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1.

1IN
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RKANDE
del BT 254,
ning the def
and strain e
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Strain Ene
Strain Ene
Strain Ene
illustrate ho
ing the slop
cantilever b
ny section o
to be determ
equivalent
it, students a
inciples of w
inciples of v
e of virtual
INCIPL
he principle
s of determ
ENERGY
, we were in
flection and
energy for
ain energy f
ergy in Tens
ergy in Mom
ergy in Tens
ow energy c
pe and defle
beam as ill
of the frame
mined. As i
to the shad
are suppose
work and en
virtual work
work in the
LES 0F
e of virtual
mining the sl
ntroduced to
d the slope a
forces and
for axial loa
sion; u = ]
ment; u = ]
sion; u = ]
conservation
ection at var
ustrated in
e or beam th
indicated in
ded area un
ed to;
nergy
k
e analysis of
vIRT0
work also
lope and de
o the princip
at a given p
moments w
ds, moment
]
P
2
6x
2AL
I
0

]
M
2
6x
2LI
I
0

]
1
2
6x
2u]
I
0

n or the pri
rious section
the fig belo
he work do
Fig 1.2, the
nder the cur
f frames and
U
0AL W
known as t
eflection at
ple of strain
point on a b
were formu
ts, and torsi
inciple of w
ns of a struc
ow. In dete
one on the b
he work don
rve and is
d beams
Unit1
W0RK
the unit-
specific
n energy
beam. In
lated, in
ion were
work and
cture. In
ermining
beam by
ne on the
equal to
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

2|P a g e

u
c
=
1
2
P. In obtaining the external strain energy, we first determine the internal moment as
a function of the position x and the apply the strain energy in bending formula. In the case of
the cantilever beam shown in Fig 1.1, the internal moment is H = Px. So that in applying
the strain energy in bending formula, we obtain
u

= _
H
2
Jx
2EI
= _
(P)
2
Jx
2EIu
=
1
6
P
2
I
3
EI
L
0
L
0

Now equating the internal strain energy to the external strain energy and solving for the
unknown displacement, we obtain;
u
c
= u


1
2
P =
1
6
P
2
I
3
EI

=
PI
3
SEI

Even though this principle has a direct method of approach, it is limited to only a limited set
of problems. It should be realised that only one load may be applied to the structure at a time
as applying more loads would generate as many displacements as the applied load, whilst its
only possible to write just one work equation for the beam. It should further be noted that
only displacement under the applied force can be obtained, as the external work depends on
both the force and its corresponding displacement. A way out of this is by the use of the
principle of virtual work and the method of least work.




1.3PRINCIPLESOFVIRTUALWORK
If a series of external loads P are applied to a deformable structure of any given shape, it will
produce internal u loads at points throughout the structure. For the system to be in
equilibrium the internal loads must equate to the external loads by the equations of
equilibrium. The outcomes of these loadings will be the external displacements which will
occur at the point of the external loads P and internal displacements which will occur at the
position of the internal loadings. Displacements do not have to be elastic and may not be
related to the loads; but the displacements will have to be related by the compatibility of
displacement. That is to say that, a change in the external displacement should yield a
proportional change in the internal displacement; not necessarily by the same amount, but
should be proportionate. Thus if the external displacements are known, the internal
P

Figure 0-1.1

PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK



3|P a g e

displacement can then be easily found. Thus in summary the principle of work and energy
states that;

P = uo


The principle of virtual work will now be developed from the concept above. In developing
the principle of virtual work, a structure of arbitrary shape is considered. It may be necessary
to determining the displacement at a point say X on the body caused by a series of forces P
1
,
P
2
, P
3
onJ P
4
. Notice should be taken of the fact that the loads do not cause any movement
in the support but can strain the material beyond its elastic limits. Since there is no external
load applied at the point X, in the direction of the displacement , the displacement can be
found by the introduction of a virtual load on the structure such that the virtual load P
i
acts in
the same direction as the displacement. For ease of calculation the virtual force P
i
is assumed
to have a unit value; P
i
= 1. The term virtual is being used to describe the introduced force
because it does not exist actually as part of the real loading. The virtual force creates an
internal virtual load u in a representative element or fibre of the body. It is required that P
i








and u be related by the equation of equilibrium. The moment the virtual loads are applied, the
body is subjected to the loads P
1
, P
2
, P
3
onJ P
4
. Point X would be displaced by an amount
which will cause the element to deform an amount JI. As a consequence, the external
virtual force P
i
and internal virtual force u translates along and JI respectively and thus
performs external work of 1 on the body and u JI on the element in the body. Noting that
the external virtual work is equal to the internal virtual work done on all the elements of the
body, the virtual work equation can be written as

1 = u JI
Workof
Internalloads
Workof
Externalloads

Figure1.0-1
P=1
A
P
2

P
3
P
4

P
1
A

PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

4|P a g e

Where
P
i
= 1 = cxtcrnol :irtuol unit looJ octing in tc Jircction o
u = intcrnol :irtuol looJ octing on tc clcmcnt in tc Jircction o JI
= cxtcrnol Jisploccmcnt couscJ by tc rcol looJs
JI = intcrnol Jcormotion o tc clcmcnt couscJ by tc rcol looJs
By making P
i
= 1, it can be seen that the solution for follows directly, as = u JI.
In the same regards, if the rotational displacement or slope of the tangent at a point on the
body is to be determined, a virtual couple moment H
i
with a unit magnitude is applied at the
point. As a result, the couple moment will cause a virtual load u
0
in one of the elements of
the body. Given that the real loads deform the element by an amount JI, the rotation can be
found from the virtual work equation;
1 0 = u
0
JI
Where
H
i
= 1 = cxtcrnol :irtuol unit looJ octing in tc Jircction o
u
0
= intcrnol :irtuol looJ octing on tc clcmcnt in tc Jircction o JI
0 = cxtcrnol Jisploccmcnt couscJ by tc rcol looJs
JI = intcrnol Jcormotion o tc clcmcnt couscJ by tc rcol looJs

1.4METHODOFVIRTUALWORKASAPPLIEDTOBEAMSANDFRAMES
The principle of virtual work can be formulated for beam and frame deflection, this is
illustrated by considering the beam shown if Fig 1.3, in which the displacement at the point A
is to be determined. To determine the displacement , a virtual unit load is acting in the
direction of the displacement is applied to the beam at the point A. the internal virtual
moment is then determined by the method o section at an arbitrary location x, from the left
support. When the real load acts on the beam it is displaced by . If the load causes an elastic
material response, then the element Jx deforms or rotates J0 = (HEI)Jx.

M is the internal
moment at x caused by the real loads. As a consequence the external virtual work done by the
unit load is 1 and the internal virtual work done by the moment m is mJ0 = m(HEI)Jx.
Summing the effect on all the elements Jx along the beam requires integration. This
becomes;
1 = _
mH
EI
Jx
L
0


PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

5|P a g e

Where
1 = cxtcrnol :irtuol unit looJ octing octing on tc bcom in tc Jircction o
m = intcrnol :irtuol momcnt in tc bcom cxprcsscJ os o unction o x
= cxtcrnol Jisploccmcnt couscJ by tc rcol looJs octing on tc bcom
H = intcrnol momncts in tc bcom or romc cxprccscJ os unction o x
E = HoJulus o closticity
I = momcnt o incrtio o cross scctionol orco
Similarly to determine the tangent rotation or slope angle at a point on the beams elastic
curve, a unit couple moment is applied at the point, and the corresponding internal moments
m
0
have to be determined. Since the work of the unit couple is 1., then
1 0 = _
m
0
H
EI
Jx
L
0

When using the above formulas, it is worth noting that the definite integral on the right hand
side represents the amount of virtual strain that is stored up in the beam. Where concentrated
forces or couple moments act on the beam, or the distributed moment is not continuous, a
single integration cannot be performed for the whole span. Separate x coordinates will have
to be chosen within regions that have no discontinuity of loadings. It is important to note that,
it is not necessary for each of the x to have the same origin; however, the x selected for
determining the real moment M in a particular region must be the same xas selected for
determining the virtual moment m and m
0
within the same region.

1.5PROCEDUREFORANALYSIS
The following procedure may be used to determine the slope and displacement at appoint on
the elastic curve of a beam using the method of virtual work.
1. Apply a unit load on the beam at the point and in the direction of the desired
displacement, if it is the slope that is to be determined, place a unit couple moment at
that point
2. Establish appropriate coordinates valid within the regions of the beam where there is
no discontinuity of real or virtual loading
3. Calculate the internal moment m and m
0
as a function of each x coordinate, when the
virtual load is in place and the all the real loads have been removed.
4. Assume m and m
0
acts in the positive direction.
5. With the same coordinates as those established by m and m
0
, determine the internal
moments M caused only by the real loads
6. Apply the virtual work equation to determine the desired displacement or rotation
7. If the algebraic sum of all the integral for the entire beam or frame is positive then
slope and rotation is in the same direction as the virtual unit load or unit couple
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

6|P a g e

moment respectively. If a negative value is realised, the direction of the displacement


and the slope is in the opposite direction to that of the virtual load or virtual couple
moment.
1.6SOLVEDEXAMPLES
The following examples would be used to illustrate the application of the principle of virtual
work in the determination of the slope and displacement in a beam or frame.

EXAMPLE 1
Determine the displacement at point B of the cantilever beam shown in Fig1.4a

SOLUTION
The question requires that the displacement at B be determined, from the loading of the
cantilever, the value of the concentrated load at B is zero. Thus to find the displacement at B,
a virtual load of unit magnitude is applied at the point B, Fig 1.4b. From inspection it can be
seen that the loading on the beam is continuous, as such a single x coordinate can be used in
the determination of the virtual moment. The origin of the x coordinate is taken from B, thus
ignoring the reaction s at A.



Thus the internal moment m for the virtual force is
m = 1x
The internal moment H for the real load is formulated using the same coordinate, which
gives;
H = wx
x
2

H = 2u x
x
2

Figure 1.4a
A B
20kN/m
7m
1kN
Figure 1.4b
7m
A B
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

7|P a g e

H =
2ux
2
2

H = 1ux
2

The two moments are then substituted into the virtual work equation. Thus the displacement
at B becomes
1kN
B
= _
mH
EI
Jx
L
0
= _
(1x)(1ux
2
)
EI
Jx
7
0

1kN
B
= _
(1ux
3
)
EI
Jx
7
0

1kN
B
= _
1ux
4
4EI
Jx
7
0

1kN
B
= _
1u(7)
4
4EI
Jx
7
0

B
=
6.u 1u
3
kN m
EI


EXAMPLE 2
Determine the slope at point B of the cantilever beam shown in Fig1.5a

SOLUTION
The question requires that the slope at B be determined, this is achieved by applying a unit
virtual couple at the point B. For this question because the loading is not inform throughout,
two x coordinates are require to determine the total virtual strain energy in the beam.
Coordinate x
1
will account for the strain energy in the beam segment CB, and the coordinate
x
1
will account for the strain energy in the beam segment BA. Using the method of section
the internal moment at each of the segment is calculated for.

Figure 1.5a
C
8kN
4m
A B
4m
C B
1 kNm
x
2
x
1
A
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

8|P a g e



The internal moment for the beam segment CB is calculated as;
m
0
1
= u
The internal moment for the beam segment BA is calculated as;
m
0
2
= 1
Using the same coordinates the internal moment for the real load is calculated for
The internal moment for the beam segment CB is calculated as;

H
1
= 8x
1

The internal moment for the beam segment BA is calculated as;

H
2
= 8(4 +x
2
)

The two moments are then substituted into the virtual work equation. Thus the displacement
at B becomes
1kN 0
B
= ]
mM
LI
Jx
L
0

= ]
(0)(8x
1
)
LI
Jx
1
+
5
0
]
(1)|-8(4+x
2
)]
LI
Jx
2
5
0

0
B
=
16u kN m
3
EI


EXAMPLE 3
Determine the displacement at point D of the cantilever beam shown in Fig1.6a. Take E =
2uu0Po, I = Suu(1u
6
)mm
4
.

Figure 1.4b
x
1
x
2
4m
x
1
8kN
x
2
4m
8kN
Figure 1.6a
C
B
25kN
A
4 m 4 m
D
Sm
2S kN m
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

9|P a g e

SOLUTION
In determining the displacement at D, the beam is loaded with a virtual load at D, Fig 1.6b.
By inspection three coordinates x
1
, x
2
, onJ x
3
are required to determine the total virtual
strain energy in the beam. The three coordinated covers regions where there are no
discontinuities in either the real loading or the virtual loading. Using the method of sections
the internal moments for the virtual loading is calculated below.




The internal moment for the beam segment DC is calculated as;

m
1
= 1x
1

The internal moment for the beam segment DB is calculated as;


m
2
= u.7Sx
2
+S


The internal moment for the beam segment AB is calculated as;
m
3
= u.6Sx
3


Using the same coordinates the internal moment for the real load is calculated for



The internal moment for the beam segment CB is calculated as;
H
1
= u
Figure 1.6b
1kN
x
2
x
3
x
1
0.65kN
1.65kN
x
1
1kN
Sm
1kN
x
2
+ S
1.75kN
x
2
x
3
1kN
30kN
x
2
x
3
x
1
2S kN m
11.87kN 18.13kN
x
1
PRINCIPLES 0F vIRT0AL W0RK

10|P a g e

The internal moment for the beam segment BA is calculated as;



H
2
= 18.1Sx
2


The internal moment for the beam segment AB is calculated as;

H
3
= 2S +11.87x
3

The two moments; virtual moments and real moments, are then substituted into the virtual
work equation. Thus the displacement at B becomes
1kN 0
B
= _
mH
EI
Jx
L
0

= _
(1x
1
)(u)
EI
Jx
1
+
5
0
_
(u.7Sx
2
+S )(18.1Sx
2
)
EI
Jx
2
4
0
+_
(u.6Sx
3
)(2S +11.87x
3
)
EI
Jx
2
4
0

0
B
=
1Su9.22 kN m
3
EI

18.13kN
x
2
30kN
x
3
1kN

2.1IN
In the c
a means
was bas
points o
those tw
mathem
Thus, in
should b
2.2DE
The con
of bein
beam w
support
the elas






O
At
1.
2.
3.
NTRODUC
course modu
s of calcula
sed on the th
on a straig
wo points.
matically as;
n finding th
be known b
ERIVATIO
njugate beam
g able to c
where the s
ted beam wh
stic curve fo
BJECTIVE
t the end of
Understand
Be able to
Be analyse
CTION
ule BT 254,
ating the slo
heorems by
ght member
That is, th
;
he magnitud
before hand
ONOFTH
m theorem
calculate for
slopes are
hich is unifo
or the beam
ES
f this unit, st
d Mohrs fir
convert rea
e beams and
C
, we were in
ope and the
y Castigliano
under flex
he slope b
0
A
de of one of
or should b
HEOREM
is derived f
r the slope
zero. To il
formly loade
is show in F
tudents are
rst and seco
al beams into
d frames usi
0N}0u
ntroduced to
deflection o
o, which sta
xure is equa
etween the
0
B
=
A
B
E
f the slope, s
be a point on
from the mo
in a memb
llustrate the
ed as shown
Fig. 2.0(b)
supposed to
ond conjuga
o conjugate
ing the conj
uATE
o the conce
of beams at
ated that; th
al to the ar
e point A a
BM
EI

say slope at
n the beam
oment area
ber even wh
e theorem,
n in Fig. 2.0
and (c) resp
o;
ate beam the
e beams
ugate beam
BEAN
pt of Mome
t various sec
e change in
rea of the
M
L
and B on
t A, the valu
with a slope
theorems. I
hen they ar
we will co
0(a) below. T
pectively.
eorem.
m method4.
UN
N NET
ent Area M
ctions. The
n slope betw
M
LI
diagram
beam is d
ue of the slo
e value of z
It has the ad
re no points
onsider the
The
M
LI
diag

NIT2
B0B
ethod as
concept
ween two
between
escribed
ope at B
zero.
dvantage
s on the
e simply
gram and
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

12|P a g e















From Fig 1.0 the change in slope between A and C is given by;
0
A
0
C
= Arco o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ C
The slope at C is thus found as
0
C
= 0
A
Arco o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ C
It can be seen that,
0
A
=
BB
1
AB

=
1
I
momcnt o orco o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ B obout B
Therefore
0
C
=
Homcnt o H EI Jiogrom obout B
I
Arcoo
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ C
It can be seen that deflection at C is;
= CC
2
= CC
1
C
2
C
1

C
W W
B A
L
x
Fig2.1(a)
R
B

R
A

Fig2.1(b)
x

C
1
C
2
C B A
Fig2.1(c)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

13|P a g e

= x
C
0
A
cclction o C w. r. t. tongcnt ot A
=
x
C
Homcnt o (H EI) Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ B obout B
I
Arco o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ C obout C
Lets look at a case of a similar beam loaded with the
M
LI
diagram and having the span equal to
the above considered beam. The reaction at the point A would be given by,
R
i
A
=
Homcnt o tc looJ obout B
I

=
Homcnt o H EI Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ B obout B
I

And the shear force at C would be given by,
I
C
= R
i
A
looJ bctwccn A onJ C
=
Homcnt o H EI Jiogrom obout B
I
Arcoo
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn A onJ C
It can be observed that the slope at C,0
C
in the beam earlier considered is equal to the shear
force in the latter beam considered which was loaded with the
M
LI
diagram. And that the
deflection at C in the earlier beam is equal to the bending moment in the latter beam with the
M
LI
diagram as its load. The latter beam considered is the conjugate beam. The about
discussion is the result of two theorems;
Theorem I: The rotation/slope at a point in a beam is equal to the shear force in the
conjugate beam
Theorem II: The deflection in a beam is equal to the bending moment in the conjugate beam.
The generalizations above are made on the premise that the beam is simply supported.
Students are being advised, however, to make suitable changes considering the boundary
conditions for different beams to see if the above theorem would hold. The conjugate beam
can thus be defined as;
An imaginary beam with a span which is equal to the span of the original beam
and is loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, in a way that the shear
force and the bending moments at a section of the conjugate beam represents
slope and the deflection in the original beam.
It is worth noting that in the original beam with a fixed end, the slope and the deflection is
zero. Thus in the corresponding conjugate beam, the shear and the bending moment would be
equally zero. These conditions exist in a beam with a free end, as such; a fixed support in an
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

14|P a g e

original beam connotes a free end/support in a conjugate beam. The opposite holds in both
cases. As in an original beam with a free end, the slope and the deflection at end is note equal
to zero. Similarly, in the conjugate beam, the shear and the bending moment at the support
would not be zero. This indicates a support which is fixed; since its only a fixed support that
resists both rotation and translation. In this case a free end/support in an original beam will
give e fixed end/support in the conjugate beam.
There are various end conditions and there corresponding end conditions in the conjugate
beam. These are illustrated in Table 2.1 below.
Also original beams and their corresponding conjugate beams are illustrated in Table 2.2.

SING CONVENTION: The sign convention that has been adopted for the purpose of this
chapter is as followed.
1. Sagging moment are positive
2. Left side upwards force or right side downwards force () gives positive shear,
Thus positive shear gives clockwise rotation and positive moment gives downward
deflection

2.3ILLUSTRATIONS
The conjugate beam as seen from the above discussion is an image of an/the original beam.
Using the illustration in Fig 2.1, the conjugate beam illustrated in Fig 2.1(b) is an image of
the original beam illustrated in Fig 2.1(a). As an image of the original beam, the conjugate
beam and the original beam bears certain similarities. The similarity between the original
beam and the conjugate beam is with their span. That is the span of the original beam is the
same as the span of the conjugate beam.

Despite the fact that the conjugate beam is an image of the original beam, and as such are
supposed to have similar features, there are certain dissimilarities about the two. The
dissimilarities lie in their reaction and their loadings. The loading in the case of the original
beam is the loads that are imposed on the beam. That is the various loads the beam is
supposed to carry/resist; the point loads, distributed loads and the concentrated moments. The
loads in the case of the conjugate beam is the value of the moment at any point on the beam,
induced by the loadings on the original beam, divided by the flexural rigidity (EI) of the
beam at that section. In other words, the load of the conjugate beam is given by the moment
diagram of the original beam for the section divided by the flexural rigidity of that section of
the beam. This in most instances is defined by a varyingly distributed load as seen from the
illustration in Fig 2.1(b).
The other dissimilarity between the original beam and the conjugate beam is in their support
reactions. The support reactions in the original beam are not always the same as that in the
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

15|P a g e













































ORIGINALBEAM CONJUGATEBEAM SINO
1
0 u = u
Simplysupportedor
Rollerend
F u H = u
Simplysupportedor
Rollerend
2
0 u = u
Hingedend
F u H = u
Hingedend
3
0 = u = u
Fixedend
F = u H = u
Freeend
4
0 u u
Freeend
F u H u
Fixedend
F u onJ continuous
H = u
0 u onJ continuous
= u
5
Interiorsupport
Interiorhinge
Interiorsupport
6
0 u onJ Jiscontinuous
u
Interiorhinge
F u onJ Jiscontinuous
H u
Table2.1
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

16|P a g e













































8
7
1
6
4
3
2
ORIGINALBEAM CONJUGATEBEAM SINO
5
Table2.2
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

17|P a g e

conjugate beam. As would be realised from Table 2.1 and 2.2, the reaction in the conjugate
beam do sometimes differ from that of the original beam. Again the condition at the support
of the original beam differs from the conditions at the support of the conjugate beam.
Whereas the condition that might exist at the support of an original beam would be either a
translation or movement in any of the two perpendicular plane which is termed as the
deflection in that particular plane and a rotation about a given point the same when measured
in the conjugate beam is reckoned as the shear and the moment respectively. That is to say
that whenever the slope of the original beam is measures or calculated for, the same passes as
the shear in the conjugate beam. And whenever the deflection of the original beam is
measured it passes as the moment in the conjugate beam. At this moment it is worth saying
that a slope in the original beam is equal to a shear in the conjugate beam. And a deflection in
the original beam is a moment in the conjugate beam.
To throw a little more light on this lets consider Table 2.1. The table has two main columns,
one corresponding to original beam configurations and their respective end conditions and the
other, conjugate beam configuration and their end conditions for their respective original
beams in the first column. It is worth noting these facts, considering loadings in the y-plane
only;
a. A simple support does not allow for translation in that plane (y-plane), hence
deflection in the y-plane is zero. But then the beam can rotate about that reaction since
a simple support does not have the capacity to resist rotation. In which case there is
going to be a slope between the beam at its original position and the beam in its
deflected position. This can be summarised that at a simple support deflection is zero
but slope is not equal to zero.
b. A free end of a beam does allow for both translation in the y-plane and rotation about
that point. Hence at the free end of a beam there exists a slope as much as there is a
rotation. Thus in summary, at the free end of a beam slope is not equal to zero and
deflection is not equal to zero
c. The fixed end of a beam or a beam with fixed supports has the capacity to resist both
rotation and translation within any plane. Since the beam cannot translate at that
support, deflection at that support is zero. Because the beam does not allow for
rotation at that support as well, the deflected beam would lie parallel the profile of the
beam before deflection, in which case slope would be equal to zero. It can thus be said
of the fixed support that it has a zero slope and a zero deflection.

2.4PROCEDURE
In solving problems related to the conjugate beam method, the following step should be
followed,
1. Solve for the reactions of the original beam; that is determining the values of the
reaction for the original beam.
2. Draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

18|P a g e

3. Draw the conjugate beam from the original beam, having in mind that the length of
the conjugate beams is the same as that of the original beam, that where a support
allows for a slope in the original beam, the conjugate beam must develop a shear, and
where the support in an original beam allows for deflection the conjugate beam must
develop a moment.
4. The conjugate beam is then loaded with the
M
LI
diagram. The load is assumed to be
uniformly distributed over the conjugate beam and is directed upwards when the
M
LI

diagram is positive and directed downwards when the
M
LI
diagram is negative.
5. Calculate the reaction of the conjugate beam using the equation of equilibrium.
6. On the conjugate beam show where the unknown moment and shear forces would be
acting corresponding to the section where the slope and deflection would be
calculated at.
7. Using the equation of equilibrium, determine the shear and the moments in the
conjugate beam, this will correspond to the slope and deflection in the original beam.

2.5SOLVEDEXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 2.1 Determine the slope at A, B, C (0
A
, 0
B
, 0
C
) and the deflection at C
C
in the
beam shown in Fig 2.2(a)








SOLUTION
Applying the steps outlined above;

1. Determining the reaction of the original beam.

= u
R
A
+R
B
= SS
H
A
= u
(R
B
6) (SS S) = u
6R
B
= 1uS
R
B
= 17.S kN
R
A
= 17.S kN
R
A

R
B

Fig2.2(a)
C
B A
3m 3m
35kN
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

19|P a g e


2. Drawing the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment diagram is
drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam. This is shown
in the Fig 2.2(b) below.


3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.2(c)




4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.2(d).







5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and taking
moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
The load between A and B is
1
2

S2.S
EI
6 =
1S7.S
EI

Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
1S7.S
EI
(1)
H
B
= u
R
A
|
6 =
1S7.S
EI
S
6R
A
|
=
472.S
EI

Fig2.2(b)
Fig2.2(d)
Fig2.2(c)
R
B
|

R
A
|

3m 3m
S2.S
EI
R
B
|

R
A
|

3m 3m
52.5kNm
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

20|P a g e

R
A
|
=
78.7S
EI
units
But R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
1S7.S
EI

R
B
|
=
1S7.S
EI

78.7S
EI

R
B
|
=
78.7S
EI
units
6. Since the original beam is simply supported, it allows for rotation at the support but does
not permit translation in the y-direction and as so can develop slopes at the support but
cannot develop deflections at the support. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear at
the support but cannot develop moments at the support, Fig 2.2(e).






7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.
Thus the slope at A and B are given as,
Slope at A,
0
A
= S. F ot A = I
A
=
78.7S
EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = I
B
=
78.7S
EI
roJ (onti clockwisc)

Slope at C,
0
C
= S. F ot C =
78.7S
EI

78.7S
EI
= u
Deflection at C,
The centre of gravity of the load is at the mid-span
S2.S
EI
I
B

I
A

3m 3m
Fig2.2(e)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

21|P a g e

C
= momcnt ot C = _
78.7S
EI
S] _
78.7S
EI
1.S]
=
118.1S
EI
(JownworJ)


EXAMPLE 2.2
Determine the slope at A, B, C (0
A
, 0
B
, 0
C
) and the deflection at C
C
in the beam shown in
Fig 2.





SOLUTION
Applying the steps outlined above;

1. Determining the reaction of the original beam.

= u
R
A
+R
B
= 4u
H
A
= u
(R
B
8) (4u 4) = u
8R
B
= 16u
R
B
= 2u kN
R
A
= 2u kN
2. Drawing the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment diagram is
drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam. This is shown
in the Fig 2.3(b) below.





3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.3(c)
R
A

R
B
Fig2.3(a)
Fig2.3(b)
2I I C
B A
4m 4m
40 kN
80kNm
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

22|P a g e





4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.3(d)






5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and taking
moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and C is
1
2

8u
EI
4 =
16u
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
4 +
1
S
4 = S.SS rom B
The load between A and C is
1
2

4u
EI
4 =
8u
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
2
S
4 = 2.67 rom B
Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
16u
EI
+
8u
EI
=
24u
EI

H
B
= u
R
A
|
8 = __
16u
EI
S.SS] +_
8u
EI
2.67]_
8R
A
|
=
1u66.4u
EI

R
A
|
=
1SS.Su
EI
units
8u
EI
4u
EI
R
A
|
R
B
|

Fig2.3(d)
R
B
|

R
A
|

4m 4m
Fig2.3(c)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

23|P a g e

But R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
24u
EI

R
B
|
=
24u
EI

1SS.S
EI

R
B
|
=
1u6.7
EI
units

6. Since the original beam is simply supported, it allows for rotation at the support but does
not permit translation in the y-direction and as so can develop slopes at the support but
cannot develop deflections at the support. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear at
the support but cannot develop moments at the support, Fig 2.3(e).





7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.
Thus the slopes at A, B and C are given as,
Slope at A,
0
A
= S. F ot A = R
A
|
=
1SS.Su
EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = R
B
|
=
1u6.7
EI
roJ (onti clockwisc)
Slope at C,
0
C
= S. F ot C =
1SS.Su
EI

1u6.7
EI
=
26.6
EI
roJ
Deflection at C,

C
= momcnt ot C = _
1SS.Su
EI
4] _
16u
EI

4
S
]
=
S19.87
EI
(JownworJ)

EXAMPLE 2.3
Determine the rotations at A, B, C, E (0
A
, 0
B
, 0
C
, , 0
L
) and the deflection at C, and E
(
C
,
L
) in the beam shown in Fig 2.4(a).
8u
EI
4u
EI
I
A

I
B

Fig2.3(e)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

24|P a g e






SOLUTION

1. The first step is to determine the reaction of the original beam.

= u
R
A
+R
B
= 6u
H
A
= u
(R
B
12) (6u S) = u
12 R
B
= 18u
R
B
= 1S kN
R
A
= 6u kN
2. The next is to draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment
diagram is drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam.
This is shown in the Fig 2.4(b) below.



3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.4(c)



4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.4(d)


Fig2.4(b)
135kN
R
B
R
A

Fig2.4(a)
E D I 2I
2I I C
B A
60kN
3m 3m 3m
3m
I 2I
2I I
Fig2.4(c)
R
B
|
R
A
|

3m 3m 3m
3m
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

25|P a g e







5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and
taking moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and C is
1
2

1SS
EI
S =
2u2.S
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
2
S
S = 2 rom A
The load between C and E is
=
27u
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
= 2.SS +S = S.SS rom A
The load between E and B is
1
2

4S
EI
S =
67.S
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
1
S
S +9 = 1u rom A
Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
2u2.S
EI
+
27u
EI
+
67.S
EI
=
S4u
EI

H
B
= u
R
B
|
8 = __
2u2.S
EI
2] +_
27u
EI
S.SS] +_
67.S
EI
1u]_
12R
B
|
=
2S7S.1
EI

R
B
|
=
214.4S
EI
units
Fig2.4(d)
R
B
|
R
A
|

4S
EI

22.S
EI
1SS
EI

67.S
EI
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

26|P a g e

But R
A
|
+R
B
|
=
24u
EI

R
A
|
=
S4u
EI

214.4S
EI

R
A
|
=
S2S.S7
EI
units
6. Since the original beam is simply supported, it allows for rotation at the support but does
not permit translation in the y-direction and as so can develop slopes at the support but
cannot develop deflections at the support. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear at
the support but cannot develop moments at the support, Fig 2.4(e).






7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.
Thus the slopes at A, B, C, D and E are given as,
Slope at A,
0
A
= S. F ot A = R
A
|
=
S2S.S7
EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = R
B
|
=
214.4S
EI
roJ (onti clockwisc)
Slope at C,
0
C
= S. F ot C =
S2S.S7
EI

2u2.S
EI
=
12S.u7
EI
roJ(clockwisc)
Slope at E,
0
C
= S. F ot C =
S2S.S7
EI

2u2.S
EI

27u
EI
=
146.9S
EI
roJ(onti clockwisc)
Deflection at C,
Fig2.4(e)
I
B
I
A
4S
EI

22.S
EI

1SS
EI
67.S
EI
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

27|P a g e

C
= momcnt ot C = _
S2S.S7
EI
S] _
2u2.S
EI

S
S
]
=
774.21
EI
(JownworJ)
Deflection at E,

L
= momcnt ot E
= _
S2S.S7
EI
9] _
2u2.S
EI

S
S
+6] _
27u
EI
S.47]
=
S7S.1u
EI
(JownworJ)

EXAMPLE 2.4
Find the rotation and deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown in Fig 2.5(a)



SOLUTION
1. The first step in solving a problem of this nature is to determine the support reactions of
the original beam.

= u
R
A
+R
B
= P
H
A
= u
(R
B
SI) (P 4I) = u
SI R
B
= 4PI
R
B
=
4P
S
kN
R
A
=
P
S
kN
2. The next is to draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment
diagram is drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam.
This is shown in the Fig 2.5(b) below.



PI
1EI 3EI
C
B A
3L L
P
Fig2.5(a)
Fig2.5(b)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

28|P a g e


3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.5(c)



4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.5(d)




5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and
taking moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and B is
1
2

PI
SEI
SI =
PI
2
2EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
I +
1
S
SI = I rom B
The load between B and C is
1
2

PI
EI
I =
PI
2
2EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
1
S
I =
I
S
rom B
Summing forces in the y-direction,
H
C
= u
R
A
|
SI =
PI
2
2EI
I
SR
A
|
I =
PI
3
2EI

R
A
|

C
1EI 3EI
B A
Fig2.5(c)
C
1EI 3EI
B A
Fig2.5(d)
PI
SEI
PI
EI
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

29|P a g e

R
A
|
=
PI
2
6EI
units
6. Since the original beam is simply supported, it allows for rotation at the support but does
not permit translation in the y-direction and as so can develop slopes at the support but
cannot develop deflections at the support. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear at
the support but cannot develop moments at the support, Fig 2.5(e).





7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of the
original beam at their respective places.
Thus the slopes at A, B and C are given as,
Slope at C,
0
C
= S. F ot C = R
A
|
=
PI
2
6EI
+
PI
2
2EI
+
PI
2
2EI
=
SPI
2
6EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Deflection at C,

C
= momcnt ot C = _
PI
2
6EI
4I_ +_
PI
2
2EI
2I_ + _
PI
2
2EI

2I
S
_
=
2PI
3
SEI
(JownworJ)

EXAMPLE 2.5
Determine the slope and deflection of the cantilevered beam with the load at the free end in
Fig 2.6(a).





C
1EI 3EI
B A
H
B

I
B

Fig2.5(e)
PI
SEI
PI
EI
I
A

Fig2.6(a)
A
B
25kN
7m
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

30|P a g e

SOLUTION
1. The first step in solving a problem of this nature is to determine the support reactions of
the original beam.

= u
R
A
= 2S kN
H
A
= u
H
A
(2S 7) = u
H
A
= 17S kNm

2. The next is to draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment
diagram is drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam. This
is shown in the Fig 2.6(b) below.





3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.6(c)





4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.6(d)





5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
B A
175kNm
Fig2.6(b)
B
A
Fig2.6(c)
7m
B
A
175kNm
Fig2.6(d)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

31|P a g e

equal to the area of the


M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and taking
moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and B is
1
2

17S
EI
7 =
122S
2EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
2
S
7 =
14
S
rom B
Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
B
|
=
122S
2EI

6. Since the original beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end, it will not allow for
rotation about the fixed end as well as translation in the y-direction at the fixed support,
therefore it can neither develop slope and deflection at the fixed end. Conversely it will
allow for rotation and translation in the y-direction at the free end and as so can develop
slope deflection at the free end. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear and moments
at the free end but not the fixed support, Fig 2.6(e).



7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.

Thus the slopes at B are given as,
Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = R
B
| =
122S
2EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Deflection at B,

B
= momcnt ot B = _
122S
2EI

14
S
] =
8S7S
SEI
(JownworJ)

EXAMPLE 2.6
Determine the slope and deflection of the cantilevered beam with the load at the mid-span
end in Fig 2.7(a).
I
B
|
H
B
|
B
A
175kNm
Fig2.6(e)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

32|P a g e





SOLUTION
1. The first step in solving a problem of this nature is to determine the support reactions of
the original beam.

= u
R
A
= 2u kN
H
A
= u
H
A
(2u S) = u
H
A
= 6u kN
2. The next is to draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment
diagram is drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam.
This is shown in the Fig 2.7(b) below.



3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.7(c)


4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.7(d)




C
Fig2.7(a)
B
A
20kN
3m 3m
B
A
60kNm
Fig2.7(b)
B A
6m
Fig2.7(c)
B
A
60kNm
Fig2.7(d)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

33|P a g e


5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and taking
moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and C is
1
2

6u
EI
7 =
Su
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
S +
2
S
S = Sm rom B
Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
B
| =
Su
EI

6. Since the original beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end, it will not allow for
rotation about the fixed end as well as translation in the y-direction at the fixed support,
therefore it can neither develop slope and deflection at the fixed end. Conversely it will
allow for rotation and translation in the y-direction at the free end and as so can develop
slope deflection at the free end. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear and moments
at the free end but not the fixed support, Fig 2.7(e).



7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.

Thus the slopes at B are given as,
Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = R
B
| =
6u
EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Deflection at B,

B
= momcnt ot B = _
6u
EI
S] =
Suu
EI
(JownworJ)

I
B
|
H
B
,
B
A
60kNm
Fig2.7(e)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

34|P a g e

EXAMPLE
Determine the slope and deflection of the cantilevered beam with the load at the mid-span
end in Fig 2.8(a).



SOLUTION
1. The first step in solving a problem of this nature is to determine the support reactions of
the original beam.

= u
R
A
= 2S S = 12S kN
H
A
= u
H
A
_
2u S
2
2
_ = u
H
A
=
62S
2
kNm
2. The next is to draw the bending moment diagram for the original beam. The moment
diagram is drawn by calculating for the moment values at critical section of the beam. This
is shown in the Fig 2.8(b) below.



3. The conjugate beam for the original beam is now drawn having the same span as the
original beam. Since the original beam is simply supported, the conjugate beam will also
be simply supported as from Table 2.1 and 2.2. The conjugate beam bean is illustrated in
Fig 2.8(c)





25kNm
Fig2.8(a)
5m
B A
62S
2
kNm
Fig2.8(b)
Fig2.8(c)
5m
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

35|P a g e


4. The conjugate beam is now loaded with the
M
LI
diagram of the original beam, Fig 2.8(d)




5. Using the equation of equilibrium, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.
Under the conditions of equilibrium, the sum of the two reaction R
A
|
and R
B
|
should be
equal to the area of the
M
LI
diagram. By summing up the forces in the y-direction and taking
moment about B, the reaction of the conjugate beam is calculated for.

The load between A and B is
1
S

62S
2EI
S =
S2u.8S
EI

The centre of gravity of the load is
1
S
S =
S
S
rom B
Summing forces in the y-direction,

= u
R
B
|
=
122S
2EI

6. Since the original beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end, it will not allow for
rotation about the fixed end as well as translation in the y-direction at the fixed support,
therefore it can neither develop slope and deflection at the fixed end. Conversely it will
allow for rotation and translation in the y-direction at the free end and as so can develop
slope deflection at the free end. The conjugate beam can thus develop shear and moments
at the free end but not the fixed support, Fig 2.8(e).



7. Using the equilibrium condition the shear and the moment at various sections on the
conjugate beam is calculated for. These values correspond to the slope and deflection of
the original beam at their respective places.

Thus the slopes at B are given as,
I
B
|
H
B
,
B A
62S
2
kNm
B A
62S
2
kNm
Fig2.8(d)
Fig2.8(e)
C0N}0uATE BEAN NETB0B

36|P a g e

Slope at B,
0
B
= S. F ot B = R
B
| =
122S
2EI
roJ (clockwisc)
Deflection at B,

B
= momcnt ot B = _
122S
2EI

14
S
] =
8S7S
SEI
(JownworJ)















3.1IN
In orde
compat
These a
method
satisfyin
displace
relation
equation
The co
equilibr
displace
the disp
from th
method

3.2DE
Loaded
These d
using th
become
referred
In deter
member
or wher
NTRODUC
er to ensure
ibility of di
are the forc
d of analysis
ng the str
ements in t
ns. Resoluti
n is used to
onverse is t
rium equatio
ements in te
placements
he compatib
d followed b
EGRREO
d structures
displacemen
he displacem
e the unkno
d to as the d
rmining the
rs connecte
re there are
OBJECT
At the en
1. U
2. A
in
3. A
w
CTION
e their safet
isplacement
ce method o
s is founded
ructural co
the structur
ion of the
o determine
true for th
on be satisf
erms of the
s. With the
bility equat
by the displa
FFREED
undergo un
nts are refe
ment metho
owns in the
degree to wh
e kinematic
ed to nodes,
e sharp cha
TIVES
d of this un
Understand th
Apply the p
ndeterminate
Apply the m
without sides
S
ty all struct
t. Generally
of analysis
d in identify
ompatibility
ral system i
equation y
the other re
he force dis
fied for all t
load using
displaceme
tion using
acement me
OM
nknown dis
erred to as
d, it is very
e applicatio
hich the stru
c indetermin
which usua
anges in the
it, students
he principle
principles o
e beams
method of sl
sway.
SL0PE
tures must
y there are t
and the di
ying the unk
y equations
in terms of
yields the
eaction in th
splacement
the structure
the load dis
ents known
the load-di
ethods.
splacements
the degrees
y important t
on of the m
ucture is kin
nacy, the s
ally are loca
e cross-sect
are suppose
es of the slo
of the slope
lope deflec
E BEFL
satisfy equi
wo ways w
isplacement
known redun
s. This is
f the load b
redundant
he structure.
method. I
e. This is ac
splacement
n, the unkno
isplacement
s at specifi
s of freedom
to specify th
method. The
nematically
tructure can
ated at the j
tion of the
ed to;
ope deflectio
e deflection
ction in the
ECTI0
ilibrium, lo
within which
t method of
ndant force
achieved
by using th
reactions
.
It first of a
chieved by
relation and
own loads a
t relations.
c points on
m. In the a
hese degree
e number o
indetermina
n be assum
joints suppo
member. In
on method
n in the an
analysis o
U
0N NET
oad-displace
h this can be
f analysis.
es in a syste
by expre
he load-disp
and the eq
all requires
writing the
d solving th
are the com
This is th
n it known
analysis of
es of freedom
of these unk
ate.
med to be a
orts ends of
n the case o
nalysis of
of frames; w
Unit3
TB0B
ement and
e ensured.
The force
m and the
ssing the
placement
quilibrium
s that the
unknown
hem to get
mputed for
he general
as nodes.
structures
m, as they
knowns is
a series of
f members
of a three
simple
with or
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

38|P a g e

dimensioned member each node can have at most three linear displacements are three
rotational displacements; and in two dimensions, each node, each node can have at most two
linear displacements and one rotational displacement. Also nodal displacement may be
restricted by the supports or assumptions based on behaviour of the structure.

3.3SLOPEDEFLECTIONEQUATION
As stated earlier, there are two methods that are used to ensure the safety of a structure; the
force method and the load-displacement method. The force method of analysis is limited to
structures that are not highly indeterminate. This because much work is required to set up the
compatibility equation and also each equation written involves the entire unknown, making it
difficult to solve the resulting set of equations. By comparism, the slope-deflection method is
that not very involving. As would be seen later on, the slope deflection method requires less
work both to write the necessary equation for the solution of a problem and to solve these
equations for the unknown displacement and associated internal loads.
The method was originally developed by Heinrich Manderla and Otto Mohr for studying
secondary stresses in trusses. G. A. Maney refined the method in 1915 and applied it to the
analysis of indeterminate beams and frames.
The method is so named because it relates the unknown slope and deflection to the applied load
on the structure. To develop the general form of the formula, the span AB of the continuous
beam in Fig3.1 would be considered, with an arbitrary loading and a constant flexural rigidity,
EI. The internal moments of the beam, H
AB
and H
BA
will be related in terms of the three
degree of freedom that the beam has, namely; its angular displacement 0
A
and 0
B
, and its linear
displacement which would be caused by a relative settlement between the supports. Moments
and angular displacement that acts clockwise on the span are going to be considered positive
and downward linear displacement too are to be considered positive.







The principle of super positioning is going to be used to determine the slope deflection
equation. This is going to be achieved by considering separately the moment developed at each
support due to each of the displacements 0
A
, 0
B
, and , and the loads.

H
BA
A B
w
P

0
A
0
B
L
H
AB
EIisconstant
Figure 3.1
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

39|P a g e

3.3.1AngularDisplacements
Assuming the node at A to rotate through an angle 0
A
as the node at the other end remains
fixed and unyielding. And the moment caused by the displacement is being calculated by the
conjugate beam method. It can be seen that the shear at A acts downward on the beam since the
angular displacement at A is clockwise, Fig 3.2. Because the deflection at each ends of the
actual beam is zero, the sum of moment about those points in the conjugate beam should also
be zero. These leaves as with;
H
A
| = u
_
1
2
_
H
AB
EI
] I_
I
S
_
1
2
_
H
BA
EI
] I_
2I
S
= u
H
B
| = u
_
1
2
_
H
BA
EI
] I_
I
S
_
1
2
_
H
AB
EI
] I_
2I
S
= u
Evaluating the above expression will yield the following load-displacement relationships.
H
AB
=
4EI
I
0
A

H
BA
=
2EI
I
0
B

















In the same way, if the nodes at B is rotated through an angle 0
B
whilst the node at is held
fixed, and the moment caused by the angular displacement calculated by the conjugate beam
method. It would yield a load-displacement relationship of the magnitudes;
H
BA
=
4EI
I
0
B

H
AB
=
2EI
I
0
A


0
B

A
`

0
A

H
AB

H
BA
L
RealBeam
(a)
H
BA
H
AB
L
RealBeam
(b)
ConjugateBeam
H
AB
EI

H
AB
EI
B
`
I
i
A
= 0
A
(c)
Figure 3.2
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

40|P a g e

3.3.2RelativeLinearDisplacement
Also, if the node at B is displaced compared to A such that the beam rotates in a clockwise
manner about A; whilst preventing the rotation of both of the nodes, then equal and opposite
shear reactions will be developed in the beam. From the conjugate beam analysis, the moment
is the beam can be related to the displacement of the member at B. Because of the fixity at the
nodes of the beam, the nodes of it conjugate beam would be free, meaning no moment in its
conjugate beam. But because of the displacement of the real beam at B, the moment of the
conjugate beam taken about the node at B should be equal to the displacement of the real beam
at B. Thus summing up the moment about B in the conjugate beam method produces;
H
B
| = u
_
1
2
_
H
BA
EI
] (I) _
2
S
I]_
I
S
_
1
2
_
H
AB
EI
] (I) _
1
S
I]_
2I
S
= u
Where
H
AB
= H
BA
= H =
6EI
I
2


3.3.3FixedEndMoments
The previous section looked at the moments that are developed in the beams as a result of the
displacements that occur in the beam. As it would be noted the displacements are brought
about by the loads that are acting on the beam. To come out with the slope deflection formula,
the loading of the span is going to be converted to moments that are acting at the nodes of the
beam. These will the n be used to develop the load-displacement relation as before. This can be
achieved simply by finding reaction moments that each load develops at the nodes.
Considering the fixed ended beam in Fig3.3a, subject to a concentrated load at the mid part of
its span, the conjugate counterpart of which shown if Fig3.3b. Since the slope at each end of
the beam is required to be zero, summing up forced in the conjugate counterpart and equating
to zero would yield,
H
B
| = u
_
1
2
_
PI
4EI
] I_ 2 _
1
2
_
H
EI
] I_ = u
H =
PI
8

The reaction moment as so calculated is referred to as the fixed end moment. It should be noted
that due to the sign convention, it is negative at the nodes A and positive at the nodes B. The
fixed end moments for various span loading and end condition can be found at the end





A B
P
M
M
V
V
I
2

I
2

A
i
B
i
PI
4EI

H
EI
H
EI
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

41|P a g e





of the course material. Taking it that the fixed end moment have been calculated specific
purposes, e.g. in Fig 3.3a, then we have;
H
AB
= (FEH)
AB
H
BA
= (FEH)
BA


S.S.4 Slope Beflection Equation
If the end moments due to the displacement and the loadings are summed up for each of the
nodes, the end moments can be summarised as;
H
AB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
A
+ 0
B
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
AB

And
H
BA
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
A
S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
BA

Since the above equation are similar the results can be expressed as a single equation, referring
to the end of the span at the near end as N, and the end of the span at the far end as F. The
generalised equation now becomes;
H
N
= 2E _
I
I
] |20
N
+ 0
P
S] _ (FEH)
N

Where
H
N
= Internal moment in the near end of the spam; moment is positive when acting on the
span.
E, k = Modulus of elasticity of material and span stiffness k = I I
0
N
, 0
P
= Near-end and far-end slopes or angular displacements of the span at the support;
angles are measured in radian and are positive clockwise.
= Span rotation due to displacement, thats = I ; this is measured in radians and
positive clockwise.
(FEH)
N
= Fixed end moment at the near-end support; refer to table at the back of course
material.

The slope deflection equation developed can be used to analyse any type of beam or frame
irrespective of the end or support condition. This is achieved by substituting into the equation
the variable as the case may be for each beam or frame.

3.4PROCEDUREFORANALYSIS
The procedure of analysis for the slope deflection equation can be summarised into these basic
steps;
1. Determine the degree of freedom at the various nodes of the beam or frame
Figure3.3
(a)
(b)
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

42|P a g e

2. Write the slope deflection equation for each of the nodes at the ends of each of the
spans of the beam or frame
3. Write the equilibrium equation of the unknown degree of freedom for the structure
4. Solve for the unknown degree of freedoms from the equilibrium equations
5. Solve for the end span moment using the calculated degree of freedom
6. Solve for the reactions at the various supports.

3.5SOLVEDEXAMPLES
The following example will be used to illustrate the application of the slope deflection equation
in the analysis of beams and frames.

Example 1
Draw the shear force and moment diagrams for the beam shown in Fig.3.3a

`




SOLUTION
The beam in question has only one degree of freedom at the support B. The two degree of
freedom is the slope at B.




Thus the slope deflection equation would be written in terms of the slope at B. The fixed end
moment on the span BC is calculated for. The fixed end moment for the node B on the span BC
is calculated as;
FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
2u 4
2
12

FEH
BC
= 26.67kN
The fixed end moment for the node B on the span BC is calculated as;
Figure 3.3a
A
B
6m 4m
20kN/m
C
A
B
6m 4m
C
Figure 3.3b
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

43|P a g e

FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
2u 4
2
12

FEH
BC
= 26.67kN
The slope deflection equation for the span can then be written. It should be noted that the
slopes at the support A and C are zero, since they are all fixed. It should also be noted that
there are no displacements along the length of the beam. The general formula for slope
deflection is;
H
N
= 2E _
I
I
] |20
N
+ 0
P
S] _ (FEH)
N

Thus the slope deflection formula for the node A on the span AB becomes;
H
AB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
A
+ 0
B
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
AB

H
AB
= 2E _
I
6
] |2(u) + 0
B
S(u)] u
H
AB
= _
EI
S
] |0
B
]
The slope deflection formula for the node B on the span AB becomes;
H
BA
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
A
S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
BA

H
BA
= 2E _
I
6
] |20
B
+ u S(u)] + u
H
BA
= _
EI
S
] |20
B
]
Thus the slope deflection formula for the node B on the span BC becomes;
H
BC
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
C
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
BC

H
BC
= 2E _
I
4
] |20
B
+ u S(u)] 26.67
H
BC
= _
EI
2
] |20
B
] 26.67
The slope deflection formula for the node C on the span BC becomes;
H
CB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
C
+0
B
S _

I
]_ +(FEH)
CB

H
CB
= 2E _
I
4
] |u +0
B
S(u)] + 26.67
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

44|P a g e

H
CB
= _
EI
2
] |0
B
] + 26.67
The equilibrium equations for the beam are;
H
AB
H
CB
u
And
H
BA
+ H
BC
= u
Solving the equilibrium equations will yield us;
_
EI
S
] |20
B
] +_
EI
2
] |20
B
] 26.67 = u
_
20
B
EI
S
_ + |0
B
EI] = 26.67
_
S0
B
EI
S
_ = 26.67
|0
B
EI] = 16.u
0
B
=
16.u
EI

Substituting the values into the slope deflection equations gives;
H
AB
= _
EI
S
] |0
B
] = _
EI
S
] _
16.u
EI
_ = S.SSkN
H
BA
= _
EI
S
] |20
B
] = _
EI
S
] _2
16.u
EI
_ = 1u.67
H
BC
= _
EI
2
] |20
B
] 26.67 = _
EI
2
] _2
16.u
EI
_ 26.67 = 1u.67 kN
H
CB
= _
EI
2
] |0
B
] + 26.67 = _
EI
2
] _
16.u
EI
_ + 26.67 = S4.67 kN
The reactions at the support are determined using the equilibrium equations. The reactions for
the span AB are;
H
AB
+ H
BA
I
=
S.SS + 1u.67
6
= 2.67 kN
The reactions for the span BC are
H
BC
+ H
CB
I
_
wl
2
=
1u.67 +S4.67
6
+
2u 4
2
= 64 kN
The reactions are as follows;
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

45|P a g e

R
A
= 2.67 kN
R
B
= 66.67 kN
R
C
= 64 kN

Example 2
Draw the shear force and moment diagrams for the beam shown in Fig.3.4a






SOLUTION
The beam in question has only three degree of freedom, being the slope at A, B and C




Thus the slope deflection equation would be written in terms of the slope at A, B and C. The
fixed end moment on the span BC is calculated for. The fixed end moment for the node B on
the span BC is calculated as;
FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
8 S
2
12

FEH
BC
= 16.67kN
The fixed end moment for the node B on the span BC is calculated as;
FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
8 S
2
12

FEH
BC
= 16.67kN
Figure 3.4a
A
B
4m Sm
8kN/m
C
Figure 3.4b
A
B
4m Sm
C
0
A

0
B
0
B
0
C
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

46|P a g e

The slope deflection equation for the span can then be written. It should be noted that the
slopes at the support A and C are zero, since they are all fixed. It should also be noted that
there are no displacements along the length of the beam. The general formula for slope
deflection is;
H
N
= 2E _
I
I
] |20
N
+ 0
P
S] _ (FEH)
N

Thus the slope deflection formula for the node A on the span AB becomes;
H
AB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
A
+ 0
B
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
AB

H
AB
= 2E _
I
4
] |20
A
+ 0
B
S(u)] u
H
AB
= _
EI
2
] |20
A
+ 0
B
] 1
The slope deflection formula for the node B on the span AB becomes;
H
BA
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
A
S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
BA

H
BA
= 2E _
I
4
] |20
B
+ 0
A
S(u)] + u
H
BA
= _
EI
2
] |20
B
+ 0
A
] 2
Thus the slope deflection formula for the node B on the span BC becomes;
H
BC
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
C
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
BC

H
BC
= 2E _
I
S
] |20
B
+0
C
S(u)] 16.67
H
BC
= _
2EI
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
] 16.67 S
The slope deflection formula for the node C on the span BC becomes;
H
CB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
C
+0
B
S _

I
]_ +(FEH)
CB

H
CB
= 2E _
I
S
] |20
C
+0
B
S(u)] + 16.67
H
CB
= _
2EI
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
] + 16.67 4
The equilibrium equations for the beam are;
H
AB
= H
CB
= u
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

47|P a g e

And
H
BA
+ H
BC
= u
Solving the equilibrium equations will yield us;
_
EI
2
] |20
B
+ 0
A
] + _
2EI
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
] 16.67 = u
_
EI
2
20
B
+
EI
2
0
A
_ + _
2EI
S
20
B
+
2EI
S
0
C
_ = 16.67
_
EI
2
0
A
+
9EI
S
20
B
+
2EI
S
0
C
_ = 16.67 S
Making 0
A
in cqn 1the subject
_
EI
2
] |20
A
+ 0
B
] = u
_2 _
EI
2
] 0
A
+ _
EI
2
] 0
B
_ = u
EI0
A
= _
EI
2
] 0
B

0
A
=
0
B
2

Substituting 0
A
into cqn 5
_
EI
2
_
0
B
2
] +
22EI
1S
20
B
+
2EI
S
0
C
_ = 16.67
_
S1EI
2u
0
B
+
2EI
S
0
C
_ = 16.67 6
Solving simultaneously cqn 4 and 6 yields
0
B
=
18.S2
EI
roJ
Substitute the value of the slope at B into the equation 1 to determine the slope at A.
_
EI
2
] |20
A
+ 0
B
] = u
20
A
=
18.S2
EI

0
A
=
9.26
EI
roJ
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

48|P a g e

Substitute the value of the slope at B into the equation 4 to determine the slope at C
_
2EI
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
] + 16.67 = u
_
2EI
S
] _20
C
+
18.2S
EI
_ = 16.67
_20
C
+
18.2S
EI
_ =
41.68
EI

20
C
=
6u.2u
EI

0
C
=
Su.1u
EI
roJ
Substituting the values into the slope deflection equations gives;
H
AB
= _
EI
2
] |20
A
+ 0
B
] = _
EI
2
] _2 _
9.26
EI
] +
18.S2
EI
_ = u
H
BA
= _
EI
2
] |20
B
+ 0
A
] = _
EI
2
] _2 _
18.S2
EI
]
9.26
EI
_ = 1S.89 kNm
H
BC
= _
2EI
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
] 16.67 = _
2EI
S
] _2
18.S2
EI
+
Su.1u
EI
_ 16.67 = 1S.89 kNm
H
CB
= _
2EI
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
] + 16.67 = _
2EI
S
] _2 _
Su.1u
EI
] +
18.S2
EI
_ + 16.67 = u
The reactions at the support are determined using the equilibrium equations. The reactions for
the span AB are;
H
AB
+ H
BA
I
=
u + 1S.89
4
= S.47 kN
The reactions for the span BC are
H
BC
+ H
CB
I
+
wl
2
=
1u.67 +u
S
+
8 4
2
= 16 kN
The reactions are as follows;
R
A
= S.47 kN
R
B
= 19.47 kN
R
C
= 16 kN

Example 3
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

49|P a g e

Determine the moments for the beam shown in Fig.3.5a.








SOLUTION
The beam in question has only one degree of freedom. The o degree of freedom is the slope at
B.




Thus the slope deflection equation would be written in terms of the slope at B. The span AB is
the only span to be considered, as the moment H
BA,
can be calculated from statics.
The slope deflection equation for the span can then be written. It should be noted that the
slopes at the support A is zero, since it is fixed. The general formula for slope deflection is;
H
N
= 2E _
I
I
] |20
N
+ 0
P
S] _ (FEH)
N

Thus the slope deflection formula for the node A on the span AB becomes;
H
AB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
A
+ 0
B
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
AB

H
AB
= 2E _
I
S
] |2(u) + 0
B
S(u)] u
H
AB
= _
2EI
S
] |0
B
]
The slope deflection formula for the node B on the span AB becomes;
H
BA
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
A
S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
BA

H
BA
= 2E _
I
S
] |20
B
+ u S(u)] + u
H
BA
= _
2EI
S
] |20
B
]
The equilibrium equations for the beam are;
Figure 3.5a
A
B
Sm Sm
C
A
B
Sm Sm
C
Figure 3.5b
20kN/m
20kN/m
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

50|P a g e

H
AB
u
And
H
BA
+ H
BC
= u
Solving the equilibrium equations will yield us;
_
2EI
S
] |20
B
] +(2u S) = u
_
2EI
S
] |20
B
] = 6u
0
B
=
4S
EI

Substituting the values into the slope deflection equations gives;
H
AB
= _
2EI
S
] |0
B
] = _
2EI
S
] _
4S
EI
_ = 18 kNm
H
BA
= _
2EI
S
] |20
B
] = _
2EI
S
] _2
4S
EI
_ = 6u kNm

3.6ANALYSISOFFRAMESWITHOUTSIDESWAY
Properly restrained frame will neither sway to the left or the right. Also frames that are
symmetrically loaded will not sway eve if they are unrestrained. For the above mentioned
cases, there term in the slope deflection equation is zero. This is due to the fact that bending
does not lead to linear displacement of joints.
This will be illustrated with the following examples.





EXAMPLE 4
Determine the moment at each joint of the frame in Fig 3.6a


4m
3kN/m
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

51|P a g e





SOLUTION
For this problem, three spans are going to be considered; span AB, BC and CD. Because the
frame is fixed at A and D, the slope at those points too will be zero. The slope deflection
equation for the various spans will thus be calculated for.
Since the frames loading is on only span BC, the fixed end moment will also be calculated for
that span only. The fixed end moments for that span are;
FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
S S
2
12

FEH
BC
= 2.2SkN
The fixed end moment for the node B on the span BC is calculated as;
FEH
BC
=
wl
2
12

FEH
BC
=
S S
2
12

FEH
BC
= 2.2SkN
The slope deflection equations for the span AB are:
H
AB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
A
+ 0
B
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
AB

H
AB
= 2E _
I
4
] |u + 0
B
S(u)] u
H
AB
= _
EI
2
] |0
B
]
H
BA
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
A
S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
BA

H
BA
= 2E _
I
4
] |20
B
+ u S(u)] + u
H
BA
= _
EI
2
] |20
B
]
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

52|P a g e

The slope deflection equations for the span BC are:


H
BC
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
B
+ 0
C
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
BC

H
BC
= 2E _
I
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
S(u)] 2.2S
H
BC
= _
2EI
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
] 2.2S
H
CB
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
C
+0
B
S _

I
]_ +(FEH)
CB

H
CB
= 2E _
I
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
S(u)] + 2.2S
H
CB
= _
2EI
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
] + 2.2S
The slope deflection equations for the span CD are:
H
C
= 2E _
I
I
] _20

+ 0
C
S _

I
]_ (FEH)
C

H
C
= 2E _
I
4
] |u + 0
C
S(u)] u
H
C
= _
EI
2
] |0
C
]
H
C
= 2E _
I
I
] _20
C
+ 0

S _

I
]_ + (FEH)
C

H
C
= 2E _
I
4
] |20
C
+ u S(u)] + u
H
C
= _
EI
2
] |20
C
]
The equilibrium equations for the beam are;
H
AB
H
C
u
And
H
BA
+ H
BC
= u
H
CB
+ H
C
= u
The equilibrium equations are now solve for to determine the values of the slopes,
H
BA
+H
BC
= u
SL0PE BEFLECTI0N NETB0B

53|P a g e

_
EI
2
] |20
B
] + _
2EI
S
] |20
B
+ 0
C
] 2.2S = u
|1.8SEI0
B
+ u.67EI0
C
] = 2.2S
H
CB
+ H
C
= u
_
2EI
S
] |20
C
+ 0
B
] + 2.2S + _
EI
2
] |20
C
] = u
|1.8SEI0
C
+ u.670
B
] = 2.2S
Solving the two equations simultaneously yields;
0
B
= 0
C
=
1.44
EI
roJ
The moments at the various joints are;
H
AB
= _
EI
2
] |0
B
] = _
EI
2
] _
1.44
EI
_ = u.72 kNm
H
BA
= (EI)|0
B
] = (EI) _
1.44
EI
_ = 1.44 kN
H
BC
= _
2EI
S
] _2 _
1.44
EI
] + _
1.44
EI
]_ 2.2S = 1.44 kN
H
CB
= _
2EI
S
] _2 _
1.44
EI
] + _
1.44
EI
]_ 2.2S = 1.44 kN
H
C
= (EI)|0
C
] = (EI) _
1.44
EI
_ = 1.44 kN
H
C
= _
EI
2
] |0
C
] = _
EI
2
] _
1.44
EI
_ = u.72 kNm

4.1BA
The mo
Hardy
several
Enginee

4.2IN
The Mo
calculat
be stopp
or may

4.3BA
4.3.1F
ends of
clamped
4.3.2
clamped
The dif
unbalan
ACKGROU
oment distr
Cross, of t
publication
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NTRODUC
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tion, with e
ped after th
be carried o
ASICTER
FIXEDEN
f the memb
d and preve
UNBALAN
d, when rel
fference bet
nced momen
OBJEC
At the en
1. U
2. B
f
3. B
4. B
b
5. B
d
UND
ribution me
the Univers
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journal.
CTION
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leased they
tween the f
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nd of this un
Understand
Be able to
frames
Be able to c
Be able to c
beams and f
Be able to
distribution
N0NE
ethod was i
sity of Illin
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hod is a stru
roviding re
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desired degr
OGY
NTS: These
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rotating.
OMENT: Jo
rotate in th
fixed end m
nit, students
the basic te
determine t
alculate the
carry out th
frames
analyse fra
method.
ENT BI
invented in
nois. The m
hich appea
uctural anal
sults closer
titive cycle,
ree of analy
e are the m
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oints in a
he sum of th
moment and
s should;
erminology
the stiffnes
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ame with a
ISTRIB
n 1938 by
method wa
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lysis which
r to the exac
giving a ve
ysis is achiev
oments pro
when all th
structure a
he fixed end
d the actual
of the mom
s and distri
moment for
distribution
and without
0TI0N
an America
as further e
e American
consists of
ct answer. T
ery good app
ved.
duced by ex
he joints in
are initially
d moment is
moment is
ment distribu
ibution fact
r beam and f
n procedure
t sidesway
U
N NET
an professo
established
n Society o
f repetitive c
The calculat
proximate a
external load
n the struc
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s not equal
s referred t
ution metho
tors for bea
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for the ana
using the m
Unit4
B0B
or, Prof.
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analysis,
ds at the
cture are
d to be
to zero.
o as the
od.
ams and
alysis of
moment
N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

71|P a g e

4.3.3 DISTRIBUTED MOMENTS: The unbalanced moment at a joint is the difference


between the fixed end moment and the actual moment that causes a joint to rotate. The
rotation produces a twist at the ends of the members resulting in a change in their moments.
The member resists the twist caused by the unbalanced moment by developing a resisting
moment. This continues until an equilibrium condition is attained - when the resisting
moment is equal to the resisting moment, and the sum of the two moments equals zero. The
resisting moment developed in the member is referred to as the distributed moment.
4.3.5 CARRY OVER MOMENTS: The distributed moments in the ends of the member
causes moments in the other ends of the member, which is assumed to be fixed; these are
referred to as carry over moments.
4.3.6 CARRY OVER FACTOR: the carry over factor is the ratio between the moments
produced at a joint at one end of a beam to the moment produced at the other joint at the other
end of the beam. When moment is applied to one end of a beam, the effect of the beam is felt
at the other end of the beam. The ratio of the magnitude of the beam felt at the point of
application to that felt at the far end of the beam is what we are referring to as the carry over
factor. The carry over factor is dependent on the type of joint or support. Two type of beam
connect ions will be considered:
1. Where the beam is fixed at one end and simply supported at the other end.
2. Where the beam is fixed at both ends of the beam.

4.4CARRYOVERFACTORFORBEAMSFIXEDATONEENDANDSIMPLY
SUPPORTEDATTHEOTHEREND.
Considering the beam AB in Fig 4.1 fixed at A and simply supported at B, with a clockwise
moment applied at the fixed support B.
Given that;
l = Spon o tc bcom
p = Clockwisc momcnt opplicJ ot B(i. c. , H
B
)
H
A
= Fixing momcnt ot A





X
x
l
B
A
H
A

R
R
p
Figure 4.1
N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

72|P a g e

Because the beam is not subject to any external loads, the reaction of the beam to the moment
applied should be equal and act in the opposite direction to each other.
Taking moment about the point A,
(R. l) H
A
p = u
(R. l) = H
A
+p (i)
Considering a point X, which is x distance away from the support A. Taking moments about
the point X would yield;
H
X
= H
A
(R. x)
From the course module BT 254, we learnt that the equation of a deflected beam is given by;
H
EI
=
J
2
y
Jx
2

Therefore
EI
J
2
y
Jx
2
= H
A
(R. x)
The slope was found by integrating the differentiating the EI
d
2

dx
2
equation. Thus
differentiating the above equation would yield;
EI
Jy
Jx
= (H
A
. x)
Rx
2
2
+C
1

where C
1
is the constant of integration, we know that the slope and deflection at a fixed
support is zero. Therefore when x = u,
d
dx
= u and C
1
= u.
EI
Jy
Jx
= (H
A
. x)
Rx
2
2
(ii)
Integrating the equation above on more time gives
EI. y =
H
A
. x
2
2

Rx
3
6
+C
2

where C
2
is the constant of integration, we know that the slope and deflection at a fixed
support is zero. Therefore when x = u, y = u and C
2
= u, and
EI. y =
H
A
. x
2
2

Rx
3
6
(iii)
When x = l, y = u, therefore substituting it into equation (iii)
N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

73|P a g e

u =
H
A
. l
2
2

Rl
3
6

Rl
3
6
=
H
A
. l
2
2

R. l = SH
A

Substituting the value of R. l in equation (i)
SH
A
= H
A
+p
2H
A
= p
But p = H
B

2H
A
= H
B

H
A
H
B
=
1
2
.1
Therefore the carry over factor is one-half.
It can be realised from equation (ii) that
EI
Jy
Jx
= (H
A
. x)
Rx
2
2

The slope at B is found by substituting into the above equation x = l
EI. i
B
= (H
A
. l)
Rl
2
2
but R. l = SH
A

EI. i
B
= (H
A
. l)
SH
A
. l
2

EI. i
B
=
H
A
. l
2
=
pl
4
H
A
=
p
2

i
B
=
pl
4EI

The negative sign is an indication that the tangent at B makes an angle with the beam AB in
the anticlockwise direction.
i
B
=
pl
4EI

p =
4EI. i
B
l
. 2

N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

74|P a g e

4.5 CARRY OVER FACTOR FOR A BEAM SIMPLY SUPPORTED ON BOTH


SIDES.
Considering the beam AB in Fig 4.2 fixed at A and simply supported at B, with a clockwise
moment applied at the fixed support B.
Given that;
l = Spon o tc bcom
p = Clockwisc momcnt opplicJ ot B(i. c. , H
B
)
H
A
= Fixing momcnt ot A




Because the beam has a simply support at both ends, it cannot develop fixed end moments.
But the reactions should be equal and opposite in other to maintain statical equilibrium
Taking moment about the point A,
(R. l) p = u
(R. l) = p (i)
Considering a point X, which is x distance away from the support A. Taking moments about
the point X would yield;
H
X
= (R. x)
From the course module BT 254, we learnt that the equation of a deflected beam is given by;
H
EI
=
J
2
y
Jx
2

Therefore
EI
J
2
y
Jx
2
= (R. x)
The slope was found by integrating the differentiating the EI
d
2

dx
2
equation. Thus
differentiating the above equation would yield;
EI
Jy
Jx
=
Rx
2
2
+C
1
(ii)
where C
1
is the constant of integration. Integrating equation one more time produces,
X
x
l
B
A
R
R
p
Figure 4.2
N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

75|P a g e

EI. y =
Rx
3
6
+C
1
x +C
2

where C
2
is the constant of integration. We know that the slope and deflection at a fixed
support is zero. Therefore when x = u, y = u and C
2
= u, and
EI. y =
Rx
3
6
+C
1
x (iii)
When x = l, y = u, therefore substituting it into equation (iii)
u =
Rl
3
6
+C
1
l
C
1
=
Rl
2
6
=
pl
6

Substituting the value of C
1
in equation (ii)
EI
Jy
Jx
=
Rx
2
2
+
pl
6
=
Rlx
2
2l
+
pl
6

=
px
2
2l
+
pl
6

The slope at B is found by substituting into the above equation x = l
EI. i
B
=
pl
2
2l
+
pl
6
=
p
2
2
+
pl
6
=
pl
S

i
B
=
pl
SEI

The negative sign is an indication that the tangent at B makes an angle with the beam AB in
the anticlockwise direction.
i
B
=
pl
SEI

p =
SEI. i
B
l
.S

4.6STIFFNESSFACTOR
The stiffness factor is the moment needed to rotate the end of the beam through a unit angle
without causing the far end to move or translate while still moving the beam end. From the
above discussion, we realised that the moment on a beam with one fixed end and the other
simply supported is;
N0NENT BISTRIB0TI0N NETB0B

76|P a g e

p =
4EI. i
B
l

Therefore the stiffness factor for such a beam (given i
B
=1) is
k
1
=
4EI
l
.4
In the same manner the moment on the beam with both end simply supported was found as;
p =
SEI. i
B
l

The stiffness factor for such a beam (given i
B
=1) is
k
2
=
SEI
l
.S

4.7DISTRIBUTIONFACTOR
This is the fraction of the total moment that would be supplied by each beam that is
connected at the joints rigidly. Whenever moment is applied to a fixed joint, it develops a
reacting moment to resist the applied moment to keep the system in equilibrium. The sum of
the moment that is developed is as a result of the moments developed in the beams that join
up into that joint. If the applied moment M causes the joint to rotate through an angle 0, the
each member i of the joint will rotate by the same amount. Given that the stiffness factor for
the i
th
member is K

, then the moment contributed by that member is H

= K

0. For
equilibrium to be established, it is required that H = H
1
+H
n
= K
1
0 +K
n
0. Therefore the
distribution factor for the i
th
member is
F

=
H

H
=
K

0
0 K


If the common term, which is the angle of rotation, is cancelled out it would be seen the
distribution factor for that member is the stiffness factor for that member divided by the sum
of the entire stiffness factor for that joint. It can be expressed generally as;
F =
K
K
.6

4.8PROCEDUREFORANALYSIS
The following methods can be employed generally to determine the moments in beam spans
using the moment distribution method.
1. Identify the joints on the beam and calculate for the stiffness for each joint sat the spans.
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2. Using the stiffness factors, the distribution factors can then be determined from the
relation in equation 6. It is worth noting that for supports that are fixed F = u and for
simple supports such rollers and pins F = 1.
3. The fixed end moment for each loaded span is determined using the table given at the end
of the course material. Fixed end moments (FEMs) that are positive acts clockwise on the
span and those that are negative acts counter clockwise on the span.
4. Assuming that the joints at which moments in the connecting spans must be determined
are initially locked, determine the moment that is required to achieve equilibrium of
moment at that joint. That is the difference between the moments at both sides of the joint
is determined.
5. The joint that is assumed to be initially locked is unlocked and the unbalancing moment is
distributed to the connecting span at the joints.
6. The distributed moment is then carried over to the far end of the respective spans by
multiplying by the carry over factor which was determined in equation 1.
7. Step 4 to 6 is repeated successively till the unbalancing moment at the entire joint is
cancelled out or becomes very small. Then the cycle is stopped by not carrying over the
last distributed moment.
8. The fixed end moment, fixed end moment, distributed moment and the carry over
moment for each side of the support is summed out. Given that the arithmetic is the
correct, the moment at each sides of the same support will be the same or almost the
same. The values of the moment become the moment value for that particular support.
9. The reaction at the various supports are thus calculated for by summing the values of the
loadings on the span and dividing by two; summing the moment at the ends of the same
span, dividing it by the span. When these two values are summed together they give the
value of the reaction (shear) at that support.

4.9ANALYSISOFSIMPLEINDETERMINATEBEAM
The following examples are going to be used to illustrate the use of the conjugate beam in the
analyses of simple indeterminate beams.

EXAMPLE 4.1
Determine the bending moment and shear force and draw their respective diagram in the
beam shown Fig 4.3a below.





6m 4m
4m
20kN 2kN/m
Figure 4.3a
A B C
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SOLUTION
These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = 6m
Icngt BC(I) = 8m
IooJ AB = 2kNm
IooJ BC = 2ukN
The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
6
=
2EI
S

k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
8
=
1EI
2

Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
2EI
S
2EI
S
+
1EI
2
=
4
7
onJ
1EI
S
1EI
2
+
2EI
S
=
S
7

The fixing moment for the span AB at A
=
wl
2
12

=
2 6
2
12

= 6.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span AB at B
=
wl
2
12

=
2 6
2
12

= 6.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
Pl
8

=
2u 8
8

= 2u kNm
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The fixing moment for the span BC at B


=
Pl
8

=
2u 8
8

= 2u kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 6.0 kNm and the
moment at B on the span BC is 20 kNm. This presents as with a difference of 14 kNm, the
difference in the moment at the various sides of the support is what is referred to as the
unbalanced moment. This unbalanced moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the
support based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of
the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
4
7
14 = 8kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
S
7
14 = 6kNm
The fixing moment at the two end of the beam will not be distributed because it is a fixed
support; the distribution factor for fixed end support is zero.
The distributed moments are then carried over to the far ends of the spans. That is the
distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carrying over is done by
sending half of the distributed moment from B to A. Thus the carry over moment from B to A
is half of the 8 kNm which 4 kNm. The same treatment is given to the span BC. The
distributed moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the support C. The carried over
moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is 6 kNm. The treatment is
carried on until distributed moment at the common is or near to zero. The final moment is
achieved by algebraically summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment
distribution calculation is best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.
Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Final moment
4
7

S
7

-6 6 -20 20
8 6
4 3
0 0 0 0
-2 14 -14 23
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The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span AB is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
2 6
2
8

= 9.u kNm
And the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
=
Pl
4

=
2u 8
4

= 4u kNm
To determine the reactions at the various supports, assume
R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
A
= Rcoction ot B onJ
R
A
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
A
6) +H
B
H
A
+(2 S 6) = u
6R
A
14 +2 +S6 = u
6R
A
= 24
R
A
= 4 kN
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
C
8) +H
B
H
C
+(2u 4) = u
8R
A
14 +2S +8u = u
8R
A
= 89
R
C
= 11.1S kN
Summing all forces and equating to zero
R
A
+R
B
+R
C
= (2 6) +2u
4 +R
B
+11.1S = S2
R
B
= 16.87 kN

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EXAMPLE 4.2
Determine the bending moment and shear force diagram in the beam shown Fig 4.4a below.



SOLUTION
These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = 6m
Icngt BC(I) = 6m
IooJ AB = 2kNm
IooJ BC = 12kN
The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
SEI
l
=
SEI
6
=
1EI
2

k
B
=
SEI
l
=
SEI
6
=
1EI
2

Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
Figure 4.4a
6m 3m
3m
12kN 2kN/m
4kN
8kN
8.87kN
8.87kN
11.87kN 11.87kN
2kNm
9kNm
40kNm
14kNm
23kNm
Figure 4.3b
A B C
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1EI
2
1EI
2
+
1EI
2
=
1
2
onJ
1EI
2
1EI
2
+
1EI
2
=
1
2

The fixing moment for the span AB at A
=
wl
2
12

=
2 6
2
12

= 6.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span AB at B
=
wl
2
12

=
2 6
2
12

= 6.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
Pl
8

=
12 6
8

= 9 kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
Pl
8

=
12 6
8

= 9 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 6.0 kNm and the
moment at B on the span BC is 90 kNm. This presents as with a difference of 3 kNm, the
difference in the moment at the various sides of the support is what is referred to as the
unbalanced moment. This unbalanced moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the
support based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of
the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
1
2
S = 1.S kNm
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The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
1
2
S = 1.S kNm
The fixing moment at the two end of the beam will remain the same as the distribution factor
for a simple support is one.
The distributed moments are then carried over to the far ends of the spans. That is the
distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carrying over is done by
sending half of the distributed moment from B to A. Thus the carry over moment from B to A
is half of the 8 kNm which 4 kNm. Similarly the moment at the A support of the same span is
carried over to the B support side of the beam span. This is achieved by carrying half of the
moment at A over to the support at B. The same treatment is given to the span BC. The
distributed moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the support C. The carried over
moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is 6 kNm. The treatment is
carried on until distributed moment at the common is or near to zero. The final moment is
achieved by algebraically summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment
distribution calculation is best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.


Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Final moment



The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span AB is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
2 6
2
8

= 9.u kNm
And the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
1
2

1
2

-6 6 -9 9
6 1.5 1.5 -9
0.75 3 -4.5 0.75
-0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
0 11.25 -11.25 0
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=
Pl
4

=
12 8
4

= 4u kNm
To determine the reactions at the various supports, assume
R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
A
= Rcoction ot B onJ
R
A
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
A
6) +H
B
H
A
+(2 S 6) = u
6R
A
11.2S +u +S6 = u
6R
A
= 24.7S
R
A
= 4.1S kN
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
C
6) +H
B
H
C
+(12 S) = u
6R
A
11.2S +u +S6 = u
6R
A
= 24.7S
R
C
= 4.1S kN
Summing all forces and equating to zero
4.1S +R
B
+4.1S = (2 6) +12
4 +R
B
+8.26 = 1S.74
R
B
= 1S.74 kN







4.13kN
7.87kN
7.87kN 7.87kN
4.13kN 4.13kN
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EXAMPLE 4.3
Determine the bending moment and shear force diagram in the beam shown Fig 4.5a below.




SOLUTION
These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = 4m
Icngt BC(I) = 6m
Icngt C(I) = 2m
IooJ AB = SkNm
IooJ C = 4kN
The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
SEI
l
=
SEI
4
=
SEI
4

k
B
=
SEI
l
=
SEI
6
=
1EI
2

Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
SEI
4
SEI
4
+
1EI
2
=
S
S
onJ
1EI
2
1EI
2
+
SEI
4
=
2
S

The beam beyond the support C is overhanging and thus would have distribution factor of 1
and 0, for the span CB and CD respectively.
The fixing moment for the span AB at A
9kNm
40kNm
11.25kN
4m
3m 2m 3m
3kN/m
Figure 4.5a
4kN
A B C
D
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=
wl
2
12

=
S 6
2
12

= 8.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span AB at B
=
wl
2
12

=
S 6
2
12

= 8.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span CD at C
= Pl
= 4 2
= 8 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 8.0 kNm and the
moment at B on the span BC is 0. This presents as with a difference of 8 kNm, the difference
in the moment at the various sides of the support is what is referred to as the unbalanced
moment. This unbalanced moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based
on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced
moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
S
S
8 = 4.8 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
2
S
8 = S.2 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at C in the span CD is 8 kNm and the moment
at D on the span CD is 0. This presents as with a difference of 8 kNm, the difference in the
moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based on the distribution factor
for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced moment that will be
distributed to the span BC side of the support C is
1.u 8 = 8 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the CD side of the support
D is
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u 8 = u kNm
The fixing moment at the two end of the beam will remain the same as the distribution factor
for a simple support is one.
The distributed moments are then carried over to the far ends of the spans. That is the
distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carrying over is done by
sending half of the distributed moment from B to A. Thus the carry over moment from B to A
is half of the 4.8 kNm which is 2.4 kNm. Similarly the moment at the A support of the same
span is carried over to the B support side of the beam span. This is achieved by carrying half
of the moment at A over to the support at B. Thus the carry over moment from B to A is half
of the 8 kNm which is 4 kNm. The same treatment is given to the span BC. The distributed
moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the support C, and the. The carried over
moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is 1.6 kNm. And the
distributed moment at C is also carried over to B, which is half the distributed moment at C; 9
kNm. The same treatment is again given to the span CD, where the distributed moment at C
is halved and carried over to D and vice versa. The treatment is carried on until distributed
moment at the common is or near to zero. The final moment is achieved by algebraically
summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment distribution calculation is
best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.
The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span AB is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
S 4
2
8

= 6.u kNm
Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Final moment



To determine the reactions at the various supports, assume
R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B onJ
1
S
S

2
S
1
0
-8 8 0 0 -8
8 - 4.8 - 3.2 8
0
- 2.4 4 4 - 1.6 0
2.4 -4.8 -3.2 0 1.6
0 2.4 -2.4 6.4 -6.4
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R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
A
4) +H
B
H
A
+(S 4 2) = u
4R
A
2.4 +u +24 = u
4R
A
= 21.6
R
A
= S.4 kN
Taking moment about B and equating the same to zero,
(R
C
6) +H
B
H
C
+(4 8) = u
6R
C
2.4 6.4 +S2 = u
6R
C
= 2S.2
R
C
= S.87 kN
Summing all forces and equating to zero
S.4 +R
B
+S.87 = (S 4) +4
S.4 +R
B
+S.87 = 16
R
B
= 6.7S kN







4kN
5.4kN
6.6kN
0.13kN
0.13kN
4kN
6kNm
2.4kNm
6.4kNm
Figure 4.5b
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4.10MOMENTDISTRIBUTIONFORFRAMES
The moment distribution method can be applied to frame analysis. Generally frames can be
classified into two; frames with sidesway and those without side sway. Frames without
sidesway are those frames who by the method of their loading and the rigidity in their support
and members do not allow for movement within the frame. On the other hand, frames with
sidesway are those frames that have movements within the frame due to either less rigidity in
their members, or less fixity in their support which permits rotations or due to the way the
frames are loaded.

4.10.1FRAMESWITHOUTSIDESWAY
This section will consider the analysis of frames without sidesway. Generally the method of
analysing frames without sidesway is the same as the method for analysing simple
indeterminate beams. As such the procedure adopted in the analysis of simple indeterminate
beams would be adopted here too in the analysis of frames. The following examples would be
adopted to illustrate the analysis of frames without sidesway using the moment distribution
method.


EXAMPLE 4.4
Analyse the frame in Fig using the moment distribution method and sketch the bending
moment diagram.





`


SOLUTION
Because of the uniform distributed nature of the loading on the frame it would assume a
deformation curve as shown in the figure below, in which case the frame would neither
translate in the vertical or the horizontal direction.
3m
4m
3kN/m
Figure 4.6a
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These are the information provided in the question.


Icngt AB(I) = 4m
Icngt BC(I) = Sm
Icngt C(I) = 4m
IooJ BC = SkNm
The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
S
=
4EI
S

The stiffness factor for CB and CD is given by,
k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
S
=
4EI
S

k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
S
= EI
Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
EI
EI +
4EI
S
=
S
7
onJ
4EI
S
4EI
S
+EI
=
4
7

And the distribution factor for the members CB and CD are
4EI
S
4EI
S
+EI
=
4
7
onJ
EI
EI +
4EI
S
=
S
7

The support at A and D are both fixed and as such would have a distribution factor of zero
each.
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
wl
2
12

=
S 6
2
12

= 8.u kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at C
=
wl
2
12

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=
S 6
2
12

= 8.u kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 0 kNm and the moment
at B on the span BC is -8. As noted from the previous discussions, it presents as with a
difference of -8 kNm. This unbalanced moment is distributed to the two sides of the support
based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the
unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
S
7
8 = S.4S kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
4
7
8 = 4.S7 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at C in the span CD is 8 kNm and the moment
at D on the span CD is 0. This presents as with a difference of 8 kNm, the difference in the
moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based on the distribution factor
for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced moment that will be
distributed to the span BC side of the support C is
4
7
8 = 4.S7 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the CD side of the support
D is
S
7
8 = S.4S kNm
The distributed moments are then carried out as was done for the simply indeterminate beam.
That is the distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carry over
moment from B to A is half of the 3.43 kNm which is 1.72 kNm. There will be no carry over
moment from A to B since it has a moment value of zero. The same treatment is given to the
span BC. The distributed moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the support C, and
the. The carried over moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is 4.57
kNm which yields 2.29 kNm. And the distributed moment at C is also carried over to B,
which is half the distributed moment at C; 2.29 kNm. The same treatment is again given to
the span CD, where the distributed moment at C is halved and carried over to D and vice
versa. Because the frame is symmetrical the treatment of CD will be the same as that of AB.
The carried over moment are distributed and carried over successively until the distributed
moments tends to become zero or nears zero. The final moment is achieved by algebraically
summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment distribution calculation is
best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.
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Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment
Carrying over moment

Distributed moment



The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
=
wl
2
8


=
S S
2
8


= S.S8 kNm
The moment diagram for the frame is drawn below.









u
S
7

4
7

4
7

S
7
u
0 0 -8 8 0 0
0 3.44 4.56 -4.56 -3.44 0
1.72 0 -2.28 2.28 0 -1.72
0 0.98 1.30 -1.30 -0.98 0
0.49 0 -0.65 0.65 0 -0.49
0 0.28 0.37 -0.37 -0.28 0
0.14 0 -0.19 0.19 0 -0.14
0 0.08 0.11 -0.11 -0.08 0
0.04 0 -0.06 0.06 0 -0.04
0 0.03 0.03 -0.03 -0.03 0
2.39 4.81 -4.81 4.81 -4.81 -2.39
4.81kNm
4.81kNm
4.81kNm 4.81kNm
2.39kNm 2.39kNm
Figure 4.6b
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EXAMPLE 4.4
Analyse the frame in Fig using the moment distribution method and sketch the bending
moment diagram.







SOLUTION
The frame shown in the question above will not be subject to swaying due to the fixity at the
support A and D. This is due to the fact that the fixity will not permit translation in any
direction as well as resist all rotations. The deformation diagram for the problem about is
shown below.





These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = 4m
Icngt BC(I) = 4m
Icngt C(I) = Sm
IooJ AB = SkNm
IooJ BC = SkNm
IooJ C = 4kN

The flexural rigidity (EI) is the same throughout the frame.
4kN
3kN/m
5kN/m
4m 3m
4m
Figure 4.7a
Figure 4.7b
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The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
The stiffness factor for CB and CD is given by,
k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
S
=
4EI
S

Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
EI
EI +EI
= u.S onJ
EI
EI +EI
= u.S
And the distribution factor for the members CB and CD are
EI
EI +
4EI
S
=
S
7
onJ
4EI
S
4EI
S
+EI
=
4
7

The support at A and D are both fixed and as such would have a distribution factor of zero
each.
The fixing moment for the span AB at A
=
wl
2
12

=
S 4
2
12

= 6.67 kNm
The fixing moment for the span AB at B
=
wl
2
12

=
S 4
2
12

= 6.67 kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
wl
2
12

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=
S 4
2
12

= 4 kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at C
=
wl
2
12

=
S 4
2
12

= 4 kNm
The fixing moment for the span CD at B
=
Pl
8

=
4 S
8

= 1.S kNm
The fixing moment for the span CD at D
=
Pl
8

=
4 S
8

= 1.S kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 6.67 kNm and the
moment at B on the span BC is -4. As noted from the previous discussions, it presents as with
a difference of 2.67 kNm. This unbalanced moment is distributed to the two sides of the
support based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of
the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
u.S 2.67 = 1.S4 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
u.S 2.67 = 1.S4 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at C in the span CD is 4 kNm and the moment
at D on the span CD is -1.5 kNm. This presents as with a difference of 2.5 kNm, the
difference in the moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based on the
distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced
moment that will be distributed to the span BC side of the support C is
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S
7
2.S = 1.u8 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the CD side of the support
D is
4
7
2.S = 1.42 kNm
The distributed moments are then carried out as was done for the simply indeterminate beam.
That is the distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carry over
moment from B to A is half of the -1.34 kNm which is -0.67 kNm. The carry over moment
from A to B is zero since the support A has a distribution factor of zero. The same treatment
is given to the span BC. The distributed moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the
support C, and the distributed moment at C is also carried over to support B. The carried over
moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is -1.34 kNm which yields -
0.67 kNm. And the distributed moment at C is also carried over to B, which is half the
distributed moment at C, which is 1.08 kNm yielding 0.54kNm. The same treatment is again
given to the span CD, where the distributed moment at C is halved and carried over to D and
vice versa. The carried over moment are distributed and carried over successively until the
distributed moments tends to become zero or nears zero. The final moment is achieved by
algebraically summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment distribution
calculation is best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.
The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported.
Thus the mid-span moment for span AB is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
S 4
2
8

= 1u kNm
Thus the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
S 4
2
8

= 6 kNm
Thus the mid-span moment for span CD is given by
=
Pl
4

= (4 S)4
= S kNm
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Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment
Final Moments



The moment diagram for the frame is drawn below.










EXAMPLE 4.4
Analyse the frame in Fig 4.8a using the moment distribution method and sketch the bending
moment diagram.



u
1
2

1
2

S
7

4
7
u
-6.67 6.67 -4 4 -1.5 1.5
0 -1.34 -1.34 -1.08 -1.42 0
-0.67 0 -0.54 -0.67 0 -0.71
0 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.38 0
0.14 0 0.15 0.14 0 0.19
0 - 0.075 -0.075 -0.06 -0.08 0
-0.38 0 -0.03 -0.038 0 -0.04
0 0.02 0.02 0.016 0.022 0
-7.58 5.55 -5.55 2.60 -2.60 0.94
5.55kNm
7.58kNm
6kNm
3kNm
2.60kNm
5.55kNm
10kNm
Figure 4.7c
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SOLUTION
Though the frame has a roller at both C and D, and is susceptible to translation in the x-
direction, it will not sway because it does not have an applied load in that direction. Because
it resists load in only y-direction the tendency for moment in the x-direction is eliminated.
The elastic curve for the frame is given in the Fig below.






These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = Sm
Icngt BC(I) = 4m
Icngt C(I) = Sm
IooJ BC = SkNm
IooJ C = 6kN

The flexural rigidity (EI) is the same throughout the frame.

The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
S
=
4EI
S

6kN
5kN/m
4m 3m
5m
Figure 4.8b
Figure 4.8a
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k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
The stiffness factor for CB and CD is given by,
k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
k
C
=
SEI
l
=
SEI
S
= EI
Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
4EI
S
4EI
S
+EI
=
4
9
onJ
EI
EI +
4EI
S
=
S
9

And the distribution factor for the members CB and CD are
EI
EI +EI
= u.S onJ
EI
EI +EI
= u.S
The support at A is both fixed and as such would have a distribution factor of 0, whereas the
support at D is a roller and would have a distribution factor of 1.
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
wl
2
12

=
S 4
2
12

= 6.67 kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at C
=
wl
2
12

=
S 4
2
12

= 6.67 kNm
The fixing moment for the span CD at C
=
Pl
8

=
6 S
8

= 2.2S kNm
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The fixing moment for the span CD at D


=
Pl
8

=
6 S
8

= 2.2S kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at B in the span AB is 0 kNm and the moment
at B on the span BC is -6.67 kNm. As noted from the previous discussions, it presents as with
a difference of -6.67 kNm. This unbalanced moment is distributed to the two sides of the
support based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of
the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
4
9
6.67 = 2.9S kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
S
9
6.67 = S.74 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at C in the span CB is 6.67 kNm and the
moment at D on the span CD is -2.25 kNm. This presents as with a difference of 4.42 kNm,
the difference in the moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based on the
distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced
moment that will be distributed to the span BC side of the support C is
u.S 4.42 = 2.21 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the CD side of the support
D is
u.S 4.42 = 2.21 kNm
The distributed moments are then carried out as was done for the simply indeterminate beam.
That is the distributed moment on the span AB at B is carried over to A. The carry over
moment from B to A is half of the -1.34 kNm which is -0.67 kNm. The carry over moment
from A to B is zero since the support A has a distribution factor of zero. The same treatment
is given to the span BC. The distributed moment at B in the span BC is carried over to the
support C, and the distributed moment at C is also carried over to support B. The carried over
moment from B to C is half the distributed moment at B which is -1.34 kNm which yields -
0.67 kNm. And the distributed moment at C is also carried over to B, which is half the
distributed moment at C, which is 1.08 kNm yielding 0.54kNm. The same treatment is again
given to the span CD, where the distributed moment at C is halved and carried over to D and
vice versa. The carried over moment are distributed and carried over successively until the
distributed moments tends to become zero or nears zero. The final moment is achieved by
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algebraically summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment distribution
calculation is best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.

The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
=
wl
2
8

=
4 S
2
8

= 12.S kNm
Thus the mid-span moment for span CD is given by
=
PI
4

=
6 S
4

= 4.S kNm
The moment diagram for the frame is drawn below.





u
4
9

S
9

1
2

1
2
1
Distribution factors
0 0 -6.67 6.67 -2.25 2.25 Initial moment
0 2.93 3.74 -2.21 -2.21 -2.25 Distributed moment
1.47 0 -1.11 1.87 -1.13 -1.11 Carrying over moment
0 0.49 0.62 -0.37 -0.37 1.11 Distributed moment
0.25 0 -0.19 0.31 0.56 -0.19 Carrying over moment
0 0.08 0.11 -0.44 -044 0.19 Distributed moment
0.04 0 -0.22 0.055 0.10 -0.22 Carrying over moment
0 0.097 0.123 -0.023 -0.023 0.22 Distributed moment
-7.58 3.58 -3.58 5.8 5.8 0 Final Moments
5.55kNm
7.58kNm
6kNm
3kNm
2.60kNm
5.55kNm
10kNm
Figure 4.8c
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4.10.2FRAMESWITHSIDESWAY
The analysis of frames with side sway generally differs from the analysis of frames with side
sway, in that the movement of the frame produces extra moments in the frame which should
be accounted for. Frames that are likely to side sway are those that are not symmetrical in
nature and those that are not symmetrically loaded. The analyses of such frames are carried
out in two steps. The first step is to apply an external reaction to the frame to prevent it from
translating. Once that has been achieved, the usual moment distribution is applied to the
frame with the external reaction, and the external reaction is determined. After the value of
the external reaction has been determined, an external load equal to the eternal reaction is
then applied to the frame at the point where the external reaction is. This is done to cancel out
t effect of the external reaction and set the frame in motion. The moments caused in the sway
of the frame is calculated for. The sum of the moments caused in the frame without the sway
and with the sway gives the total moment that is in the frame.






Taking the diagram in Fig 4.9, the deformation of the frame by the load is shown in Fig.4.9c
and d because of the unsymmetrical nature of the loading; the frame tends to sway in the x-
direction at the joints B and C by . To prevent the translation at the joints B and C, a
reacting force R is placed at the joint C. This force will restrict the movement of the frame
and enable as conduct the usual moment distribution analysis on the frame with ease. The
moment distribution is applied to the frame being restricted by the reacting force R, as shown
Fig. The moments in the frame caused by the loading are then determined, and using the
equilibrium of statics the value of the reacting force is determined. After determining the
value of the reacting force, an equal but opposite force R
i
is applied to the reacting for at the
point of application of the reacting force. Then the moment in the frame caused by the
application of this opposite reacting force is the calculated for. In applying this last step, one
method that is employed is to assume the value for one of the internal moments; the moment
at B (H
BA
i
). Now using the moment distribution and statics, the sway and the external
force R
i
corresponding to the assumed moment can be determined. The force R
i
develops
moment in the frame that is proportional to the one developed by the force R, because linear
elastic deformation occurs. Thats once the assumed moment H
BA
i
and the external applied
load R
i
is known, the value of the actual moment cause by the sway can be determined by the
relation;

A
B
C
D
= +
P

R
i
P
R
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Figure 4.9a
Figure 4.9b Figure 4.9c
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H
BA
H
BA
i
=
R
R
i

The summation of the various joint moments will give the total moment that is produced at
the respective joints by the action of the loading and the sway. The preceding examples will
be used to illustrate the process.

EXAMPLE 4.4
Analyse the frame in Fig using the moment distribution method and sketch the bending
moment diagram.





`


SOLUTION
Since the frame is not uniformly loaded it will sway at the joint B and C, towards C. the
elastic curve for the frame is shown in Fig.






These are the information provided in the question.
Icngt AB(I) = 4m
Icngt BC(I) = 8m
Icngt C(I) = 4m
8m
4m
15kN
3m 5m
Figure 4.10b

Figure 4.10a
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IooJ BC = 1SkNm













The stiffness factor for BA and BC is given by,
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
k
B
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
8
=
1EI
2

The stiffness factor for CB and CD is given by,
k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
8
=
1EI
4

k
C
=
4EI
l
=
4EI
4
= EI
Therefore the distribution factor for the members BA and BC are
EI
EI +
1EI
2
=
2
S
onJ
1EI
2
1EI
2
+EI
=
1
S

And the distribution factor for the members CB and CD are
1EI
2
1EI
2
+EI
=
1
S
onJ
EI
EI +
1EI
2
=
2
S

The support at A and D are both fixed and as such would have a distribution factor of zero
each.
The fixing moment for the span BC at B
=
Pb
2
o
l
2

15kN

R
i
15kN
R
A
B
C
D
= +
Figure 4.10c
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=
1S S
2
S
8
2

= 17.S8 kNm
The fixing moment for the span BC at C
=
Po
2
b
l
2

=
1S S
2
S
8
2

= 1u.SS kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at A in the span AB is 0 kNm and the moment
at B on the span BC is -17.58 kNm. As noted from the previous discussions, it presents as
with a difference of -17.58kNm. This unbalanced moment is distributed to the two sides of
the support based on the distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion
of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the span AB side of the support B is
1
S
17.S8 = S.8u kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the BC side of the support B
is
2
S
17.S8 = 11.79 kNm
From the above calculation the fixing moment at C in the span CD is 10.55 kNm and the
moment at D on the span CD is 0. This presents as with a difference of 10.55 kNm, the
difference in the moment is to be distributing to the two sides of the support based on the
distribution factor for the two sides of the support. Thus the portion of the unbalanced
moment that will be distributed to the span BC side of the support C is
2
S
1u.SS = 7.u7 kNm
The portion of the unbalanced moment that will be distributed to the CD side of the support C
is
S
7
1u.SS = S.48 kNm
The distributed moments are then carried out as was done for the simply indeterminate beam.
The carried over moment are distributed and carried over successively until the distributed
moments tends to become zero or nears zero. The final moment is achieved by algebraically
summing the various moments at each of the supports. The moment distribution calculation is
best done in a tabular form. This is illustrated in the table below.
The mid-span moments for the various spans are treated as though the spans are simply
supported. Thus the mid-span moment for span BC is given by
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106|P a g e

=
Pl
4

=
1S 8
8

= 1S kNm

Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment
Carrying over moment

Distributed moment



The horizontal reactions at A and D are found with using the moment from the distribution
and equation of equilibrium. Taking moment about B on the span AB and equating it to zero
will yield;
(R
A
x
4) +(4.S2 +7.74) = u
4R
A
x
+12.u6 = u
4R
A
x
= 12.u6
R
A
x
= S.u2 kN
Taking moment about C on the span CD and equating it to zero will yield;
(R

x
4) +(6.7S +S.SS) = u
4R

x
+1u.1u = u
4R

x
= 1u.1u
u
1
S

2
S

2
S

1
S
u
0 0 -17.58 10.55 0 0
0 5.80 11.79 -7.07 -3.48 0
2.90 0 -3.54 5.95 0 -1.74
0 1.17 2.37 -3.99 -1.96 0
0.59 0 -2.00 1.18 0 -0.98
0 0.66 1.34 -0.39 -0.79 0
0.33 0 -0.20 0.67 0 -0.40
0 0.07 0.13 -0.22 -0.45 0
0.04 0 -0.11 0.07 0 -0.23
0 0.04 0.07 -0.02 -0.05 0
4.32 7.74 -7.73 6.73 -6.73 -3.35
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x
= 2.SS kN
The joint restraint at C is found by summing up all horizontal forces;
F
x
= u R =S.u2 2.SS = u.49kN
An opposite but equal force to the force R
i
is applied to the frame at the joint C and the
internal moment are then determined. The joints at B and C are restrained from rotation, but
are not restrained frame translating. The fixed end moments at the supports are the calculated
from formula for deflection of columns;
H =
6EI
I
2

Since the displacement at the support B and C are the same and AB and DC have the same E,
I and L, the fixed end moment in AB and DC will also be the same. An arbitrary moment is
therefore assumed for both columns,
(FEH)
AB
= (FEH)
BA
= (FEH)
C
= (FEH)
C
= 1uukN m
The value of the force R
i
associated with the moment can now be determined; this is
achieved by carrying out the moment distribution process for the assumed fixed end moment.

Distribution factors

Initial moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment

Carrying over moment

Distributed moment
Carrying over moment

Distributed moment


u
1
S

2
S

2
S

1
S
u
100 100 0 0 100 100
0 -33 -67 -67 -33 0
-16.5 0 -33.5 -33.5 0 -16.5
0 11.06 22.45 22.45 11.06 0
5.53 0 11.23 11.23 0 5.53
0 -3.71 -7.52 -7.52 -3.71 0
-1.86 0 -3.76 -3.76 0 -1.86
0 1.24 2.52 2.52 1.24 0
0.62 0 1.26 1.26 0 0.62
0 -0.46 -0.84 -0.84 -0.46 0
87.79 75.13 -75.16 -75.16 75.13 87.79
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The horizontal reactions at A and D are found with using the moment from the distribution
and equation of equilibrium. Taking moment about B on the span AB and equating it to zero
will yield;
(R
A
x
4) +(87.79 +7S.1S) = u
4R
A
x
+162.92 = u
4R
A
x
= 162.92
R
A
x
= 4u.7S kN
Taking moment about C on the span CD and equating it to zero will yield;
(R

x
4) +(87.79 +7S.1S) = u
4R

x
+162.92 = u
4R

x
= 162.92
R

x
= 4u.7SkN
The reaction R
i
at C is
F
x
= u R =4u.7S +4u.7S = 81.46 kN
Thus the moment in the distribution above was caused by the reaction R
i
= 81.46 kN. The
moment caused by the reaction R, can be found using this proportioning formula;
H
BA
H
BA
i
=
R
R
i

The moment at each side of a support, therefore, is the sum of the moment caused by the
loading and the moment caused by the reaction R at each respective support. Thus the final
moment for the frame becomes;
H
AB
= 4.S2 +
u.49
81.46
(87.79) = 4.8S kN
H
BA
= 7.74 +
u.49
81.46
(7S.1S) = 8.19 kN
H
BC
= 7.74 +
u.49
81.46
(7S.1S) = 8.19 kN
H
CB
= 6.7S +
u.49
81.46
(7S.1S) = 6.28 kN
H
C
= 6.7S +
u.49
81.46
(7S.1S) = 6.28 kN
H
C
= S.SS +
u.49
81.46
(87.79) = 2.9u kN

109|P a g e

Unit 5
TBREE N0NENT TBE0REN
5.1INTRODUCTION
he three moment equation which was first introduced by the French engineer Claypeyron
in 1875, is used to express the relationship between the moment at three points no a
continuous member. It draws the relationship between the moment at three successive
supports and the loading on the two spans that exist between those points, with or without the
equal settlements of the supports. Its aids in the solving for moments at the support of
indeterminate structures, and applies to any three point on the beam provided it is continuous
and is not broken by the presence of a hinge within any successive two spans of the beam.
The relationship is drawn from the fact that the slope at the middle support, calculated from
the left hand side should be the same as the slope calculated from the right hand side. Using
the equation, continuous beam of any number of spans can be analysed.
5.2DERIVINGTHETHREEMOMENTEQUATION














T
h
A
h
C

0
0
B
C
1

C
C
2

A
1

A
2

A
L
1
L
2
Fig5.1(a)
A
2
A
1
a
1
a
2
Fig5.1(b)
A
4

A
5
A
3

A
4

M
B
M
C

M
A
I
2
S

2I
2
S
I
1
S

2I
1
S

Fig5.1(c)
TBREE N0NENT TBE0REN

110|P a g e

Fig 4.1 would be used to illustrate the derivation of the three moment equation. The Fig
4.1(a) illustrates two spans of a continuous beam with three successive supports A, B and C.
Assuming
L
1
= Span of the beam AB
L
2
= Span of the beam BC
I
1
= Moment of inertia of beam AB
I
2
= Moment of inertia of beam BC
h
A
= Relative position of support A fro B after unequal settlement
h
C
= relative position of support C from B after unequal settlement
Taking the line A
1
BC
1
as horizontal line passing through the point B and A
2
BC
2
as the
tangent to the elastic curve at B, as illustrated in Fig 4.1(a). The moments at the support A, B
and C are by M
A
, M
B
and M
C
respectively. They are taken as positive; when they cause
compression at the top (i.e. sagging moment is positive). Fig. 4.1(b) shows the free moment
diagram on span AB and BC.
Assuming
A
1
= Area of free moment diagram in span AB
A
2
= Area of free moment diagram in spa BC
a
1
= Distance of C.G. of A
1
from support A
A
2
= Distance of C.G. of A
2
from support C
The end moment diagram Fig. 4.1(c). The end moment diagram in span AB is split two areas
A
3
and A
4
. The same is done for the span BC, which has the span end moment diagram
divided into two areas A
5
and A
6
.
From the Fig. 4.1(a)
A
1
A
2
I
1
= ton0 =
C
1
C
2
I
2

But, A
1
A
2
=
A
AA
2

=
A
Jclcction o A rom tc torgct o B
=
A
momcnt o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn B onJ A obout A
=
A

1
EI
1
_A
1
o
1
+ A
3
I
1
S
+A
4
2I
1
S
_
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=
A

1
EI
1
_A
1
o
1
+
1
2
H
A
I
1
I
1
S
+
1
2
H
B
I
1
2I
1
S
_
=
A

1
EI
1
_A
1
o
1
+
1
6
H
A
I
1
2
+
H
B
I
1
2
S
_
=
A

1
6EI
1
|6A
1
o
1
+ H
A
I
1
2
+ 2H
B
I
1
2
]
Similarly,
C
1
C
2
= CC
2

C

= Jclcction o C rom tc torgct o B
C

= Homcnt o
H
EI
Jiogrom bctwccn B onJ C obout C
C

=
1
EI
2
_A
2
o
2
+ A
4
2I
2
S
+ A
6
I
2
S
_
C

=
1
EI
2
_A
2
o
2
+
1
2
H
B
I
2
2I
2
S
+
1
2
H
C
I
2
I
2
S
_
C

=
1
EI
2
_A
2
o
2
+
1
2
I
2
H
B
2I
2
S
+
1
2
H
C
I
2
I
2
S
_
C

=
1
6EI
2
|6A
2
o
2
+ 2H
B
I
2
2
+ H
C
I
2
2
]
C

Substituting eqns. (b) and (c) in eqn. (a). We get

A
I
1

1
6EI
1
I
1
|6A
1
o
1
+ H
A
I
1
2
+2H
B
I
1
2
] =
1
6EI
2
I
2
|6A
2
o
2
+ 2H
B
I
2
2
+H
C
I
2
2
]

C
I
2

Multiplying it by 6E throughout and rearranging, we get
H
A
_
I
1
I
1
] + 2H
B
_
I
1
I
1
+
I
2
I
2
] +H
C
_
I
2
I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
2
I
2
+
6E
A
I
1
+
6E
C
I
2


5.3APPLICATIONOFTHREEMOMENTEQUATION
The three moment equation can be used with convenience to analyse any continuous beam,
given that there is no discontinuity within two successive spans. That is there should be no
break or joint between two spans. Considering the beam system in Fig 4.2 that has seven
unknown reaction. Since there are only three equation of static equilibrium, the beam can be
said to be indeterminate to the fourth degree, hence the need for four more equation to be able
to solve for the reactions. The five equations should be based on the compatibility conditions.
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Considering the slope continuity condition at the indeterminate support ........, the five
equation can be obtained by applying the three moment equations for span AB, BC; BC, CD;
CD, DE; DE, EF; EF, FG. The equation will help solve for the moment at the various
supports. Once the moments at the support are found, the spans can be individual treated with
each being subject to its applied loading and the end moments to find the bending moment
and shear forces at any section required




Where there are no settlements of any of the supports, the three moment equation is reduced
to;
H
A
_
I
1
I
1
] + 2H
B
_
I
1
I
1
+
I
2
I
2
] +H
C
_
I
2
I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
2
I
2

In cases where the moment of inertia is constant throughout the beam, the equation reduces
to;
H
A
I
1
+ 2H
B
|I
1
+I
2
] + H
C
I
2
=
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1


5.3ILLUSTRATION
The three moment theorem is an ideal method of determining the moment and shears in
statically indeterminate members. The basic requirement to use this method of analysis is that
the system should be two spans minimum. Once the structural system meets the basic
requirements, the only thing is to substitute the known parameters into the equation to
determine the unknown requirements. The following examples are going to be used to
illustrate the application of this method to analyse the structural system.
The following procedure may be applied in using the equation to analyse the beams system.
1. The first step in the analysis is to identify any two successive spans in the system to be
analysed.
2. All the support and end reaction are considered to be simply supported, irrespective of
their original support and reaction.
3. The bending moment of the spans are calculated for assuming the simple supports. And
the bending moment for each of them is drawn.
4. The areas of the various bending moments are calculated for.
5. The centroidal distance of the bending moment diagram for each span is calculated for,
calculating from the end supports of each of the spans.
W
1

W
3
W
2
F E D
B A
C
G
w
1
/unitlength
w
2
/unitlength
Fig5.2
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6. Using the three moment equation the known variable is substituted into the equation to
determine the unknown end moments.
5.4SOLVEDEXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 5.1
Using the three moment equation, analyse the beam in Fig 5.3 and draw the bending moment
diagram. Flexural rigidity is constant throughout the beam.




SOLUTION
The beam in question has two spans with a distributed load and simply supported at the two
extreme ends. Assuming a simple support for all the reactions, the bending moment diagram
and its maximum values are drawn and determined for both spans.




The span AB has a free body diagram in the shape of a parabola, with the maximum value at
the mid-span being equal to;
wl
2
8
=
6S 4
2
8
= 1Su kNm
The span BC also has a free body diagram in the shape of a parabola, with the maximum
value at the mid-span being equal to;
wl
2
8
=
6S 8
2
8
= S2u kNm
As shown from Fig 4.3b the areas and the centroidal distance of the free body diagrams for
both spans are calculated for.
A
1
=
2
S
1Su 4 = S46.67
o
1
= 2m
A
2
=
2
S
S2u 8 = 277S.SS
B
A
4m 8m
C
6S kNm
Fig5.3(a)
520
130
a
1
=2 a
2
=4
Fig5.3(b)
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o
2
= 4m

The area and centroidal distance know, the three moment equation can now be applied to
determine the end moments.
The three moment equation for the span AB and BC is,
H
A
I
1
+ 2H
B
|I
1
+ I
2
] + H
C
I
2
=
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

This is because the moment of inertia is constant throughout the beam, and also because there
is no vertical displacement of any of the supports.
Because the support at A and B are simple supports, there would be no moments at those
supports. That is to say that;
H
A
= H
C
= u
Therefore the three moment equation reduces to,
2H
B
|I
1
I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

2H
B
|4 + 8] =
6 S46.67 2
4

6 277S.SS 4
8

H
B
= S9u kNm
Hence the bending moment for the continuous beam is shown below






The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C


Taking moments about B
(R
A
4) +
6S 4
2
2
= S9u
+ve
260.00
520
130
+ve
ve
Fig5.3(c)
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4R
A
= S9u S2u
4R
A
= 91u
R
A
= 227.S kN

Taking moments about B
(R
C
8) +
6S 8
2
2
= S9u
8R
C
= S9u 2u8u
8R
C
= 247u
R
C
= Su8.7S kN
Summing forces in the y-direction
R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 6S 12
227.S + R
B
+Su8.7S = 78u
R
B
= 78u SS6.2S
R
B
= 24S.7S
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= 227.S kN, R
B
= 24S.7S kN, R
C
= Su8.7S kN


EXAMPLE 5.2
Using the three moment equation, analyse the beam in Fig 5.4(a) and draw the bending
moment diagram. Flexural rigidity is constant throughout the beam.




SOLUTION
The beam in question has two spans loaded with pointed loads on both spans and is simply
supported at the two extreme ends. Assuming a simple support for all the reactions, the
bending moment diagram and its maximum values are drawn and determined for both spans.



B
A
C
4S kNm SS kNm
3m 3m 5m 5m
Fig5.4(a)
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Type equation heie.







The span AB has a free body diagram in the shape of a triangle, with the maximum value at
the mid-span being equal to;
Pl
4
=
4S 6
4
= 67.S kNm
The span BC also has a free body diagram in the shape of a triangle, with the maximum value
at the mid-span being equal to;
Pl
4
=
SS 1u
4
= 1S7.SukNm
As shown from Fig 4.4b
A
1
=
1
2
6 67.S = 2u2.Su
o
1
= Sm
A
2
=
1
2
1u 1S7.Su = 687.Su
o
2
= Sm
The three moment equation for the span AB and BC is,
H
A
I
1
+ 2H
B
|I
1
+I
2
] + H
C
I
2
=
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

This is because the moment of inertia is constant throughout the beam, and also because there
is no vertical displacement of any of the supports.
Because the support at A and B are simple supports, there would be no moments at those
supports. That is to say that;
H
A
= H
C
= u
Therefore the three moment equation reduces to,
2H
B
|I
1
+ I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

2H
B
|6 +1u] =
6 2u2.S S
6

6 687.S S
1u

H
B
= 8S.44 kNm
Hence the bending moment for the continuous beam is shown below
Fig5.4(b)
137.5
a
1
=3 a
2
=5
67.5
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The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moments about B
(R
A
6) +4S S = 8S.44
6R
A
= 8S.44 1SS
6R
A
= 218.44
R
A
= S6.4u kN
Taking moments about B
(R
C
8) SS S = 8S.44
1uR
C
= 8S.44 27S
1uR
C
= SS8.44
R
C
= SS.84 kN
Summing forces in the y-direction
R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 1uu
S6.4u + R
B
+SS.84 = 1uu
R
B
= 1uu 72.24
R
B
= 27.76 kN
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= S6.4u kN, R
B
= 27.76 kN, R
C
= S2.S7 kN

EXAMPLE 5.3
Using the three moment equation, analyse the beam in Fig 5.5 and draw the bending moment
diagram. Flexural rigidity is constant throughout the beam.




Fig5.4(c)
+ve
137.5
67.5 83.44
+ve
ve
B
A
C
3m 3m 3m 3m
Su kNm
4u kNm
Fig5.5(a)
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SOLUTION
The beam under question has two spans loaded with distributed load on one span a point load
on the other and is simply supported at the two extreme ends. Assuming a simple support for
all the reactions, the bending moment diagram and its maximum values are drawn and
determined for both spans.




The span AB has a free body diagram in the shape of a triangle, with the maximum value at
the mid-span being equal to;
wl
2
8
=
Su 6
2
8
= 1SS kNm
The span BC also has a free body diagram in the shape of a triangle, with the maximum value
at the mid-span being equal to;
Pl
4
=
4u 6
4
= 6ukNm
As shown from Fig 4.
A
1
=
2
S
6 1SS = S4u
o
1
= Sm
A
2
=
1
2
6 6u = 18u
o
2
= Sm
The three moment equation for the span AB and BC is,
H
A
I
1
+ 2H
B
|I
1
+I
2
] + H
C
I
2
=
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

This is because the moment of inertia is constant throughout the beam, and also because there
is no vertical displacement of any of the supports.
Because the support at A and B are simple supports, there would be no moments at those
supports. That is to say that;
H
A
= H
C
= u
Therefore the three moment equation reduces to,
60
135
Fig5.5(b)
a
1
=3 a
2
=3
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2H
B
|I
1
+ I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
1

2H
B
|6 +6] =
6 S4u S
6

6 18u S
6

H
B
= 9u kNm
Hence the bending moment for the continuous beam is shown below




The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moments about B
(R
A
6) +
Su 6
2
2
= 9u
6R
A
= 9u S4u
6R
A
= 6Su
R
A
= 1uS kN
Taking moments about B
(R
C
8) +4u S = 9u
1uR
C
= 9u 12u
1uR
C
= 21u
R
C
= 21.u kN
Taking moments about C
R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 22u
1uS + R
B
+ 21 = 22u
R
B
= 22u 126
R
B
= 94
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= 1uS kN, R
B
= 94 kN, R
C
= 21 kN


+ve
60
Fig4.5(c)
135
90
+ve
ve
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EXAMPLE 5.4
Analyse the continuous beam shown ABCD show in Fig 5.6 if the support at C settles by
7mm. Take E = 1S kNmm
2
. Moment of inertia is constant throughout and is equal to
6 1u
9
mm
4
.




SOLUTION
The beam under question has three spans loaded with distributed load on one span a point
load on the other and is simply supported at the two extreme ends. Assuming a simple
support for all the reactions, the bending moment diagram and its maximum values are drawn
and determined for both spans.



From the diagram above, free moment diagram for the span AB is a triangle with a maximum
ordinate under the load being equal to;
Pob
l
=
4S 4 2
6
= 6u kNm
From the diagram above, free moment diagram for the span BC is a triangle with a maximum
ordinate under the load being equal to;
Pl
4
=
2S 2
2
4
= 2S kNm
Since the bean is simply supported at A H
A
= u.
Applying the three moment equation,
H
A
_
I
1
I
1
] + 2H
B
_
I
1
I
1
+
I
2
I
2
] +H
C
_
I
2
I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1

6A
2
o
2
I
2
I
2
+
6E
A
I
1
+
6E
C
I
2

0 + 2H
B
_
I
1
I
+
I
2
I
] + H
C
_
I
2
I
2
] =
6A
1
o
1
II
1

6A
2
o
2
II
2
+ u +
6E
C
I
2

Now I
1
= 6m, I
2
= 4m
C B
A
D
4S kN
2S kN
4m 2m 2m 2m
Su kN
2m
Fig5.6(a)
25 60
a
2
=2
a
1
=
10
3
Fig56(b)
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A
1
=
1
2
6u 6 = 18u
o
1
=
1u
S

A
2
=
1
2
2S 4 = Su
o
2
=
1
2
4 = 2
H
C
= Su 2 = 6u kNm

C
= u.uu7m (Negative because C is below the mid-support B)
E = 1S kNmm
2
= 1S 1u
6
kNm
2

I = 6 1u
-3
m
4

Multiplying through by I and substituting for the various values, we obtain
2H
B
(6 +4) 6u 4
=
6 18u 1u S
6

6 Su 2
4
+
6 1S 1u
6
6 1u
-3
u.uu7
4

2H
B
1u = 14SS
H
B
= 72.7S kNm
Thus H
A
= u, H
B
= 72.7S kNm, H
C
= 6u kNm
The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moments about B
(R
A
6) + 4S 2 = 72.7S
6R
A
= 72.7S 9u
6R
A
= 162.7S
R
A
= 27.1S kN
Taking moments about B
(R
C
4) + (2S 2) + (Su 6) = 9u
4R
C
= 9u 2Su
4R
C
= S2u
R
C
= 8u kN

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Taking moments about C


R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 1uu
27.1S + R
B
+ 8u = 1uu
R
B
= 1uu 126
R
B
= 94
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= 27.1S kN, R
B
= 8u kN, R
C
= 8u kN

EXAMPLE 5.5
Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig 5.7 and determine the moment at all support.





SOLUTION







For the free body diagrams;
For span BC, its a parabola with its centre of gravity at the mid-span and a max ordinate of;
wl
2
8
=
2S S
2
8
= 28.1S kNm
Arco o tc Jiogrom =
2
S
S 28.1S = S6.26
For span CD, its a triangle with the centre of gravity at the mid-span and a max ordinate of;
I E D
2m
28.13
1.5 1.5
90
3m 3m
A=270
40
A=80
2m 2m
2m 3m 4m
6m
2m
I 1.5I 2I I
F
C B
A
6u kN 4u kN Su kN 2S kNm
Fig5.7(a)
Fig5.7(b)
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Pl
4
=
6u 6
4
= 9ukNm
Arco o tc Jiogrom =
1
2
9u 6 = 27u
For span DE, its a triangle with the centre of gravity at the mid-span and a max ordinate of;
Pl
4
=
4u 4
4
= 4ukNm
Arco o tc Jiogrom =
1
2
4u 4 = 8u
Applying the three moment equation to span BC and CD
H
B
_
S
I
] + 2H
C
_
S
I
+
6
2I
] + H

_
6
2I
] =
6 S6.26 1.S
I S

6 27u S
2I 6

But H
B
=
wI
2
2
=
253
2
2
= Su kNm
Substituting into equation above and multiplying through by I we obtain;
1Su + 12H
C
+ SH

= 168.78 4uS
12H
C
+ SH

= 42S.78
4H
C
+ H

= 141.26 ....(1)
Applying the three moment equation to span CD and DE
H
C
_
6
2I
] + 2H

_
6
2I
+
4
1.SI
] + H
L
_
4
1.SI
] =
6 27u S
2I 6

6 8u 2
1.SI 4

But H
L
= PL = Su 2 = 6u kNm
Substituting into equation above and multiplying through by I we obtain;
SH
C
+ 11.SSH

16u = 4uS 16u


SH
C
+ 11.SSH

= 4uS
Multiplying through by
4
3
, we obtain;
4H
C
+ 1S.11H

= Su4 ....(2)
Subtracting eqn. 1 from eqn. 2 we get
14.11H

= S62.74
H

= 2S.71 kNm
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Substituting it into eqn. 1 we obtain;


4H
C
2S.71 = 141.26
4H
C
= 11S.SS
H
C
= 28.89 kNm
Thus H
A
= u, H
B
= Su kNm, H
C
= 28.9 kNm, H

= 2S.71 kNm, H
L
= 6u kNm

The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moments about B
(R
A
6) + 4S 2 = 72.7S
6R
A
= 72.7S 9u
6R
A
= 162.7S
R
A
= 27.1S kN
Taking moments about B
(R
C
4) + (2S 2) + (Su 6) = 9u
4R
C
= 9u 2Su
4R
C
= S2u
R
C
= 8u kN

Taking moments about C
R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 1uu
27.1S + R
B
+ 8u = 1uu
R
B
= 1uu 126
R
B
= 94
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= 27.1S kN, R
B
= 8u kN, R
C
= 8u kN


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5.5 APPLICATION OF THREE MOMENT EQUATION TO PROBLEMS


WITHFIXEDSUPPORT
There are cases of continuous beams in which the end supports may be fixed. At such
supports there exist moment but the slope at those points tend to be zero. Problems of such
nature can still be solved with the three moment equation by treating them as follows;
It can be seen from Fig 4.8(a) that the support at D is fixed. The fixity at the end is treated by
replacing the fix support at the end with roller, and adding an imaginary span
O
of length
I
0
with a flexural rigidity which is equal to infinity(EI = ). The three moment equation
can then be applied to the spans A
0
A and AB, because of the continuity at A. Because of the
continuity requirement at the mid-spans, the slope of the beam AB at A will also be zero.
Thus, the three moment equation for the span A
0
A and AB is;
H
A
O
_
I
0

] + 2H
A
_
I
0

+
I
1
I
1
] + H
B
_
I
1
I
1
] =
6A
0
o
0
I
0

6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1
+
6E
0
I
0
+
6E
B
I
1

Since
0
is zero and that any quantity divided by infinity () is zero, the three moments
equation then reduces to;
2H
A
_
I
1
I
1
] +H
B
_
I
1
I
1
] =
6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1
+ +
6E
B
I
1











With this treatment, any problem with the end support being fixed can be solved for. This is
illustrated with the examples below.



EI
0
=
A
0
EI
4
EI
3
EI
2
EI
1

C B
A
E D
I
1
I
2
I
4

I
3
I
0

C B
A
EI
4
EI
3
EI
2
EI
1
E D
I
1
I
2
I
4 I
3
Fig5.8(a)
Fig5.8(b)
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EXAMPLE 5.5
Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig 4.9(a), by using the three moment equation and
draw the bending moment diagram.





SOLUTION










An imaginary beam AA0 is introduced at A to take care of the fixity at a as shown in Fig.
The imaginary beam has a span of zero and a flexural rigidity which is also equal to infinity.
Free moment diagram
For span A
0
, A = u
For span AB, its a parabola with its centre of gravity at the mid-span and a max ordinate of;
wl
2
8
=
Su S
2
8
= 9S.7S kNm
Arco o tc Jiogrom =
2
S
S 9S.7S = S12.S
For span CD, its a triangle with the centre of gravity at the mid-span and a max ordinate of;
I
I
2I
2I
A
B
C
30kN/m 45kN/m
5m 2m 2m
A
B
C
30 kN/m 45kN/m
I
0
5m 2m 2m
45
2 2
A=27
A=312.5
93.75
2.5m 2.5m
Fig5.9(a)
Fig5.9(b)
Fig4.9(c)
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127|P a g e

Pl
4
=
4S 4
4
= 4SkNm
Arco o tc Jiogrom =
1
2
4S 4 = 9u
Applying the three moment equation to span A0A and AB, we obtain
H
A
O
_
I
0

] + 2H
A
_
I
0

+
I
1
I
1
] + H
B
_
I
1
I
1
] =
6A
0
o
0
I
0

6A
1
o
1
I
1
I
1
+
6E
0
I
0
+
6E
B
I
1

2H
A
_
S
2I
] + H
B
_
S
2I
] =
6 S12.S 2.S
2I S

SH
A
+ 2.SH
B
= 468.7S ....(1)
Applying the three moment equation to span AB and BC, we obtain
H
A
_
S
2I
] + 2H
B
_
S
2I
+
4
I
] + H
C
_
4
I
] =
6 S12.S 2.S
2I S

6 9u 2
I 4

But H
C
= u
2.SH
A
+ 1SH
B
= 468.7S 27u
2.SH
A
+ 1SH
B
= 7S8.7S ....(2)
Multiply eqn. 2 by 2
SH
A
+ 26H
B
= 1477.Su ....(3)
Subtracting eqn. 1 from eqn. 3 gives us
2S.SH
B
= 978.7S
H
B
= 41.6S
Substituting into eqn. 2, we get
2.SH
A
+ 1S(41.6S) = 7S8.7S
2.SH
A
S41.4S = 7S8.7S
2.SH
A
= 7S8.7S + S41.4S
2.SH
A
= 197.Su
H
A
= 78.92
The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig 4.9(d),

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The reaction can thence be calculated.
Let R
A
= Rcoction ot A
R
B
= Rcoction ot B and
R
C
= Rcoction ot C
Taking moments about B
(R
A
6) + 4S 2 = 72.7S
6R
A
= 72.7S 9u
6R
A
= 162.7S
R
A
= 27.1S kN
Taking moments about B
(R
C
4) + (2S 2) + (Su 6) = 9u
4R
C
= 9u 2Su
4R
C
= S2u
R
C
= 8u kN

Taking moments about C
R
A
+ R
B
+ R
C
= 1uu
27.1S + R
B
+ 8u = 1uu
R
B
= 1uu 126
R
B
= 94
The reactions of the support are; R
A
= 27.1S kN, R
B
= 8u kN, R
C
= 8u kN

41.65
78.92

+
45
93.75
Fig4.9(d)