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ANTIBIOTICS : ANTIBIOTICS Prepared by : Shivangi, Preeti, Shivani CONTENTS : CONTENTS Introduction Uses of Antibiotics Misuse of Antibiotics Side effects

of Antibiotics Conclusion Bibliography INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Antibiotics, sometimes known as antibacterials, are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They are a chemotherapeutic agent with activity against micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi or protozoa. The term antibiotic was coined by Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a micro organism that is antagonistic to the growth of other micro-organism in high dilution. With advances in medical chemistry, most antibiotics are now modified chemically from original compounds found in nature. Uses of Antibiotics -- Overview : Uses of Antibiotics -- Overview Most anti-bacterial antibiotics do not have activity against viruses, fungi, or other microbes. Anti-bacterial antibiotics can be categorized based on their target specificity Narrowspectrum antibiotics target particular type of bacteria such as Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria . Broad spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria. Some anti-bacterial antibiotics destroy bacteria, whereas other prevent bacteria from multiplying. Antibiotics may also sometimes be administered topically, as with eye drops or ointments. Uses of Antibiotics : Uses of Antibiotics Certain antibiotics should not be taken with certain foods and drinks. Some antibiotics are best taken when there is no food in your stomach, usually an hour before meals or two hours after - make sure you follow the instructions on the dispensing label. Insisting on your Doctor prescribing antibiotics when they are not needed and not taking them as prescribed will lead to more bacteria becoming resistant to them. A good example of this is MRSA which is so difficult to treat it has become life threatening in many cases as it is resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance : Antibiotic resistance Use or misuse of antibiotics may result in the development of antibiotic resistance by the infecting organisms, similar to the development of pesticide resistance in insects. Antibiotic resistance has become a serious in both developed and undeveloped nations. A struggle to developed new antibiotics ensues to prevent losing future battles against infection. To date, Tuberculosis and pneumococcus are prominent examples of once easily treated infections where drug resistance has become a problem. The problem of antibiotic resistance is made more widespread when antibiotic are used to treat disorders in which they have no efficacy. Side effects of Antibiotics : Side effects of Antibiotics Some people experience unwanted side effects such as allergic reactions. If the good bacteria in the gut are destroyed by the antibiotics then a thrush infection can take hold anywhere in the body. Another side effect can be diarrhoea, which can also lead to de-hydration. Antibiotics can also interact with alcohol, foods and other medicines such as impairing the effectiveness of the contraceptive pill. Dos and Don'ts of Antibiotics : Dos and Don'ts of Antibiotics Always follow the instructions on the label exactly and complete the prescribed course, unless your Doctor or pharmacist advises otherwise. Even if your symptoms have improved it is important to finish the full course and take the correct dose at the right time to kill the bacteria that are causing the infection. The most serious side effect you must be aware of with antibiotics is an allergic reaction. Signs of an allergic reaction include itching, wheezing or a rash. It is possible to get swelling. This is especially dangerous if the swelling is in the neck, nose, throat, or mouth as it can cut off your ability to breathe if it gets severe enough. Conclusions : Conclusions Antibiotics are usually defined as chemicals of natural organic origin that will kill certain harmful pathogens. Antibiotics are usually produced by organisms living in the soil. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929. Penicillin are used to treat skin infections, dental infections, ear infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea. The most serious side effect you must be aware of with antibiotics is an allergic reaction. Signs of an allergic reaction include itching, wheezing or a rash Slide 10 : The sites we used are: The books we consulted are : The illustrated encyclopedia of biology The encyclopedia of technology and applied sciences BIBLIOGRAPHY That's all , thank you