing the identified risks and the methodology for classification of risk areas into hazardous zones. Details of hazardous zones and entry points marked. The HSE have produced a DSEAR Approved Code of Practice (L138) with supporting guidance on the implementation of the regulations. hydrogen (electro chlorination). ammonia (disinfection plant) and combustible dusts (dried sewage sludge).0 ISSUE 4. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). incidents and emergencies. but it is expected that such procedures will already be in place as part of Thames Water’s general duty to manage risks under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. To record the significant findings of the assessment including: ∼ ∼ ∼ The measures to eliminate and/or reduce the identified risks as far as is reasonably practicable. It should also be noted that handling of powders can contribute to ignition sources in hazardous situation by creating electro-static charges.1 DESIGN OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Page 27 of 167 . The main requirements of DSEAR are that employers shall: • • Carry out a risk assessment on all assets to identify where dangerous substances may be present. Oxidising agents such as chlorine. a transitional period applies before the 1st of July 2006. digester gas. The regulations implement the European Directives the Explosive Atmospheres Directive 99/92/EC (ATEX137) and the Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC (CAD). but are not limited to. instruct and train employees. In the water industry such substances include. In workplaces where equipment is already in use. etc. Equipment can continue to be used indefinitely after this period provided a risk assessment shows it is safe to do so. petrol (accidental spillages). ∼ ∼ This SPD deals specifically with the approach to the assessment of risk from dangerous substances. For new plant or equipment brought into use for the first time after 30 June 2003. Procedures to deal with accidents and emergencies and the provision of information and training to employees are discussed below. operated and maintained with due regard to safety. ozone and oxygen although not flammable in their own right can also act as an accelerant with organic substances and may therefore create a fire risk.0 4. thermal runaway from exothermic reactions. extracts from which are reproduced in the following sections. Measures taken to inform. the regulations require a risk assessment and classification of all areas where a dangerous substance is present. Arrangements to deal with accidents. natural gas).

Designers need to consider the hazards arising from the design of new or modified plant and equipment and the purpose of the risk assessment is to determine measures that will: • • • • • • Avoid or minimise the risk of spillage or release of a dangerous substance. Prevent uncontrolled chemical reactions that can give rise to explosive atmospheres. Avoid the spread of fires or explosions through interconnecting plant and equipment. tank. • • • • Avoid or minimise the risk of a spillage or release of a dangerous substance. Prevent ignition of dangerous substances or explosive atmospheres. Training of operators and maintenance personnel.g. ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ Gases. In practice this is often difficult to achieve but replacement with a substance that is less hazardous or to design the process so that is less dangerous is more likely to be achievable. hopper or silo) constructed to an appropriate national or international standard. When assessing a storage installation the relevant factors to be taken into account must include: ∼ The properties of the substances being stored and any adverse reactions that could occur through accidental spillage and mixing of the substances (e. Protect the storage area from fires occurring elsewhere. generation of heat.0 ISSUE 4. Minimise the risk of a fire or explosion occurring at the storage location. loading and unloading operations. 4. liquids or liquefied gases (LPG) must be stored in closed containers (e. Design standards for the installation and potential for corrosion.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. cylinder. DSEAR recognises a hierarchy of measures to reduce risk in which elimination is regarded as the best solution and involves replacing a dangerous substance with a substance or process that eliminates the risk totally. proximity to heat or ignition sources. Location of the storage area in relation to other plant and equipment or buildings (e. vehicle thoroughfares. Flammable liquids stored above ground must have a means of containing leaks and Page 28 of 167 .2 STORAGE OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES As part of the risk assessment. The assessment must identify the hazards arising from storage of the dangerous substance to. etc).e. hydrogen. The quantity of the substances being stored and the method of storage (i. bunding arrangements. so they can deal with incidents and emergencies. Frequency of deliveries.g. places where flammable or dangerous substances are stored must be assessed and reviewed whenever the storage conditions or type of dangerous substance is changed. temperature and pressure of the stored substances).0 Wherever practicable. plant and equipment must be designed to eliminate the risk from dangerous substances. etc). Mitigate the effect of a fire or explosion so as not to endanger people. bulk tanks or containers.g. Avoid the occurrence of explosive atmospheres.

Control releases at source (e. reduce retention time for sludge storage). Prevent formation of an explosive atmosphere (e.g.g. Tanks.g. Wherever possible these materials must be stored in the open air. use of gas detection to initiate emergency procedure). Substances that are incompatible must be segregated to minimise the risk of interacting. ventilation). vessels and containers used for storing dangerous substances must be clearly labelled to identify the contents. plus 2°C safety margin) that can be stored in a workroom must be no more than 250 litres in total. gas tight ducts and conduits). Prior to disposal. trade effluent control). Storage areas for dangerous substances must be adequately separated from other plant and equipment which may increase the hazard risk and not impede escape routes in the event of a fire.0 ISSUE 4. Solids that can give rise to combustible dust must be stored in closed vessels design to contain any dust release during filling and where this is not appropriate. Incompatible substances can include those that release a flammable gas product when mixed or accelerate burning.g.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. Underground tanks for flammable liquids must have secondary containment or a leak detection system. Containers for storing the waste must be labelled to identify the type of waste. The quantity of any dangerous substances being stored must be as small as is reasonably practicable. Avoid or minimise releases (e. Collect. contain and remove any releases to a safe place (e.0 preventing their spread (e. 4. Good ventilation must be provided in areas where flammable liquids or gases are stored to disperse any spills or leaks. Page 29 of 167 . vessels and containers. For flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 40°C the ACOP advises that the maximum that should be stored in a workroom is 50 litres in total. provided storage conditions are at ambient conditions.g. adequately separated from other work areas and any potential hazards or be a fire resisting structure. Fuels with a flash point above 40°C (e. The DSEAR ACOP advises that the quantity of flammable liquids with a flashpoint above the maximum ambient temperature (taken as 38°C.3 CONTROL AND MITIGATION MEASURES Control measures can be applied to reduce the risk and shall be applied in the following priority order: • • • • • Reduce the quantity of dangerous substances to a minimum (e. diesel) can generally be regarded as combustible rather than flammable and are therefore less hazardous. Loading and unloading arrangements at storage facilities must be designed to avoid or minimise the risk of fire or explosion by incorporating measures to minimise the risks of leaks.g. good controls over dust release must be exercised during material transfer. bunded area around tank). Where flammable liquids or gases are stored inside buildings this must be a separate room. spills and overfilling of tanks. Storage facilities must be maintained in safe condition and be subject to regular inspection to ensure they remain fit for purpose.g. waste materials must be stored safely where there is a risk of fire or explosion.

CO2). Provide plant that is explosion resistant (i.0 • Avoid ignition sources (e. plant constructed so as to withstand the overpressure likely in the event of an explosion).g. Double mechanical seals on boosters and compressors Automatic gas shut off valves triggered from flammable gas detectors Use of continuously welded gas pipework such that releases from flanges. Methods to reduce gas release rates may include any or all of the following: • Use of special flange joint gaskets which on failure reduce gas release rates significantly compared to normal gaskets. Avoid adverse operating conditions that could lead to danger.g.. and organisational measures such as written instructions and permit to work employed. • • Mitigation measures should be applied depending on the risk involved and the nature of the operation including: • • • • • Reduce the number of workers exposed to risk. separation of storage areas or fire resisting structures). for work carried out in hazardous areas. e. constructed and maintained so as to reduce risk. Provide suitable Personal Protective Equipment (anti-static footwear and clothing) In general. 4. head works. • • • • Flammable gas detectors can be installed at any location where there may be a risk of a release of flammable gas.e. digester processes and fuel storage areas.0 ISSUE 4. segregation of mechanical and electrical equipment. etc. repair or modification is undertaken within a hazardous area. e.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. metal clad gaskets. pumping stations. inert gas fire protection system (e. sewers. the workplace must be designed.g. spirally wound supported gasket with backing ring joint and trapped gasket or ring. Keep incompatible substances apart. Gas monitors must be certified for the explosive atmosphere in which they may be required to operate. A risk assessment must be carried out before any maintenance.1 for further information on ignition sources). is minimised. The use of flammable gas detectors to monitor these applications will provide warning of a release before the concentration of gas reaches a value at which it is likely to explode.4 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROCEDURES Maintenance work shall only be carried out by competent personnel. what control and mitigation measures are necessary and the system of work that will be employed to ensure the safety measures are understood and implemented. Increased level of inspection and maintenance in areas where the hazard results from decomposition of sewage or sludge rather than a direct release of flammable material. The risk assessment needs to identify the hazards arising from the proposed work. pressure/vacuum relief on gas holders). Factors to include in the assessment should include: Page 30 of 167 . Provide explosion suppression or relief equipment (e.g. MCC panels) (see Section 10. Take measures to control or minimise the spread of fire or explosions (e.g.g.

where the work may involve the release of small but not significant quantities of a flammable liquid. sampling from designated sample points. the use of method statements must be employed. adequate supervision or the use of written procedures may be sufficient to ensure that control measures are implemented.0 • • • • • The nature of the materials that are present or were present in the area or plant. Medium risk activities do not introduce ignition sources into the hazardous area and may include. temporary ventilation). Opening or breaking into plant and equipment that do not normally contain flammable or combustible materials and is not in a confined space.g. The potential for heat or ignition sources to be present during the proposed activity and how an explosive atmosphere could arise. Routine adjustments to operating equipment For medium risk activities. Hot work in the vicinity of a hazardous area where an outbreak of fire caused by the work could spread and result in a significantly increased hazard. a confined space where a flammable or combustible material may be present or may be introduced by the work activity. Examples of low risk activities may include. • • • Routine cleaning operations. where necessary signs are to be displayed at the point of entry to an area where an explosive atmosphere may exist. For low risk activities. Dealing with small leaks and spills. The permit to work must detail the precautions that need to be taken to prevent fire and explosion and must only be issued by a responsible person. usually referred to as “Zoned” or “Hazardous” areas. Opening or breaking into plant and equipment that contains or has contained a flammable or combustible material. What systems of work will be needed to implement necessary control measures (e. 4. and work in. where the activity will be carried out. Strict controls should be put in place so that the work is carried out against agreed safety procedures by implementing a permit to work system. Entry into.0 ISSUE 4. The training and level of competence of personnel. Activities considered high risk include: • • • • Hot work on or in any plant and equipment that contains or may have contained a flammable or combustible material. from an explosion or fire.5 MARKING OF HAZARDOUS AREAS The regulations require that. • • Routine activities such as loading and unloading of storage vessels. The consequences of a fire or explosion and what additional protective and emergency equipment is required. Regulation 7: Places Where Explosive Atmospheres May Occur Page 31 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. High risk activities are those where the foreseeable consequences of an error or omission could result in immediate and serious injuries. permit to work. gas or combustible dust.

the appropriate point or points of entry will be easy to determine. if necessary should be positioned at the points of entry to a hazardous area. However. The size of any signs provided should be sufficient to fulfil their warning function. where fixed equipment must be of an explosion-protected design. places classified as hazardous pursuant to paragraph (1) (classification of hazardous or non hazardous) shall be marked by the employer with signs at their points of entry in accordance with Schedule 4 (to the Regulations). marked up site drawing). Page 32 of 167 . no smoking. in other cases the hazardous area may be located in places that do not have obvious entry points.g. The ‘Ex’ signs are used to: • • • identify places where special workplace or site rules apply e. identify where portable or mobile equipment must be of an explosion protected design e. therefore. but the risk area must be identified and its presence communicated by some other means (e.g. not always be appropriate.0 (3) Where necessary. for example in an open area around multiple zoned installations. and DSEAR risks should be highlighted when TWOSA/TOCOPs are issued. antistatic footwear to be worn. Where this is within a clearly defined area. Hazardous Area Plans are readily available to all staff and contractors. The ‘Ex’ warning sign. Providing warning signs at multiple entry points may. The arrangements made by employers under Regulation 9 should ensure that employees receive sufficient information. vehicles or cleaning machines. Examples of situations where it may be considered that signage is required include.g. instruction and training on the meaning of the sign and the measures to be taken in connection with it. so that they can take the necessary precautions in relation to the risk. or access restricted to authorised people. hand torches. The purpose of the sign is to warn of entry into zoned or hazardous areas where an explosive atmosphere may be present. and they must be maintained so that they are clearly visible. it is expected that Thames Water employees and contractors should not be reliant on signage to advise them of a potential Hazardous Area. locations where there are frequent visits by third parties who may be difficult to control via the TWOSA process. locations where hazardous areas would not generally be expected.1 Type of Warning Sign The sign is triangular in shape with black letters on a yellow background with black edging.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. cleanwater sites where DSEAR awareness is not widespread. identify for the purposes of audit or later plant modifications.0 ISSUE 4. Figure 4. In general.

Sign to be displayed at or near points of entry Sign to be displayed at or near points of entry Sign to be displayed at or near points of entry Sign to be displayed at or near points of entry Sign to be displayed at or near points of entry These should not be signed but details entered in the Site Register Enclosed Wet wells Enclosed Dry wells (If zoned) Plant rooms not effectively segregated from a zoned area WwPS/Enclosed Combined Sewer Overflows Enclosed tanks or channels with distinct access or entry points Open tanks or channels with no distinct access or entry which can be approached from any angle Table 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4. or gate if provided or nearest wall or fixed point On the access way and on stairs where they enter the zoned area. Table 4. including any ladder access.1 Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ Warning Signs on Waste Water Installations Waste Water Systems Or Installations Inlets or similar Areas Positioning of Signs Sign to be displayed at or near each point of entry. in a prominent position which would be reasonably seen by any person who would need to access the area.3 Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ Warning Signs on Electrochlorination Plants Electrochlorination Plants Electrolyser Room or areas with distinct points of entry (doorway or gateways) Positioning of Signs Sign to be displayed at all access points on the door. or gate if provided or nearest wall or fixed point Page 33 of 167 . Adjacent to the Flare Control Unit and any access way to the stack On all access way and at the base of any ladders leading to the hazardous areas On all access way and at the base of any ladders leading to the hazardous areas Table 4.0 Where it is considered that Hazardous Area signage is required.2 Guidance for Positioning of ‘Ex’ Warning Signs on Digester/Sludge Installations Digester/Sludge Installations Boiler Room/Area Compressor Room/Area Digesters Waste Gas Burners Gas Holders Enclosed Digested Sludge Tanks/ Secondary Digesters Positioning of Signs Sign to be displayed at all access points on the door. if there is no distinct entrance.0 ISSUE 4. or gate if provided or nearest wall or fixed point Sign to be displayed at all access points on the door. or. the following tables provide guidance with regards positioning.

0 ISSUE 4.0 Associated Hypochlorite Tanks On the access way Page 34 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 4.

constructed. It should also be noted that. to classify hazardous areas around plant and process locations. should be located in non-hazardous areas wherever practicable. in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction.0 of this document. as laid out in Section 7.1 of this document for a list of potential ignition sources that may be encountered on Thames Water sites. however. wherever practicable.Part 10. therefore. maintained and operated in accordance with good practice. Where users of this SPD deviate from the model solutions.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 5. The principles of grade of release are included. zone classification have already been taken into account. or may be expected to be present. so that releases of flammable materials are minimised. This is known as the point source method of classification and is described in considerable detail in BS EN 60079-10 . 5.0 ISSUE 4.1 PRINCIPLES OF AREA CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION Hazardous area classification is a means of describing the risk posed by a hazardous area with regards to explosion or fire. the respective grades of release and. such as isolators. In applying area classification to a plant. installation and use of electrical apparatus. which take into account the likelihood of the existence of an explosive atmosphere.3 HAZARDOUS AREA ZONING A hazardous area is an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present. When the hazardous areas of a plant have been classified. the ‘model solutions’ will provide sufficient guidance to allow the zoning of hazardous areas around items of plant and equipment encountered on Thames Water sites. This SPD principally uses the standardised type diagram method of classification which presents the zoning application to typical items of plant. together with external factors and fluid properties. the remainder will be defined as a non-hazardous area. make use of the ‘model solutions’. junction and control boxes.Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres . This objective is achieved by dividing or classifying a plant into zones. There are other references to these releases as specifically defined in this SPD. Electrical equipment. It is the assessment of the grades of release which. They are needed in the application of area classification where ventilation is reduced. 5. Refer to Section 10. This classification provides a basis for the selection of mechanical and electrical apparatus that is protected to a degree appropriate to the risk involved and the nature of the flammable material.0 5. it is recognised that excluding equipment from hazardous areas may not always be practical. Classification of Hazardous Areas (reference 22). Users of this SPD shall. situations than are described herein. In these standardised type diagrams.0 5. The approach is to reduce to an acceptable minimum level the probability of coincidence of an explosive atmosphere and an ignition source (electrical or non-electrical equipment). the key terms of area classification are defined. it is a prerequisite that the facilities to which it is applied are designed. using the guidance contained within the Technical Appendix at the end of this document.2 KEY TERMS FOR AREA CLASSIFICATION In the following. so that the user of this SPD will have a better appreciation of the fundamentals of area classification and so will be better able to apply them to less typical. lead to the definition of the types and extent of the zones. For the majority of situations encountered however. or more stringent. sources of ignition other than electrical may be present and precautions will be necessary to prevent such sources compromising hazardous areas. Traditionally when dealing Page 35 of 167 . these include both ‘zone’ and ‘grade of release’. they will be required to demonstrate how they arrived at their conclusions.

5. There may.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRADE OF RELEASE AND CLASS OF ZONE Grade of release is dependent solely on the frequency and duration of the release. form part of a wider restricted area within a plant in which all work is carried out under control. This is especially so for intermittent and irregular operations.a release that is continuous. 5. 5. Note. also.0 ISSUE 4. Primary Grade Release .5 NON. area classification. That concept is continued in this SPD. be other hazards present such as those of a toxic nature. 5. Hazardous areas are subdivided into zones. or one of relatively short duration that occurs frequently.). filter cleaning. sampling and opening up of equipment (e. However. (Zone 20 for combustible dusts) Zone 1 that part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. changing of spades. in part or whole. draining.0 with area classification a three dimensional volume in space has been described as an area. an area which is not classified as a hazardous area.0 for the zoning of hazardous areas for plant used in wastewater and clean water treatment. such as venting.a release that is likely to occur periodically or occasionally in normal operation. defines grades of release of flammable material according to their expected frequency and duration: • • • Continuous Grade . It is completely independent of the rate and quantity of the release. the degree of ventilation or the characteristics of the fluid. if it occurs it will only exist for a short period.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 5. Secondary Grade Release . will do so only infrequently and for short periods. or nearly so. that it may. also.4 EXTENT OF ZONE The distance in any direction (vertically and horizontally) from the source of release to the point where the explosive atmosphere has been diluted by air to a value below the lower explosive limit. etc.6 GRADE OF RELEASE In addition to the definition of zones.HAZARDOUS AREA In the context of this SPD.g. in any event. (Zone 22 for combustible dusts) • • See model solutions in Section 7. It has been recommended for continuously operated plant that releases should be regarded as: Page 36 of 167 . it is these factors that determine the extent of vapour travel and hence the dimensional limits of the hazardous area. Assessment of the grade of release is not always obvious and requires experience and operational judgement. based on the likelihood and persistence of a flammable gas/air mixture being present: • Zone 0 that part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present or present for long periods.a release that is unlikely to occur in normal operation and. (Zone 21 for combustible dusts) Zone 2 that part of a hazardous area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation and.

if it is likely to be present for more than 1000 hours per year. namely: • • • Continuous grade leads to Zone 0 (or Zone 20). there is no specific requirement for this.if it is likely to be present for 10 hours or more per year. but less than 1000 hours.e. Secondary . a PRV relieving under abnormal operation).0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 5. Primary . must be considered carefully to identify the requirement for a larger Zone 2 (or Zone 22) area.g. a high standard of ventilation exists). Some sources may have a dual grade of release with a small continuous or primary grade and a larger secondary grade. It should be noted that whilst a Zone 1 (or Zone 21) area may often be surrounded by a larger Zone 2 (or Zone 22) area. Page 37 of 167 . Secondary grade leads to Zone 2 (or Zone 22).if it is likely to be present for less than 10 hours per year and for short periods only. The potential for any large. Poor ventilation may require the application of a more stringent zone due to persistence of the flammable material. It must be noted that grade of release and zone are not synonymous. Under unrestricted open air conditions (i.0 • • • Continuous . there is a direct relationship between grade of release and resultant zone type. but infrequent release (e. Primary grade leads to Zone 1 (or Zone 21).

0 ISSUE 4. Flammable liquids – petroleum products.1 Risk Assessment Process The risk assessment process should begin by identifying the hazards and the circumstances of the work that give rise to a level of risk. active carbon. Flammable gases – methane from decomposition of septic sludges. present at the work place. equipment or area and before changing the operating conditions or the type of dangerous substance handled. The work processes. Combustible dusts – active carbon. Oxidising agents – chlorine. The scope of this assessment should therefore include consideration of: • • • • • The flammable materials that may be present. the nature of work activities involving those substances and how they might fail dangerously so as to give rise to fire. before making any modifications to that plant. and their interactions. The risk assessment process should identify the dangerous substances present in the workplace. ozone in tertiary treatment. Combustible dusts – sludge drying plant. methane from geological sources. acetylene (welding). untreated landfill leachate and infiltration of gas from pipelines. ozone Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG). including any cleaning.1. or is liable to be. repair or maintenance activities that will be carried out. Page 38 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. The source of the potential releases. digestion of sludge and utilisation of digester gas. chemical spillages. The amount of dangerous substance involved. Oxidising agents – oxygen in secondary treatment. explosion and similar events with the potential to harm people. Flammable gases – methane from decomposition of sewage organic matter. volatile chemicals in sewage.0 6.1 PROCEDURE FOR AREA CLASSIFICATION ASSESSING THE RISK DSEAR will apply wherever a dangerous substance is.0 6. 6. Table 6. It must be carried out before bringing into use any plant.1 Typical Sources of Dangerous Substances Source Sewers and Sewage Pumping Stations Dangerous Substances Flammable liquids – petroleum products. Flammable gases –decomposition of sewage organic matter. The hazardous properties of the dangerous substances involved. ammonia from disinfection. propane (calor gas) Sewage Treatment Works Sludge Treatment Water Treatment Other The purpose of the risk assessment is to help in deciding how to eliminate or reduce to as far as is reasonably practicable. equipment or area which handles or processes dangerous substances. the safety risk from dangerous substances. Flammable gases – hydrogen from electrochlorination.

ventilation. for example. www. The number of fuel stores within a catchment area can be determined by contacting the local licensing authority in the area responsible for licensing petrol filling stations and commercial fuel storage facilities (e.murco.asda. but the consequences of a fire or explosion are considerably greater with the potential for multiple fatalities.0 • • • The temperatures and pressures at which the dangerous substances will be handled. Websites – Petroleum Companies: • www.com. vapours or dusts escaping into the general atmosphere of the workplace. www. for example from petrol tanker road accidents.com. and where measures can be taken to mitigate risk. Websites – Supermarkets: • www. Websites .co.co. Trading Standards. thereby avoiding an area being classified as hazardous. generally less than 5 litres. 6. These areas need to be included in the area classification system. and.bp.texaco. In London the licensing authority is the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. any measures provided to ensure that any explosive atmosphere does not persist for an extended time.uk.co. gases. Any explosive atmosphere formed within an enclosed plant or storage vessel. This will provide information on any areas away from the source of the hazard to which an explosive atmosphere may spread.1.yell.com.co. www. www. The assessment must also identify areas within a workplace that are connected to places where an explosive atmosphere may occur. such as petrol.g. County. Health and Safety. Page 39 of 167 .sainsburys. Accidental spillages of larger quantities of flammable liquids (more than 50 litres) are thankfully much rarer. This may happen.exxonmobil. the explosion risk to sewerage installations is quite low. In practice though. City or District Councils. This statistical evaluation has been applied in a risk assessment process called FLIDS (Flammable Liquids In Drainage Systems) to determine the risk of accidental spillage into sewerage installations due to fuel stores (petrol stations or large industrial sites) located in a particular catchment.tesco. Fire and Rescue service). these must be recorded. Where the conclusion of the risk assessment is that a hazardous area still exists then the factors above should allow for the identification of any zoned areas. www.uk Local Petroleum Licensing Authorities or PLA’s (e.shell.com. through ducts.uk.co.com.g.upmystreet.General: • www. because the amounts released are so small.com. www. solvents or diesel are not an uncommon type of accidental or deliberate release into sewers. for example. or the local Fire Service) are responsible for licensing of premises that store and dispense petroleum products and must maintain a register of these premises.uk. www. Small quantities of flammable liquids. The Major Hazard Incident Database System provides national records of serious accidents involving these hazardous materials. Borough.2 Flammable Liquids in Drainage Systems (FLIDS) A particular type of risk assessment considers the release of flammable liquids into sewer systems. These records enable a statistical evaluation to be made of the risk from a major flammable liquid spillage. Information on petrol filling stations can also be obtained by a search of the following internet websites. The containment system and controls provided to prevent liquids. These factors are the starting point for hazardous area classification.morrisons.0 ISSUE 4. www.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6.uk.

The zonal classification of the sewerage installation is then based on the three risk categories of Low.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. Using a simple. Medium or High. This risk is only significant where 3 or more fuel stores are located in the catchment area and where the sewerage installation is enclosed.1) the classification of sewerage installations can then be obtained. The risk is increased further where more than 20 fuel stores are present in the catchment1. The assessment process starts with a catchment classification into domestic foul only or combined foul and surface water. This information should then be recorded on the Explosion Protection Document and the Hazardous Area Plan subsequently produced for the sewerage installation. March 2007 Page 40 of 167 . 1 Thames Report: Application of FLIDS to Existing Facilities. Once the addresses of premises storing and dispensing petrol have been obtained these can be plotted on a catchment area map to determine the number of fuel stores present in the catchment. easy to follow flow sheet approach (see Figure 6.0 ISSUE 4. The FLIDS assessment process is carried out on both new build and for modifications to existing sewerage installations.0 The register can be obtained by contacting the local authority or may be available online in the local council website. Combined sewers present a potential risk of a major flammable liquid spillages from either trade effluent discharges (large industrial sites storing flammable liquids) or accidental spillage into road surface drainage from main roads (transport and storage of petroleum products).

site modifications (e. Combined Foul and Surface Water: receiving domestic foul sewage and trade effluent or connected to surface water drainage on main roads and having 3 or more fuel stores in the catchment.significant change within the catchment (e. vapour or dust. Storage Facilities. the installation will be High Risk if the degree of ventilation is inadequate. sewerage and wastewater treatment works are described in this SPD. however. 1) or combined sewer receiving non-flammable trade effluent and having less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment. 6. Domestic Foul only or Combined Foul and Surface 1 Water ?* Combined Foul and Surface Water 1 Domestic Foul only 1 2 Are there more than 20 fuel stores No in the catchment area?** Yes No Is the installation open topped (>60% of area)?** Yes Low Risk Installation Is the installation open topped. The sources of release that are typically present in water treatment. 3) Catchment assessments should be undertaken every 5 years or when there is a: . installing new EMI or covering of installations) 4) Tasks Performed by: * = TWUL / ** = Designer or Assessor / *** = DSEAR Engineer 5) Zone classification requires a design value or measured ventilation rate for enclosed installations. unless they are enclosed and inadequately ventilated. Domestic foul only sewerage installations (including combined foul and surface water installations with less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment) will generally result in a Low Risk category. the installation will be Medium Risk. railway marshalling yards and industrial installations carrying more than 25 tonnes of flammable liquids. For combined foul and surface water installations where the number of fuel stores is between 3 and 20 and all other circumstances.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. in which case the installation will be Medium Risk. it will be necessary to determine the type and extent of each hazardous area. >60% of area open?** No Yes Is the enclosed area adequately Yes 5 ventilated. where the number of fuel stores within the catchment area is more than twenty.g. >3 air changes/hr ? ** No High Risk Installation Can Design Changes be Made to the Installation to Eliminate or Reduce Risks Further?** No Sewage Installation Classified as 'Zone 1' ** Yes Sewage Installation Classified as 'Zone 2' ** Sewage Installation Classified as 'Non-Hazardous' ** Record Findings in Explosion Protection Document ** Specify category of equipment within hazardous areas suitable for zonal classification ** Approve Assessment and Verify Installation is Safe for Use *** Notes Domestic Foul only: receiving effluent from toilets. new housing estate. consideration must be given as to whether or not the works under consideration has Page 41 of 167 . 2) Fuel Stores include petrol stations.0 Figure 6. that the actual classification process should include consideration of all hazards involved and not merely those described in this SPD.2 DETERMINING HAZARDOUS AREAS Where dangerous substances are present that could give rise to significant release of flammable gas. >3 air changes/hr ? ** No Medium Risk Installation Is the enclosed area adequately Yes 5 ventilated. washing or laundry facilities.1 FLIDS Assessment Process (New Build and Modified Installation) FLIDS Assessment Process (New Build and Modified Installation) Sewage Pumping Stations. petrol station) . It is important. For combined foul and surface water installations. In particular.0 ISSUE 4. kitchens for meal preparations (not food processing). CSO's Sewer System Inlet Works and Preliminary Treatment Is the Catchment.g.

g. The interior of buildings or closed spaces that are in or abut external hazardous areas and have doors.0 any features not normally present or missing from what may be considered a ‘typical’ installation. e. for filter changing) should be recognised. In performing the detailed area classification.2. windows or other means of access that allows the ingress of an explosive atmosphere shall adopt the same classification as the external zone. but which are plugged or blanked off during normal operation. followed by a peer review by an appropriately composed multi-disciplinary team or by undertaking the whole process as a combined classification and peer review.g.1 Personnel Area classification must be carried out by competent personnel who have a good knowledge of the properties of flammable materials and fully understand the concept of area classification. Instead a smaller release volume is normally taken into account for area classification. the process of area classification may be achieved either by one or two competent personnel performing the classification initially. equipment or operating procedures is re-assessed to ensure that suitable electrical and other equipment is selected. Operating and maintenance procedures must be taken into account when considering area classification. It is essential that process equipment maintained on or off the plant is carefully examined before bringing it back into service.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. The extent of operator manning and the consequential likely speed of response to upset conditions needs to be considered. in consultation with others. accidental spillage of petrol into sewerage systems may regarded as predictable based on statistical data. for example from flange leakage etc. such as the routine opening of parts of closed process systems (e. Vents or drain valves (e. it is important to identify and assess all continuous and primary sources of release (which result in Zone 0 and Zone 1 hazardous areas) and wherever possible eliminate or reduce them by design. It requires an interdisciplinary approach and should involve personnel with a full knowledge of the process systems and equipment.2 Timing Area classification is an ongoing task intended to describe the installation from initial design.0 ISSUE 4. Intermittent operations. Page 42 of 167 . 6. in consultation with safety. These items must then only be operated under a permit to work. which may result in an increased risk from an accidental spillage of flammable liquids. through construction and commissioning to its eventual closure including all the changes and modifications along the way. for example a new industrial estate or construction/upgrading of trunk roads. Where the area classification makes such allowance it must be clearly stated in the operating and maintenance manuals that such permits will be required in these cases. The results of the area classification must then be reviewed and approved by the Project Manager where the area classification does not comply with section 7 of this document. but also for its economic design and to reduce operational and maintenance problems. on gas holders or gas mains) which could give rise to a large release volume. mechanical and electrical engineering personnel as appropriate. Similar consideration must be given to those items from which release might occur during abnormal operation to minimise the frequency and rate of release. This is important not only for the safety of the plant. Once a plant has been classified. it is important that any modification to process materials. In practice. 6. but is applied to abnormal single mode events which are predictable. such that it does not prejudice the integrity of the original design.2. are not usually considered as significant release sources in area classification.g. Factors outside the normal operation of the installation may also be relevant such as changes to a catchment area. Area classification is not intended to apply to catastrophic failures of plant items.

• • • • ‘Model solutions’ of typical hazardous area classifications are provided in Section 7.2. used and marked in accordance with the ATEX Directives. Before any change is made to an existing plant.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. during the process of area classification.0 6. At this stage. and. based on the flammable substances that can be released.2.4 Equipment Details To permit the selection of electrical equipment appropriate to the area classification. 6. whether open area. windows and inlets/outlets for ventilation air. must be considered since they may affect the likely substances to be released. hazardous area classification data sheets. Equipment (including electrical / mechanical components and instruments) records must include details as to the type of protection selected to meet the zone requirements Page 43 of 167 .3 Information Required To perform a hazardous area classification from ‘first principles’. A suitable document should therefore include: the DSEAR Risk Assessment. equipment data sheets. a revised risk assessment and area classification must be completed. or of anticipated flammable releases (details of typical flammable materials are given in Appendix A1. A piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). such as start-up and shut-down. Relevant physical properties of the fluids handled. the effect of abnormal operations. if necessary. gas group and temperature class for flammable materials. The area classification must be reviewed and modified. details of properties. area classification drawings and. before the design and layout are finalised. or a modification to an existing plant. drains and sample points to atmosphere. restricted (sheltered) or enclosed. A preliminary control philosophy identifying equipment features and mode(s) of operation. referred to as the ‘Explosion Protection Document’ under the ATEX Directive. the apparatus subgroup and temperature class must be determined. Consideration of the state of ventilation. will be needed.0 ISSUE 4. must demonstrate that explosion risk has been determined and assessed. the position of openings. To comply with DSEAR Regulations the equipment (mechanical or electrical) shall be supplied.5 Recording Area Classifications DSEAR requires a document to be drawn up recording the results of area classification and for it to be kept updated. Again. an initial risk assessment must be carried out followed by area classification where appropriate. This document.2 of this SPD). 6. All such documentation associated with selection of equipment (including Declarations of Conformity and Risk Assessment details for equipment selection) shall be retained and filed along with the area classification documentation. and this may include: • • A flow diagram showing flows.2. some basic design information must first be assembled. it may be possible to make considerable improvements at little cost. where appropriate for clarity. temperatures and pressures as appropriate. A layout or general arrangement drawing with plan and elevation views showing the position of all equipment including operational vents. during the evolution of the design up to completion of the design. such as doors. These aspects of electrical equipment are described in Section 10. adequate measures have been taken to control or mitigate risk and that places where an explosion risk may be present have been classified into zones.3. For sheltered or enclosed buildings.0 For a new plant.

It also provides an opportunity for smoothing zone boundaries to remove unrealistic detail. It should consider and indicate the effect of such an arrangement.g. existing (or older) zoning drawings are likely to show a Zone 0 with the shading convention of a Zone 21 (as indicated above in Figure 6. it is normally not necessary to determine the hazardous area that would arise from each individual source of release. roads or access ways) for a readily defined zone boundary line. including the positions of all openings. by a note on the drawing. to adopt physical plant features (e. provided the zone boundary from any source is within these limits. Due to the number of assumptions inherent in area classification. it is not good practice. even on an open area.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. The preparation of the area classification drawing provides an opportunity to check that the coverage of all sources of release has been comprehensive. It is acceptable to indicate any requirement for small local zones/areas. around control valves. Where zones of different severity overlap. in both plan and elevation.0 and the applicable apparatus subgroup and temperature class. Area classification drawings must be in sufficient scale to show all the main items of equipment and all the buildings. windows. when this would not influence the overall zone boundary.2 for combustible dusts). unless there are special features of the design such as vapour tight physical barriers and special ventilation arrangements to avoid the ingress of explosive atmospheres. The drawings and/or notes must indicate where the classification depends on the correct operation of a special ventilation arrangement. to denote small pockets of non-hazardous areas within a general hazardous area. It may be desirable. Documentation to support equipment compliance with the ATEX Directive is also required to be retained and filed. e.0 ISSUE 4. both from a geographic and administrative aspect. Page 44 of 167 . such as doors.g. Figure 6. Likewise. The drawings must be marked up to show the boundaries of all hazardous areas and zones present using the shading convention shown in Figure 6. ventilation inlets and outlets and services/utilities entries if not sealed vapour tight.2 Shading Convention for Hazardous Area Zones (BS 60079-10 & BS 61241) Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Flammable Gas or Vapour Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Combustible Dust Note: Due to the limited availability of ‘fill in’ in some of Thames Water’s drawing packages. the more severe applies.2 below.

Long retention time under anaerobic conditions. Sources of release must be identified and then graded as continuous.0 ISSUE 4. The hazards presented by combustible dusts are as follows: • • The formation of a dust cloud from a source of release including a dust layer that forms an explosive atmosphere The formation of dust layers which do not form a dust cloud but may ignite due to self heating or contact with a hot surface and cause a fire hazard Page 45 of 167 . Equally handling and use of biogas is a hazardous process and equipment should be classified accordingly. it is unlikely that the quantity of hydrogen sulphide generated under normal conditions will be sufficient to create an explosive atmosphere. primary or secondary. For a flammable material to become a hazard. sumps and chambers will normally require classification as a hazardous area. Optimum pH for production of biogas from organic material is around pH7.3 CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS WHERE FLAMMABLE GASES OR VAPOURS MAY BE PRESENT There are a number of potential sources for the release of flammable gases or vapours in wastewater treatment.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. LPG and other fuel installations on site. Biogas contains methane and hydrogen sulphide both of which are flammable. • • • Increasing temperature will increase the biogas generation rate. sewage treatment and sludge treatment facilities include: • • • • • • Accidental spillages of flammable hydrocarbons (petrol. Flammable liquids with higher flash points may present a risk if they are subject to heating or vaporisation. All anaerobic digestion processes present a risk from potentially explosive gases and the storage of digested sludge in tanks. sludges and sediments can generate biogas under normal ambient conditions. 6. This is most likely to be through the vapour or gas phase of the material. In general.0 6. Digestion of sludge is a process where the production of biogas (digester gas) is optimised with the temperature of the sludge maintained at around 35°C and the pH kept around pH7. diesel and solvents) into sewers. contact has to be made with an ignition source. Methane gas migration from geological or landfill sources into sewers. Typically those that should be considered in the classification of sewers. Classification of hazardous areas where combustible dusts are or may be present is undertaken in accordance with BS EN 61241-10 (31).4 CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS WHERE COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS MAY BE PRESENT The general principles for the classification into zones of locations where combustible dusts may be present are similar to those applied to gases and vapours. only flammable liquids with flash points below 40°C (maximum ambient temperature of 38°C + safety margin of 2°C) will present a risk of creating an explosive atmosphere due to evaporation under ambient conditions. Industrial effluents and landfill leachate discharged into sewers. Biogas (digester gas) produced by anaerobic digestion of sludge. Decomposition of organic matter in septic sewage and sludges. however. Anaerobic degradation of the organic material in sewage. Methane can be produced by the degradation of organic material at sufficient rate to form an explosive atmosphere under the following conditions.

The dust deposit is simply a potential source of release.1 Classification Procedure for Explosive Dust Clouds The decision to classify an area depends on whether the dust is combustible or not. In addition to the possibility of dust layers being disturbed to form a cloud. Typical dried sewage sludge properties are given in Appendix A of HSE OC847/9 (13). then a dust cloud could result. The extent of explosive dust air mixture may take into account the minimum explosible concentrations and limiting oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere as well as any ventilation.4. 6. although it should also be noted that the powders could contribute to a hazardous situation by creating static. This should be undertaken with reference to the Process & Instrumentation Drawings and General Arrangement drawings of the plant and any building structure drawings. If the dust deposit is disturbed. The study should take into account releases that may occur due to all plant operating conditions as well foreseen plant maintenance activities such as removing cartridges from dust filters. It is important that dust particle sizes used for any tests are less than 75µm and that the moisture content represents that than can be achieved in the process. etc) dust layers should be avoided by design and/or good housekeeping.2.3 of BS EN1127-1 (22). The ignition of dust layers from hot surfaces needs careful consideration and it should be remembered that normal surface temperatures (for example in free air) may become hotter under a dust layer. the dust layer itself can be ignited and can thus present a fire risk. dried sewage sludge.3. Examples of zones for explosive dust concentrations are given in Section 6 of BS EN 61241-10 (31). Once the material characteristics are known.0 ISSUE 4. The methodology. the hazardous zones can be identified and extents defined. sources of ignition should be avoided. Once a layer has formed. After identification of potential sources of release.2 Dust Layer Hazard The presence of a dust deposit does not in itself directly lead to a zoned area.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6. the likelihood that dust will be released from those sources needs to be identified and thus. Once these assessments have been made.4. it will be necessary to identify where sources of dust release can occur within the plant installation. Examples of dilution by ventilation are given in Section 6. Locations where dust layers may exist need to be considered in terms of the likelihood of the layer being disturbed to form a cloud. Note that suppliers or manufacturers of polyelectrolyte powders must confirm whether or not their product could be regarded as a combustible dust.0 Where explosive dust clouds and combustible layers may exist. The zones for dust refer to dust clouds not dust layers. In general. assessment and reasoning for the zoning must be recorded as well as clear plans and sections showing the zone extent. 6. screws from conveyors etc. apart from within system containment (for example within process ducts. An understanding of the material characteristics is therefore necessary for the correct selection of electrical and other equipment. Properties of dusts can vary considerably depending on particle size and moisture content. For this Page 46 of 167 . Examples of combustible dusts that may be encountered in the water industry include. and activated carbon. The material characteristics can be confirmed by tests in a recognised laboratory (Examples of a recognised laboratory include Chilworth and BRE). ventilation may be a cause of layer disturbance and thus has the potential to make the position worse rather than improving it. the likelihood and frequency of explosive dust / air mixtures in various parts of the plant installation.

0 ISSUE 4. Examples of avoiding dust layer accumulation in buildings are given in Section 6.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 6.2. Page 47 of 167 .3.0 reason the temperature classes applied to electrical apparatus must be subjected to a factor of safety if the apparatus may be covered by a dust layer.4 of BS EN 1127-1 (22) and Appendix C of BS EN 61241-10 (31).

Appendix A2. 7. In this way. All such areas are three dimensional.1 MODEL SOLUTIONS FOR SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES INTRODUCTION This section presents information for the area classification of facilities and equipment items encountered in the handling and treatment of sewage. it is likely that a more severe zonal classification.0 ISSUE 4. such as plant rooms and sewage pumping stations.0 provides further information on ventilation and area classification. where a risk of a significant flammable gas or vapour release within an inadequately ventilated structure is considered likely. type of equipment. in practice a much lower ventilation rate can often be regarded as adequate.3 provides specific details for the classification of enclosed spaces. with the distance to the boundary of the zone from the outer most items being taken from the zoning information for those items. fluid content. When applying the zoning information.0 7. Judgement will have to be applied in such circumstances. The information is presented as a written description to prescribe a set of rules for classification and/or as a standardised type diagram which defines the extent of classified areas specific to the type of equipment. it may persist for long periods. Where there are groups of plant items. account should be taken of the particular risks involved when selecting mechanical and electrical equipment. Helpful information may be found in published literature . pressure or ventilation.0 7. Where ventilation is used for odour control purposes typical design rates applied are between 3 and 6 ACH. When the circumstances of an item are considered to deviate significantly from the information given in this SPD then. Details for enclosed facilities. This applies at most sewage treatment plant. or increase in the size of a zoned area will apply.0. Hence. The examples provided are expected to be located in a typical open area in which there is good ventilation to ensure the natural dispersion of any releases to the atmosphere. When the item being considered is not covered by the examples and details given in this section. the structure will require zoning. depending on the nature and quantity of material involved in the Page 48 of 167 . Where natural ventilation is designed by the use of louvres and building vents then similar air changes per hour can be achieved. Section A2. however. For the effect of ventilation. In these circumstances a written variation from the Project Manager may be given defining the revised classification and any other restrictions or requirements which are necessary. such as digesters. the item under consideration should not differ significantly from the given example in layout. or in the conditions of temperature. It should be noted that although 12 ACH is the figure used in IP Part15 (41) as the criteria for determining ‘adequate ventilation’. Appendix A2. If the total quantity of flammable material available for release is very small.2 VENTILATION AND ODOUR CONTROL SYSTEMS Where structures are substantially covered with little or no ventilation then it is highly likely that in the event of an explosive atmosphere being present. Ventilation may however be available within the design either as forced or natural ventilation. The preliminary classification must then be agreed in writing with the Project Manager to ensure a consistent corporate approach. it may not be necessary to classify the area. On some existing installations local circumstances may permit a less restrictive classification to be used.see Section 12. are also given.0 should be consulted in the first instance. it is appropriate to apply the zonal classification to the entire location occupied by the items. then a preliminary classification must be made by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in the published literature.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. pockets of non-hazardous areas within the layout of the items can be avoided.

In a well designed gravity sewer. may however.0 ISSUE 4. etc. It is important to note that explosive limits are normally quoted for gas or vapour / air mixtures. 7. then alternative control options may need to be considered.3 for definitions of adequate and inadequate ventilation. there may be a possibility that the concentration of methane builds up locally and exceeds the lower explosive limit. Generally the quantity of material involved is small (typically less than 5 litres) and as most sewers have some passive ventilation through them. all ignition sources such as electrical installations should be excluded from sewers. are covered in Section 7. Page 49 of 167 . so that septicity takes place. Refer to Section A2.3.4. the risk from biologically generated methane will be low and any spillage of flammable liquid into the sewer will involve only small quantities. Refer to Appendix A1. reduce persistence and hence zone type and extent in the event of a release.2. Where ventilation is deemed inadequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere from forming or persisting.1). fires (and explosions) are easier to start -. Mixtures in oxidizing gases. where a minimum scour velocity is maintained (at design conditions). will normally expand the explosive range. tanks. For example flammable gas or hydrocarbon detectors could be incorporated that would monitor the presence of a flammable release to provide an automatic response.3. Those fires will also burn and spread faster.1). Sewers handling only domestic foul sewage are normally enclosed and therefore inadequately ventilated. chambers.0 flammable release. Fires will be able to start at both a lower LEL and a higher UEL.1 Domestic Foul Sewer For domestic foul sewers (as described in Figure 6.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.3 SEWERS Any covered chambers receiving sewage prior to the inlet works of a sewage treatment plant. or initiate emergency procedures. As the oxygen concentration rises in a confined space.g. In sewer systems where sewage solids may be retained for a prolonged period. e. or on the works are included in this section. Odour control systems and their associated ductwork could therefore contain flammable gas mixtures drawn off various treatment processes. flammable vapours will disperse quickly. e. from leaking oxygen pipes or chemical breakdown of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide.a spark from a tool. static electricity or any other source of ignition that would not start a fire in normal air can do so in an oxygen enriched environment. including wet wells. 7.g.4 for further information on the effects of oxygen enrichment. Pumping facilities. isolation of gas or electrical supply. increase in ventilation rate. so are categorised as Medium Risk. The danger of fire or explosion in sewers can also arise from the spillage of flammable liquids such as petroleum products either deliberately or accidentally into the sewer. As far as is practicable. Ventilation provided for odour extraction which is not adequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere from being created. the concentration of methane in sewer gas is normally outside the flammable range (see Appendix A1.

1) identifies a combined sewer as Medium Risk. vents and air valves.0 ISSUE 4. then it shall be classified the same as for a domestic foul sewer.1a Zoning for Domestic Foul Only Sewer A sewer handling domestic foul sewage only is classified as Zone 2 internally with no external hazardous area. may have an increased risk of fire and explosion. Air valves located within a chamber are classified as Zone 2 inside the chamber.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.3. If the cover is removed for inspection then a zone extent equivalent to 2 metres must be assumed unless it is known that no flammable material is present in the sewer. is greater due to accidental spillages from the transport and storage of highly flammable liquids (e. those handling discharges of domestic foul sewage. Figure 7.1b Zoning for Combined (High Risk) Sewers Around manholes the extent of the Zone 2 area will normally be of negligible extent whilst the cover is in place. Where the risk assessment (described in Section 6. The potential for a larger quantity of flammable liquid to be released into a combined sewer. those located in open air are classified as non-hazardous. Page 50 of 167 . 7. industrial sources and petrol retailing activities). Where the risk assessment identifies the sewer as being High Risk. i.e. then it shall be classified as Zone 1 internally with a Zone 2 externally around manholes.0 Figure 7. Zone 2 internally with no external hazardous area.2 Combined Sewer Combined sewers.g. industrial trade effluent and/or that have connections to surface water drainage on roads. i.e.

less than 3ACH) Connected to a combined sewer system and either .0 ISSUE 4. enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (less than 3ACH).2 Zone Classification of Sewage Pumping Stations Risk Category/ Zone Low Risk/Non-Hazardous Installation Conditions • • Connected to a domestic foul only sewer system and open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min.5m 0. Dispersion from a high level vent.1 Vent Diameter Zone Extents for High Risk Combined Sewer Vents 50mm 80mm 100mm Hazard Radius ‘x’ 250mm High Level (more than 5m above ground) Low Level (less than 5m above ground) 0. where the tip of the vent is more than 5m above ground level. whether located on or off the sewage treatment works site. 3ACH). Wet wells of sewage pumping stations can be considered in two categories. As such vents frequently are elevated. Table 7. will be greater due to higher wind velocity (min.3. Medium Risk/Zone 2 • • High Risk/Zone 1 • Connected to combined sewer system and more than 20 fuel stores in the catchment. 1m/s).more than 20 fuel stores in the catchment and open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min.4 SEWAGE PUMPING STATIONS This section applies to sewage pumping stations in the sewerage system and includes the terminal pumping station. it may not be a problem. 0.less than 20 fuel stores (min 3 fuel stores) in the catchment and enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (less than 3ACH).4m 0.05 ACH). Note: Refer to Section 6. Table 7.5m 0. than for a low level vent (less than 5m above ground level – min. 3ACH) Connected to a combined sewer system and less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment and open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min 3ACH) Connected to a domestic foul only sewer system and enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (i.1. Page 51 of 167 .7m 1.e.0 Vents (including vented manhole covers) to atmosphere on High Risk combined sewer systems will have a Zone 2 area of ‘x’ metres radius around the tip of the vent depending on the diameter of the vent pipe (refer to zone extent values below) and their height above ground level.. or.7m Note: Hazard distances have been calculated based on passive ventilation rates within sewer (less than 0.5m 1. Whilst control of this hazard distance may be difficult outside of company installations. those that receive domestic foul effluent only. .2 for determination of number of fuel stores in catchments.3m 0. it must be taken into account when siting such a vent to minimise problems.5m/s).2m 0. and combined sewers that receive other wastes such as trade effluents and surface water drainage from roads. using formulae detailed in Appendix A3. 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

Covered wet wells receiving effluent from a combined sewer with less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment are Medium Risk if inadequately ventilated (less than 3 ACH) and classified as above. are Low Risk and classified as non-hazardous. etc.g. are Medium Risk and classified as Zone 2 internally.4. 7. 7.g.g. must be classified the same as the wet well. If the dry well is adequately ventilated (min. must be classified as Zone 1. Covered sewage pumping station receiving domestic foul effluent only.4. receiving effluent from a combined sewer that has no flammable trade effluent and less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment. e.). must be applied to the area to which the vents discharge. 3 ACH) wet wells. Where measures to increase ventilation are taken.1 Domestic Effluent Wet Well Open topped wet wells receiving domestic foul effluent only are Low Risk and classified as non-hazardous. manhole covers.0 7.3 for values of ‘x’) around any openings (e. less than 3 ACH). or by addition of mechanical ventilation (e. 3 ACH) then the structure can be classified the same as for unobstructed open air. where the wet well is not adequately ventilated.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. odour control). a connecting duct.g. Covered sewage pumping stations connected to High Risk combined sewer systems. open grills. The Zone 2 distance is dependant on the ventilation rate within the wet well and only applies where the opening discharges to unobstructed open air outside the structure. High Risk covered or sheltered wet wells classified as Zone 1 internally have a Zone 2 area of ‘x’ metres radius (refer to Table 7. wet well covered by mesh flooring (more than 60% of the surface area is open). the principle described for dry wells below. (more than 20 fuel stores in catchment area) where the wet well is not adequately ventilated (i.e. Page 52 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.3 Combined Effluent Dry Well Dry wells with a gas migration path from a wet well (e. if the ventilation of the dry well structure is inadequate (i.2 Combined Effluent Wet Well Open topped or covered but adequately ventilated (min. vent or opening). less than 3 ACH). Covered wet wells receiving effluent from a combined sewer with between 3 and 20 fuel stores in the catchment. Openings from Medium Risk covered or sheltered wet wells classified as Zone 2 do not have an associated zone around them if they discharge to unobstructed open air outside the structure.4. are considered Medium Risk and shall be classified as Zone 2.e. If openings from covered wet wells do not discharge to unobstructed open air outside the structure. then the classification may be reduced to Zone 2.

then the zone extents above shall apply. no zone extent need therefore be considered for normal operation. POWER/SIGNAL CONNECTORS AND CABLE LIFTED OUT AND THE POWER SUPPLY HAS BEEN ISOLATED ELSEWHERE’ Page 53 of 167 .5m 5. however.6m 0.5m 0.5m 12. manhole.8m 1. manholes. during maintenance/inspection).2m 2.7m 0.9m 1. 1ACH) x’ = x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = 0.2m 3.5m 4. when the cover is removed (e.4 Equipment in Wet Wells It is considered that Zone 2 power and signal connectors (e. etc.2m 2.3 Hazard Distances from Openings in High Risk Wet Wells Covered Surface Area Wet Well Ventilation (less than 3ACH min.1m 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10.8m 0. MANHOLES.0 Table 7.0 ISSUE 4. ETC.6m 0.0m 1.g.g. A statement to this effect must be included in the Operating and Maintenance Manual and a prohibition sign posted adjacent to the connector stating: • ‘NOT TO BE MADE OR BROKEN UNLESS COVERS.0m Wet Well Ventilation (less than 1ACH) 0. 3. Wet well ventilation of at least 3ACH will result in no Zone 2 area above any opening. etc..2.0m 1. is opened.0m 1. ICORE) are suitable for all wet well applications.6m 15m 20m 80m 2 2 2 120m 150m 200m Notes: 2 2 2 1.3m 0.4m 0.0m 1. It should be ensured that the connector remains in this position when covers. 7. Dispersion formulae used to determine zone extents are detailed in Appendix A3. Surface areas under 15m are for standard precast concrete rings.7m 7. The term ‘covered surface area’ relates to the enclosed liquid surface area within the wet well and not to the 2 surface area of any associated structures such as a manhole cover or wet well roof. The connector is not made or broken except when the cover is open. are closed. ARE OPEN.6m 4.5m 3.. 2.5m 0.1m 1.4m 0.7m 0. the cable and connector is lifted out above the cover and the power has been isolated.05ACH) is assumed in dispersion calculations where ventilation is less than 1ACH in covered wet well. the value of ‘x’ can be selected from the graph in Appendix A3.7m 0.. not withstanding the fact that they are only certified for Zone 2 applications. Passive ventilation (less than 0.4m 0.5m 3. a manhole cover) but not gas tight. 4.g.3. subject to the following constraints: • The connector is located at the top of any wet well in an immediately accessible position when the cover. For surface areas between those shown. Where openings are normally covered (e. the rate of release of any flammable gas or vapour can be assumed to be negligible.6m 0.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.4.

i. butane (class T2) or kerosene (class T3) explosive atmospheres could exist in the same area then class T3 equipment must be selected. the most restrictive temperature class must be specified.2 (a) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Submersible pump and motor set (Medium Risk) Page 54 of 167 . When mixtures of substances can be released.5 Example Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Some examples of covered sewage pumping station classifications are shown in Figures 7.0 ISSUE 4. the one with the highest T class number. The zone extents ‘x’ from any openings in the wet well or dry well (if gas-tight seal not present) can be derived from the covered surface areas in the table below.2(a) to (l). 7. unless it is known that a more restrictive class is appropriate. Figure 7.e.. For example.0 Since flammable material can be ignited by contact with a hot surface.4. It is recommended that class T3 equipment is used in sewers and sewage pumping stations within the sewerage system (including terminal pumping stations) to allow for petrol spillages etc. it is necessary to specify an appropriate Temperature (T) Class for all apparatus to be used in hazardous areas. if it is possible that propane (class T1).DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.2 (b) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Submersible pump and motor set (High Risk) Page 55 of 167 .0 Figure 7.

2 (c) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Submersible pump with motor at ground level (Medium Risk) Page 56 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.0 ISSUE 4.

0 ISSUE 4.2 (d) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Submersible pump with motor at ground level (Medium Risk) Page 57 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.

0 Figure 7.2 (e) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Separate pump and motor mounted together in dry well (High Risk) Page 58 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

0 Figure 7.0 ISSUE 4.2 (f) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Separate pump and motor mounted together in dry well (High Risk) Page 59 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

2 (g) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Separate pump and motor mounted together in dry well (High Risk) Page 60 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.0 Figure 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

2 (h) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Pump in dry well and motor at high level (Medium Risk) Page 61 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.2 (i) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Pump in dry well and motor at high level (High Risk) Page 62 of 167 .0 Figure 7.0 ISSUE 4.

0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.2 (j) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Pump in dry well and motor at high level (High Risk) Page 63 of 167 .

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.2 (k) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Pump in dry well and motor at high level (High Risk) (Zone 2 from wet well vent impinges on doorway to building) Page 64 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.

0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.2 (l) Zoning for Sewage Pumping Stations Screw Pumping Station (High Risk) Page 65 of 167 .0 Figure 7.

4 Zone Classification of Inlet Works. because sewage is normally Page 66 of 167 . The zone extents for vents openings in sewage storage tanks and CSO’s shall be the same as that specified for sewage pumping stations in Table 7. Zone 2 if Medium Risk.2 .e. High Risk sewer storage tanks that are inadequately ventilated (less than 3ACH) are classified as Zone 1.6. Note: Refer to Section 6.2 for determination of number of fuel stores in catchments.6 PRELIMINARY AND STORAGE) PRIMARY TREATMENT (INCLUDING STORM WATER Table 7. • enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (less than 3ACH). Zone 1 if High Risk. i. The zone extent from any openings in sewage storage tanks and CSO’s shall be the same as that specified for sewage pumping stations in Table 7. less than 3ACH) Receiving sewage from a combined sewer system with more than 20 fuel stores in the catchment and.0 ISSUE 4. CSO’s shall be classified as the connecting sewer. • open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min.Zone Classification of Sewerage Installation.1 General Sewage is received at a treatment works at the inlet works. Combined Sewer Overflows can often contain mechanical raked screens. Channels and Chambers Risk Category/ Zone Low Risk/Non-Hazardous Installation Conditions Receiving sewage from domestic foul only sewer and. • open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min. which is then emptied when the flow in the main sewer drops back to average conditions.1.1 7. motorised valves and may be open to the air or in an enclosed structure or chamber. 3ACH).5 STORAGE CHAMBERS AND CSO’S Sewer storage tanks are used to store sewage during periods of high flow. 3ACH) Receiving sewage from a combined sewer system with less than 3 fuel stores in the catchment and. Receiving sewage from a combined sewer system with less than 20 fuel stores in the catchment and.e. 7. • enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (i. Methane produced from decomposition of sewage organic matter is unlikely to present a risk of an explosive atmosphere.3 and based on the covered surface area. • Medium Risk/Zone 2 open topped or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min 3ACH) Receiving sewage from a domestic foul only sewer and.0 7. Otherwise they are categorised as Medium Risk and classified as Zone 2.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. • High Risk/Zone 1 enclosed or sheltered and inadequately ventilated (less than 3ACH) Receiving sewage from a combined sewer system with more than 20 fuel stores in the catchment and. which if it is open to the atmosphere will allow any flammable gas or vapour present to be diluted and dispersed by natural ventilation. Refer to Table 7. Mitigation measures such as adequate ventilation of an enclosed CSO structure or chamber can be considered in order to reduce the classification.

it is expected that the bulk of the flammable liquid will evaporate quickly leaving a much smaller quantity of flammable material to be passed forward to the first stage of treatment (typically primary sedimentation or storm water settlement). Sheltered structures are either sheltered from the wind by other surrounding structures (separated from another structure e. local circumstances may permit a less restrictive classification to be used. there is an increased risk of methane building up to a hazardous level.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.6.0 processed within a day. it contains very little organic matter and the temperature is often below 20°C. petroleum products in the effluent flow are not deemed to constitute a hazard. a building or tank.g. These works are unlikely to receive sufficient quantity of flammable liquid to form an explosive atmosphere.2 Classification of Inlet Channels and Chambers Open to Atmosphere Equipment for screening. Inlet works connected to sewers with more than 20 fuel stores in the catchment are considered as being at greatest risk of receiving a large amount of flammable liquid in the sewage inflows. Whilst flammable vapours may persist in an inadequately ventilated inlet works. by less than twice the height of the structure) or where the depth of the open structure is greater than twice the width. where solids are retained for long periods and ventilation is restricted. Generally the zoning associated with the inlet works will only extend to the distribution chamber/channel for the primary settlement tanks/storm tanks. then similar principles will apply. Refer to Table 7. Where a works is not split into conventional primary and secondary stages. where the through surface flow conditions that normally prevail. In these circumstances a written variation from the Project Manager must be obtained defining the revised classification and any other restrictions or requirements that are necessary.e no trade effluent or surface water drainage). grit removal and commutation located at the receiving works are included in this section. will prevent large quantities of flammable vapour being produced. Flammable vapours will persist in sheltered open structures where natural ventilation is restricted. on arrival at these stages in the treatment process. However. 3ACH) works that receive domestic foul only sewage (i. will then disperse on the large surface area present and quickly evaporate to atmosphere. the petroleum product would be carried forward to the first open tank with a large free surface area and thereafter would not be deemed a hazard. Highly flammable liquids may accumulate in screens and degritting channels where the flow velocity will be reduced. reduce the risk of any explosive atmosphere being formed or persisting. Open inlet or enclosed and adequately ventilated inlet works. Open inlet channels with unrestricted natural ventilation. However a risk assessment should be conducted to ascertain whether or not hazardous zoning should apply after preliminary treatment. Low risk inlet works are open or enclosed and adequately ventilated (min. Inlet works receiving flows from combined sewers that contain trade effluent and/or are connected to surface water drainage are categorised as Medium or High risk. such as membrane or SBR plant. receiving sewage flows from Medium risk Page 67 of 167 . In subsequent treatment steps. subject to a risk assessment being completed. In these areas. Channels and Chambers. increase the risk. the normal flow of sewage through the works will carry highly flammable liquids quickly forward. The residual flammable liquid. That is. Highly flammable liquids such as petrol arising from a spillage into the sewer present a greater risk of creating an explosive atmosphere as they are generally heavier than air and may not disperse quickly where ventilation is restricted. On some existing installations.4 – Zoning of Inlet Works.0 ISSUE 4. Flammable liquids present in sewage will flow into open inlet channels and chambers. which may limit the quantity of vapour released. 7. whereas sheltered or inadequately ventilated inlet works.

Enclosed screenings equipment shall be classified internally the same as the covered channel up to the inlet of the launder channel and non-hazardous thereafter. then the ventilation must be considered as inadequate to disperse a release of flammable gas or vapours.g. Externally above the coping wall. the area should be classified as non-hazardous. Screening equipment below the coping wall shall therefore be suitable for a Zone 2 area and non-hazardous above the coping wall. Page 68 of 167 . no standby ventilation fan or manual duty/standby changeover on unmanned site). may be enclosed or sheltered.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. If artificial ventilation is not provided within enclosed channels or chambers. then the ventilation within the channel or chamber must be considered inadequate. 3ACH) inlet channels or chambers are classified as non-hazardous. An open channel or chamber in a sheltered location (e. Open inlet channels receiving flows from domestic foul only sewers are classified as Non-hazardous. Low Risk enclosed but adequately ventilated (min. a deep channel/chamber or one sheltered from the wind by surrounding structures) should be considered the same as an enclosed channel or chamber with inadequate ventilation. Channels and Chambers. thereby limiting any natural ventilation available. Enclosed screenings equipment shall be classified internally the same as the covered channel up to the inlet of the launder channel and non-hazardous thereafter. Refer to Table 7.4 – Zoning of Inlet Works.3 for values of ‘x’).0 category combined sewers are classified as Zone 2 internally up to coping level. A Zone 2 area will be taken to extend for a distance of ’x’ metres radius from any large opening or above the coping wall of a sheltered open channel (refer to Table 7. Where artificial ventilation is provided within an enclosed channel or chamber but is less than 3 ACH or ventilation is at least 3ACH but discontinuities could occur for more than 10 hours (e. where ventilation is inadequate (less than 3ACH) are classified as Zone 1 internally.0 ISSUE 4. High Risk enclosed or sheltered inlet channels or chambers.g. Medium Risk enclosed or sheltered inlet channels or chambers are classified as Zone 2 internally or up to coping level.3 Classification of Enclosed or Sheltered Inlet Channels and Chambers in Open Air Inlet channels or chambers located in the open air.3 Zoning of Medium Risk Inlet Channel or Chambers Open to Atmosphere 7. Figure 7.6.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 ISSUE 4.0 Figure 7.4 Zoning of High Risk Enclosed or Sheltered Inlet Channels or Chambers

7.6.4

Enclosed, Open and Ventilated Channels in Buildings

Some inlet channels may be located within a building along with screening plant to control odours. Where channels are covered they may be provided with extract type artificial ventilation for odour control. Ventilation rates for odour extraction are typically in the range of 3-6 ACH. In the event of a large hydrocarbon spillage, this level of ventilation in a covered channel may not be adequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere from being formed by hydrocarbon vapours, but could reduce persistence time and hence the zone type and extent. Open channels within a building may be covered with mesh flooring and hence ventilation within the channel will be provided by the natural or artificial ventilation available within the building. Local extractive ventilation, in the range of 3-6 ACH within covered inlet channels or chambers inside a building will maintain a negative pressure beneath the covers, so that a release of flammable vapour or gas to the surrounding building is unlikely provided large hatches and openings in the covered channels are kept closed. Hatches and openings in the covers shall be clearly marked to show that their presence forms part of the zoning classification for the channel or chamber and should be replaced as soon as is practicable when removed for maintenance purposes. Refer to Table 7.4 – Zoning of Inlet Works Channels and Chambers. High Risk enclosed inlet channels or chambers within a building are classified as Zone 1 beneath the covers. Where the ventilation in the building is at least 1ACH, a local Zone 2 area of ‘x’ m radius (refer to Table 7.3 for values of ‘x’) will extend from any large opening in the covers (Note; this zoning only applies when the cover is removed). The Zone 2 distance is dependant on the ventilation rate within the enclosed channel (refer to Table 7.3). For High Risk enclosed channels where the ventilation rate in the building is less than 1ACH or ventilation in the building is not continuous, then the whole building shall be classified as Zone 2.

Page 69 of 167

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 ISSUE 4.0 Open inlet channels or chambers shall be considered as being similar to enclosed channels or chambers with the surrounding structure providing the cover or enclosure. Where the building ventilation is less than 3 ACH, High Risk open channels or chambers shall be classified as Zone 1 up to the coping or mesh floor level and the whole of the surrounding building shall be classified as a Zone 2 area. Where building ventilation is a minimum of 3ACH, then open inlet channels or chambers are categorised as Medium Risk. Enclosed screens in open inlet channels shall be classified the same as the channel up to the screens launder channel and non-hazardous thereafter. Figure 7.5a Zoning of High Risk Enclosed Screen Channel in Building

Medium Risk enclosed or open inlet channels or chambers within a building are classified as Zone 2, internally. For enclosed Medium Risk channels and chambers, the rest of the building shall be classified as Non-hazardous provided there is a minimum continuous ventilation rate of 1 ACH in the building. If the minimum ventilation rate in the building is less than 1 ACH or ventilation is not continuous, a local Zone 2 area of ‘x’ metres radius (refer to Table 7.3) will extend around large openings in the covers. Enclosed screens in inlet channels shall be classified as Zone 2 internally up to the screens launder channel and nonhazardous thereafter. For open Medium Risk channels or chambers, the rest of the building shall be classified as Non-hazardous provided there is a minimum continuous ventilation rate of 3 ACH in the building. If the minimum ventilation rate in the building is less than 3 ACH or ventilation is not continuous, a local Zone 2 area of ‘x’ metres radius (refer to Table 7.3) will extend above the top of the coping wall or mesh covers.

Page 70 of 167

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 ISSUE 4.0 Low Risk enclosed inlet channels or chambers are classified as non-hazardous. Figure 7.5b Zoning of Medium Risk Enclosed Screen Channel in Building

Where the use of continuous building ventilation to reduce or eliminate zonal classification is not feasible due to local odour restrictions, a permitted alternative measure would be to use flammable gas/vapour detection to initiate the building ventilation. Any gas detection system used to initiate ventilation as a means of eliminating a zonal classification is deemed to be a Safety Instrumented System and therefore must comply with the requirements set out in Section 10.2.3. The use of a Safety Instrumented System must be approved by the Project Manager. The gas detector must be located upstream in the inlet channel and interlocked with building ventilation. On flammable gas/vapour detection an alarm should be initiated at 10% of Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). The building ventilation should be initiated at 25% LEL to provide ventilation of at least 3 ACH within the building. A failsafe for the gas detection system shall be that building ventilation is energised on loss of gas detection (detector failure). 7.6.5 Primary Settlement (including Storm Water Storage)

In the event of an accidental spillage into a combined sewer, screened and degritted sewage from a Medium or High Risk inlet works could pass forward residual flammable liquid to the first stage of treatment (typically primary settlement or storm water storage). These tanks have a large surface area, which are generally open to the atmosphere and would allow any residual flammable liquid still present in the sewage inflow to quickly evaporate. In addition, conventional primary settlement and storm storage tanks are normally equipped with scum boards which would retain any floating liquid on the surface.

Page 71 of 167

filter effluent. may be at risk from flammable vapours in the event of a flammable liquid spill. secondary and digested sludges. Raw sludge can emit gases but these are composed primarily of carbon dioxide. 3 ACH) shall be classified the same as open primary tanks above (this includes settlement tanks enclosed within buildings). final effluent and tertiary treated effluent are considered non-hazardous. Pumping stations containing raw or activated sludges. raw. mean that there is no risk with regard to biogas generation. may still contain a considerable amount of dissolved methane and the classification of wet wells is dealt with in Section 7. mixed and return liquors and final effluent. channels or chambers associated with interstage pumping stations containing settled sewage. High ambient temperature. The composition of this sludge gas is unlikely to be flammable (see Technical Appendix A1.0 For membrane or SBR plant.13. mixed liquor from activated sludge plants.3. Primary settlement tanks (including storm tanks) that are covered and receive flows from a Low Risk inlet works are classified as non-hazardous. accompanied by small amounts of methane and traces of other gases. shall be classified non-hazardous. 7. if they are inadequately ventilated. such as hydrogen sulphide.2. including primary effluent.7 INTERSTAGE PUMPING STATIONS Interstage pumping stations on sewage treatment works are located between treatment processes and can operate on a range of fluids produced in the treatment of sewage and sludge. This gas mixture is not flammable. whether open or covered.1.2) and with the large free surface area and natural ventilation of open tanks. see Technical Appendix A1. A covered primary tank with inadequate ventilation shall therefore be classified as Zone 2 under the covers and non-hazardous above the covers. Primary settlement tanks which are covered or enclosed inside a building to control odours and have adequate ventilation (min.8 SLUDGE STORAGE. Open or covered wet wells. Less acidic sludges. If the ventilation rate is less than 3 ACH then this may be inadequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere from forming under the covers of the tank.3. Gas generation from sludge solids settled in the bottom of the tanks will occur where sludge is not removed frequently and is most noticeable in warm weather. These conditions are optimised in the case of sludge digestion to actively generate biogas containing the highest concentrations of methane and to maximise its Page 72 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4. similar principles would still apply in that they have large surface areas where the flammable liquid can evaporate. THICKENING/DEWATERING The factors affecting the quantity and composition of gas produced from the decomposition of sludges include: • • • Retention for long periods of time. activated and humus sludges will not generate a flammable gas mixture so open or covered wet wells containing return liquors from these sources are considered non-hazardous. Open topped primary settlement tanks (including storm tanks) are therefore classified as Non-hazardous. Return liquors from the thickening or dewatering of primary. Covered primary settlement tanks receiving effluent from Medium or High Risk inlet works. 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Liquors obtained from digested sludges however.

Secondary digesters perform a similar function for sludge received from primary digestion. with the zone extending to a minimum of 2. Where this does occur. the roof is shown as a Zone 2 area for distance of 2.6 for fixed roof digesters and Figure 7.9. Digesters should be classified as shown in Figure 7. typically 35oC. thickening and dewatering equipment handling raw. In the latter. The roof of the digester will contain a number of fittings. possibly creating an internal explosive mixture. In the former. Page 73 of 167 . activated or humus sludges are also classified as non-hazardous.Digested Sludge Vessels and Sumps. 7. Mixing is provided either by compressed sludge gas being sparged at the bottom of the digester. Secondary digestion is dealt with in Section 7.10 . thus. in this latter case arranged as a dome to function as combined digester and gas holder. The preliminary classification must then be agreed in writing with the Project Manager to ensure a consistent corporate approach. level and temperature. All these connections must be considered as potential leak sources. Digesters and digested sludge is considered separately in Section 7. activated and humus sludges will not normally produce a flammable gas as a result of decomposition at ambient temperature (up to 20°C). The fill and draw method is no longer recommended due to the potential for introducing atmospheric oxygen into the digester. the raw sludge is introduced and displaces digested sludge. They may be constructed of concrete or metal and have either fixed or floating roofs. raw. Consequently. but without any means for maintaining temperatures or.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. There are various designs of digesters. Operating practice must be to repair such leaks before they become a significant problem. This section is concerned only with primary digestion.0m. Where this boundary would be below ground then the zone extent shall terminate at ground level. usually. and therefore in these circumstances it is considered that no hazard is deemed to exist from these sludges. with consequential gas leakage (or more particularly from around purpose-made insertion points in the roof or wall where equipment has been fitted). On the basis that this is done speedily and effectively. rupture discs. a preliminary hazardous area classification must be made by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in the published literature. recovering the gas.0 production. with utilisation of the fuel value of the methane content of the gas produced.7 for floating roof digesters.0m below water seal level. Sludge storage. Digester structures should not be utilised to create a plant room for pumping of digested sludge. lamp glasses. The digester may be operated in a fill and draw regime or a displacement regime. some of the digested sludge is removed before introducing a fresh feed of raw sludge. sight glasses.0 ISSUE 4. the gas evolution rate is lower than in a primary digester and decreases with time as the temperature of the sludge decreases slowly. or by internal mechanical mixers. All new digesters should be fixed roof with separate gas holders. Storage of digested sludge must therefore be considered a high risk as digesting sludges on leaving a digester will continue to produce biogas for a considerable period. which may include pressure/vacuum relief valve. The following points must be noted with regard to zone classification: • Fixed concrete roofs suffer occasionally from cracks and steel tanks suffer occasionally from corrosion pitting holes. and instrumentation items for pressure. Generally primary digesters are for the digestion of raw sludge at elevated temperatures.9 DIGESTERS Digesters are sometimes termed primary and secondary digesters. In a well operated works.

Generally. If the waste gas burner is not operational for an extended period of time a risk assessment must be carried out to consider reclassifying around the relief valve to reflect its use as the primary route for excess gas disposal. For digesters operating at higher gas production rates or at a higher relief pressure. agitator drives. Under abnormal conditions the pressure/vacuum relief valve may operate under negative pressure. • • • • • • For other ancillary items (such as gas mixing pipework) and variations to the design shown (e. The interior of the digester is therefore classified as Zone 1.) then the information given elsewhere in this SPD should be used to arrive at a preliminary classification.2. overflow arrangements. For digesters with gas production rates up to 200m3/h. the extent of the Zone 2 area around the relief valve must be calculated using the formulae given in Example 2 of Appendix A1. The zoning is based on a mechanical pressure/vacuum relief device operating at a typical relief pressure of 25mbar. so a Zone 1 area will extend from the surface of the water seal up to the top of the containment wall.5m from the valve. The classification around the relief valve is based on the assumption that the primary route for disposal of excess gas is via the waste gas burner. A Zone 1 is therefore deemed to extend for a radius of 0. allowing air to be drawn into an atmosphere. Page 74 of 167 . which would otherwise be at a concentration above the UEL. etc.g. Whessoe Valve). The Zone 2 distance for a release from the water seal is given in Table 7.1. Under abnormal conditions it is possible for the water seal around a floating roof digester to release gas to the atmosphere. This zoning is equally applicable to those devices relying on a head of water if measures have been taken to ensure that the liquid level is appropriately maintained at all times. small leakages of flammable gas will be released between the weight pallet and seating of the valve during normal operation. The pressure/vacuum relief valve is shown sufficiently elevated to clarify the zoning around its discharge location. the valve is lower and the lower part of the zone will merge with that above the roof.0 ISSUE 4.g. Usually pressure fluctuations in the digester can be accommodated by the gas holder without the relief valve operating.4. and thus giving rise to an explosive gas/air mixture. a Zone 2 area will extend for a radius of 5m from this release source. A release from the water seal is therefore regarded as a secondary release leading to a Zone 2 hazardous area extending from the water seal around the rim of the gas holder.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Under abnormal conditions the relief valve may operate under high pressure and release flammable gas. for instance because of overinflation.0 • Minor gas leakage may be expected from around the water seal of a floating digester during normal operation. If the relief valve is of the dead weight type (e. The outlet of the relief valve is therefore regarded as a secondary grade of release.

0 ISSUE 4.6 Zoning for Fixed Roof Digester Page 75 of 167 .0 Figure 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

7 Zoning for Floating Roof Digester Page 76 of 167 .0 Figure 7.0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

75 1 Dispersion Distance ‘x’ (m) 1. Ventilation is required in secondary digesters in accordance with SPD C09 .5 D (m) Zoning Distance for Water Seal Leakage . 7.5 10 20 30 40 50 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 5 2 2 2 3 5 2 2 2 3 5 2 2 3 3 5 Note: The table is based on IGE/SR/25.0 ISSUE 4.Floating Roof Digesters Digester Height to Diameter Ratio (H/D) 0. The sump can be considered to be in an open freely ventilated area when the sump is separated from other significant sized buildings or structures (e. Table 10.5 0.10 should be applied. digested sludge will continue to release gas for some time within the vessel as it cools down. Secondary digesters are used to provide additional pathogen reduction prior to dewatering and/or disposal. but has been modified to suit dispersion distances for biogas released from a water seal leakage. SUMPS AND LAGOONS Vessels for storing primary digested sludge received from digesters are sometimes called secondary digesters. If this is likely then a Zone 2 area of 1. The sizing of such explosion relief must be supported by appropriate calculations provided by competent specialists. discharge overflow limpet boxes on the fill and discharge type of digester.0m radius should be assumed above the surface of the lagoon centred on the feed pipe. Digested sludge is stored in the secondary digester for a minimum retention period of 9 days to ensure compliance with HACCP procedures and an air mixing system is often fitted to minimise short circuiting of primary sludge through the vessel. Covered storage vessels (secondary digesters) that have ventilation provided for odour control.Sludge Treatment (reference 4). Return liquors obtained from the dewatering of digested sludge. if the feed into a lagoon is large enough there is a potential to generate a localised explosive atmosphere around the inlet feed pipe.g. Provision must be made for explosion relief on inadequately ventilated enclosed vessels due to the significant possibility of an explosive atmosphere being present virtually continuously in the vessel. As digested sludge from the secondary digester will have largely ceased anaerobic biological activity the risk of significant gas release from the sludge will be minimal. may however still contain some dissolved methane. Page 77 of 167 .0 Table 7. Although lagoons may receive some primary digested sludge. Open storage vessels or sumps containing digested sludge from digesters e. very little solids reduction and gas production takes place in a secondary digester. shall be classified as Zone 1 internally and non-hazardous externally. However. a large building or tank) by more than twice the height of the building or structure. Covered secondary digesters with ventilation of less than 1 ACH are considered to be inadequately ventilated and shall be classified as shown in Figure 7. where the sump is in an open freely ventilated area. nevertheless. Compared to primary digesters.9. the amount entering a lagoon is usually too small to create a significant release of flammable gas. Where this criteria is not met then the storage vessel or sump is in a sheltered location and ventilation is considered to be inadequate. so the zoning in Figure 7. provided they have a ventilation rate of at least one air change per hour.25 1.10 DIGESTED SLUDGE VESSELS.8.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.g. should be classified as in Figure 7.

Zoning for Open Storage Vessels or Sumps Containing Primary Digested Sludge Page 78 of 167 .0 ISSUE 4.8.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7.

Table 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. up to a maximum of 1.7m 1.6m 0. for values in between those given select the nearest upper value of ‘x’. The distance ‘x’ is defined below for a range of vessel storage volumes.6 Hazard Distances for Covered and Inadequately Ventilated Storage Vessels Containing Primary Digested Sludge Volume of Covered Storage Vessel Up to 500m 750m 3 3 3 3 3 ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = 0.0m.0m 1000m 1500m Greater than 1500m Note: Dispersion formulae used to determine zone extents are detailed in Appendix A3.0 ISSUE 4.9.0 Figure 7.3. Page 79 of 167 .5m 0. Zoning for Covered and Inadequately Ventilated Storage Vessels Containing Primary Digested Sludge The distance ‘x’ for the Zone 0 and Zone 1 bubbles in the figure above will be dependant on the stored volume of digested sludge.6m 0.

6. heating streams. Covered drains and manholes handling primary digested sludge shall be classified as Zone 1 internally where the ventilation is inadequate (less than 1 air change per hour).) is to be installed in plant rooms. 1 air change per hour (e.0 ISSUE 4. 1 air change per hour (e. etc.5m.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Any drain connections should be valved and the open ends provided with a blank flange or plug. 7. up to a maximum of 0. The zone extent ‘x’ for the Zone 2 area in the figure above is dependant on the volume of the sump.25m 0.5m 1000m 1500m Greater than 1500m Note: Dispersion formulae used to determine zone extents are detailed in Appendix A3. Covered drains and manholes handling secondary digested sludge shall be classified as Zone 2 internally where the ventilation is inadequate (less than 1 air change per hour) with no external Zone 2. open manholes) then the classification shall be Zone 2 internally with a Zone 2 extending above the coping level for a distance of ‘x’ as defined in Table 7.3m 0.10 Zoning for Open Sumps Containing Primary Digested Sludge Where Natural Ventilation is Restricted.2 with regard to digested sludge pumps located within plant rooms. Page 80 of 167 .g. 7. Table 7.3m 0. Where ventilation is available at min.7.11 PIPEWORK CONTAINING DIGESTED SLUDGE Pipework and fittings containing digested sludge should be classified non-hazardous.12 DIGESTED SLUDGE CENTRIFUGES Centrifuges employed on secondary digested sludge dewatering should be classified as non-hazardous when they are installed in a freely ventilated open air environment. for values in between those given select the nearest upper value of ‘x’. Reference should also be made to Section 7.18.0 Figure 7. The distance ‘x’ is defined below for a range of sump volume.3. If such pipework containing digester sludge (feeds. discharges.2m 0. with a Zone 2 extending around any vent or opening for a distance of ‘x’ as defined in Table 7. then the provision of valves. open manholes) then the classification shall be non-hazardous. Where ventilation is available at min.7 Hazard Distances for Open Sumps Containing Primary Digested Sludge Volume of Open Sump Up to 500m 750m 3 3 3 3 3 ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = ‘x’ = 0.g. flanges and fittings should be minimised.

3. If centrifuges are installed indoors. 7. The concentration of dissolved methane in liquors from secondary digested sludge is considered to be less than 10mg/l due to degassing in the secondary digester.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. An alternative to ventilating the whole press building to a minimum of 1ACH is to ‘enclose’ the press in a smaller curtained off area complete with a ‘roof’ and provide local ventilation within the curtained off area of at least 1ACH. then the enclosed space containing the centrifuge should be provided with a ventilation system achieving a minimum of 1 air change per hour. to remove zonal classification.2. provided a ventilation system achieving a minimum of 1 air change per hour exists within the press house.13 DIGESTED SLUDGE PRESSES AND PRESS HOUSES Filter presses handling secondary digested sludge that are located within a press house shall be classified as non-hazardous inside the press unit. Where mechanical ventilation is employed. an alarm will be initiated and emergency local or building ventilation started to provide the minimum required ventilation rate. Where ventilation of the sludge presses and/or press house above is inadequate (less than 1ACH for secondary digested sludge or less than 3 ACH for primary digested sludge). The preliminary classification must then be agreed in writing with the Project Manager to ensure a consistent corporate approach. that alarms and shuts down the centrifuge in the event of loss of sufficient air flow. that alarms and shuts down the presses in the event of loss of sufficient air flow. Forced air ventilation systems must be fitted with air flow monitoring.0 ISSUE 4. Any gas detection system used to initiate emergency ventilation and press shutdown as a means of eliminating a zonal classification is deemed to be a Safety Instrumented System and therefore must comply with the requirements set out in Section 10. At this concentration any residual methane release is unlikely to result in the formation of an explosive atmosphere. The gas detection system must be installed in a suitable location above each press. 7. On detection of flammable gas at 10%LEL. The use of a Safety Instrumented System must be approved by the Project Manager. An alternative mitigation measure where ventilation is inadequate. The press must be automatically shutdown and a washdown initiated if the flammable gas level reaches 25%LEL. could be to provide a flammable gas detection system linked to emergency ventilation and press shutdown.1 Press Liquors Liquors from pressing of digested sludge will have a high organic load and may still contain dissolved methane. then the filter press and/or press house shall be classified as Zone 2. except in enclosed vessels such as covered sumps and wet wells that are inadequately ventilated. Filter presses handling primary digested sludge are required to have a minimum ventilation rate of 3ACH either in the press building as a whole or within a curtained off area around the press In the latter case. The press house itself shall be classified as non-hazardous. Where the enclosed Page 81 of 167 . Mechanical ventilation must be interlocked with press operation that alarms and shuts down the presses in the event of loss of sufficient air flow.13. A preliminary classification must be made by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in the published literature. the rest of the press house must have a minimum ventilation rate of 1ACH at all times. provided adequate ventilation is available to control the concentration of hydrogen sulphide and methane in the atmosphere. Any press or press house that does not match the arrangements described above should be classified on an individual basis. The extraction system must discharge to the outside of the building at a safe point. extract systems must be fitted with air flow monitoring. Digested sludge filter presses situated in the open air or the equivalent of open air are classified as non-hazardous internally and externally around the unit.0 Centrifuges may be installed indoors and should be classified as non-hazardous.

then the internal volume shall be classified as non-hazardous. together with the relevant mechanical protection when selecting pipework. typically above 2 barg for compressed sludge gas and possibly for LPG in its vaporised state.14 GAS MAINS 7. 7. In sewage treatment plant utilising the digestion process. for sludge gas must comply with the current editions of the Institution of Gas Engineers Publication IGE/UP/2 . High pressure gases (above 5 barg) are not normally used on Thames Water sites and advice should be sought when considering area classification involving high pressure gases. also. They are handled in similar gas mains (refer to Section 7. between 500mbarg and 5 barg. sumps or wet wells) is adequately ventilated (a minimum of 3 ACH). valves and associated fittings (including instrumentation). fittings. flanges. and at medium pressures.Safety and Performance of Gas Fired Hot Water Boilers (60kW to 2MW Input) .Part 1 (18). typically up to 20 mbarg for sludge gas and up to 40 mbarg for the other gases.14. If the ventilation rate in the enclosed space is less than 3 ACH. Pipework pressure testing is described in both the above publications. Boosters and Compressors on Industrial and Commercial Premises (reference 28).g. for pressures up to 5 bar.. selection of material and installation of pipework. Pipework should make use of welded construction with the minimum of flanges. then the internal volume shall be classified as non-hazardous. boilers or fired equipment must satisfy a leakage test as described in BS 5978 . then the internal volume of the enclosed vessel shall be classified as Zone 2 with no external zone extent. the guidance for medium pressure gas mains should be used in preference to that for low pressure gas mains. at low pressures. If the ventilation rate in the enclosed space is less than 1 ACH. below ground and in covered ducts. particularly of compressed sludge gas must be considered. These requirements are. methane is more likely to be released from solution and this could lead to an explosive atmosphere being formed.2 Gas Pipework and Fittings The design. which is likely to be in excess of 10mg/l. applicable to natural gas. Where doubt exists in relation to whether the pressurised gas should be considered medium or low pressure.1 Definitions Gas mains include pipework. the gas mains present are primarily for the handling of the sludge gas (biogas) evolved by the process.14.. etc. For the purposes of area classification low and medium pressure conditions are defined as follows: • • low pressure medium pressure up to 500 mbarg. Liquors obtained from primary digested sludge will contain a higher concentration of dissolved methane. At this concentration.19 for LPG) and shall also be classified according to the following sections. Adequate consideration of the temperature of operation. Where the enclosed space (e.0 space is adequately ventilated (a minimum of 1 ACH).0 ISSUE 4. Gas pipework installed in plant rooms to supply engines. The gases above are handled at different pressures. The requirements cater for pipework to be installed above ground. then the internal volume of the enclosed vessel shall be classified as a Zone 2 with no external zone extent. Page 82 of 167 . Natural gas and vaporised LPG are sometimes used for fuel in sewage treatment plant. 7.Gas Installation Pipework.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

siphon chamber pumps or self-closing manually operated valves.8 metres 0. then additional upstream isolating valves must be provided. System Design and Installation (42).0 ISSUE 4. as appropriate.11. Figure 7.9 metres Low Pressure Gas (100 mbar) Medium Pressure (1 bar) Medium Pressure (2 bar) Note: Dispersion formulae used to determine zone extents are detailed in Appendix A3. pipes smaller than 12 mm should be avoided.8 Zone 1 Distances for Gas Leakage from Condensate Drains ‘x’ ‘x’ ‘x’ = = = 0. Page 83 of 167 . and in the case of automatic drains for the water seal to be lost. with instrument systems. 22 . All low points in the pipe runs should be given special attention with regard to condensate removal. Since small bore pipework is more prone to accidental damage and possible release to atmosphere. e. therefore a Zone 1 area is assumed within the chamber.g.0 Detailed advice on piping for use with LPG can be found in UKLPG Code of Practice No. Condensate removal facilities provided on sludge gas pipework should be by means of automatic drains.LPG Piping. A Zone 2 will then extend above the top of the chamber for a distance of ‘x’ metres due to gas leakage through the condensate valve (a 1% leak area has been used for a typical condensate valve size).4 metres 0. Zoning for Condensate Drains on Gas Pipework in Chambers It is considered that gas leakage from a condensate drain into a chamber is expected if the drain operates frequently and leads to a primary grade of release. Table 7.3. When this is not possible. If the drain is not kept capped off it is possible under abnormal conditions for gas to leak past the seal of the closed valve. The distance ‘x’ can be extrapolated from the table below for different gas pressures.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

the gas main should be classified as Zone 1. etc. extending around the drain valve a radius of ‘x’ metres. If integral electrical parts could only abnormally come into wetted contact with the gas (e. seal. etc.1. Zoning for Condensate Drains on Gas Pipework in Freely Ventilated Areas Above Ground.14. However where fittings. None of the resulting zones should impinge on any opening back into the plant room.12.14.. The distance ‘x’ can be extrapolated from Table 7. etc. Site drains must be water sealed.) the devices must be rated Page 84 of 167 .6 above.4 Low Pressure Gas Mains Installed in the Open Air These are gas mains operating up to 500 mbarg on any of the gases mentioned identified in Section 7.g.3 Condensate Drains Condensate drains should be led outside covered ducts as described above for plant rooms.0 ISSUE 4. the drain piping must be led to an easily visible point outside the building. failure of: diaphragm.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.0 Figure 7. Gas leakage from a condensate drain in the open air is expected if the drain is operated frequently and leads to a primary grade of release. covered ducts. Wherever practicable drains should not be installed in plant rooms. Internally. using a ‘U’ bend.g. Where gas mains and associated equipment are buried no zones exist externally. therefore a Zone 1 will exist. 7. e. to ensure that any gas releases are not transmitted to other parts of the site via them acting as open ducts. thereby requiring the classification of facilities some distance from the potential source of release. protective tube. Devices inserted into the gas flow must be rated for Zone 1 if integral electrical parts are in wetted contact with the gas. If drains are installed in a plant room.14. 7. are located in chambers or above ground then the classifications appropriate to the gas pressures and degree of ventilation in those locations should be used. The end of the pipe should be zoned as described above.

connected to blowers/compressors) or items broken or used more regularly.g. Table 7.25mm2 leak area) around the periphery of the item.14.. valves and fittings in an ‘adverse’ environment.4m for pressures up to 100mbar and 0. 2 CFD Modelling of Low Pressure Jets for Area Classification – HSL/2005/11 Page 85 of 167 . This zoning of devices is not considered to extend beyond the external perimeter of those devices. etc. regularly broken (flanges) or more frequently used (valves used during operation or as a result of frequent maintenance). shall be classified as non-hazardous around the periphery of the item. unless the gas mains are buried (see Section 7. shall be classified as Zone 2 with a zone extent of 0. complying with the requirements of Section 7.14.14.5 Medium Pressure Gas Mains Installed in the Open Air These are gas mains operating between 500mbarg and 5 barg on any of the gases identified in Section 7. which are inspected at least twice per year. valves. Flanges. installed in the open air or in an adequately ventilated plant room (see section 7. A ‘normal’ environment is non-vibratory equipment that is well maintained and either rarely broken (flanges and fittings) or infrequently used (valves). Gas mains pipework.9 Zone 2 Distances for Medium pressure Gas Mains in Open Air 0.0 ISSUE 4.2 metres Medium Pressure Gas Mains (1 bar) Medium Pressure Gas Mains (2 bar) Medium Pressure Gas Mains (5 bar) Note: Dispersion formulae used to determine zone extents are detailed in Appendix A3. valves. should have a local Zone 2 area with a radius based on the gas main pressure as below (for a 2. not including valves. Any installation not meeting these requirements must be treated as described in Section 7. installed on non-vibratory pipework.3m (for a 0.1. valves and fittings in a ‘normal’ environment.8 metres 0. Valves should be installed close to flanges.3). flanges. should be zoned using the above information on flanges.9 metres 1. should have a local Zone 2 area with a radius 0. Any mesh covers should have an open area of at least 60 percent. but are rarely broken (flanges) or infrequently used (valves).7). etc.0 Zone 2. which are well maintained. installed on vibratory pipework (e.14.3. An ‘adverse’ environment is equipment that is either installed on vibratory pipework. which are regularly broken to minimise the implications of any releases.. including gas meters. Valves should be installed close to flanges. valves and pipework. 7.14.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Consequently for flanges. which are regularly broken to minimise the implications of any releases.5mm2 leak area).14. CFD modelling studies2 have shown that gas cloud volumes resulting from low pressure leaks are of negligible extent (as defined in BS EN 60079-10) in open areas where they are freely ventilated.6.5mm2 leak area) around the periphery of the item. Flanges. Instruments and their fittings.. etc. unless a clear transmission route exists.6m for pressures up to 500mbar (equivalent to a 2. Flanges.2 should be classified as non-hazardous externally and Zone 1 internally. Open air installations means above ground or in open ducts having width greater than twice their depth.

Medium pressure gas mains shall be classified in accordance with Section 7. other than plant rooms. joints and regulators should be ventilated to prevent accumulation of gases.2. with a minimum of one at each end of the duct. L = length of duct. valve glands. Any condensate drains from gas pipework should have the drain piping led to an easily visible point outside the building. the unventilated duct or void should be filled with a crushed inert infill to reduce to a minimum the volume of any gas which may accumulate. valves.14. etc.14. If ventilation is considered inadequate then the duct shall be classified as Zone 1 internally with a Zone 2 of 0. chemically neutral and fire resistant nature e. or. The end of the pipe should be zoned as described for Page 86 of 167 .4. or at each end of each isolated section of duct.7 Gas Mains Installed in Plant Rooms Wherever practicable the running of gas mains within buildings should be avoided.1m radius around any opening or ventilator for low pressure gas mains and 0.0 ISSUE 4. The plant room shall be classified as non-hazardous where ventilation of at least 1 air change per hour is provided within the room. a justification for the routing of the gas mains and a preliminary hazardous area classification must be made by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in the published literature. 7. should be minimised on gas mains in plant rooms and welded construction maximised. W = width of duct) and. If adequate ventilation is provided to disperse any release of gas from leaks and prevent accumulation then the covered duct shall be classified as Zone 2 internally and non-hazardous externally. screwed fittings. the minimum area of each ventilator opening in the duct is not less than 50% of the cross sectional area of the duct.5. Low pressure gas mains serving engines or fired equipment in ventilated plant rooms shall be classified in accordance with Section 7.0 7.14. For horizontal ducts. The pipework must be tested leak tight as described in Section 7. Where possible. depending on the gas mains pressure.14. Gas mains should only be run in plant rooms if providing a fuel supply to equipment in the room. flanges.6 Medium and Low Pressure Gas Mains Installed in Covered Ducts Covered ducts carrying gas mains that have a combination of flanges. in a non-hazardous area. The infill material should be of a dry.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Where a gas main is run in a plant room that has limited ventilation rate of less than 1 air change per hour. For all areas of buildings..g. taking account of possible failure of any pressure reducing device. the entire plant room shall be classified as Zone 2. either: • • the pipe should be continuously sleeved through the unventilated duct or void with the sleeve ventilated at both ends into a ventilated area. pressure reduction to that required by the equipment should occur prior to entering the plant room. must be used as the basis for hazardous area classification.14. Ventilation can be considered adequate if: • • N ≥ L/(3W) (N = number of ventilators equally spaced along length of duct. The preliminary classification must then be agreed in writing with the Project Manager to ensure a consistent corporate approach. As far as is practicable. the openings should be at the top of high points and the bottom of low points. The maximum possible pressure. crushed slate chippings or dry washed sand. Ventilator openings shall terminate to the open air.3m radius for medium pressure gas mains Should it be necessary for a gas main to pass through an unventilated duct or void.

g. Standard specifications. Whessoe valve). exist for gasholders of both steel and plastic types. therefore. Under abnormal conditions the pressure/vacuum relief valve may operate under negative pressure. Under abnormal conditions it is possible for the water seal around the floating roof to fail.5m radius around the valve.2. reference may be made to IGE publication IGE/SR/4 .0 such drains in Section 7. The interior of the floating roof is therefore classified as Zone 1. maintenance and inspection of gasholders. The following points must be noted with regard to zone classification: • Flammable gas is continuously present within the roof space.2 for drains and Section 7.0 ISSUE 4. Minor gas leakage may be expected from around the water seal of a floating roof gasholder during normal operation.1 for vents. so a Zone 1 area will extend from the surface of the water seal up to the top of the containment wall. A Zone 1 will therefore extend for a radius of 0.Sludge Treatment (4). compromised. • • • • • Page 87 of 167 .14. Refer to Table 7. they must be enclosed in a ventilated cabinet that discharges to an open or well ventilated area.14. should be installed in the open air or in a ventilated area having a ventilation rate of at least 1 air change per hour. vents. The outlet of the relief valve is therefore regarded as a secondary grade of release and results in a Zone 2 hazardous area that extends for a radius of 5m around the valve.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. If the pressure/vacuum relief valve is of the dead weight type (e.5 for dispersion distances for a leak from the water seal. Under abnormal conditions the relief valve may operate under high pressure and release flammable gas. classification of the receiver area should be non-hazardous externally and Zone 1 internally. Lightning protection will be required for gas bag type gas holders (see SPD C09). For details of safety recommendations for design. installation and commissioning of instruments and their fittings to ensure that the likelihood of leakage is minimised and that the design basis applied is not. its concentration being above the upper explosive limit (UEL). Details of gasholders can be found in SPD C09 . 7. 7. Care must be taken in the design.14. which should be classified by reference to Section 7.8 Gas Receivers Gas receivers or accumulators. small leakages of flammable gas will be released between the weight pallet and seating of the valve during normal operation. The water seal is regarded as a secondary release leading to a Zone 2 extending from the water seal around the rim of the gas holder. and thus giving rise to an explosive gas/air mixture. resulting in a release of flammable gas to the atmosphere. Other than any fittings.Low Pressure Gas Holders Storing Lighter than Air Gases (36). Under normal conditions an explosive atmosphere will not be present. also.16.15 GASHOLDERS Gasholders may be of the water sealed or waterless variety operating at low pressure. None of the zones should impinge on any opening into the plant room. such as drains. allowing air to be drawn into an atmosphere which would otherwise be at a concentration above the UEL. and instruments. whether on low or medium pressure systems. Where gas receivers are to be installed in areas that have limited ventilation of less than 1 air change per hour. Manways or similar flanges are not regarded as giving rise to a hazardous area.

generally the valve is lower. should be classified as shown in Figure 7. Page 88 of 167 . The classification around the relief valve is based on the assumption that the primary route for disposal of excess gas is via the waste gas burner. the information given in the SPD should be used to arrive at the appropriate size and zoning of the classified area. Double skin inflatable (balloon) gasholders should be classified as shown in Figure 7.0m. a Zone 2 is deemed to exist around the floating roof for distance of 2. with the zone extending to a minimum of 2. and any boundary effects from secondary releases.0m below water seal level.14. If the waste gas burner is not operational for an extended period of time a risk assessment must be carried out to consider reclassifying around the relief valve to reflect its use as the primary route for excess gas disposal. Water sealed gasholders. due to pinholes. for sludge gas storage.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Where this boundary would be below ground then the zone extent shall terminate at ground level.0 ISSUE 4.0 • Because of the need to consider leakages from the roof. • For any other ancillary items and variations in design.13. The pressure relief valve is shown sufficiently elevated to clarify the zoning around the discharge location. etc. IGE/SR/25 Hazardous Area Classification of Natural Gas Installations (37) provides some guidance on zoning distances for pressure relief valve vents.

Page 89 of 167 .0 Figure 7.13.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Zoning for Water Sealed Gas Holder.0 ISSUE 4.

Minimum requirements recommended by the Institution of Gas Engineers Publication IGE/UP/2 . Where gas compressors or blowers are installed in enclosed spaces (e.g. such attenuation shall not reduce the effectiveness of the ventilators.1 Gas Compressors and Blowers Installed in the Open Air This section applies to compressors and blowers in service on sludge gas (digester gas). and. be installed in the open air or in an open sided structure beneath a roof canopy. ventilation requirements should be confirmed by the compressor supplier. all high level. should be fire resistant.0 Figure 7. 7.0 ISSUE 4. wherever practicable. or as near to the roof as practicable. 7. The acoustic attenuation of all ventilation items must. be effective.16.14. Page 90 of 167 . These may need to be increased if considered necessary for area classification requirements as described below.Gas Installation Pipework. also. Gas compressor rooms or enclosures located within a larger building. the total ventilation area should be equally disposed about the enclosed area with all openings at least 3 metres from any external source of ignition hazard. acoustic enclosures). Zoning for Double Skin Inflatable (Balloon) Type Gas Holders. when noise levels necessitate attenuation of the ventilators. with at least 30 minutes fire resistance or in accordance with Building Regulations. Boosters and Compressors on Industrial and Commercial Premises (38). comprise the following for natural ventilation of enclosed spaces: • • • • • • ventilation openings to the atmosphere should be provided at high and low levels.19. mechanical ventilation systems shall be fully interlocked with machine operation.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. ventilation should be located at roof level. For compressors on vaporised LPG see Section 7.16 GAS COMPRESSORS AND BLOWERS Gas compressors and blowers should. the total effective ventilation area should be not less than 2 percent of the floor area of the enclosed area.

be classified as shown in Figures 7.3 3.9 80 126.7 0. d = leak diameter (assumed to be 1mm) Zone 2 distances in open air are based on dispersion of a pressurised jet of gas in air to below the LEL.2 1.6 1.1 1.15 and 7.0 ISSUE 4.8 0. A leak on the shaft seal on the compressor/blower would represent the worst case secondary release. Secondary releases may occur due to leaks in compressor glands.7 100 157.9 0.5 1.2 1.1 2.9 2.7 2.5 0.9 1. (Note: the roof is not required for health and safety purposes and could be omitted if other factors allow).5 1. Diaphragm compressors shall be classified as Zone 2 above with distance ‘x’ 3.8 2.6 2 25 40.0m around the periphery of the compressor.5 1.3. also.4 2.3 1. Such vents will have a zoned area at their discharge point to atmosphere.6 0.2 1.6 1.14.1 π ([SD + d ] / 2) − π (SD / 2) (from Area Classification for Landfill Gas Extraction.1 2.6 50 79. seals and joints.1 40 63.7 2.7 4.3 1.16.9 1.16.1 2.6 0. Guidance on compressors installed within acoustic enclosures is given in the next section.0 1.7 0.0 Compressors and blowers should be installed in the open air or in an open sided structure with only overhead weather protection provided by a roof with which is ventilated at its high point. Any relief valves or drain vents on gas duty.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.8 1.reference should be made to Section 7.3 2 15 24. Gas compressors and blowers are classified as Zone 1 internally.1 0. edition 1:Nov.8 0. The zone will be a sphere centred on the discharge point having a radius as follows: Table 7.5 1.5 5.9 1.4 1.8 2. Note: Figures 7. 2005). including vents from any crankcase seals and lubricating oil system must discharge to atmosphere at a safe location. The classification will depend on the continuity of discharge as given in the zone definitions in Section 5.4 2.7 0. Therefore for both rotary and reciprocating compressors the installation should be classified externally as shown in Figures 7.9 3.15 and 7.16 do not include the zones associated with the gas pipework . Utilisation and Combustion.10 Zone 2 Distances for Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors in Open Air Shaft Diameter SD (mm) Leak Area (mm ) = Radius (m) at 100mbarg Radius (m) at 200mbarg Radius (m) at 500mbarg Radius (m) at 1barg Radius (m) at 2barg Radius (m) at 4barg Radius (m) at 5barg Leak area calculation 2 10 16.8 2.2 Vent Rate at Ambient Conditions 3 (m /hour) Up to 10 10-100 Page 91 of 167 .6 3.1 1.15 and 7.3 0. ESA ICoP 2.2 Blower installations should.9 1. The Zone 2 distance ‘x’ around the periphery of the centrifugal/reciprocating compressor is dependant on shaft diameter and discharge pressure of the compressor (see Table 7.6 1.10 for Zone 2 distances on open air).3 1.3 1.11 Discharge Radius from Compressor Vents Radius (m) 1. Table 7.

16. Where the minimum ventilation rates specified in Table 7.16. Secure ventilation must be powered by an electrical source independent of a CHP engine. the enclosure shall be classified as Zone Page 92 of 167 .2 Enclosed Gas Compressors and Blowers Although it is preferred that compressors or blowers are installed in the open it is often necessary to enclose a compressor or blower installation. When it is necessary to install a gas compressor or blower in an enclosed space. such as an acoustic enclosure or inside a room or building.14. Zoning for Compressors and Blowers Beneath a Canopy in the Open Air. 7.2. secure proven ventilation and gas detection must be provided. Figure 7.0 ISSUE 4. whilst proven ventilation requires a device to directly monitor the air flow.15.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Where explosion relief is also provided.12 are provided within the enclosure for the removal of flammable gases. the sizing of such explosion relief must be supported by appropriate calculations provided by competent specialists. Figure 7. Zoning for Compressors and Blowers in the Open Air.0 Drains should be classified by reference to Section 7. for instance to provide noise attenuation.

17 0.68 5.00 1.18 2.17.25 0.12 Minimum Ventilation Rates (m3/s) for Enclosed Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors Shaft Diameter SD (mm) Leak Area (mm ) = MVR (m /s) at 100mbarg MVR (m /s) at 200mbarg MVR (m /s) at 500mbarg MVR (m /s) at 1barg MVR (m /s) at 2barg MVR (m /s) at 4barg MVR (m /s) at 5barg 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 10 16. Figure 7.89 2.72 0.23 0.61 15 24.48 2.00 3.35 0.18 0.3 0.63 1.20 0. then the ventilation system should operate whenever the gas compressor is operating.9 0.38 0.38 0.36 50 79.12 0.6 0.08 0.94 80 126.26 0. Table 7.70 1.36 2.50 0.76 4.90 25 40.3 0.15 0.0 ISSUE 4. Air flow monitoring shall be provided that alarms on ventilation failure.1 0.56 0. Where the minimum ventilation rate is not achieved within the enclosure or for mechanical ventilation where air flow monitoring is not provided.85 If the minimum ventilation rate is provided by mechanical means.0 2 inside.13 0. the enclosure shall be classified as in Figure 7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.4 0.17 Zoning of Enclosed Compressors and Blowers with Inadequate Ventilation or No Air Flow Monitoring Page 93 of 167 .89 1.28 0.49 40 63.19 1.07 0.49 4.45 0.05 0.11 0.6 1.11 1.28 0. Ventilation rates may be greater than this if required for other duties such as cooling.56 0.68 100 157.49 0.25 2.40 0.5 0.74 1.

0 2 25 40. Gas detector settings should be as low as practicable without causing spurious alarms.0 ISSUE 4. ESA ICoP 2 (47)).4 1. The sizing of such explosion relief must be supported by appropriate calculations provided by competent specialists.7 3.0 3.3 9. which may be of the open flare type or enclosed ground flare variety.3 5. Table 7.6 4.3 1.7 3.8 4. that automatically isolates the suction and discharge valves on the gas supply in the event that inadequate air flow is detected.2.6 8. 7. Where dilution ventilation is employed in the enclosure.7 12.0 8.2 6.3 6. located in the open or in a building where dilution ventilation is being provided in the enclosure to achieve a Nonhazardous classification.3.3 7.5 40 63.6 2.7 8.7 5. Gas detection should be fitted within the enclosure to detect gas leaks and isolate the gas supply as above.9 π ([SD + d ] / 2) − π (SD / 2) (from Area Classification for Landfill Gas Extraction.4 3. Any gas detection system being used to initiate a gas supply shut-off as a means of eliminating a zonal classification inside the enclosure is deemed to be a Safety Instrumented System and therefore must comply with the requirements set out in Section 10.8 3. the adequacy of the ventilation must be confirmed by air flow monitoring.5 1.5 6.13 for Zone 2 distances).0 9.0 2 15 24.5 80 126.3 4.2 6. Utilisation and Combustion.9 2.7 2.4 50 79.8 2.2 1. for the purpose of reducing the enclosure classification to Non-hazardous. Waste gas burners includes burners fitted to boilers and sludge heaters as well as open or ground flares.3 2.9 6. then explosion relief panels shall be fitted to the enclosure. then explosion relief is not required but local gas detection providing alarm and interlocked with isolation of the gas supply must be installed.4 3.3 2. For large enclosures.9 4. Since Page 94 of 167 .2 2.6 9. For small enclosures (no access except by removing panels). such as a room within a building.13 Zone 2 Distances for Enclosed Centrifugal/Reciprocating Compressors Shaft Diameter SD (mm) Leak Area (mm ) = Radius (m) at 100mbarg Radius (m) at 200mbarg Radius (m) at 500mbarg Radius (m) at 1barg Radius (m) at 2barg Radius (m) at 4barg Radius (m) at 5barg Leak area calculation 2 10 16.17 FLARES / WASTE GAS BURNERS Surplus or waste sludge gas may be burnt using a waste gas burner. Alarm settings should be no higher than 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) and trip settings no higher than 25% of LEL.0 4. d = leak diameter (assumed to be 1mm) Zone 2 distances based on low velocity release from enclosure opening with dispersion occurring at minimum wind speed of 0.3 5.3 4.2 13.5.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.8 4.2 2.6 4.4 1.0 The Zone 2 distance ‘x’ around any source of continuous vent from the enclosure is dependant on shaft diameter and discharge pressure of the compressor (see Table 7.6 5.1 11. where dilution ventilation is provided to achieve a Non-hazardous classification. A higher ventilation rate may be employed in the enclosure to achieve dilution ventilation (refer to Section A2.5m/s.1 1.9 3.2).3 100 157. The use of a Safety Instrumented System must be approved by the Project Manager.2 13.

For example. but less than 750 Page 95 of 167 . Ideally equipment requiring regular access for maintenance should be outside the fenced off area. In this case. they must be located as far as is reasonably practicable from hazardous areas. a lockable isolation valve will be required if installed outside of the fenced area. if the flare tip is 2m above this minimum.14 provides details of flare safety distances based on design sludge gas throughputs for open and enclosed ground flares. 7m above ground level then a fenced off area is unnecessary. 2metres . the tip height of open flares used for burning waste gas are often less than the minimum separation distance and therefore a 5m fenced off exclusion zone will be required to protect personnel and heat sensitive equipment.e. that ensures the gas line to the unit is isolated prior to any maintenance being carried out. This manual isolation valve can be within the fenced area. Table 7. the separation distance is 5m. Access to fenced off areas must be controlled under a permit to work system.14. the Local Control Panel (LCP) can be located inside the fenced area provided the LCP is installed with a suitable heat protective canopy. then the fenced area shall be the same as for ground flare.0 waste gas burners are a source of ignition. i. depending on the size of the system. if flare has design gas rating of 250m3/hr. the LCP should be installed outside the 5m fenced area. open flares are considered to be those units where the flare tip is mounted on top of a stack so the flame is external to the unit. Flare Safety Distances (Minimum Separation Distances) Design sludge gas rating (m3/hr) Open flare minimum separation distance (m) D1 5 7. In general. The actuated solenoid valves for the burner/pilot train are usually installed at low level close to the flare. safety shut-off valves and flame arrestors. but located close to the fence periphery and need not be lockable. then a fenced off exclusion zone may not be necessary.5 7 less than 250 greater than or equal to 250.0 ISSUE 4.5 10 Ground flare minimum separation distance (m) D2 4 5. If the flare tip height is less than 2m above the minimum separation distance but still above the minimum separation distance. For the purposes of this SPD. Heat radiation from a ground flare will be less than for an open flare because the flame is enclosed and will reduce the minimum separation distance to an object exposed to thermal radiation. In the above circumstances and for ground flares. but less than 500 greater than or equal to 500. The gas burner gas train on waste gas burners shall incorporate flame failure detection. i.e.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. A fenced off exclusion zone shall be located at a minimum 2m distance around ground flares. Table 7. an isolation valve is also normally fitted in the gas train upstream for manual isolation in an emergency or for maintenance. Open flares also require a fenced off exclusion zone where the height of the flare tip is less than the minimum separation distance above ground level. Where the height of the flare tip above ground is at least 2m above the minimum flare safety distance. Enclosed ground flares are considered to be those units where the flare tip or burner is enclosed within a refractory lined carbon steel shell or a radiation fence. Minimum separation distances around flares are dependent on the type of unit and its design rating.

0 ISSUE 4. refer to Appendix A3.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.18 Open Flare Minimum Separation Distance Page 96 of 167 .0 greater than or equal to 750. but less than 1000 greater than or equal to 1000 12 refer to Project Manager 8 refer to Project Manager Note: Minimum separation distances are derived from formulae specified in API RP 521 – Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressurising Systems (46).4 for further details. Figure 7.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. or flare stacks. Flame detection with an alarm shall be provided for flare pilots.0 ISSUE 4. Page 97 of 167 .14. Ground flares shall be operated with permanent pilots that are continuously alight .0 Figure 7.g. but open flares. Standard specifications exist for both ground and open flares. Alarms shall also be provided for the loss of the fuel supply. are used for smaller works. Maple Lodge STW. since they are less expensive. Open flares usually have a flame front generator at ground level for pilot ignition. where this is installed within a hazardous area it shall incorporate flameproof enclosures for the ignition control panel. e. Ground flares are normally used for the larger sewage treatment works. Downstream of the flame arrester the system must comply with current British Gas and Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers (IGEM) standards for equipment installed in such facilities (38).19 Ground Flare Minimum Separation Distance Reliability of pilots and their ignition system is necessary to avoid a flare becoming a source of flammable gas release.note this does not necessarily apply to gas burners where the flame is contained within the unit and an electronic ignition system exists. All pipework prior to the waste gas burner’s protective upstream flame arrester must be classified in accordance with Section 7.

light obscuration (optical beam) detectors. Secure ventilation should be powered by an electrical source independent of a CHP engine. which may be integral with a larger building or separate. vaporised LPG. If the plant room is well ventilated. Boilers or Other Fired Equipment CHP engines and boilers are typically installed in plant rooms. and (as liquids) gas-oil or diesel fuel. In the case of forced ventilation. Section A2. no standby ventilation fan or manual duty/standby changeover on unmanned site). will not affect the classification. The fuel supply should be shutdown at 25 % LEL with initiation of an appropriate shutdown alarm. the base of the flare stack shall be subject to 2m high by 2m radius Zone 2 area.3 provides further information on ventilation requirements in plant rooms. whilst proven ventilation requires a device to directly monitor the air flow. as should basement locations.0 ISSUE 4. if reasonably practicable. pipework construction makes maximum use of welded construction with the minimum of flanges. Pipework carrying gases or liquid fuel not associated with the installed equipment should be excluded from plant rooms. New plant rooms containing these items of equipment must be located as far as is reasonably practicable from hazardous areas. The fuel shutdown valves shall be located outside the plant room. For boilers or other fired equipment the following protection must be provided: • flame arresters are installed on the gas-line upstream of the burners as soon as practical. Exhausts.5. Page 98 of 167 .2 provides further information on the use of gas detectors. the plant room shall be classified as Zone 2. On gas detection an alarm only should be initiated at 10% LEL. Section 10. reference should be made to Section 7.14). natural gas. There is currently a prohibition on the installation of liquid petroleum gas fuelled appliances with automatic ignition in basement locations.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. Manual shutdown valves are installed on all fuels outside the plant room.g. pipework is tested as leak tight (see Section 7. has adequate natural ventilation or secure proven forced ventilation of at least 1ACH. Plant rooms that are normally occupied should be avoided. and. i. For CHP plant rooms located within a larger building.e. prior to ignition on start-up. for gaseous fuels. radiant (emission point) detectors .18 PLANT ROOMS 7.1 Plant Rooms for Engines. flame failure detection linked to automatic plant shutdown. but definitely within flame arrester manufacturers recommendations (typically 40-50 diameters). chimneys and flues must be similarly located.14. then it may be regarded as safe and unclassified (note: zones associated with gas pipework may exist. • • • • • Where the ventilation provided is inadequate (less than 1ACH).0 For open flares or enclosed ground flares where gas venting is carried using a purge override facility. the air flow should be monitored and interlocked with a fuel isolation valve outside the room.2). fusible links within the plant area automatically shutdown fuel isolation valves (via gravity) located immediately outside the structure (alternatives included thermal (point or line-type) detectors. 7. gas detection should also be installed in the room which is interlocked with the fuel isolation valve. or discontinuities of ventilation could occur for more than 10 hours (e. The fuel used for fired equipment can include sludge gas (digester gas). Pipework carrying sludges.18.

arise in the event of a major leakage of digested sludge or digested sludge liquors. 7. or within 1m of floor level. When using natural ventilation to ventilate the Plant Room consideration shall be given to any cooling effects on the plant and pipework within the building.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. or in any area which may be submerged in sludge in the event of a major leakage should be protected to an Ingress Protection (IP) standard of IP67.0 When using natural ventilation to ventilate the Plant Room consideration shall be given to any cooling effects on the plant and pipework within the building.18.18.1. If such ventilation is provided. Where the rate of ventilation in the plant room is less than 3 ACH. 7. including pumps. Digester structures should not be utilised to create a plant room for pumping of digested sludge. should be classified as shown in Figures 7. 7. however.19 LPG FACILITIES LPG storage in fixed installations. unless influenced by their proximity to hazardous areas. In such circumstances. When using natural ventilation to ventilate the Enclosed Space. consideration shall be given to any cooling effects on the plant and pipework within the enclosure. the electrical supply to plant rooms containing pumps for digested sludge and digested sludge liquors should be capable of being isolated externally and all emergency light fittings shall be self-contained and explosion protected to a Zone 1 standard. the plant room shall be classified as non-hazardous. Where this does occur. Page 99 of 167 . The preliminary classification must then be agreed in writing with the Project Manager to ensure a consistent corporate approach. a preliminary hazardous area classification must be made by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in the published literature. In addition.0 ISSUE 4. liquors or sludge (except for digested sludge and digested sludge liquors) should normally be classified as non-hazardous. LPG storage vessels must be located in the open air.18. Hazardous areas can. vaporisers (other than direct fired) and compressors. For this reason.21.2 Plant Rooms for Pumps Plant rooms containing pumps handling effluent. but is greater than 1 air change per hour then the plant room shall be classified as Zone 2. appropriate to the possible depth of immersion as a minimum.20 and 7. Plant rooms containing pumps handling digested sludge or digested sludge liquors must have natural or mechanical ventilation that can provide at least 3 ACH. especially where parts of the plant room are below ground level. as defined in BS EN 60529 Specification for Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (reference 23). located in the open air.3 Other Enclosed Spaces Pipework carrying gas or sludge inside digester galleries should be classified the same as for Plant Rooms in Section 7. emergency lights fitted below ground level. the ventilation aspects need careful consideration.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.5 3.500 2.0 22.0 Vessel Water Capacity in litres Up to 500 500 – 2.0 7.0 ISSUE 4.000 9.0 Figure 7.5 4.5 4.5 4.500 Note: Zoning distances derived from HSG 34 – The Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations. Page 100 of 167 .000 – 337.15 Zoning Distances for LPG Storage Tanks in Open Air ‘a’ in metres 2.500 Above 337. Table 7.5 3.5 ‘b’ in metres 2.000 135.000 – 135.5 15.5 30.20 Zoning for LPG Storage Tanks in the Open Air.500 – 9.0 4.

5 Vessel Water Capacity in litres Up to 500 500 – 2. HSE booklet HS(G) 34 . The zoning requirements for LPG storage tanks takes into the account industry standards such as the Institute of Petroleum’s Model Code of Safe Practice (Area Classification Code for Installations Handling Flammable Fluids) Part 15 (41).0 4. Such rooms must be provided with explosion relief. Where pumps.500 Note: Zoning distances derived from HSG 34 – The Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations.Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations (9) should be consulted for further information.500 – 9.000 9. The sizing of such explosion relief must be supported by appropriate calculations provided by competent specialists.0 Figure 7. LPG fuelled appliances with automatic ignition must not be installed in basement locations. compressors and vaporisers (other than direct fired) are installed at an indoors location with adequate ventilation.21 Zoning for LPG Facilities in the Open Air.5 4. Page 101 of 167 .DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7. then the entire room and any adjacent rooms. This will not affect the zone sizes if the canopy is above the zoned areas.16 Zoning Distances for LPG Facilities in Open Air ‘x’ in metres 2.000 135.5 3.500 2.000 – 135. Table 7.000 – 337. should be classified Zone 1.0 ISSUE 4. not separated by a vapour tight partition.5 4. Pumps and compressors may be covered by a canopy.500 Above 337.5 4. including spacing distances from other items.

For odour plant. and the tank shall be classified as a hazardous area.21 ROADWAYS AND VEHICLES FOR USE IN ZONED AREAS Designated zoned areas identified as a result of hazardous area classification should not impinge onto roadways that are available for use without any special precautions being undertaken. an explosion risk exists. Guidance on the use of diesel engines in hazardous areas is given in the following two documents: HSE(G)113 – Lift Trucks in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres (11).g. or when vehicles are provided with diesel engines suitably protected for the zone in question. E. Where there is a risk that the fuel may be atomised into a fine mist. G and H)) (14). when it is known the hazard cannot exist due to manhole covers in place over wet wells (except where covers are vented). ductwork and vessels shall be classified the same as the vessel from which the plant is drawing. C2. As such. they are not classified as flammable and can normally be considered as non-hazardous. ductwork should be arranged so that gases from the zoned area are not introduced into the non-hazardous zone in the event of the fan failing or during routine maintenance. drives and motors used in any mechanically ventilated system shall also be classified as the vessel from which the plant is drawing. are normally stored and handled below their minimum flash points. typically diesel fuel oils and gas oils (refer to BS2869 . Page 102 of 167 . 107 .0 7. the interior of.Specification for Fuel Oil for Agricultural and Industrial Engines and Burners (Classes A2. EEMUA Publication No. Access to these roadways must be prevented by suitable (locked) barriers which may only be removed under strict control. Where more than one vessel is connected to the plant then the vessel with the most onerous classification shall be applied. or when a comprehensive gas monitoring program will identify the potential occurrence of an explosive atmosphere with time to initiate appropriate ignition avoidance measures (e. Examples of roadways that may be within zoned areas will be those used purely for specific maintenance activities. The outlet of odour plant classified as hazardous must terminate in an area open to atmosphere and will have a Zone 2 volume of 2m in the form of a hemisphere above the horizontal axis centred on the discharge point from the plant. isolation and shutdown of potential ignition sources). non-flanged gas tight joints should be provided for gas carrying ductwork on the positive pressure side of the fan. Fans. D. C1. plant being isolated. such as hard-standings for cranes.20 DISTILLATE FUEL Distillate fuels.Fuel Oils for Non Marine Use Part 2 . With regards to spacing distances from other equipment. F. a fire risk assessment is required to demonstrate any impact that heat or flames may have on igniting the diesel fuel within the storage tank. e.Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Use in Zone 2 Hazardous Areas (48).0 ISSUE 4. 7. 7. Where drawing from both zoned and non-hazardous areas into the same odour control plant. The risk from such an event should be as low as that required under the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations.g.22 ODOUR CONTROL PLANT Wherever possible.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 7.

0 8. but the following areas need to be considered as potential hydrogen escape routes.5 metres horizontally and below should be classified as Zone 2. Classification of hazardous areas associated with such plant is described in HSE OC498/11 .0 8.2 ELECTROCHLORINATION PLANT A by-product of electrochlorination is hydrogen. Where the electrolytic cell or storage tanks are located indoors (this being the usual case in Thames Water). 8.1 and 8.e. then it should be classified by utilising and interpreting information from this SPD supplemented with that available in published literature.Fire and Explosion Hazards at Electrochlorination Plant (12). and extending 1. the sodium hypochlorite storage tanks. HSE.0 ISSUE 4. e. IP. HSE OC498/11 provides hazardous area classification information for open (and partially enclosed) tanks. IGE. In these circumstances a written variation from the Project Manager may be given defining the revised classification and any other restrictions or requirements which are necessary. not gas sealed from the plant room) should be classified as Zone 2 throughout. the whole of the room and any directly or indirectly connected rooms (i. as well as closed top tanks. On some existing installations local circumstances may permit a less restrictive classification to be used. • • the generator cells. BS. Forced ventilation is required into the tank to maintain a concentration of less than 1% Hydrogen within the tank. If installed outside. The sodium hypochlorite storage tanks associated with electrochlorination plant should be classified as shown in Figures 8.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 8.1 CLASSIFICATION OF FACILITIES (WATER TREATMENT) INTRODUCTION This section presents information for the area classification of facilities and equipment items encountered in the handling and treatment of potable water. When an item is not covered by the examples and details given in this section. the area above the electrolytic cells and associated pipework. The hydrogen produced in the generator is released into the hypochlorite storage tank and/or degasser unit and a forced air venting system removes the hydrogen by venting it to atmosphere. Best engineering design can minimise the potential for hydrogen leaks.g.2. The tank ullage space shall be maintained at a higher pressure than atmospheric. Page 103 of 167 . Within Thames Water closed top tanks are generally used. in particular the flanged end caps and screwed process and instrumentation fittings.

Zoning for Open and Partially Enclosed Sodium Hypochlorite Storage Tanks Associated with Electrochlorination Plant.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 8.this is particularly true when plant is installed in existing buildings.0 ISSUE 4.Fire and Explosion Hazards at Electrochlorination Plant (12) and approved in writing as a variation to this standard by the Project Manager. Page 104 of 167 .0 Figure 8. It should be noted that any zonal classification due to the electrochlorination equipment may effect existing and future equipment installed within the zoned areas .1. Any relaxation from the hazardous area classification for electrochlorination plant detailed in this section must be in accordance with the requirements of HSE OC498/11 .

natural ventilation resulting in one air change per hour minimum. even within its flammable limits. ammonia is difficult to ignite and any flame generated is not stable. Zoning for Closed Top Sodium Hypochlorite Storage Tanks Associated with Electrochlorination Plant. 8.mechanical ventilation maintained giving six air changes per hour minimum.3 AMMONIATION FACILITIES Ammonia has the potential for creating an explosive atmosphere.0 Figure 8. Low level gas leak (not exceeding 25ppm ammonia) . however. Ammonia is stored in either drums or cylinders and the main source of a potential leak is in the storage room which should be classified as Zone 2 throughout.mechanical ventilation running giving six air changes per hour minimum. High level gas leak (not exceeding 4 percent ammonia) .0 ISSUE 4.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 8. The above classification assumes that drum systems are provide with automatic drum shutdown valves (that operate at the high level gas alarm) and the following levels of ventilation are provided: • • • Normal condition .2. Page 105 of 167 .

7 LPG FACILITIES Reference should be made to Section 7. Fires will be able to start at both a lower LEL and a higher UEL. Page 106 of 167 . static electricity or any other source of ignition that would not start a fire in normal air can do so in an oxygen enriched environment. 8. 8.0 ISSUE 4. potable water tunnels and service reservoirs. fires (and explosions) are easier to start -. advice should be sought from the Project Manager on the precautionary measures to be taken. Examples where this may be a problem are raw water tunnels. Never store combustible materials next to equipment containing oxygen or oxidizing agents. Prevent oxygen enrichment by ensuring equipment is leak tight and in good working order and check ventilation of confined spaces is adequate to prevent oxygen enrichment.8 OTHER PLANT Any other plant that may contain flammable gas/air or dust/air mixtures should be zoned in consultation with equipment manufacturers and the Project Manager. Oil and grease are particularly hazardous in the presence of oxygen as they ignite spontaneously and burn with explosive violence. If it is thought that such gases are likely to be present. 8.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 8. Ammonia instrument rooms are classified as non-hazardous. 8.4 UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES AND TUNNELS Normally underground structures and tunnels would be classified as non-hazardous. e. will normally expand the explosive range. BOILERS AND OTHER FIRED EQUIPMENT Reference should be made to Section 7.5 PUMPING STATIONS Pumping stations are classified as non-hazardous but they can be influenced by their proximity to hazardous areas.6 PLANT ROOMS FOR ENGINES.g.0 The ventilation equipment in the storage room must be suitable for a Zone 2 environment.2. As the oxygen concentration rises in a confined space. but consideration should be given to the possible ingress of geological methane or landfill gases (essentially methane). boilers or other fired equipment. provides information on bulk liquid oxygen storage and the minimum separation distances between storage tanks and typical hazards. if the pipeline carrying the ammonia gas through the room is under vacuum (as is usually the case for ammonia drums). Oxygen enrichment of a confined space can cause materials to spontaneously ignite. leaks from oxygen storage tanks or from chemical breakdown of oxidizing agents such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide. The British Compressed Gas Association Code of Practice CP19 (49). They should NEVER be used to lubricate oxygen or enriched air equipment.18 with regard to the zoning of plant rooms containing engines. Refer to Section A1. 8.19 with regard to the zoning of LPG facilities. Oxidizing gases.a spark from a tool. Where the gas pipeline is under pressure (as for ammonia cylinders) then the room shall be classified as Zone 2. Those fires will also burn and spread faster.4 for further information on the effects of oxygen enrichment. Special lubricants with which oxygen can be used under certain conditions are available.

0 ISSUE 4.0 Figure 8. 3 Reprinted from BCGA CP19 Rev 3 © 2002 Page 107 of 167 .3 Oxygen Safety Distances in Metres 3 Refer to Code of Practice CP19 for Table references above.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 8.

0 ISSUE 4. Page 108 of 167 . LPG heaters.2 WORKSHOPS Workshop facilities are not normally classified as hazardous areas except where the quantities of material involved require its consideration as a means of controlling the risk from fire and explosion. Avoid or minimise releases DO use fuel retrievers for draining petrol tanks/lines.storage/handling in drums/cans eg from draining fuel tanks/lines.0 9. drain or other opening in the ground. battery charging. as low as possible. outside 100 litres. measures must be taken to control the risk of fire and explosion. In order of priority. 9. Where flammable materials are present in the workshop. DON’T drain petrol tanks/lines over or close to an inspection pit. outside 1000 litres. the following control measures should be adopted where reasonably practicable – Reduce the quantity of dangerous substance to a minimum: DO keep stored quantities of petrol. Flammable liquid – inside 25 litres. Flammable gases . LPG-fuelled vehicles. and when working on vehicles Other flammable liquids . DO use safety containers for flammable substances. some aerosols.storage/use of paints. DON’T carry out welding or other hot work on flammable substance containers unless they have been adequately cleaned and purged. and flammable solvents. outside 200litres. Keep tops/lids on all containers and dispose contaminated cloths/rags safely Control releases at source Prevent the formation of an explosive atmosphere DO use tools with built in extraction or local exhaust equipment DO potentially dangerous work in safe and well ventilated areas eg in the open air. DO keep numbers of gas cylinders to a minimum.0 9.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 9.welding/cutting equipment. cleaning materials. Typical examples of dangerous substances that may be found in workshops • • • • Ammonia – storage/handling of drums/cylinders Petrol . solvents. The Institute of Petroleum provides guidance on the minimum quantities of flammable materials above which hazardous area classification may be appropriate: Flammable gas (volume corrected to 1 bar) – Inside 50 litres. Liquified flammable gas – inside 5 litres.1 CLASSIFICATION OF FACILITIES (WORKSHOPS AND LABORATORIES) INTRODUCTION This section provides guidance on the acceptable practices relating to the requirements for compliance with DSEAR in workshop facilities and laboratories. including wastes.

and if they ignite.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 9. 9. Keep incompatible substances apart Flammable solvents. hot plates. as an explosive atmosphere could then form in an enclosed space. Where quantities are larger but still manipulated on the open bench.g. Where flammable gases are stored inside. and could cause a risk to laboratory staff. but only a very small height above the liquid level. Gas cylinders should be stored in suitable racks with securing chains. Laboratory work involving equipment above a 2 litre scale. stirrer controllers. Page 109 of 167 . Petrol in quantities greater than 25litres should be stored in a flame vault. and pilot scale plants need more careful consideration. flammable gases). Quantities up to about 50mls can be mopped up or sometimes flushed away. the risks are more significant. from a coated surface. Acetylene and oxygen cylinders used for welding are normally transported in a trolley.g. handling of flammable liquids. Where the evaporation of a solvent is deliberately intended. the scale of operations involved and the procedures established within the laboratory to control fire risk. so long as the fire does not quickly spread. At the very smallest scale of operations. petrol and gas cylinders should be stored in the open air if possible. and may well not be available in ignition-protected form. Any spare cylinders should be stored outside in cages with clear marked areas for full and empty cylinders. they may well burn out before anyone is at risk. ammonia. In these cases formal hazardous area classification may be the most appropriate method of reducing the risk from ignition sources. ventilation should be provided.3 LABORATORIES For most laboratory operations there is no tradition of hazardous area classification or using ignition-protected equipment.5 litres. e. or before a laboratory worker could take any action to extinguish a fire.g. e. if the health risks under COSHH are properly controlled.g. Acetylene. for example up to 2. Any ignition of a spreading pool will produce a fire that quickly extends to the whole area of the spill. propane and oxygen should be stored separately with a minimum 3m distance between the cages or half hour firewall segregating each storage area. In these cases.0 Avoid ignition sources DON’T smoke or carry out any hot work while draining petrol or where flammable vapours could be present.0 ISSUE 4. there may well be no need for additional precautions to control the fire and explosion risk. and the risks are usually controlled in other ways. or in storerooms which are in safe positions or are fire-resisting structures. The actual extent of a flammable atmosphere following a spill may well be a radius of up to a metre. but the greatest risk probably comes from electrical equipment in use as part of the operation. cylinders should be secured with fixed clamps or chains. The risk assessment required under DSEAR must consider the potential sources of a release (e. Generally rooms used for storing ammonia will be Zone 2. If these are the conclusions of a risk assessment. Pilot scale is taken to mean equipment with a capacity of 50-100 litres or more. Particular dangers arise if the spill enters the drains. formal zoning is clearly inappropriate. liquified flammable gases. the consequences of a spill may well be trivial. Direct heating by bunsen burners and other obvious continuous ignition sources should be avoided. either natural or artificial to prevent a build up of flammable gas. Much of this cannot be avoided. heating mantles. though it may well be appropriate to avoid the use of naked flames and other powerful or constant ignition sources in the immediate vicinity. DON’T store oxygen and flammable gas cylinders together. in a Winchester bottle. e. Therefore reliance is placed upon safe working practices within laboratories to control the risk of fire. the operation may need to be carried out in a fume cupboard.

The fire and explosion hazards involved with the storage of flammable liquids can be minimised by storing these in properly designed containers inside fire resisting store rooms and cupboards and by taking care to prevent or contain spillages during storage and dispensing.g.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 9. Access to stores must be restricted to authorised persons who have been instructed in the nature of the hazards and in the safe handling precautions. Portable fire fighting equipment should also be provided. Ideally such stores should be separate buildings in order to minimise the impact of a fire on the main laboratory building. by the careful management of purchase. especially in laboratories where equipment is left running unattended. must be available to deal with spillages. With these the damper is held open by a lightweight metal link which melts at high temperatures and causes the damper to close. Flammable liquid stores should be ventilated both at high and low level to prevent the build up of vapours. Sources of ignition should be removed from stores and no other combustible materials should be kept in them. Difficulties arise in laboratory buildings because of potential chimney effects created by fume cupboard exhausts and service ducts. various British Standards and other publications. On no account should flammable material be washed down drains if it is spilled. and where possible kept to a minimum.3. The arrangement of materials in stores should be simple and logical (eg alphabetical) and any special requirements for segregation of incompatible materials (e. Emergency exits must be clearly identified by suitable signs and wherever practicable emergency lighting should be provided. An appropriate method for disposing of the used absorbent should be arranged. The location of all fire alarm call points should be clearly marked. Flammable substances must be stored in correctly designed fire-resisting stores. Where this is not possible.0 9. Ideally dispensing of liquids should not be carried out in dedicated flammable store rooms. Adequate provision of absorbent materials. Stocks should be controlled. including procedures in the event of a spillage. Smoke and/or rate of rise heat detectors should be considered. Reference to safe working procedures is included in various sections below. the prevention of fires relies on eliminating one or more of these. All stores should be clearly marked to indicate their contents and to warn of flammability. Fire escape routes and exits should be kept clear and unobstructed at all times. A sill should be provided at the doorway of the store in order to Page 110 of 167 . Ideally at least two protected escape routes should be provided. The design and construction of chemical laboratories is covered in detail in the Building Regulations 2000. Therefore. an oxidant (usually air) and normally a source of ignition. All containers must be labelled in accordance with the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packing for Supply) [CHIP] Regulations (as amended from time to time). stock rotation. The design of safe working procedures is as important in fire prevention as the provision of adequate facilities. quantities should be minimised and the following precautions taken. Automatic fire extinguishing systems may also be considered (especially in fume cupboards). This can best be achieved by a combination of good design and safe working practice.1 Fire Control Measures Fire depends on the presence of a fuel. Storage and Handling of Flammable Substances Wherever practical highly flammable (or hazardous) substances should be substituted with less flammable substances.0 ISSUE 4. Firebreaks are desirable in such ducts and fusible-links dampers may be necessary. use and disposal. such as vermiculite. An appropriate fire detection and fire alarm system should be provided. If a fire occurs it is important for the structure of the building to provide containment in order to limit its spread to adjoining areas. oxidizing agents) should be followed.

or refrigerator. Any electrical equipment such as lights. Acetylene cylinders must always be kept upright. Cylinders of flammable gases should ideally be stored outside the laboratory in a secure well ventilated compound or storeroom. Precautions may still be needed to reduce the fire risk. As indicated above all containers should be properly labelled. 9. such as retaining sills at the front edge. Dispensing of flammable liquids from bulk containers should be carried out by trained staff in a safe well ventilated area. colour coded and labelled at appropriate points. appropriate material. 9. In particular fume cupboards should not be used as storage facilities for toxic or flammable chemicals while they are also being used for experimental work. with any spark-producing electrical equipment sealed from contact with the internal atmosphere. The storage of volatile.0 ISSUE 4. This risk can be avoided by buying a unit designed for this purpose. The work should be arranged so that any foreseeable release of gas or vapour will be rapidly diluted below the explosive limit. Refrigerators have exploded in laboratories. be stored on a tray to contain any spillage or leakage.2 Fume Cupboards Some work at this scale may be done in a fume cupboard. Containers kept on the bench should. Shelves in cupboards should be provided with a lip to contain any spillage. and this will allow the sash to be closed to give some protection if a fire should start. rather than a designation of the inside of unit as zone 1 or 2. In the case of an oven. and extraction ductwork kept free from flammable residues. Gas cylinders should be stored vertical and secured to prevent them falling. the consequence of an ignition is more likely to be an explosion than a fire. When flammable liquids are transported within the laboratory appropriate carriers should be used for anything other than small glass bottles. Rapid failure of stored bottles in a small fire could produce sufficient vapour to prevent the extract fan diluting vapours sufficiently. by the airflow through the cupboard. otherwise copper acetylide can form on internal surfaces and could give rise to an explosion risk. it may be possible to keep heating elements below Page 111 of 167 . from fractured glassware. for example. loss of cooling to a condenser or inappropriate methods of transferring liquids. The maximum size of any container kept on the bench should be 500ml. heaters etc should be of special flameproof construction to prevent vapours being ignited. Where a gas distribution system is used. Where flammable liquids are used steps should be taken to contain or minimise vapours and any spillages or loss of containment arising. wherever possible. where the light switch or thermostat contact sparked when opening or closing. consequently only specially designed or modified (“spark-free”) refrigerators should be used for this purpose. flammable liquids in ordinary refrigerators has led to serious explosions and. The storage of flammable liquids in laboratories must be minimised and as guidance no more than 50 litres of highly flammable liquid (250L of flammable liquid) should be stored in each room of a laboratory and it should be kept in a fire-resisting cupboard or bin.3 Releases into enclosed spaces Where vapours or gases may escape into an enclosed space like an oven.0 retain any spillages inside the store. manifolds and pipes should be of possible. All such storage cupboards should be clearly marked with their content and its flammability.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 9. Wherever possible the need for dispensing should be avoided by the purchase of the correct sized containers. The use of fume cupboards and secondary containment (benches with lips or trays) may be appropriate in addition to written safe working instructions. Pipework and fittings for acetylene should not include any copper. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated and individual gases kept in separate bays where Flammable gases should be segregated from oxygen and other oxidising gases.3. overboiling.3.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 9. or to provide adequate ventilation to prevent the build up of vapours. Page 112 of 167 .0 the ignition temperature of any vapour likely to be used.0 ISSUE 4. but some risks will remain unless close control is maintained over products and quantities that can be placed inside.

nylon). metal studs on boots. but also liquids such as vapour droplets. fan blades etc. refer to BS EN 1127-1 (22). The light metals titanium and zirconium can also form incendive sparks under impact or friction against any sufficiently hard material. These metals could exist as housings for equipment. which if the charge potential is great enough. resulting in each carrying an equal but opposite charge. can create an electrostatic discharge or spark to earth.3 Static Electricity Static electricity primarily occurs when two dissimilar materials are brought into contact and then separated. BS 5958 (17) provides Page 113 of 167 .g. 10. covers etc.0 SELECTION OF ATMOSPHERES EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE 10. welding. 10. Impacts involving rust and light metals such as aluminium. These include matches.1. Care must be taken to ensure that all potential sources of ignition receive proper consideration. nozzles. For a more comprehensive list of ignition sources requiring consideration. with a suitable coating) so as not to present a source of ignition. Sources include such things as sparks from tools. grinding operations. Under BS EN 13463 1 2009 (22) there is no restriction in the use of Aluminium (and other light metals) in hazardous areas provided it can be demonstrated that there is no risk of ignition from incendive friction.2 Mechanically Generated Sparks Mechanical generated sparks may result from friction.1 SOURCES OF IGNITION For an explosion to occur in a hazardous area.g. Where removal of a source or potential source of ignition is not possible. impact or abrasion. jets of liquids/gases. a source of ignition must be present. man made fibres (e. magnesium or their alloys can initiate a thermite reaction which can cause ignition of explosive atmospheres.0 ISSUE 4. impact or abrasion sparks through contact with rusty metal can be avoided or if the metal is sufficiently protected (e. The particles which become separated from solid materials during these processes become hot owing to the energy used in the separation process.1. A list of possible sources of ignition. 10. should not be taken into hazardous areas.1 Unprotected Flames Unprotected flame is possibly the most obvious source of ignition and could arise from a range of objects and activities. It is therefore a sensible precaution to ensure that wherever possible and practicable sources of ignition are removed from the hazardous area. walkways. ladders. etc. thus reaching even higher temperatures. Whether or not an electrostatic discharge will ignite a flammable mixture will depend on the minimum ignition energy to ignite the mixture and the incendivity of the spark discharge. even in the absence of rust.0 10. If these particles consist of oxidizable substances. drive belts. oxyacetylene cutting etc. etc. however if one or more of the materials is a non-conductor then the insulating properties of this material may prevent the charge from being immediately dissipated. NOTE: Aluminium tools.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. adequate precautions must be taken to ensure that the source of ignition does not come into contact with the explosive atmosphere. Possible sources of static electricity include non-conducting solids such as plastics. conduit. smoking. For conducting materials this charge is quickly recombined and no residual charge remains. for example iron or steel. they can undergo an oxidation process. which can commonly occur in the water industry is detailed below. so there use in hazardous areas should be avoided. Solids and liquids are capable of retaining an electrostatic charge.1.

further information is available in BS 6656 (20).1.0 more detailed information and should be consulted for general considerations on control of static electricity and for recommendations applicable to particular industrial situations.5 Electrical Equipment Only suitably protected electrical equipment should be used within hazardous areas. Note: the resistance to earth only has to be sufficiently low to provide a dissipative path and could be as high as 1MΩ.1. NOTE: Personal portable electrical equipment (mobile telephones. torches (unless suitably certified for hazardous area use). Such excluded equipment may only be used under the control of a permit to work. etc. such as friction. equivalent to that from Zone 2 electrical equipment. BS EN 60079-0 (24) provides requirements for preventing electrostatic charges on external non-metallic materials of electrical apparatus and provides guidance on the maximum size of chargeable surfaces depending on the ignitability of the gases and vapours and the classification of the hazardous area. pagers.0 ISSUE 4. 10. and stop watches).g. 10.4 Lightning This form of ignition is dealt with in BS EN 62305 (34) and information on lightning protection is given in Section 10. Where a charging mechanism exists for building up static on these materials.1. • • • • • Radio frequency electromagnetic waves. (resulting in a resistance to earth path in excess of 1 GΩ). watches with calculators etc. Some types of plastic (e. polyethylene) have high resistivity values. other communication and test equipment. Multifunction watches (i. Simple electronic based watches are acceptable providing the case and glass is in good condition and not removed within the area. Note: there are available GRP materials which have antistatic properties. car alarm key fobs. GRP materials used in as covers on odour control plant.6 Hot Surfaces (non-electrical equipment) Hot surfaces may result from equipment malfunction or process operations.13.100Ω specified for convenience in monitoring. 10. High frequency electromagnetic waves Ionizing radiation Ultrasonics Adiabatic compression and shock waves Page 114 of 167 .1. Continuity and earth bonding of all conductive and dissipative parts connected to non-conductors will also reduce charging potential. These values are considerably higher than that used for personnel protection. unless such equipment is specifically designed and approved for use in such an area and is of proper condition and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. In Zone 0 areas (Zone 20) the use of sheeting made from high resistivity materials should be avoided. or flow through a hose and valve and by ‘splash filling’ of containers. In Zone 1 and Zone 2 (Zone 21 and 22) such sheeting is acceptable provided that the charge generated is small and gives rise to a low ignition risk. Magnification of sunlight through glass can also result in the production of hot surfaces.e.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. then the following precautions must be considered. 10.7 Other Ignition Sources BS EN 1127-1 (22) describes several other possible ignition sources including. etc) shall not be taken into a hazardous area. with 10Ω . tanks and digesters will not readily accumulate electrostatic charge in normal use and will readily dissipate any charge due to the high humidity inside the covered vessel. that present a greater risk of becoming charged and creating an ignition hazard. are not to be taken into such areas.

e. An example of source detection is that described in Sections A2. This method is applicable for relatively small enclosed situations. pumping stations. The system would initiate one or more of the following actions. Flammable gas detectors are available in versions for permanent installation at a site and as compact portable devices that can be easily carried by personnel working in areas where a build up of flammable gas could occur.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. Page 115 of 167 . in which the detectors are located adjacent to the likely sources of flammable release. small boiler rooms. to confirm safe conditions prior to and during such activities as maintenance. appropriate fire fighting procedures.4. 10.0 Generally these igntion sources require significantly higher levels of power to be a risk than are normally encountered in the water industry 10. It should be noted that equipment used to monitor potential build up of explosive atmospheres and carry out some form of control function as a means of avoiding development of a hazard (for example.1 Introduction Flammable gas detectors can be installed at any location where there is a risk of a build up of flammable gas e. which should meet the requirements of BS EN 61508 (32) and the related standard for the process industry of BS EN 61511 (33). initiating ventilation) would be classified as “safety related” equipment. Portable gas detectors tend to be used only for short periods in various locations. head works. According to circumstances. and.2. Such devices may be installed as the result of a risk assessment. ventilation control. preventing equipment operation.g. e. The use of flammable gas detectors to monitor these applications will provide warning of a build up of flammable gas before the concentration of gas reaches a value at which it is likely to explode. sewers.0 ISSUE 4. and/or. shutdown of processes or plant.2 and A2. in which the detectors are located to surround the whole area or plant from which the hazard may arise.g.g. and fuel storage areas such as digester gasholders and fuel tanks for emergency generators and heating systems. It is possible that these requirements would be more onerous than installation of Ex equipment. perimeter detection. In this situation. Fixed gas detection systems range from simple single detector devices. up to multi-sensor instruments that are used to monitor large areas of plant from a central location. digester processes. alarm function.2 Use of Gas Detectors This section applies to the use of fixed gas detectors for flammable gas. either manually or automatically: • • • • safe evacuation. one or both of the following approaches may be used for fixed detectors: • • source detection. which are installed in the location to be monitored.2 GAS DETECTORS 10.2. the instrument is located in the control room and connected to a number of remotely located sensors.4. landfill sites. A fixed gas detection system would be used where it is necessary to give an early warning of the presence and location of an accidental accumulation of flammable gas.3 as a precautionary measure for ventilated enclosures.

or other less likely occurrences. SIL definitions) and a framework for a reliability management system. under normal conditions. As “best practice” they are not a formal legislative requirement. isolate gas supply in the event of flammable gas detection. As such this instrumented safety function may then in effect provide mitigation for the need to install EX certified equipment.g. e. The basic principles are that gas detectors should be used in areas which are normally safe but which may become hazardous due to abnormal operation of plant.0 Perimeter detection may provide an early warning of flammable release provided the provision of detectors is sufficiently extensive and wind direction is not adverse. an accidental spillage of petrol or solvent. DSEAR also requires control and mitigation measures to be considered in order to reduce or eliminate hazardous areas. Health and Safety at Work Act) it is necessary to undertake risk assessments and to reduce risk as low as is practicable. Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is a measurement of performance required for a safety function and is defined as a relative level of risk-reduction provided by the safety function.3 Use of Gas Detectors in a Safety Instrumented System Gas detectors can be used to initiate a safety function that eliminates or reduces a hazardous area.g. However. 10. Four SIL levels are defined. failure or breakdown of facilities (such as ventilation).g. They should not be sited close to ignition sources. to comply with general Health and Safety Law (e. This principle is also enshrined in DSEAR. Risk Graph or Layer of Protection Analysis).1 Safety Integrity Levels Safety Integrity Level 4 3 2 S 1 High demand rate (Dangerous failures/hr) ≥10-9 to less than 10-8 ≥10-8 to less than 10-7 ≥10-7 to less than 10-6 ≥10-6 to less than 10-5 Low demand rate (Probability of failure on demand) ≥10-5 to less than 10-4 ≥10-4 to less than 10-3 ≥10-3 to less than 10-2 ≥10-2 to less than 10-1 Page 116 of 167 .g. The gas detectors should be sited near to where the gas leaks could occur. with SIL4 being the most dependable and SIL1 being the least. gas may be present. So any mitigation system employed to reduce or eliminate a hazardous area should aim achieve the same level of risk reduction as would be achieved by the installation of equipment suitable for the zone classification. say.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10.2.0 ISSUE 4. which uses area classification and hazardous zoning to identify the protective measures required to reduce the risk to as low as practicable. or to specify a target level of risk reduction. gas detectors will be unnecessary. e. If. technical specifications (e. Safety related equipment like this are regarded as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) and guidance in the application of safety instrumented systems for the process industry is given in BS EN 61511 (33). could be regarded as a combination of both source (the sewer) and perimeter detection (of the treatment plant). BS EN 61508 (32) and BS EN 61511 (33) are international standards and as such summarise “best practice”. The location of gas detectors in a wet well or at the receiving works to warn of. Gas detectors should not be regarded as substitutes for proper ventilation. but far enough away from known sources of release to avoid false alarms.g. Table 10. digester / gasholder areas. These standards provide technical assessments tools (e.

0032 (2) 0.014 (1) 0.0 ISSUE 4. Table 10.019 (1) 0. This level of risk reduction corresponds to a SIL 2 (i. a control panel (relay and contactor) and two duplicate fans each able to provide 100% of the ventilation requirements. Zone 1 to Zone 2.0095 (2) 0. the risk reduction level can be between 10 and 100.0 aSafety systems operating with high demand rate are in continuous mode of operation.6 for explanation). it should achieve the same level of risk reduction provided by EX certified equipment. which corresponds to a SIL 1.e.0072 (2) 0. Gas Supply Isolation .015 (1) Page 117 of 167 .2 SIL Test Intervals SIL Test Intervals System Ventilation – fail to start Ventilation – fail during operation Power shut-off Gas feed isolation.The system will comprise a gas detector (or detectors if the area is large).014 (1) 0. Gas detectors can be used in various mitigation configurations. a SIL 1 category system may comprise the same components as above but inspection/test frequencies may be longer. a control panel (relay and contactor) within which power would be removed from the building.0006 (3) 1 month 0.0024 (2) 3 months 0.0011 (2) 0.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. Ventilation Systems .023 (1) 0. For gas detectors used to reduce a hazardous area classification. The minimum system components required in the most typical applications are described below.0073 (2) 6 months 0. but each system used to eliminate a hazardous area must be a SIL 2 category system.g. low demand rate is for safety systems operating intermittently on demand. Therefore for any safety instrumented system used in intermittent mode to eliminate a hazardous area a risk reduction level of at least 100 should be applied (see Section A2. Where a safety instrumented system is being employed to mitigate a hazardous area. a solenoid valve on the air supply (either compressor supply or air cylinder) to a large actuator which operates a slam-shut isolation valve on the gas supply.0008 (3) 0.The system will comprise a gas detector (or detectors if the area is large).0049 (2) 0.0045 (2) 0. e. 1 week 0. Where any safety instrumented system is being used only to reduce a zone classification to a lower type.028 (1) 0. a reliability for the system of less than 1 in 100 failures on demand). Generally gas detectors operating a safety instrumented system will have a low demand rate as they are only required to operate on detection of a flammable gas atmosphere. The table below gives PFD values (with SIL in brackets) for the three systems at various test frequencies. Power Shut-off Systems .The system will comprise a gas detector (or detectors if the area is large).

which is proportional to the concentration of organic material in the sample. Pellistor sensors The pellistors detector consists of two beads of ceramic material. these instruments do not provide a response to hydrogen. are connected to a bridge circuit to enable the resistance of the embedded platinum wires to be compared. This results in a very low current flow in the surrounding electrostatic field. which is then detected by the bridge circuit as a increase in the resistance of the platinum wire within the sensor bead when compared with the reference bead. Infra-red sensors The carbon/hydrogen bond present in most hydrocarbon compounds absorbs strongly in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. surrounded by an electrostatic field. Flame ionisation detectors (FID) The flame ionisation detector (FID) employs a hydrogen flame burning in air. The pellistor sensors are the most commonly applied sensor for general monitoring purposes despite their lack of specificity. This is an important point to Page 118 of 167 . these are catalytic sensors (often referred to as pellistors) infra-red (IR) and flame ionisation detectors (FID). and dispersive sensors that use a prism or grating to select the specific wavelength that is absorbed by the target gas. The two beads. The infrared energy from the source is directed through a sample chamber to a detector. This results in an increase in the electrical conductivity of the flame and therefore an increased current flow in the electrostatic field. The beads are heated to temperature in the region of 400°C to 600°C by passing an accurately controlled current through the embedded platinum wire. One bead. these are non-dispersive sensors that use a broadband infrared source. efficiency and cost effectiveness. i. resulting in a reduction in energy reaching the detector. carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. There are two distinct types of infrared gas detectors. the catalyst present in the sensor bead enables combustion of the gas at the surface of the bead. Infrared sensors for flammable gases detect the presence of the target gas by measuring the absorption of infrared energy by the gas as it passes through a sampling device. This gives rise to an increase in temperature within the sensor bead. If a sample containing an organic substance is introduced into the flame. in each of which is embedded a platinum wire. This is largely due to their reliability.e. there is a corresponding increase in the concentration of electrons and ionised carbon compounds in the flame.5 Response characteristics The response of pellistor flammable gas detectors. it will absorb the infrared energy in proportion to its concentration. the electrical conductivity of the flame is low due to the low concentration of electrons and ions produced by the burning hydrogen.2. 10. which are mounted in protective cases and located in close physical proximity to each other within the detector. In the absence of organic substances in the flame. The second bead is not doped with catalyst and acts as a reference.4 Methods of Flammable Gas Detection There are three commonly used techniques for the detection of flammable gases. However.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10.2. The specificity of the sensor can be tailored to a specific application by the correct choice of infrared wavelength. non-dispersive broadband infrared sensors and flame ionisation detectors vary depending on the gas being detected. In the presence of a flammable gas. If the target gas is present in the sample.0 ISSUE 4. the sensor. is doped with a catalytic material that promotes oxidation of a flammable gas at concentrations below it’s LEL. Flame ionisation detectors are useful broadband detectors and are available in a compact hand held form for use in survey work and for process investigations.0 10. the sensitivity of the detector is not the same for all gases.

codes of practice and any local regulations.0 keep in mind if a flammable gas detector is used in situations where there may be a number of different gases present. Table 10. 10.2.6 Location of Sensors The installation of flammable gas detectors must be in accordance with recognised standards.0 ISSUE 4.3 clearly demonstrate that an instrument calibrated on methane gave a correct response to hydrogen but reported the concentration of pentane as less that half the true concentration and reported the concentration of MEK at less than ¼ of the true value.3 Variation in detector response to different gases Type of Gas Gas Concentration % LEL Instrument Reading % LEL Methane Pentane Hydrogen MEK Butane Propane Heptane Carbon Monoxide Propylene Ethylene Hexane 50 50 50 50 51 50 50 49 46 50 45 50 23 50 12 27 30 17 42 31 39 17 The results shown in Table 10. • • • The detector should be mounted at a location where the gas is most likely to be present. Page 119 of 167 . The variation in the sensitivity of a pellistor sensor to a variety of gases is represented in Table 10. Some key points to consider with the installation of flammable gas detectors. use and maintenance of flammable gas detectors including BS EN 50073 (23). If the gas being detected is different to the gas used to calibrate the instrument then the indicated concentration may be very considerably lower that the true concentration.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. A number of publications are available covering the installation. Detectors for gases that are lighter that air should be mounted at a high level. Detectors for gases that are heavier than air should generally be mounted at a low level. after the sensor had been calibrated on methane. These results demonstrate the importance of identifying the flammable gases that may be present in the area being monitored. It is essential that personnel using portable flammable gas detectors understand the implications of the variations in sensor response to different gases. The detector can then be calibrated for these gases and alarm levels set to ensure gas concentrations are kept well below their respective LEL limits.

Products include the • • • Multi-Gas system which is capable of monitoring up to 128 locations using infrared. Draeger Safety A range of portable and stationary flammable gas detection systems are available from Draeger Safety UK Limited. The following information is included only as a brief guide to the type of equipment that is available. Detectors should be mounted in a position where they will be protected from rain.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. including both portable units and fixed site units are available from Gas Measurement Instruments Ltd. Draeger's product range covers a wide variety of types: catalytic bead or infra-red IR sensor technology point or open path detection increased safety. Page 120 of 167 .0 • The location of the detector should take into account how potential gas leaks may occur and the effects that local air movement.gmiuk. Process conditions can influence the behaviour of escaping gas. electrochemical or semiconductor sensors. may influence the movement of the escaping gas. Procedures must be prepared to advise site personnel of the actions to be taken following an alarm or actuation signal from any gas detector.com). PA4 9RG (www. Consideration should be given to the reliability of gas detectors and whether a multiple installation with voting is required to avoid spurious signals.7 References Fixed site flammable gas detectors are available from a number of manufacturers and a detailed review of all the available products is beyond the scope of this document. intrinsically safe or explosion proof. Active 8 which has the capability to monitor up to eight sensors for flammable gas. together with any pre-alarm or warning signals. 4500 rack mounted unit with capacity for 40 sensors per rack. Catalytical Transmitters for the detection of flammable gases and vapors utilise Pellistors. (website: www. • • • GMI A range of gas detection systems. The need for the detectors to initiate shutdown or isolation actions should be considered also. flooding and contamination with process chemicals etc. fire or ambient pressure and temperature. between an optical transmitter and a receiver. a gas which is heavier than air may rise rapidly if it is released at an elevated pressure or temperature. Kitty Brewster Industrial Estate. 10. Blyth. Inchinnan Business Park. Consideration should be give to the ease of access for maintenance and calibration. performing reliable measurements even in harshest environments. either natural or forced.2. Open Path Gas Detectors measure combustible hydrocarbons along a line of sight.draeger.com). • • • Gas detectors must be certified for the explosive atmosphere in which they may be required to operate and must be tested periodically in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations. Renfrew.0 ISSUE 4. NE24 4RG. Ullswater Close. Dräger‘s IR gas detectors provide state of the art technology. Northumberland.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10.0 ISSUE 4.0 • • Gasurveyor 400 series which is a portable unit with the capability to monitor up to six gas ranges in one instrument; FI 2000 hand held flame ionisation detector for general survey work and leak location.

Crowcon Crowcon Detection Instruments Ltd., at 2 Blacklands Way Abingdon Oxfordshire OX14 1DY, manufacture a range of fixed site and portable gas detectors. (www.crowcon.com). The Crowcon product range includes: • • • • single and multi-gas personal monitors; infrared, thermal and electrochemical fixed site sensors; multi-channel control systems to interface large numbers of remotely located sensors; single and multi point gas sampling systems.

Internet Links The Council of Gas Detection and Environmental Monitoring (CoGDEM) represents over 40 companies, see internet page for details and links to companies. www.cogdem.org.uk 10.3 SELECTION OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Since it is not practical to locate equipment in non-hazardous areas only, it is necessary to classify the plant into appropriate hazard zones and to select and specify the appropriate type of equipment compatible with these zones. The selection and specification of appropriate equipment will be performed by an specialist, who, (under the Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for Use in potentially Explosive Atmospheres), is responsible for providing the following information to the supplier: • • • • The classification of the hazardous area or the equipment category required The required temperature class of the equipment or ignition class of the gas or vapour Where applicable the gas or vapour classification in relation to the group or sub group, and External influences that could affect explosion protection (chemical, mechanical vibrational thermal, electrical or humidity) and ambient temperature

These aspects are described in more detail in the following sections, which are followed by sections on records, apparatus marking and installation, including electric lighting. The aspects of the selection of equipment covered in this section of the SPD are limited. Reference should be made to the appropriate standards for detail e.g. BS EN 60079 (Parts 0, 1, 2, 6, 7, 11, 14 & 15) and BS EN 13463-1 (22). 10.4 EQUIPMENT CATEGORY Table 10.4 shows the relationship between equipment category and hazardous area categorisation

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10.0 ISSUE 4.0
Table 10.4 Categorisation of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

Classified Hazardous Zone

Equipment Group

Categor y

Temperature Class

Maximum Equipment Surface Temperature exposed to the gas or dust (See Section 6.4.2 of EN1127-1)
80% of MIT 80% of MIT In normal operation, 100% of MIT 66% of MIT, this may be reduced further if layers of dust are allowed to accumulate 66% of MIT, this may be reduced further if layers of dust are allowed to accumulate 66% of MIT, this may be reduced further if layers of dust are allowed to accumulate

0 1 2 20

IIG IIG IIG IID

1 2 3 1

T1-T6 T1-T6 T1-T6 T1-T6

21

IID

2

T1-T6

22

IID

3

T1-T6

10.5

SELECTION OF TYPES OF PROTECTION ACCORDING TO HAZARD ZONE Once the zone classification of the hazardous area has been established it will be possible to select the apparatus having the type of protection appropriate to the zone. There are ten internationally recognised categories of type of protection for electrical equipment, and these are listed in Table 10.5. Table 10.5 quotes the international standards applicable to the relevant categories. In the UK, the categories are described in BS EN 60079 – 14 (26). For further details of the apparatus, the appropriate parts of BS EN 60079, which specifies the equipment, should be consulted. Similarly Table 10.6 lists the types of protection for mechanical equipment.

Table 10.5

Types of Protection Available for the Achievement of Safety when using Electrical Apparatus in Explosive Atmospheres

Zone in which protection may be used
0

Type of protection (see notes below)

BS 60079 Part No.

IEC 79 equivalent

CENELEC equivalent

Marking in accordance with BS 60079

ia

11

79-11

EN 50020

Ex ia II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex s II A, B or C T1-T6

0

s

14 (refer to Section 5.2.4)

79-0

1

any type of protection suitable for Zone 0 d 1 79-1 EN 50018 Ex d II A, B or C T1-T6

1

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10.0 ISSUE 4.0

Zone in which protection may be used
1

Type of protection (see notes below)

BS 60079 Part No.

IEC 79 equivalent

CENELEC equivalent

Marking in accordance with BS 60079

p

2

79-2

EN 50016

Ex p II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex q II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex o II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex e II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex ib II A, B or C T1-T6 Ex m II A, B or C T1-T6

1

q

79-5

EN 50017

1

o

6

79-6

EN 50015

1

e

7

79-7

EN 50019

1

ib

11

79-11

EN 50020

1

m

79-18

EN 50028

2

any type of protection suitable for Zone 0 or 1 n 15 79-15 (n) Ex n II A, B or C T1-T6

2

Notes: d e ia ib m n o p q s flameproof enclosure increased safety Intrinsically safe apparatus and systems, category ia intrinsically safe apparatus and systems, category ib encapsulation type of protection n oil immersion pressurisation and continuous dilution powder / sand filled special protection, certain types specifically certified for use in Zone 0 or Zone 1

Page 123 of 167

in combination.0 ISSUE 4.6 Types of Protection Available for the Achievement of Safety when using Mechanical Apparatus in Explosive Atmospheres Zone in which protection may be used 0 Equipment Category Ignition Hazard Assessment Type of protection (see notes below) Marking in accordance with BS 13463-1 1 No effective ignition source even under rare malfunction Effective ignition source only during rare malfunction Effective ignition source during rare and expected malfunction N/A 1 Single type of protection (fr is not suitable for category 1 equipment) Combination of two independent types of protection (fr is not suitable for category 1 equipment) II 1G or D dcbpkg T1-T6 II 1G or D d /c /b /p /k /g T1-T6 (Note “/” showing independent types of protection) 1 1 2 No effective ignition source under expected malfunction Effective ignition source only during expected malfunction Effective ignition source only during normal operation N/A 2 Single type of protection (fr is not suitable for category 2 equipment) Single type of protection II 1G or D dcbpkg T1-T6 II 1G or D fr d c b p k g T1-T6 2 3 Notes: Expected malfunction disturbances or equipment faults which normally occur in practice.0 Table 10. Rare malfunction type of malfunction. separately. which. which is known to happen but only in rare instances. fr d c b p k g flow-restricting enclosure flameproof enclosure constructional safety for control of ignition source pressurised equipment liquid immersion inherent safety Page 124 of 167 . Two independent foreseeable malfunctions.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. are regarded as a single rare malfunction. would not create an ignition hazard but which. do create an ignition hazard.

i. butane (class T2) or kerosene (class T3) explosive atmospheres could exist in the same area then class T3 equipment must be selected. gives the T class for suitable apparatus.7 Relationship Between Temperature Class and Maximum Surface Temperature of the Apparatus T Class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Maximum Surface Temperature 450 C 300 C 200 C 135 C 100 C 86 C o o o o o o Ignition temperatures. The temperature class.3.1 and A1.0 ISSUE 4. When mixtures of substances can be released.e. For example. IIB and IIC. These subgroups indicate with which gas or vapour the apparatus may be used. also. some types of specific protection (type of protection s) and pressurised apparatus (type of protection p) are allocated apparatus subgroups IIA. which depend upon flameproof enclosures (type of protection d). the protective technique applies equally to all gases and vapours. which. Table 10. There are six internationally recognised temperature classes. if it is possible that propane (class T1).1 and A1.3. Specific values for flammable materials likely to be present in water industry are quoted in Table A1. it is necessary to specify an appropriate Temperature (T) Class for all apparatus to be used in hazardous areas. p and s.6 SELECTION ACCORDING TO TEMPERATURE CLASS Since flammable material can be ignited by contact with a hot surface. as shown in the following table. Specific values for flammable materials likely to be present in water industry are quoted in Table A1. subgroup B apparatus may be used in place of subgroup A apparatus and Page 125 of 167 . i. indicates that the apparatus will not present an ignition risk when used in. When mixtures of substances can be released. As the sub grouping becomes more severe in going from IIA to IIB to IIC. the most restrictive temperature class must be specified. For types of protection other than d. for a large number of gases and vapours may be found in BS EN 60079-20 (29). subject only to temperature classification as described above. or likely to come into contact with. gases having an auto-ignition temperature exceeding the temperature limit of the class.7 SELECTION ACCORDING TO APPARATUS SUBGROUP Apparatus having types of protection.. unless it is known that a more restrictive class is appropriate. Apparatus subgroups. 10. which is specified in BS EN 60079-0 (24).DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. Note: the most likely flammable materials present in the water industry are petrol. intrinsic safety (type of protection i). the most restrictive apparatus subgroup must be specified. determined according to international standards. biogas (methane) and ammonia all of which are apparatus group IIA. determined according to international standards for a large number of gases and vapours. may be found in BS EN 60079-20 (29). the one with the highest T class number.0 10. It is recommended that class T3 equipment is used in sewers and sewage pumping stations within the sewerage system (including terminal pumping stations) to allow for petrol spillages etc.

10.0 ISSUE 4. but the converse is not true.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. gives many examples of apparatus marking. ingress of liquids and particulate matter. 3rd line: marking according to certification (where appropriate): code of Notified Body.9 COMPLETION OF RECORDS The supplier of the equipment is responsible for provision of Declarations of Conformity. all the factors relating to apparatus selection must be entered on the records to complete the area classification process. Industrial methane. records sufficient to enable the explosion protected equipment to be maintained in accordance with its type of protection. For each site. the effects of heat from adjacent plant and the exclusion of contact between persons and parts within the enclosure. IIA. International agreement has been reached on the markings and the symbol ‘Ex’ denotes explosion protection. Group I is applicable to mining applications only and the methane (firedamp) encountered therein. This classification. The marking should provide the following information: • 1st line: CE mark.10 MARKING OF APPARATUS Apparatus for use in explosive atmospheres carries a marking to indicate that it is so protected. • 10. and to identify the particular explosion risk for which the apparatus is certified. I or q. the effect of solvents. 2nd line: Marking according to standards to which the equipment conforms. and instructions as well as correctly marking the equipment. year of issue.0.8 SELECTION ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS The apparatus must be selected so that it is suitable for the intended conditions of its installation location. which. as encountered in sewage treatment plant is a Group IIA gas. the symbol indicating the temperature class or the maximum surface temperature. and. Note X at the end indicates special conditions apply to the equipment use and U indicates the item is a component. Note.0 subgroup C can be used in place of apparatus for both subgroups. has been agreed internationally. • • Page 126 of 167 . This should include a comprehensive record of non-certified or non-marked devices used in intrinsically safe systems. a responsible person should maintain plans and/or records of the following items. Marking requirements have changed over the years and individual standards may need to be consulted for specific guidance. As mentioned previously. The general requirements for electrical equipment are described in BS EN 60079-0 (24). also. sometimes referred to as Ingress Protection or Degree of Protection of Enclosures. gas (G) or dust (D). as in BS EN 50014 such as EEx. symbol for each type of protection. hexagon symbol (special marking of explosion protection) and symbols of Group and Category and type of hazard. Notified Body Identification Mark if involved in production control stage. 10. IIB or IIC for protection types d. Particular attention must be given to the need for protection against the weather. as recommended by BS EN 60079-10 (25): • the classification and extent of hazardous areas together with other information (such as the documented risk assessments and equipment Declarations of Conformity) as recommended in Section 6. corrosion. explosion groups I. issue of certificate and number of certificate.

Electrical installations in hazardous areas have additional requirements specific to providing facilities compatible with the zones. wiring. Symbol of equipment group and category and type of ignition protection used. serial number. together with inspection. conductors passing within 0. Structures containing Zones 2 and 22 areas may not need supplemental protection measures where the construction is of metal that meets the thickness requirements of Table 10. maintenance.g. name or mark of certificate issuer and number of certificate the symbol “X” if special conditions apply and any additional marking as prescribed in BS 13463-1:2009 (22) During installation a check should be made to ensure the marking on the equipment is the same as that recorded in the declaration of conformity and instructions.5 of BS EN 62305-3 (34). be followed. Marking should include the following: • • • • • Name and address of manufacturer. temperature class or maximum surface temperature.0 ISSUE 4. There are particular requirements for all electrical installations covering such topics as insulation. II or IIA. must comply with all relevant statutory requirements. provides guidance for structures containing hazardous areas. which should be consulted as appropriate.. Amplification of these aspects is contained in BS EN 60079-14 (26) and maintenance in BS EN 60079-17 (27). Section D.5m of a hazardous zone should be continuous or connections should be made with compression fittings or by welding. also.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. also symbol of explosion group (e.0 Marking of non-electrical equipment are described in BS EN 13463-1:2009 (22). and must comply with the zoning requirements. air termination devices and down-conductors are not required but the structure must be earthed. etc. whether in hazardous areas or not.11 INSTALLATION All electrical installations. 10. where possible. testing and repair.12 ELECTRIC LIGHTING Electric lighting to be installed in a hazardous area is to be treated as any other type of electrical equipment for installation in such an area.13 LIGHTNING PROTECTION Lightning protection provided for plant with any associated zoned areas must be designed to protect the equipment and any associated hazardous areas (refer to BS EN 62305-3:2006 (34) Protection against lightning – Part 3: Physical damage to structures and life hazard). Within Thames Water the company’s Electrical Safety Rules must. Where the above applies. Where this is not possible. In the UK this includes the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. preferably by a Type B arrangement (either a ring conductor external to the structure or a foundation earth electrode). earthing. 10. 10. unless there are exposed metal Page 127 of 167 . manufacturers type identification and year of manufacture. where appropriate. Air terminations and down –conductors for lightning protection should be at least 1m away from a hazardous zone. etc). isolation. Structures made of metal that are then clad with insulating material may not be considered as natural air-termination components. Sufficient lighting must be provided to minimise the need to use portable lighting equipment.6.

g. then protective measures should be employed to avoid a disruptive discharge. Table 10. the reinforcing steel shall not be used as a natural down conductor and an external down conductor shall be installed. flexible bonding conductors of 35 mm width. the requirements for zones 1 and 21 shall apply and closed steel containers shall have a wall thickness of at least 5mm at the possible lightning striking points… In the case of thinner walls.0 ISSUE 4. (depending on the size of the tank). a flexible bonding conductor of 35 mm width should be applied across the ladder hinges. Where the overall electrical resistance is greater than 0. In the case of floating roof tanks (e. For structures containing Zones 0 and 20. gas holders). When a rolling ladder is fitted. Material selection is given by product and/or environmental requirements. Page 128 of 167 .5 m intervals around the roof periphery. Structures containing Zones 1 and 21 shall meet the requirements for zones 2 and 22 and in addition where there are insulation pieces (e. air termination devices should be installed. non-metallic gaskets) in pipelines. Alternative means of providing an adequate conductive connection between the floating roof and tank shell for impulse currents associated with lightning discharges are only allowed if proved by tests and if procedures are utilized to ensure the reliability of the connection. multiple shunt connections should be provided between the floating-roof and the tank shell at about 1. between the ladder and the top of the tank and between the ladder and the floating roof.0 parts or pipes with the required cross-sections specified in Table 6 of BS EN 62305-3 (34). On floating roof tanks. the floating roof should be effectively bonded to the main tank shell. the electrical continuity of the reinforcing bars shall be determined.8 Minimum Thickness of Metal Sheets or Metal Pipes For structures utilizing steel reinforced concrete. such as isolating spark gaps (component with discharge distance for isolating electrically-conductive installation sections). When a rolling ladder is not fitted to the floating-roof tank.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 10. one or more. The design of the seals and shunts and their relative locations needs to be carefully considered so that the risk of any ignition of a possible explosive mixture by incendiary sparking is reduced to the lowest level practicable. shall be applied between the tank shell and the floating roof.g. or equivalent. Isolating spark gaps and insulation pieces should be inserted outside the hazardous area.2Ω. The bonding conductors should either follow the roof drain or be arranged so that they cannot form re-entrant loops.

An initial inspection shall also be carried out after apparatus repair. B. Such inspection and maintenance should be carried out in accordance with BS EN 60079-17 (27) and. When adjustment is carried out on any apparatus. These shall allow the unique identification of each item of equipment or system. the manufacturer’s instructions. where applicable.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 11. and especially important where the safety of personnel depends upon the continued protection in hazardous areas. removal for repair and replacement of apparatus.0 ISSUE 4./certificates of conformity for replaced items.1 COMPETENCY AND TRAINING The inspection.0 INSPECTION. systems and installation shall be carried out on first installation and after modification or replacement of apparatus.0 11. 11. Periodic Inspection Page 129 of 167 . A main requirement of any planned system is the keeping of records which should include details of the following: • • • • 11. systems and installations must be carried out only by personnel whose training has included instruction on the various types of protection and installation practices and where appropriate the principles of area classification.1 or 11. system or installation. it shall be checked in accordance with the relevant items in the ‘D’ (Detailed) column of Table 11.2. 11. It is essential that all equipment installed in hazardous areas is inspected and maintained at regular intervals so as to ensure the continued integrity of the protection concepts used in the equipment design.2 BASIS AND FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION A planned system of regular routine inspection is the basis of effective maintenance. Systems and Installations Inspections carried out and Faults revealed. Initial Inspection Initial Inspection of all apparatus. the details of the initial inspection shall be recorded. Records should be retained for those undertaking the inspection and maintenance of hazardous area equipment to verify their training.3 Up to date Area Classification All Apparatus. In all cases. FORMS OF INSPECTION Two forms of inspection shall be adopted as follows: A. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING BS EN 60079-17 (27) together with BS EN 60079-14 (26) and BS IEC 60079-19 (28) should be consulted in conjunction with this section. Corrective Action taken to Remedy Faults. Refresher training should be carried out each time the regulations are revised or at intervals not exceeding 2 years if the person responsible for ensuring compliance is not using / applying the regulations on a regular basis. Specific records must be kept centrally of all maintenance carried out on such equipment and must include part nos. maintenance.

The time intervals for periodic inspection will depend on the environment and operating conditions under which the apparatus. Minor Fault A Minor Fault does not directly impair the integrity of the type(s) of protection involved but does.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 11. likely corrosion and environmental conditions etc. 3 The categorisation of faults is the primary aid to risk assessment which enables the management of fault rectification. Close and Visual) may be obtained from BS EN 60079-17 (27). An example of a Minor Fault would be a missing or illegible certification label on apparatus or missing plant identification label.0 ISSUE 4. Major Fault A major fault impairs the required level of safety for the type of protection involved. NOTE: 1 The ability to recognise and place faults in the applicable category depends on the skill and training of the personnel involved in the inspection operation. Even for new sites with favourable conditions. Page 130 of 167 . nevertheless. The frequency of periodic inspections shall be determined by a competent person responsible for the site. but does not lead to an immediate unprotected source of ignition. It should be noted that inspection frequencies will need to be increased with the age of the installation concerned. NOTE: Visual and close inspections can be performed with the apparatus energised. it is unlikely that an interval between inspections in excess of two years can be justified. systems and installations shall be carried out according to the programme of planned inspections and details recorded. systems and installation have to function. generally. An example of a Critical Fault would be Ex d (Flameproof) switchgear which had a damaged enclosure and thus afforded no protection against ignition of a flammable atmosphere from unprotected electrical sparking sources. Major or Minor in accordance with the following criteria. Factors influencing the determination of inspection frequency will include historical information from previous inspections. 2 Faults in a lesser category may become more severe if not promptly addressed. 11.0 Periodic Inspection of all apparatus.4 INSPECTION FINDINGS AND FAULT CATEGORIES Faults noted during inspections should be categorised as Critical. Additional guidance on the types of inspection (Detailed. Detailed inspections will. represent a non compliance with the requirements of applicable standards. An example of a Major Fault would be an Ex d (Flameproof) enclosure with a damaged enclosure but which only contains terminals (Non-ignition capable parts). require apparatus to be isolated. The situation is not immediately ignition capable unless the terminals are loose or water can provide a conductive path. Critical Fault A critical fault impairs the required level of safety of the type of protection involved to the point where there is an immediate absence of protection afforded against ignition of a flammable gas.

V = Visual) Page 131 of 167 . C = Close. Ex ”e” and Ex “n” Installations (D = Detailed.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 11.0 Table 11.1 Inspection Schedule for Ex ”d”.0 ISSUE 4.

11.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 11. 11.7 ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS TO APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS Any alteration which it is necessary to make to apparatus or systems shall maintain the integrity of the method of protection.6 MAINTENANCE OF INTRINSICALLY SAFE SYSTEMS The requirements as set down in BS EN 60079-17 (27) shall apply.2 Inspection Schedule for Ex “i” Installations 11. In the case of certified apparatus or systems no alterations or repairs which might invalidate the certificate or other document relating to the safety of the apparatus or system shall be made. certain specific situations in Zone 2.0 Table 11.5 ISOLATION Apart from certain activities which are permitted on intrinsically safe circuits. and Permit to Work operations as detailed below. apparatus containing live parts and located in Hazardous Areas must not be opened without isolating all incoming connections including the Neutral Conductor.0 ISSUE 4. NOTE: If the continuing absence of an explosive atmosphere can be guaranteed under a Permit to Work System essential work for which exposure of live parts is necessary may be carried out in accordance with Thames Water Electrical Safety Rules. Page 132 of 167 .

11. Page 133 of 167 . or special tools are required the responsible person(s) shall ensure that the appropriate items are available and are used. If the test is to be carried out using conventional insulation or pressure test equipment the locations where the test is to be applied and/or where incendive sparking may occur must be declared free from an explosive atmosphere by the responsible authority and guaranteed as remaining so for the duration of the test. This provision. repair should only be carried out by the original equipment manufacturer or his authorised agent or a repairer (for example certain motor repair workshops) which have the necessary skills and training to ensure that the types of protection employed on the equipment still retain their certification conditions and comply with the applicable design and construction standards after the repair. however. It should also be noted that the certification of most intrinsically safe insulation testers is to old UK National standards which utilised a different hazardous area nomenclature. 11. cannot be predicted and an intrinsically safe charging current applied to an energy storage circuit such as a length of cable can give rise to incendive discharges. if the instrument is used correctly. gives no protection against a possible discharge within the circuit during the application of a test. 11. always be carried out in the continued absence of an explosive atmosphere. Insulation testing in hazardous areas should if practicable.12 EQUIPMENT REPAIR Because of the danger of invalidating safety aspects inherent in the design of hazardous area electrical equipment. NOTE: The instruments referred to above are intrinsically safe only in the sense that no danger can result from sparks produced by current generated within the instrument. however. The reference on the label of these testers to “2a and 2c” is only equivalent to Group IIA and the tester must not be used on circuits which enter or traverse Group IIB or IIC locations. A certificate to this effect shall be issued.10 PORTABLE APPARATUS Any portable electrical apparatus for use in hazardous areas shall be regularly checked to ensure compliance with the type(s) of protection utilised by the apparatus. but where this is not possible any instrument used for testing must be intrinsically safe. that with the majority of such intrinsically safe insulation testers danger can arise if the limitations of the certification are not fully observed. It should however. This difficulty has been recognised and the instrument is provided with a discharge circuit which.9 FASTENINGS AND TOOLS Where special bolts and other fastenings. knowledge and training can undertake such duties to ensure the safety of personnel is maintained at all times during the execution of the work. The effect of external loads.11 PERMITS TO WORK AND GAS FREE CERTIFICATES The issuing of Permit to Work and Certification of gas free spaces must be carried out by a competent person who by their experience.0 ISSUE 4. BS EN 60079-19 (28) should be consulted for additional details.0 11.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 11. ensures that the circuit under test is left in a safe condition. 11. as explained in the following note.8 INSULATION TESTING During normal maintenance or fault diagnosis it may be necessary from time to time to carry out insulation testing. be appreciated. It is the responsibility of the person sending the equipment for repair to ensure that the repairer is aware of his responsibility to comply with the above.

Commissioning and Handover of New Works 4.0 October 2001 5.3 L138 DSEAR Approved Code of Practice and Guidance HS(G)34 HS(G)50 Capacity Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations Storage of Flammable Liquids in Fixed Tanks up to 10000 m3 Total HS(G)113 Lift trucks in potentially explosive atmospheres HSE OC498/11 HSE OC847/9 Fire and Explosion Hazards at Electrochlorination Plant Sewage Sludge Drying Plant BRITISH STANDARDS 14 BS 2869 Fuel Oils for Non Marine Use Part 2 . use and maintenance of apparatus for the detection and measurement of combustible gases or oxygen 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Page 134 of 167 .0 12. F. Not Used 6. (withdrawn. but provides some useful references) BS 5925 Code of Practice for Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation BS 5958:1991 . installation. E. D.2 HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE (HSE) PUBLICATIONS 7. 635 8 9 10 11 12 13 12.0 ISSUE 4. SI 1989/635 The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 No. C1.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 12.Code of practice for control of undesirable static electricity BS 5978 Safety and Performance of Gas Fired Hot Water Boilers (60 kW to 2 MW Input) .8 MW (net) (2nd and 3rd family gases) BS 6656:2002 Assessment of inadvertent ignition of flammable atmospheres by radio-frequency radiation. C2. Basic concepts and methodology. Guide BS 6941 Specification for Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres with Type of Protection N BS EN 1127-1:1998 Explosive atmospheres. SPD F26 General Specification 12. BS EN 50073:1999 Guide for selection. G and H) BS 5345 Selection.0 12. C60B Thames Water Health and Safety Manual 2.1 REFERENCES THAMES WATER PUBLICATIONS 1. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. SPD A17 Testing. Explosion prevention and protection.Part 1 BS 6644 Specification for Installation of gas-fired hot water boilers of rated inputs between 70 kW (net) and 1.Specification for Fuel Oil for Agricultural and Industrial Engines and Burners (Classes A2. SPD C09 Sludge Treatment TWUL / C09 Issue 2. PU1735 Thames Water Electrical Safety Rules 3.

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 12.0 ISSUE 4.0 24 25 26 27 28 BS EN 60079-0:2004 – Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres. General requirements BS EN 60079-10 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres – Part 10: Classification of Hazardous Areas. BS EN 60079-14:2003, Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres – Part 14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines). BS EN 60079-17:2007 Explosive atmospheres. Electrical installations inspection and maintenance. BS IEC 60079-19:1993, Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Repair and overhaul for apparatus used in explosive atmospheres (other than mines or explosives). BS EN 60079-20:2000. Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres – Part 20: Data for flammable gases and vapours, relating to the use of electrical apparatus. BS EN 60529 (IP code) Specification for Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures

29 30 31 32 33

BS EN 61241-10 Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust. Classification of areas where combustible dusts are or may be present. BS EN 61508-1:2002 Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems. General requirements BS EN 61511-1:2004 Functional safety. Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector. Framework, definitions, system, hardware and software requirements. BS EN 62305:2006 – Protection against lightning, Parts 1, 2 3 & 4 BS EN 13463-1:2009 Non-electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. Basic method and requirements.

34 35

12.4

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 IGE/SR/4 Low Pressure Gas Holders Storing Lighter than Air Gases - Institution of Gas Engineers IGE/SR/25 Hazardous Area Classification of Natural Gas Installations IGE/UP/2 Gas Installation Pipework, Boosters and Compressors on Industrial and Commercial Premises - Institution of Gas Engineers IM/24 Guidance Notes on the Installation of Industrial Gas Turbines, Associated Gas Compressors and Supplementary Firing Burners - British Gas Plc. NFPA 820 Standard for Fire Protection in Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities (2003 Edition) Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations - Institute of Petroleum, Model Code of Safe Practice Part 15, July 2005 3rd Edition. LPG Piping System - Design and Installation - The LP Gas Association, Code of Practice 22 Manual of British Practice in Water Pollution Control , Sewage Sludge 1 Institution of Water Pollution Control (IWPC) Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for use in Zone 2 Hazardous Areas - The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’ Association (EEMUA), Publication No. 107 (1992)

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 SECTION 12.0 ISSUE 4.0 45 46 47 48 49 CEI 31-35 – Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, Guide for Classification of Hazardous Areas Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurising Systems – API Recommended Practice 521 Area Classification for Landfill Gas Extraction, Utilisation and Combustion, Industry Code of Practice, ESA ICoP 2, edition 2, July 2006. EEMUA Publication No. 107 - Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines for Use in Zone 2 Hazardous Areas. British Compressed Gases Association Code of Practice CP19, Bulk Liquid Oxygen Storage at Users' Premises. Revision 2: 1996.

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DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4.0

TECHNICAL APPENDICES
General Note: The information contained in the following sections within the Appendices is intended for use by personnel with expertise in hazardous area classification and the requirements of DSEA Regulations. Furthermore, note that the hazardous zones given above in Section 7 of this document have been derived from a computer model and, therefore, could differ from outputs that follow the calculation methods described below within these Appendices.

Page 137 of 167

sewage and sludge treatment facilities for several reasons. Gas from gas pipelines. Properties relevant to area classification for some flammable gases and liquids. Page 138 of 167 .0 SOURCES OF RELEASE SOURCES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS Flammable materials may be present in many sewerage. Landfill gas seepage or infiltration from adjacent landfills into underground assets. These substances must be segregated and stored separately. lubricating oils and treatment chemicals imported to the plant.2 PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS In determining the behaviour of flammable materials it is necessary to understand some of their physical and chemical properties some of which are summarised in the following sections. A1.g. geological methane. These gases are produced in the digestion process and by incidental decomposition elsewhere.Part 1 and the Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice . taken from BS 5345 . Methane gas seepage (e. Generally where heavy fuels such as kerosene or diesel or gas oil are used then they would be classified as non-hazardous because of their high flash points. Typical substances used in the water industry include chlorine and ozone for disinfection plant at water treatment works.Part 15 (IP15 2nd Ed). Suppliers of the plant should be consulted for toxic and flammability risk precautions that need to be taken where storing and handling such materials.2.g. namely: • Decomposition of organic matter in sewage producing methane. such as stores and laboratories. kerosene. Vitox) in effluent treatment. The fuels include distillate fuels (gasoil.g.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4.1 and A1.g. disused mine workings) into underground assets. Although not specifically affecting hazardous area classification the potential for oxidising agents to accelerate burning should be considered. natural gas and LPG. fuels. from flammable substances or incompatible substances like oil and grease where they may react vigorously to create potentially explosive atmospheres. lubricating oils and treatment chemicals are often present together with other flammable materials and their presence will depend on the type of treatment process used. Other premises. chloramination plant) ammonia will be handled. from road tankers or industrial premises) which arrive via the sewerage system. are given in Tables A1. etc.0 A1.). oxygen used for welding with acetylene and in specialised treatment processes (e. may contain flammable materials that would require the need to apply hazardous area classification principles. or if they could be heated above their flash point for example by leaking onto hot surfaces. For example in disinfection plant (e. Fuels. Spillages from accidents (e. A1. a minimum of 5 metres. accompanied by smaller amounts of other flammable gases. Lubricating oils also have high flash points and so would not present a flammable risk and would also be treated as non-hazardous. (although unlikely). Exceptions to this rule would be where the materials are used under pressure and could be atomised into a fine spray if they were to leak.1 • • • • • In water treatment plant.

5 15 45.0 1. The lower explosive limit (LEL) of the gas mixture is close to that of methane although it is affected by the quantity of inert gas in the methane. Mixtures of digester gas (sludge gas) in air are flammable.19 0.5 8.2 Composition of Biogas % by volume Methane Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen Sulphide 60 . The composition of biogas evolved from the mesophillic anaerobic digestion process as quoted in the Manual of British Practice in Water Pollution Control. Page 139 of 167 .07 1. A1.3.2 Properties of Biogas There are many sources of biogas within water and wastewater treatment facilities as discussed briefly in Section A1.59 0. The gas is usually saturated with water vapour.1 Flammable Gases Some properties of common gases some of which may be associated with water and wastewater treatment facilities are included below.3 15 4.1 Properties of Flammable Materials .5 595 270 630 560 470 365 T1 T3 T1 T1 T1 T2 IIA IIB IIA IIC IIA IIA The properties of biogas is discussed separately in the next section. Sewage Sludge I (IWPC) is typically in the range: Table A1.0 2.% in air) Upper explosive limit (vol. Ammonia for injection into sewage effluent and for disinfection purposes is stored under pressure in gas cylinders.70 Trace 30 – 40 Trace Up to 2000 ppm v/v The range of concentrations is due to changes in the quality of the feed sludge and operational conditions.0 A1. Table A1.56 2.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4.Gases Flammable material Relative density (to air @ same temp.05 Flash point (°C) Lower explosive limit (vol.% in air) Ignition temp.2.55 1. (°C) ‘T’ class of suitable apparatus Apparatus group BS EN 60079 Methane Hydrogen Sulphide Ammonia Hydrogen Propane Butane Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas -60 5 4.6 9. and pressure) 0. The gas also presents a toxic hazard if released.5 28 75.2. but are not specifically addressed in this SPD. Other flammable gas risks may arise from the use of compressed gases in cylinders.

0 Ignition temp.1 Upper explosive limit (vol. if they are used under pressure a leak could result in a fine atomised spray which can also be flammable even though the Page 140 of 167 .3 Properties of Fuels.8 9. The potential presence of small concentrations of hydrogen or hydrogen sulphide does not alter the equipment subgroup (see Table A1. therefore.Fuels Flammable material Relative density (to air @ 15˚C and 1 atm) 1.1) from that of IIA. pt2 class C) Gasoil / Derv fuel (BS 2869. The table below summarises some of the properties of common fuels. regarded as non-buoyant for area classification purposes. For delivery and bulk storage.3 - 177-329 T2 IIA Natural gas supplied by pipeline is essentially methane. Kent.0 Gas 1. A1. where they may be raised to higher temperatures by contact with hot surfaces then they can still present an explosive hazard. It is lighter than air and so if it escapes from low pressure distribution mains then dispersion is aided by its buoyancy. commercial butane or mixtures of the two. Similarly. Gasoil/diesel/derv are higher flash point fuels and can be classed as non-hazardous when stored or used away from processing areas or hot lines and vessels. some further clarification is given regarding zoning for high flash point materials such as gasoil / diesel / derv. Table A1.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4. On sites which are not connected to a mains natural gas supply LPG is frequently used as a support fuel. Consequently aviation fuels of the kerosene type (flash point 38˚C minimum) should be regarded as flammable and an explosive hazard. (oC) ‘T’ class of suitable apparatus Apparatus group BS EN 60079 / 5501 LPG (commercial propane) LPG (commercial butane) Petrol (motor spirit) Kerosene (BS 2869. As a typical example within the UK mainland a maximum ambient temperature of 38˚C has been recorded (Faversham.0 Digester gases have a specific gravity not less than about 80 percent of that of air. pt2 class D) Gas 470 T2 IIA or IIB 2.% in air) 2. However. The vapours if released are significantly heavier than air and so can easily accumulate in unventilated low points such as sumps or drains. Lubricating Oils and Treatment Chemicals Fuels will be used on all sites and in some cases stored on sites and so it is necessary to understand the properties of typical fuels in the event that there may be a spillage either on the treatment works or in catchments supplying them.7 7. they are kept under pressure to maintain their liquid state. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) comprises propane and butane and is supplied in two forms as commercial propane.0 365 T2 IIA or IIB 2.6 5 560 210 T3 T3 IIA IIA - 55 (min) 1. for use as fuels they are normally vaporised and handled as gases. Within Appendix A of IP-Part15.3 Properties of Flammable Materials . Digester gas is.2.4 0.5 Flash point (oC) Lower explosive limit (vol.% in air) 10. July 2003).8 - less than -20 38 (min) 1. 2nd edition.

The effect of pressure is understandable if one considers that when pressure increases the number of molecules per unit volume increases. Because the flame speeds are considerably higher. SIT (or AIT. if the temperature of a mixture is raised. the pressure rise in an explosion-proof enclosure may also be much higher.1 Sewer Gas A typical composition quoted for sewer gas (percent by volume air free basis) in the Recommended Practice for Fire Protection in Waste Water Treatment Plants (NFPA 820) (reference 27) is Methane 5%. A1. Carbon Dioxide 70%. Obviously. Lubricating oils are also handled and used in machinery below their flash points and are.0 liquid is below its flash point. Temperature. autogenous ignition temperature) at which it will ignite spontaneously. Page 141 of 167 . A1. reaching zero at the AIT. and Pressure Oxygen enrichment increases the heat release within the combustion zone of the developing wave-front and therefore decreases the required initial energy contribution from the ignition source. Every material has a spontaneous ignition temperature. No means of explosion protection considered safe for atmospheric mixtures should be considered safe in oxygen enriched mixtures without careful examination. The qualitative effect of increasing temperature is relatively easy to estimate. and the ignition energy required to cause the incipient flame sphere to grow to its critical diameter decreases. A1. Similarly. Doubling the pressure of a gas cuts the ignition energy to approximately 25% of its former value. the amount of electrical energy required will decrease.4 Effects of Oxygen Enrichment. The most easily ignited concentration of oxygen and vapours or gases ignites at about one hundredth the minimum ignition energy of the most easily ignited concentration of the same vapour or gas in air.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4. decreasing pressure decreases the amount of energy released in the combustion zone and increases the required electrical ignition energy. As liquid spills are likely to result in temperatures well below the ambient temperature there is a further degree of safeguard in this above classification.3 SOURCES OF BIOGAS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES The generation of biogas from anaerobic digestion is dependent on a number of parameters including: • • • • • • • Availability and concentration of materials capable of degradation: Concentration of methane generating bacteria Aeration of material in the location Temperature Acidity and alkalinity Quantity of material present Degree of mixing As there are a large number of variables a review of a number of sources for determining biogas production rates was conducted.3. therefore. The heat release per unit volume will consequently increase. There is also reference to a generally accepted rule of thumb which is if a material can not be heated to within 5˚C of its flash point then it can be treated as nonhazardous if it is only under a few meters head or stored in a storage tank. normally regarded as non-hazardous for classification purposes. This relationship has been verified experimentally over many atmospheres of pressure change.2. Other Gases 25%.

4. Page 142 of 167 . A1. may also be present. sickly smell. Sludge liquors from digested sludge will also be saturated with dissolved methane (solubility of methane in water is 22 mg/l at 20°C) and may release this methane to the atmosphere for a similar period of time. much lower than biogas from digested sludge.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4.3. such as hydrogen sulphide. It also contains trace levels of other gases such as hydrogen sulphide and organic substances that give it its characteristic sweet.3. which is sometimes the case. Where there is the potential for gas to permeate into underground facilities such as drains or pumping wells then appropriate zoning will be required.3m3/m3/d. A1. Traces of other gases. also. Apart from the digestion process.1 Landfill Gas Where treatment plants are located adjacent to landfill sites. Digestion of raw sludges at ambient temperature for periods between 7 and 18 days has shown that methane is present in this gas but only in very small amounts (up to 3%). then there is the potential for landfill gas to permeate to underground facilities. A1.2 Raw Sludge Some decomposition can occur in raw sludge that is handled and stored at ambient temperature typically up to 20°C. Frequently the sources and origins are not well understood but certain locations are more susceptible than others. The gas evolved from this decomposition has been determined from laboratory tests conducted by Thames Water (see Cremer & Warner report D/91068. the release rate of methane to the atmosphere is considered low enough to be unlikely to generate a flammable atmosphere.4 Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia Both these gases can be evolved in the decomposition processes.0 Such gas mixtures with air are not flammable provided that the ‘other gases’ do not contain significant amounts of flammable materials. but the overall gas composition is not flammable.2) as it cools to ambient temperature at a diminishing rate for some time after it leaves the digester. but their odour levels may give the impression that large concentrations exist. the concentrations are usually very low.3.8 to 1. Where the dissolved methane concentration in the liquor is below 10 mg/l at ambient temperature. Digested sludge will continue to evolve biogas (refer to composition in Table A1.4 OTHER SOURCES OF GAS There are other potential sources of gas either in the form of methane or biogas that need to be considered and a couple of examples are provided below.1m3 gas/m3 sludge per day is. The most infamous case of the escape of geological methane was the contributory factor behind the Abbeystead disaster4 where a water main was out of service for 17 days before pumping was 4 The Abbeystead Explosion – HSE 1985. Landfill gas consists of 50-60% methane and 35-40% carbon dioxide and so it has a composition similar to biogas. A1. The evolution rate of this gas observed at 0. The presence of such gases may require control from an odour as well as an occupational health aspect.3 Digested Sludge Where sewage sludge is being digested at a temperature of 35˚C the gas production rates are typically in the range from 0. A1. A1. 1991) and shown to contain a large proportion of carbon dioxide (up to 40%). Non-electrical driven pumps such as pneumatic powered pumps may therefore be more appropriate for such facilities.4.2 Geological Methane Methane which is of geological origin can percolate into underground sewerage systems or water pipes. In certain circumstances such as leachate wells methane may be present for long periods and in flammable concentrations.

The report uses an accident frequency of 5. Page 143 of 167 . Methane is also soluble in water although sparingly and the solubility increases at higher pressures. either by accident or illegally. 10 (9%) with rail-tankers.1 Accident Spillages (WRc Data) All varieties of flammable liquids have the potential to be spilled into the sewerage system.0 recommenced.5. such as those which are transported by road or are utilised on industrial premises. To derive a yearly accident frequency this figure needs to be multiplied by the ATM (Annual Transport Mileage) for the catchment handling flammable materials.2 Flammable Liquids In Drainage Systems Where there is the potential for flammable liquids to be discharged into a sewer or catchment. The solubility of methane5 in water at atmospheric pressure at 20˚C is 22mg/l. As petrol is the fuel most commonly used any accidents involving liquid spills are more likely to be with petrol than other materials. Geological methane infiltrated the void and was subsequently expelled into the valve house where the flammable mixture was ignited. The more volatile materials which are not miscible with water and are sufficiently low in density to float on the surface are the most hazardous from the flammability aspect. 11 (10%) with static storage and 8 (8%) with pipework. pipelines or other. particularly for small rural catchment areas where there may be limited potential for flammable liquids to enter the sewer network in significant quantities. where a study of flammable liquid spills was undertaken between 1970 and 1992 and has recently been updated and extended in a new WRc report (UC6549). The risks posed by such an event may be very low. This information is incorporated in the FLIDS methodology where medium and high risk catchments are identified. Major Hazard Aspects of the transport of dangerous substances. Flammable gas from disused mine workings will also be a possible source and infiltration into underground facilities is possible and the risks of this need to be considered. The report identifies that 92% of the flammable liquid spills were not contained. checked or consumed by fire and therefore could potentially reach the drainage systems. Of the 107 petrol spills 38 (36%) were associated with road tankers. When the pressure is reduced then the methane will come out of solution as a gas and therefore present a potential explosive hazard. then there is the possibility that an explosive atmosphere could be produced. A1. A1. This was investigated in the WRc report. Petrol is a specific example and its properties are included in Table A1. This is determined by the number of filling stations in the catchment.5 SOURCES OF FLAMMABLE LIQUID FROM ACCIDENTS A1. and 40 (37%) with petrol stations (mainly storage).3. 107 involved petrol (52%) whilst other spills involved other flammable liquid materials.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4. Of 205 spills.4 x 10-8 per tanker-km from motor spirit tanker reported spills6. 1991. which if ignited could cause considerable harm to personnel and damage to equipment. The assessment procedure uses the following inputs for the catchment and receptor risk assessment: • The number of petrol stations in the catchment 5 6 SRC Physical Property Database ACDS – HSE Advisory Committee on Dangerous Substances. HMSO. killing 16 people and injuring 28. an estimate of the number of deliveries made and the distance of the delivery. An initial FLIDS Assessment provides a qualitative assessment of the risk from a flammable liquid spillage (petrol) into the catchment area.5.

The type and nature of the catchment and sewerage system. These may be used to determine acceptable ventilation rates for avoiding flammable atmospheres. The quality of ventilation provided in the installation and whether there are ignition sources present. This assumes that the petrol has similar properties to heptane and that release conditions are equivalent to 1. Assuming that the petrol is floating on a pool of water with the surface area of the wet well or storage tank. Page 144 of 167 .42 DNV Consequence modelling software.1 Graph of Petrol (Heptane) Vaporisation Rates for Given Areas of Spill Petrol Spill Vaporisation Rate 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Area m2 80 100 Vaporisation Rate kg/h 7 PHAST – Version 6. Figure A1. stability type F) at 15˚C. A1. an estimate of petrol vaporisation rate has been made using PHAST7.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A1 ISSUE 4.5F (1. The results are summarised in Figure A1.5m/s wind speed at 10m.0 • • • The presence of industrial installations where uncontained spillage of flammable liquids is possible.3 Vapourisation Rates (Petrol) In the event that petrol spills into a catchment then it is likely to run into the sewerage system to pumping stations or inlet works.1 below.5.

must be established in accordance with BS 5925 . Additional information is given on the ventilation requirements for some specific facilities in Section A2. Some additional ventilation provided by fans etc.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. It may prevail in buildings which have sufficient openings in their walls and/or roofs. When such good ventilation is not available.Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations (reference 28).Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Part 10. Additional guidance on the influence of ventilation on area classification is to be found in BS EN 60079-10 .. This section provides some information on ventilation aspects relevant to the application of area classification and the finalisation of zone type and extent. Ventilation is a complex subject and expert advice on design matters should be obtained. A2. An increase in either zone severity or in size of zone may then be necessary.2 Natural Ventilation Design Criteria Natural ventilation is that accomplished by the movement of air through wind or temperature gradients. A2. Such aspects are not included in the scope of this section. It is important to note that the integrity of the mechanical ventilation system must be good where it is utilised in the application of improving safety by controlling the duration of the release of a flammable gas or vapour. The ventilation system condition must be operated and maintained to satisfy the design criteria. Artificial Ventilation is that promoted by fans pressurising air into (forced draught) or out of (induced draught) an area or enclosure. Page 145 of 167 . The treatment of hazardous areas within buildings or similar enclosed areas requires special care due to the ventilation being less than in open air. In practice the wind speed will often be above 2 m/s. In open air situations.0 VENTILATION AND AREA CLASSIFICATION GENERAL Ventilation is an important aspect of the area classification information given in sections 7 and 8.5m/s is assumed for open areas. Good practices are described for circumstances when ventilation is reduced. These two types can be combined to give a balanced draught ventilation system.1 Main Types The following main types of ventilation are recognised: Natural Ventilation is that which occurs in open air situations typical of those in a sewage treatment plant where the facilities occupy a large open tract of land.1 A2. however the degree of ventilation. dispersion of releases is reduced and they can persist for longer periods. if a control measure. may be necessary. Classification of Hazardous Areas (reference 22) and Institute of Petroleum (IP) Model Code of Safe Practice . which is present continuously. etc.2.Code of Practice for Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation (reference 16). natural ventilation is often sufficient to disperse a flammable release (depending on release rate) and prevent formation of an explosive atmosphere.5.Part 15 . In all such cases there are no stagnant areas and the dispersion of vapours occurs readily assisted by wind. Note that there may be other requirements for ventilation such as personnel comfort. Those items located outdoors in an open area are anticipated to enjoy good natural ventilation which should ensure the natural dispersion of any releases to the atmosphere.2. which is generally flat.0 A2.2 TYPES OF VENTILATION A2. removal of heat from equipment. A minimum wind speed of 0.

buildings) is achieved at all times. local ventilation) shall be used where practicable as it is generally far more effective than general area ventilation. shallow chamber (width more than two times the depth) or open space within an area where ventilation may be less than in a true open area. Outlet velocity is proportional to the power required Circular ducts are preferred to minimise resistance. generally the same zone type as the hazardous area connected to the equipment.e. A sheltered area is an open building. or abuts or lies within a zoned area with which it has a connection which is not vapour tight. Ventilation of an entire room for example.0 The classification of enclosed and sheltered areas is necessary when such an area contains a source of flammable release. An enclosed area is any building. Zone classification may be reduced where additional dilution with fresh air from other sources (e. This is particularly important when mechanical ventilation is being used as a means of controlling continuous and primary grades of release. Wherever practicable buildings should have permanent openings with sufficient low level (on three sides) and high level (on two sides) vents to facilitate free air movement. A2. may in practice only result in one or two air changes per hour at particular locations within the room. or enclosed space within which.3 Artificial Ventilation Design Criteria The provision of artificial (mechanical) ventilation can assist with the reduction of type and/or extent of zones in hazardous areas. the following design criteria shall be applied: Ventilation specific to a particular source (i. To propagate natural airflow within a building the floor level should be above ground level.2. deep chamber (width less than two times the depth). Failure of mechanical ventilation shall be considered and duty/standby extract fans may be prudent to improve the overall availability. Locate duty and standby systems as far as possible from each other to prevent short circuit. but reduces the resistance to 25% of one duct conveying the same airflow. Providing two ducts compared to a single duct system not only improves the ventilation effectiveness. the ventilation may be limited and any flammable gases or vapours will not be dispersed naturally. Any ducting that utilises natural ventilation should be limited to vertical sections that are assisted by improving the stack effect. Ventilation is usually sufficient to avoid persistence of a flammable release. Under these conditions ventilation inside the sheltered area can be regarded as equivalent to an open-air situation but availability of ventilation may be reduced locally due to obstructions. that is regarded as adequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere forming.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Ventilation discontinuity must be taken into account when reducing zone classification. whereby accumulation prior to resumption may compromise the dilution. Ventilation system monitoring in enclosures shall include fan failure and detection of low flow rates of airflow. noise and pressure drops to the ventilation system.g. Ventilation equipment shall be zoned appropriately. due to an obstruction such as a wall or adjacent structure. Where an enclosed area is deemed to have insufficient natural ventilation then artificial ventilation should be considered. Page 146 of 167 . in the absence or failure of artificial ventilation. When considering the type of ventilation system to be installed. at say 3 ACH. open buildings shall have high level outlets provided on a minimum three sides to prevent accumulation of gas within roof space.

The ventilation must be sufficient to dilute immediately any release or production of flammable vapour and normally only applies to artificial ventilation of small spaces (e. Ventilation is usually sufficient to avoid persistence of a flammable release and so meets the definition of adequate ventilation. Inadequate ventilation. A2.3. is so low that the area may be considered non-hazardous.g. A sheltered area is an area within an open area where ventilation may be less than in a true open area. in the absence or failure of artificial ventilation. the ventilation will be limited and any flammable will not be dispersed naturally. or abuts or lies within a zoned area with which it has a connection which is not vapour tight. A2. deep sump (width less than two times the depth). Dilution is usually to less than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) for a secondary release or 10 times the level required to achieve adequate ventilation for a primary release.4 Specific Categories for Area Classification Area classification defines additional categories or qualities of ventilation which refer to the degree or specific nature of the ventilation provided. adjacent structure or open side roofing. even immediately following a release. It is the achievement of a uniform ventilation rate with no stagnant areas sufficient to dilute and disperse an explosive atmosphere to an average concentration not exceeding 50% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) for a secondary release and not exceeding 25% of the LEL for a primary release. Page 147 of 167 .3.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ENCLOSED AND SHELTERED AREAS A2. due to an obstruction such as a wall. Adequate ventilation may be insufficient to prevent the formation of a local explosive atmosphere close to the point of release.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. is therefore that which is less than adequate ventilation and is not sufficient to dilute and disperse an explosive atmosphere below the LEL.0 System must be designed to ventilate both high and low levels where applicable to prevent accumulation of both lighter than air and heavier than air explosive atmospheres.1. Overpressure Ventilation (or pressurisation) is artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain it at a pressure sufficiently above that of the surrounding area to prevent ingress of an explosive atmosphere from an outside source. Dilution Ventilation is ventilation of an enclosed area at such a rate that the probability of an explosive atmosphere being formed.1 Requirement and Definition The classification of enclosed and sheltered areas is necessary when such an area contains a source of flammable release. or enclosed space within which. An enclosed area is any building.2. A2. namely: Adequate Ventilation for area classification purposes within enclosed areas is a specially defined concept. acoustic enclosures) or where the release is particularly small.2 Classification Details The classification of enclosed areas containing a flammable release according to quality of ventilation for the three grades of release is given in Table A2. in area classification terms.

but may be applicable in conjunction with adequate ventilation to maintain an enclosed area containing only secondary grade releases as Zone 2 when surrounded by a Zone 0 or 1 area.0 Table A2. for a source within an enclosed area. the external zone classification will be: continuous release . typically by a factor of two. Not applicable where there is an internal primary or continuous grade of release. For small releases.2. i.1.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. may be applicable to maintain a zone 2 when surrounded by zone 0 or 1 When ventilation quality is adequate or inadequate.e. for a source within an enclosed area. secondary release . which follows the same principles as Table A2. Any openings in the enclosed area will result in a classified area extending outside the enclosed area. e.Zone 2. either dilution or adequate. An area within a larger enclosure subject to local artificial ventilation should be classified according to the local ventilation rate applicable in that local area.Zone 0. Page 148 of 167 . primary release . The extent of these should be as if the source of flammable release were situated at the opening. There would still be a local Zone 1 or 2 around the source and the extent of this zone will be greater than in open air. the presence of continuous grade releases within an enclosed area is not accepted practice and should be avoided wherever practicable. The classification of enclosed areas not containing an internal source of flammable release. It may be possible to achieve this by relocation of the source. the external zone classification will be the same as that of the enclosed area itself.Zone 1. Dilution ventilation is the fresh air required to dilute immediately any release of flammable vapour to create a non-hazardous atmosphere. With adequate ventilation. or by ducting or piping the release from a source so that it is discharged at a safe location in the open air. the ventilation locally can sometimes be high enough to prevent the source influencing the classification of the whole enclosure. a sample point. With a source of small hazard radius.1 Enclosed Area with an Internal Source of Release Effect of Ventilation Type on Zone of Hazardous Area Grade of release Inadequate (1) (2) Adequate (1) (3) Dilution Overpressure Continuous Primary Secondary Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Non-hazardous Non-hazardous Non-hazardous (1) (1) Zone 1 Not applicable where there is an internal primary or continuous grade of release.g. depending on which is met. but which are connected to an outside hazard zone is given in Table A2. the ventilation rate may be suitably increased to reduce the problem. With inadequate ventilation.

2 Loss of Artificial Ventilation Precautions are necessary to cater for the loss of artificial ventilation to prevent a hazard arising.4. A2. The discharge of ventilation air from a classified enclosed area is also a source of flammable release and there will be a zoned area around the vent.3.1 Supply and Discharge Locations Air for artificial ventilation should be taken from a non-hazardous area.2) (1) (1) (2) Zone 2 A2. The frequency of door opening and the ventilation level must be considered to assess the risk. Use of a pre-alarm before automatic shutdown should be considered. Zone 0 Primary Zone 1 Secondary Zone 2 Notes: (1) Location of an enclosed area without overpressure ventilation in a Zone 0 or 1 is not acceptable practice and should be avoided. i. Appropriate precautions for the various types of artificial ventilation are summarised in Table A2.e.SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS A2.2 Enclosed Area with no Internal Source of Release but Connected to an Outside Hazard Zone Effect of Ventilation Type on Zone of Hazardous Area Inadequate Continuous i.4.3 Precautions Applicable on Loss of Artificial Ventilation for Enclosed Areas Type of Ventilation Conditions Classification of ventilated enclosed area Build-up of explosive atmosphere on failure of ventilation Ventilation failure alarm Gas detection Adequate Dilution Overpressure Zone 2 slow yes yes near release non-hazardous quick yes no non-hazardous yes yes in incoming ventilation air Page 149 of 167 .e Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 1 (1) Adequate Zone 0 Zone 1 (1) Dilution Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Overpressure (1) Non-hazardous with source outside enclosed area (see Section A2.0 Table A2. In the design phase. (2) An inadequately ventilated enclosed area within an external Zone 2 and not containing a source of release may sometimes be classified as Zone2 when the only aperture is a self-closing vapour tight door.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4.4 ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION . i.4.e. Table A2. The size and class of zone should be as if the source were situated at the vent. sufficient consideration should be given to the reliability of the ventilation system.

2 for further details of gas detectors..16. will need ventilation rates and the likelihood of flammable releases from industrial premises into the sewerage system to be considered when attempting to reduce the type and/or extent of the zone. should be classified as per Section 7.0 Type of Ventilation Precautions Isolation of electrical apparatus on failure of ventilation Adequate Dilution Overpressure no yes if not having protection for the explosive atmosphere or no if operation giving rise to release is stopped no no Isolation of electrical apparatus on detection of gas yes if not suitable for Zone 1 yes if not suitable for Zone 1 Ventilation failure should be determined by provision of fan failure alarms associated with the motor etc. For flammable vapour releases (e.16. any ventilation requirement for the enclosure will be as described in Section 7. the minimum required ventilation rate of 1ACH may not be adequate to prevent an explosive atmosphere from forming.5 metres above ground.3 Gas Detection Gas detectors should be employed to monitor the presence of flammable material in the enclosed area.5 VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FACILITIES A2. where the leak source is from the shaft seal on the compressor.3. Page 150 of 167 . which gives weather protection to compressors or pumps located out of doors.5.3.2 Gas Compressors and Blowers If gas compressors are to be completely enclosed.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Dilution ventilation of the enclosed area will prevent an explosive atmosphere being formed.1. and by air flow monitoring within the ventilation system.5. A2. See Section 10. adequate ventilation will be provided when the airflow (m3/h) within the building or enclosure is 18 x CSA (m2) of the evaporating pool. The effect of increased ventilation rates on type of zone is described in Section A2. A2. petrol spills) the quantity of vapour released is proportional to the surface area over which the liquid is evaporating. A gas compressor in a sheltered area having a ventilated roof with partial side walling down to within about 2. so that the area may be considered non-hazardous. In practice 3ACH within a building is generally sufficient to provide adequate ventilation in the event of a flammable vapour release. For enclosed gas compressors.4. As a general rule of thumb.g.2. which is classified Zone 1. A2. The ventilation rate achieved by dilution ventilation should be to less than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) for a secondary release or 10 times the level required to achieve adequate ventilation for a primary release.1 Wet Wells An enclosed trade effluent only wet well. or in the ventilation air inlet as shown in Table A2. The gas detectors must be certified for the explosive atmosphere in which they may be required to operate.

reduce this free area by 20% (i. combustion and temperature control of plant rooms containing gas fired boilers of up to 2MW is given in BS 6644 Specification for Installation of Gas Fired Hot Water Boilers of Rated Inputs between 60kW and 2MW (2nd and 3rd Family Gases) (reference 19). e.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Where mechanically assisted ventilation is provided that would be normally active in the event of a release of flammable gas. Louvred ventilators with mesh fly screens.e.g. the free ventilation area is taken as 30%. The free ventilation area through slatted louvre/grill ventilators is assumed to be 50%.18 as: Page 151 of 167 . For partially open windows (less than 45° angle). The lowest ventilation rate calculated from this is then taken as the minimum ventilation rate within the plant room or building. The calculation of natural ventilation rates in plant rooms and other buildings/enclosures is detailed in the British Standard BS 5925:1991 and CIBSE Applications Manual AM10. It also gives recommendations on calculating natural ventilation rates for simple buildings. the free ventilation area is taken as 60%. Note that induced draught ventilation should not be used for such plant rooms. reduce this free area by about 50% (i.0 A2. 40% free area). In the calculation of natural ventilation in a building. provided the boiler efficiency is similar. For partially windows open more than 45° and ridge vents in roofs. This reference wind speed is applied instead of the minimum wind speed because the probability of simultaneous failure of mechanical ventilation when minimum wind speed conditions exist is considered to be unlikely.e. As a first approximation. • • • • • The minimum required ventilation rates for plant rooms/buildings/enclosures is defined in Section 7. the following guidelines shall apply: • The minimum wind speed used in calculating natural ventilation rates within buildings/enclosures is defined in BS EN 60079-10 as 0. this minimum wind speed should be applied to all ventilation calculations. BS5925:1991 gives recommendation on the principles which should be observed when designing for the natural ventilation of buildings for human occupation. In the absence of any mechanical ventilation in the building/enclosure. CIBSE Applications Manual AM10 (2005) provides detailed information on how to implement a decision to adopt natural ventilation and provide calculations on different cases of natural ventilation studies. a wind angle of 45° should be applied to each external face of the building.3 Plant Rooms Guidance on the requirements for ventilation. less than 2mm2. For fully open doors and windows. The ventilation rates in buildings/enclosures should be calculated as being due to wind only and no stack effect (temperature) is included to give worst case scenario. Simple buildings refers to the shape of the building and it does not consider the building purpose. a reference wind speed Ur (based on 80% of the mean wind speed) should be used to calculate the natural ventilation rate. which would normally be active in the event of a release of flammable gas.5. coarse mesh screens .more than 2mm2. the free ventilation area is taken to be 100%.5m/s. When calculating ventilation rates within plant rooms and buildings for area classification purposes. the information may be used pro-rata for larger capacity fired equipment. Advice should also be obtained from the equipment supplier. For other fuels. 25% free area). roof fans or enclosure ventilation. then the same factors may be used.

The airflow formula used for this structure is based on multiple sided vents.6 m 3 Page 152 of 167 . 1ACH within a building is generally sufficient within buildings containing fired equipment.13 • For Klampresses inside buildings handling digested sludge. For flammable gas releases (e. The open ventilation areas in the Boiler House are shown in the table below and natural ventilation air flow rates calculated using standard airflow formulae.04 x 50% = 0. minimum of 1ACH in rest of building. power house and plant rooms. not adverse.4 x 2.2 x 1 0.68 x 4. Example Ventilation Calculation . Two roof ventilators are located at one end of the building. Table A2.. As there is no mechanical ventilation provided in the boiler house.56m 102.5m/s has been used to calculate the applicable ventilation rate.25mm2 and 2. small leaks from flanges or valves on a digester gas mains) the quantity of the release is proportional to the leak area and the release pressure.3 1. the minimum wind speed of 0. this is normally closed during operation of the boiler.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4.7055m 2 0. For flanges or valves the leak area is normally taken to be 0. • The minimum required ventilation rates for Klampress buildings is defined in Section 7.5mm2 for an adverse environment (i. where only source of gas release is from flanges. A steel roller shutter door is located in the east end of the building. a minimum of 3ACH inside curtained area around Klampress.2 x 0. a minimum of 1ACH (air change per hour).8 x 1 8. subject to vibration or regularly broken and remade).8m 2 2 0.9 x 2.6 x 50% = 0. Open Ventilation Area m 2 South Wall 2no large louvres North Wall No openings West Wall 1no small louvres East Wall No openings Roof 1no large louvre 1no large louvre Housing Size (w x l x h) 0.4 Degree of Natural Ventilation (Digester Boiler House) Ventilation Openings Opening Sizes h x w x no.e.0 • In boiler.g. In practice.e.4 x 4 x 1 0.83 x 0.02m 2 1.Digester Boiler House Ventilation is provided by two louvred panels on the south face and a single louvred panel on the west face of the building.85 x 2 1.411 x 50% = 0. valves and fittings in normal environment (i. The airflow (m3/h) within a building or enclosure is adequate when it is 30 x Gv (Gv = Volumetric gas release rate m3/h).12 x 50% = 0. subject to vibration or regular dismantling and re-assembly).

In most other cases.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Therefore installing a Safety Instrumented System (SIS) that initiates automatic isolation or triggers ventilation in the event of a release.5 Wind from North West or North East (wind speed 0.45ACH for an equivalent opening area of 0. DSEAR prioritises the measures that can be taken to reduce the risk from fire or explosion. In practice Zone 0 is normally only encountered in secondary digesters in WwTW applications and electrochlorination tanks in WTW. Zone 2 where a flammable atmosphere exists typically less than 10 hours per year.g. Controlling the release of a dangerous substance or preventing the formation of an explosive atmosphere comes higher up this order of priority. it must provide a similar level of protection.6 SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEMS A2. A2. Typically even for a Zone 1 area.07m /s 2.g. may be considered preferable where this allows the zoning to be reduced or even eliminated.6. to comply with general Health and Safety Law (e.g. technical specifications (e. Risk Graph or Layer of Protection Analysis).6. the requirements of IEC 61508 will apply and the reliability of the SIS classified by Safety Integrity Level (SIL). Health and Safety at Work Act) it is necessary to undertake risk assessments and to reduce risk as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). should be designed achieve the same level of risk reduction. the flammable atmosphere is more likely to exist for up to 30 hours rather than a figure closer to the upper end of the potential range (1000 hours). Any mitigation system used as an alternative to EX certified equipment to modify or eliminate the zone classification however. A2.5m/s) 1 Standard formulae for estimating air flow rates can be found in BS 5925. i. SIL definitions) and a framework for a reliability management system.99 m2. than control of ignition sources.45 ACH 3 0.e. However. therefore the minimum requirement of 1ACH within the boiler house from existing louvred ventilation area is achieved. The persistence of a flammable atmosphere rather than its frequency is therefore often the key distinction between Zone 2 and Zone 1.99 Qw = CdAwUr∆Cp Qw=0. For safety instrumented system used in this way. hazardous areas tend to be classified as Zone 2 or Zone 1 with flammable atmospheres occurring as single (or few) events per year.1 Introduction Hazardous areas are divided into zone types as follows: • • • Zone 0 where a continuous (or nearly continuous) flammable atmosphere exist Zone 1 where a flammable atmosphere exists typically between 10 to 1000 hours per year. This standard provides technical assessment tools (e.0 Standard formulae for estimating 1 airflow rates 1 1 1 = + 2 A 2 (A +A ) ( A +A )2 w 1 2 3 4 Aw = 0.2 IEC 61508 requirements IEC 61508 (or the Process Industry specific standard IEC 61511) is an international standard and as such summarises “best practice”.Code of Practice for Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation (16) The calculated ventilation rate is 2. As “best practise” it is not a formal legislative requirement. To ignore any applicable standard leaves an organisation open to the charge that they have need negligent: “why have you not used a publicly available international standard which is the benchmark for best practice?” Page 153 of 167 .

DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. “Type B” components (likely to be more complex and whereby any of the above are not available) eg. Key requirements – reliability performance The standard sets specific reliability requirements into 4 Safety Integrity Levels: SIL 1 to 4. In addition to the basic reliability requirements there are also “system” requirements.0 Full compliance with either of these standards may not be achievable immediately but a significant improvement in reliability can be achieved and demonstrated through adapting current procedures to include most of the requirements from these standards. • “Type A” components (failure modes. i. Table A2. Most emergency shut-down systems are low demand. PLC SMART Instruments • There is a basic understanding that the more complex a system is the less reliable it is likely to be. valves/simple instruments. well defined plus behaviour under fault conditions well defined plus failure data available) eg. These are active systems in that they are used either constantly or very frequently.e. The reliability requirements are defined in the table below: Table A2. This criteria attempts to categorise this and ensure that complex systems are designed in such away as to reveal faults. All devices are spilt into 1 of 2 groups. It is a passive system in that it is designed only to respond to very rare events.6 Safe Failure Fractions SILs for Safe Failure Fractions TYPE A SFF less than 60% 60%-90% 90%-99% 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 4 Simplex (m+1) Duplex (m +2) Page 154 of 167 .5 Safety Integrity Levels Safety Integrity Level 4 3 2 1 High demand rate (Dangerous failures/hr) ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 -6 -7 -8 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 Low demand rate (Probability of failure on demand) ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 ≥10 to less than 10 -2 -3 -4 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 An example of a high demand system is car brakes. It measures the number of failure mechanisms that are revealed by some form of diagnostic cover against the total number of failure mechanisms. This is not linked mathematically to actual failure rates. A Safe Failure Fraction (SFF) is a measure of diagnostic cover. to cover the added complexity of a system it is designed with a degree of self-diagnostics. An example of a low demand system is a car air bag system.

g. SFF. During the operational life of the system the functionality should be tested at regular intervals to ensure that the system still provides safe protection. maintained and modified using appropriate procedures and competent personnel. outputs and required function of the system. Any high integrity system should be installed in a competent and controlled manner. e. if two instrumented valves have been included in a process design to relieve pressure do they both have to operate to achieve the functionality required or are they redundant. Specification Any safety system needs to be well specified. the probability of failure on demand. design. The system must be specified.g.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. A strong system must be put in place in ensure that the tests are done in a timely fashion. Operation and Maintenance. weekly tests) but this cannot be achieved then the system will not be as reliable as required in the specification. Modification Any proposed changes to the process (hence potential changes to the specification) or to the SIS should be captured by a modification.g. The management system in particular should monitor progress and resolution of faults. The functionality of the system should be confirmed to ensure that the design intention is achieved. installed. The specification form above will be turned into a design for one or more hardware components. Some form of Risk Assessment (such as a “Layer of Protection Analysis”) must be undertaken to assess how reliable the system needs to be. The implication of the proposed changed should be fully evaluated to ensure that safety is not diluted. Key requirements – Management systems: Life Cycle To obtain a reliable safety system an appropriate management system must be employed. operated. every 5 years) it may be possible to design a system where key elements can be tested “on-line” and give the PFD desired.0 more than 99% 3 4 4 TYPE B less than 60% 60%-90% 90%-99% more than 99% Simplex NO 1 2 3 (m+1) 1 2 3 4 (m+2) 2 3 4 4 A simplex system has one loop. Page 155 of 167 . a duplex system has two parallel loops covering each other and so on. the Safe Fail Fraction. There are several critical steps in this activity. that full records are kept and that faults are identified. This includes calculation of a system probability of failure on demand (PFD) and assessment of the system requirements (i. Design. The designer must agree a testing frequency and methodology with the operating and maintenance staff. If testing can only be undertaken at long intervals (e. The test frequency is a major parameter when calculating the PFD (SIL). If the designer assumes a high level of testing (e. requirements). For example.e. In addition a technical description is required: specifying the inputs. The designer MUST understand the process and hence the specification. Installation and validation. investigated and corrected for the long term.

continuous) and on this basis a risk reduction factor of 10 (8760 divided by 1000) would be sufficient to achieve a level of risk reduction at least as good as going from Zone 1 to Zone 0. ISBN 0 85295 258 9) gives information of Ignition Probabilities on page 58.6. A2.) Within IEC 61508 / 61511 the boundary of SIL 1 and 2 is 100. A typical WwTW asset life may be 40 years. In practise most applications are for SIL 1 or 2 systems. For most companies the SIL 2 management system requirements can be introduced by developing their existing design and maintenance procedures.18 would reduce the number of actual explosions.e. These give the level of protection normally required without introducing excessively onerous requirements either on the hardware design of system requirements.3 Risk Reduction requirements To install a mitigation system it should achieve the same level of risk reduction as achieved by the zoning. the level of risk reduction to be achieved requires that a SIL 2 system (i. The event frequency leading to the flammable atmosphere may occur in the order or 1 or 2 times per year. In practice there is no significant difference between the criteria required for SIL 1 or 2 systems under the standard. Assuming a liquid spill of petroleum liquid into a drain (flash point less than 43C) the probability of ignition is 0. Zone 1 to Zone 2). There is not an equivalent duration criteria for unclassified areas. On this basis a risk reduction factor of 100 (1000 divided by 10) would achieve a level of risk reduction at least as good as going from Zone 2 to Zone 1. since the area will still require some control over ignition sources the level of risk reduction to be achieved will be less and a SIL1 system i. Lees and Ang (1990) “Classification of Hazardous locations” (IChemE. However. 8 Cox. Do. The difference in management system requirements between SIL 1 and 2 is not significant. even if the event occurred this would suggest that in an unclassified area the probability of ignition of 0.01 for a zoned area or (multiplied by a factor of 10) 0. the reliability of the system of less than 1 in 100 failures on demand) should be used. (One failure on demand in 100 events is equivalent to a risk reduction factor of 100. This would suggest that the reliability of one failure on demand in 100 events is the maximum that could be tolerated and that at lower figure should be the norm. The longest duration for Zone 0 is 8760 hours per year (i. For example. Staff must be trained to a suitable level of competence. the reliability of the system of less than 1 in 10 failures on demand) can be used. The longest duration for Zone 1 is 1000 hours and for Zone 2 is 10 hours. Thus in the life of the asset the number of events could range from 40 to 80. Page 156 of 167 .e.e. The management system in general should comply with features of the “Deming Cycle”: Plan. As the SIL increases the management system requirements increase. an increased level of independence of the SIL calculation checker is required as SIL increases. with a SIL 1 ranging from 1 in 10 to 1 in effect 99. Where a reduction in zonal classification is being sought (e. Testing of the systems is the biggest on-going commitment and which can generate conflict with other operational requirements.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Requirements in practice. Check and Review.1 for an area with arcing electrical equipment. Therefore where elimination of zonal classification is required using a SIS.9.g.0 People For all of the above a series of procedures and documents need to be produced. These figures are order of magnitude and do not suggest that zoned equipment only give a protection factor of 10. A risk reduction of 10 is inadequate and 100 or better is required.

including pumps. will the ventilation system continue to run for the maximum expected duration of the release. Page 157 of 167 . an alternative approach would be to take power off of the pump station building. less than 1000 hours per year). Historically hazardous area classification documents have required that duplicate fans are used for ventilation purposes where change of zoning is based on ventilation. This option removes the source of ignition associated with the electrical power supply.6. the fans running continuously) although in practice this may have significantly different implications.g. Fans can be run continuously to prevent the build up of flammable material in a poorly vented space. Should a large amount of fuel spill (e. a control panel (relay and contactor) within which power would be removed from the building or equipment within the hazardous area. the system could be designed to ventilate the pump station building on activation for a gas detection system. If instead a safety instrumented system is employed to operate the ventilation system. If the ventilation operates in Zone 1 the key questions are will it start and continue to operate – if it does start the fans. This may generate other safety issues. lighting. The scope of IEC 61508 applies only to SIS but the operator should be concerned about the reliability of both the SIS and of any mechanical system (e. It is key to note that these are risk reduction requirements for a SYSTEM.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. If a ventilation is being used to mitigate the zonal classification and achieve a non-hazardous classification. These are described individually below. Alternatively there may be a requirement to operate fans in an emergency. This is summarised as: Zone 1 PFDstart-up less than 1 in 100 PFDoperating less than 1 in 100 Zone 2 PFDstart-up less than 1 in 100 As a result it is necessary to calculate both a start-up PFD and an operating PFD for the system. The system comprises of a gas detector (or detectors to give adequate coverage). Ventilation can be used in various operational modes. A2.4 Technical Options There are various scenarios where mitigation systems could be installed. This reflects the need to have reliable mitigation measures. a control panel (relay and contactor) and two duplicate fans each able to provide 100% of the ventilation requirements. In practise the maximum duration of release is probably around 30 hours.0 Consider a potential hazardous area where a flammable atmosphere may occur either as a primary or secondary release (i. control panels etc. 25te from a road tanker) into a drainage system. Ventilation systems. Power shut-off systems As an alternative to the emergency operations of the fans above.e. The system comprises of a gas detector (or detectors to give adequate coverage). then in Zone 2 the key question is will the ventilation start on demand – if it does start the fans are likely to continue to run for the maximum expected duration of 10 hours. A SIL 2 system would easily achieve the level of risk reduction that would justify a non-hazardous classification. it would have to operate continuously.g. Gas feed isolation. The complete mitigation system must have a Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) which achieves the reliability required.

The system comprises of a gas detector. The most reliable means of doing this would be to close a slam shut valve on the pipeline supplying the equipment. a solenoid valve on the air supply (either compressor supply or air cylinder) to a large actuator which operates an isolation valve on the gas supply of the gas compression system. System 1: Ventilation systems. The system comprises of a gas detector. a control panel (two duplicate relays and contactors) and two duplicate fans each able to provide 100% of the ventilation requirements. Page 158 of 167 . Gas Detector Relay Contactor System 3: Gas feed isolation. For each component. reliability data has been obtained as detailed below. A2. there is an option to isolate the gas supply that feeds the CHP or boiler plant.0 If the flammable gas is produced to generate power or heat. a control panel (relay and contactor) within which power would be removed from the building.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. Reliability Block Diagrams For each of the systems a simple Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) is used to show the structure of the system in a schematic manner.5 Summary of Reliability Calculations. Gas Detector Solenoid valve Valve Actuator Isolation valve Reliability Data The individual systems above can be broken down into component parts some of which are common across one or more system. a solenoid valve on the air supply (either compressor supply or air cylinder) or relay on the actuator which operates the isolation valve on the gas supply of the gas compression system. The system comprises of a gas detector (or detectors to give adequate coverage). Relay Contactor Fan Gas Detector Relay Contactor Fan System 2: Power shut-off systems The system comprises of a gas detector.6.

Offshore Reliability Data.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4. 1992.22 – 3.2 x 10-6 hours with a range of 0. Considering the Infra Red detectors both achieve a SIL2 based on hierarchy criteria.7 Gas Detector Failure Rates Crowcon quote the following data for a Xguard types 5&6 Flammable Gas Detector based on a 6 month proof test. The failure rates are 0. For an IR detector Faradip10 gives a typical figure of 7 x 10-6 hours with a range of 2. This assumes that the detectors are installed and maintained properly and that they are located in positions suitable to identify and leaks.9 x 10-6 hours.0 x 10-6 hours. From a brief review of technical sales literature for Safety Relays it is believed that a SIL 3 component can be easily obtained which ensures that any architectural criteria can be achieved. it has been assumed that an equivalent figure can be achieved by comparison against another rotating mechanical device. Contactor A generic failure rate range for a Relay (Contactor) is given by Technis as 1. ISBN 82 515 0188 1 Technis FARADIP Database Version 6. Relays A generic failure rate for a “Safety” Relay is given by Technis as 2.0 – 6.0 Gas detectors Draeger quote the following data for a Polytron 2 IR Typ 334 gas detector based on an annual function test. Table A2.7 x 10-6 hours. It is assumed that the higher supplier figure is most representative of equipment purchased currently while still giving a conservative estimate.1 Page 159 of 167 . Fans A review of existing literature has not identified any specific “Failure to start rates” for ventilation fans.0 x 10-6 hours.0 – 40 x 10-6 hours. However. 9 10 OREDA. Comparison with OREDA9 page 393 gives a mean failure rate for IR detectors of 1. The more conservative figure will be used.03 x 10-6 hours and 0.

odour) impacts would occur.0 x 10-6 hours (range 2.81 x 10-6 hours for failure to close with an Emergency Shut-down Valve. at the same time by the same technician following the same procedures. In this case common cause factors must also be considered. Both fans are likely to have been manufactured by the same company at the same time and be maintained using the same equipment. It is assumed that the full system could be checked using a test gas arrangement on the detector and that a suitable time could be chosen where no nuisance (e. This gives a failure rate per million hours of F = { (1/30) + (1/420) + (1/55.8 Solenoid Valve Failure Rates It is assumed that a soft seated valve together with an actuator and “valvguard” controller are in the loop.1 x 10-6 hours OREDA page 89 gives a failure rate of 3. Table A2. The higher figure from Neles has been used. Results. If a system is designed with a gas test bottle connected to the detector than an operator can fully check the system operates within a 15 or 30 minute period of time. gas detectors are located in positions where they will be effective in quickly identify the presence of flammable gas. are kept. assuming a 0.3 factor which is conservative. especially failures. This commonality could be the cause of failure and hence reduce the reliability benefit of having two fans. Soleniod valve / Valve Actuator / Process Valve Data on Emergency Shut-Down (ESD) valves was obtained from Neles as tabulated below. As discussed above the fans MUST operate in parallel.3) } * (106 / 8760) = 6. Page 160 of 167 . Operators could also reasonably check the system either once per week or once per month rather than current 6 or 12 monthly.0 OREDA page 210 for a single stage oil pump (10-1220 kw) gives a mean probability of 0.g.013 failure to start on demand (range 6.6 to 23 failures per 1000). written record of tests. The mean value has been used. The following general assumptions have been made: • • • equipment is adequately installed and maintained. The system reliability has been calculated using the “Beta” method.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4.9 . It is assumed that on site calibration of the gas detector by the supplier would occur every 6 or 12 months. OREDA page 509 gives a mean failure rate of 12.21 x 10-6 hours) for ventilation or heating fan failure during operation.

for old systems the reliability is likely to be lower by perhaps one or two orders of magnitude.0006 (3) 1 month 0.028 (1) 0.0045 (2) 0. 1 week 0. However. Older systems are less likely to be designed with IEC61508 in mind and could be more complex with poorer reliability values for individual components (see range of results for IR detectors).0024 (2) 3 months 0.0011 (2) 0.0049 (2) 0.0073 (2) 6 months 0. The table below gives PFD values (with SIL in brackets) for the three systems at various test frequencies. a non-hazardous classification can be assigned to a hazardous area where the test interval of 1 month for ventilation systems or 3 months for Power Shut-off or Gas Isolation is applied.6 Conclusions.0095 (2) 0. For existing systems where the integrity of equipment is uncertain. only a SIL 1 rating can be applied and therefore the system can only achieve a reduction in zonal classification. Table A2. Based on the above results the following conclusions can be drawn.6.023 (1) 0.0072 (2) 0.014 (1) 0.0008 (3) 0.0 The reliability data above are suitable for new systems. For a new SIL 2 rated system designed to comply with IEC 61508. Page 161 of 167 . a test interval of 3 months for ventilation systems or 6 months for Power Shut-off or Gas Isolation should be applied.9 System Test Intervals System Test Intervals System Ventilation – fail to start Ventilation – fail during operation Power shut-off Gas feed isolation.014 (1) 0. For a new SIL 1 rated system where only a reduction in zonal classification is to be achieved.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A2 ISSUE 4.019 (1) 0.0032 (2) 0.015 (1) A2.

55 for gas leak at pressures above 1bar(g) A = leak area (mm2) – (a nominal hole size of 0. A3.55 for gas leak at pressures up to 500mbar(g) X = 0. where resulting dispersion distance does not touch the ground or other substantial boundary.1 should be applied to those gases which are identified as being lighter than air.1.5mm2 should be applied).2 X = Dispersion Distance (m) Qg = Gas Flow Rate (kg/s) E = Lower Explosive Limit of Flammable Gas (%vol) f = Air exchange effectiveness factor (normally assumed to be 1 in open areas) M = Molecular weight of gas or vapour w = Wind speed (0. X = dispersion distance (m).25mm2 is assumed for a leak from a flange unless adverse conditions indicate otherwise. a pipework flange. P1 = gauge pressure in mbar. then high level point source condition is met.g.1. X= 0. when 2. CEI 31-35 – Guide for Classification of Hazardous Areas) ⎛ 42300 × Q g × f ⎞ X= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M ×E×w ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Where: 0. can be defined by the following (from WRc UM1208). Page 162 of 167 .5m/s for a low level point source.1.55 × 1. 2.0m/s for high level point source) Notes: 1.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4. 1.365 A((P1 / 1000 ) + 1) Where: [ ]0. calculation of the dispersion distance from ventilation openings is unnecessary for a high degree of ventilation.07 × A P1 ( ) 0.g.0 HAZARDOUS AREA CALCULATIONS DISPERSION CALCULATIONS Note that the formulae identified in A3.1 Dispersion from Release at High Velocity (more than 10m/s) The extent of dispersion from a release of gas (methane) under pressure to the LEL e. e. valve gland or vent.0 A3. A3.2 Dispersion from Release at Low Velocity The dispersion from a point source at low pressure with negligible velocity can be determined for either a low or high level point source as follows: Gas Dispersion Distance a gas or vapour ((from Guide Line Standard.1 A3. pipework subject to vibration. such as methane / biogas.

4.5 2 2.3.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4. The following graph of zone extents allows hazard distances to be selected for covered surface areas in between those values in Table 7.5 1 1.0 The above calculations above relate to dispersion in open air conditions where natural turbulent mixing will occur. The dangerous substance considered to be highest risk is petrol spillage into sewer. Wet Well dimensions: Ventilation: Total surface area: 3m dia x 3m deep No ventilation provided (passive ventilation only through openings) 7.2 in section 7.5 3 3. Figure A3.see Figure 7.2(b) If it is assumed that a gravity sewer on a combined sewer feeds a sewage pumping station.Submersible Pump and Motor Set (NOT domestic foul only) .1m2 of liquid surface* Covered Surface Area m2 Page 163 of 167 .2. where the release occurs into sheltered or restricted ventilation areas. Table 7.2 DISPERSION GRAPH FOR ZONE EXTENTS FROM COVERED WET WELLS A description of the classification of sewage pumping stations is given in ‘Model Solutions’ section 7.4 provides hazard distances ‘x’ for openings in the wet well of sewage pumping stations based on covered surface area. A3.5 Zone Extent m Covered Wet Well A3.1 Example1: Sewage Pumping Station .3 EXAMPLES OF HAZARDOUS AREA CALCULATIONS A3. specialist advise should sought to determine the actual zone extent applicable. The sewage pumping station comprises a covered wet well with a submersible pump and a valve chamber not sealed from wet well.1 Hazard Distances for Sewage Pumping Stations Sewage Pumping Stations 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.

1) = 3.4 × 288 273 = 0.18 x 10-4 m3/s Actual ventilation rate: Actual No of Air Changes (C): Degree of Ventilation dV = (C/Cmin) 1.6 × 10 −6 = 0.53 x 7.0033 1.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4.18 × 10 −4 = 5.6 x 10-6 s-1 21.2 = 0.53kg/m2 (0.7kg/h (0.036 m3/s 2.0 Characteristics of Release Source of release: Flammable material: Grade of release: Safety Factor (k): Initial Concentration (Co) Ambient temperature (Ta): LEL (E): Molecular Weight Mass Release rate (Qg) Petrol spillage into sewer Petrol vapour Secondary 2 100% 15°C 1.2 Based on total surface area and the vaporisation rate of 0.7 × 10 −3 (dV is less than 1 so degree of ventilation is inadequate) Availability of Ventilation Ventilation availability is assumed good (wet well is outside in open air) Page 164 of 167 .2 5.2) = 2.2m3 Qv × k × Co Ta × = Vmin E Tref 1 .036/21.42m3/h = 1.4%v/v 100. (0.1 ACH) and air exchange effectiveness (f) of 5 = 0.0017 s-1 Based on passive ventilation only (say 0.02 ACH = 0.4 × 10 −4 × 2 × 100 Min No of Air changes (Cmin): Vmin = C min Vo 0.001 x 0.4 x 10-4 m3/s Volume Release rate (Qv): Minimum Ventilation Required Wet Well volume: Minimum ventilation required: 21.0821 x (15+273)/100.001kg/s).

Availability of ventilation is good and persistence time is more than 10hrs. Primary release of flammable gas from seal of PRV.1) Grade of release Inadequate (1) (2) Adequate (1) (3) Dilution Overpressure Continuous Primary Secondary Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Non-hazardous Non-hazardous Non-hazardous Note 4 -(refer to Table A2.5m/s used for dispersion at ground level (1. Page 165 of 167 .76 (0. Secondary release of flammable gas under digester abnormal high pressure operating conditions. If we assume the following data.0 Persistence Time Persistence time: tp = −1 E ln C Co.1) (1) (1) Zone 1 Zone Extent The wet well is classified as a Zone 1 internally.2 w = wind speed of 0.55 × 1.4 /3600 = 246 hrs ln −6 5.2 = 0.1) Note 4 -(refer to Table A2.4 × 0. Effect of Ventilation Type on Zone of Hazardous Area (from Table A2.3.2 Example 2: Floating Roof Digester .0m/s for release at high level).8m) A3. There are two hazard distances as follows: 1. R2. Zone Extent ‘x’ ⎛ 42300 × Q g × f ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M ×E×w ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 0.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4.5 ⎠ 0. R1 2.001× 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 100. indicating a Zone 1.Hazardous Area Extents for PRV The determination of hazardous area extents for primary and secondary releases from the PRV on a Floating Roof Digester are given below for a pressure/vacuum relief valve.k −1 1. The zone extent is calculated for a release from any opening (such as an open manhole cover).55 x1. so Zone 1 classification inside wet well is confirmed (if persistence time had been less than 10hrs then Zone 2 may apply). ⎛ 42300 × 0.6 × 10 100 × 2 Zone Type The number of air changes per hour is well below minimum required air changes and the degree of ventilation is consequently inadequate.2 × 1.1) Note 4 -(refer to Table A2.

1% of the total flow released under high pressure relieving conditions will leak: Volume released data) Qv = 0.8 Wind speed = 1m/s (high level release) Also assume turbulent ideal mixing of gas release.0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ R2 = 4. Volume released Qv = 150 3600 Qv = 4. Page 166 of 167 .7 × 1.5m 0.9 × 10−4 × 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Therefore Radius R1 = X = ⎜ 25.2 For secondary release under abnormal high pressure operating conditions.1 × 10 −2 × 1 ⎞ R2 = X = ⎜ ⎜ 25.09 × 10− 4 × ⎜ ⎟ 25.8 ⎝ ⎠ 4.2 x 10-2 m3/s Mass released Qg = ⎛ 0.7 × 1.0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ R1 = 0.8 ⎝ ⎠ 8.2 IGE/SR/25 Hazardous Area Classification of Natural Gas Installations provides further useful guidance on zoning distances for pressure relief valve vents with tables of dispersion distance based on relief vent diameter and release flowrate.9 x 10-4 kg/s ⎛ 42300 × 8.001 x 9.0821× (35 + 273) ⎞ 4.09x10-1 m3/s (flow taken from manufacturers Qv = Mass released Qg = 9.0 PRV size = 150mm PRV set pressure = 25mbar PRV overpressure = 2mbar Release temperature = 35°C Molecular weight of Biogas = 25.55 x 1. assuming the following conditions: Digester gas production = 150 m3/hr Number of PRV’s = 1 Ventilation factor (F) = 1 Using the above data Qv is obtained.8 × 6.2 × 10 − 2 × ⎜ ⎟ 25.55 × 1. For a primary release from seal of PRV at low pressure (due to small amount passing due to seal leakage).4m rounded up to 5m 0.0821 × (35 + 273)) ⎞ 9.8 × 6.1 x 10-2 kg/s Therefore radius ⎛ 42300 × 4. R1 and assuming only 0.09 x 10-4 m3/s ⎛ (0.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4.

sufficient for escape only Heat intensity In areas where emergency actions lasting up to 1 minute may be required by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing Heat intensity in areas where emergency actions lasting several minutes may be required by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing Value of K at any location where personnel with appropriate clothing may be continuously exposed 9.2 Recommended Design Total Radiation Permitted Design Level (K) kW m 15. Flame lengths for open flares are derived from API RP 520 – Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems. behind equipment) Value of K at design flare release at any location to which people have access (e. at grade below the flare or a service platform of nearby tower).0) F = fraction of heat radiated (0. hazardous area.58 is assumed for calculating the minimum separation distance between the flare and any flammable material.g.31 4. Page 167 of 167 .4 FLARE MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCE Thermal radiation levels are measured in kilowatts per square metre and permissible radiation levels (K) for different conditions are shown in the table below. a K value of 1.46 6. Minimum separation distance is calculated using the formula: D= τFQ 4πK Where: D = minimum distance from the midpoint of the flame to object being considered (m) τ = fraction of heat intensity transmitted (taken as being 1. D2 = minimum separation distance for enclosed ground flares uses value for D only as flame is shielded.58 In most cases.g. Table A3.e. exposure should be limited to a few seconds.31 has been assumed for calculating the fenced off exclusion zone.DOCUMENT REF: TWUL/E04 APPENDIX A3 ISSUE 4. ½ flame length is added to calculated distance D1). equipment can safely tolerate higher degrees of heat intensity than those defined for personnel. D1 = minimum separation distance for open flares and incorporates an allowance for flame length as distance is taken from mid point of flame for open flares (i.2 for methane) Q = heat release (kW) K = allowable radiation (kW m2) A K value of 6. However. items vulnerable to overheating.73 1. flammable vapours or electrical equipment may be susceptible to heat radiation due to resulting high surface temperatures.0 A3.77 2 Conditions Heat intensity on structures in areas where operators are not likely to be performing duties and where shelter from radiant heat is available (e. or site boundary.

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