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Learning Material Ver 1.1
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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Mobile Phone Trainer ST2132 Table of Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction Features Technical Specifications Safety Rules Technology History Getting Started GMSK Modulation GMSK Introduction to Mobile Sections • • 10. Receiver section Transmitter section 6 7 8 9 10 14 14 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 23 23 23 25 27 29 30 32 33
Experiments • Experiment 1 Study of the Tx IQ/ Rx IQ signals • • • Experiment 2 To observe signal constellation of GMSK signal Experiment 3 Study of the GSM data rate and GMSK encoded signal
Experiment 4 To observe signal constellation of GMSK signal Base Band Control Network/ RF Section Experiment 5 Study of the System Clock Experiment 6 Study of the working of Audio IC Experiment 7 Study of Audio Signal Experiment 8 Study of the working of a SIM card in a GSM handset Experiment 9 Study of the SIMCARD Detection (Without SIM Card) Experiment 10 SIM Detection
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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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Experiment 11 Study of and measure the CLK of the SIM CARD Experiment 12 Study of the SIM CARD detection (with SIM CARD) Experiment 13 Study and Measure the charging phenomena in GSM handset Experiment 14 Study and Analyze the CCONT IC in a GSM Handset Experiment 15 Study and Measure the supplies generated by CCONT IC Experiment 16 Study of the RTC Experiment 17 Analyze the trainer (mobile phone) is partially ON when charger is connected Experiment 18 Analyze that a mobile phone is powered ON at the alarm Set Time Experiment 19 Analyze power ‘On/Off’ (PWRONX) signal is triggered with Low/grounded Experiment 20 Study of the power ‘Off’ triggered by low signal (ground) Experiment 21 Analyze the acting dead mode Experiment 22 Analyze the Sleep mode Experiment 23 Verify and Analyze the intensity is Hardware control Experiment 24 Study and Analyze the DC level of LED Experiment 25 Study and analyze the vibrator in a GSM Handset
34 35 36 43 45 45 46 47 46
Real Clock Time •
Power Up and Power Down •
50 50 51 52 52 53 54 55
Modes of Operation • •
User Interface Section • • •
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20. 21. 28. Ltd. 5 . 18. 19. 27. 23. 25. 24. 22. 26.ST2132 • • • • • • • • Experiment 26 Study and Measure the PWM signal of the Vibrator Experiment 27 Study and Analyze the Buzzer in a GSM Handset Experiment 28 Study and Measure the PWM signal of the Buzzer Experiment 29 Study of the Keypad of a GSM Handset Experiment 30 Study the Row /Column configuration of Matrix Keypad Experiment 31 Study and Analyze the LCD Module Experiment 32 Study and Measure the reset pin in LCD Module Experiment 33 Verify and Study the importance of the voltage Tripler in the LCD Module Experiment 34 Verify and Measure the control pin of the LCD Module Experiment 35 Study of the clock pin of a LCD Module 57 58 60 61 63 65 67 68 • • 17. 69 70 70 72 74 76 77 77 79 80 81 82 84 84 Memory CPU Test Points Component Layout Frequency List Network Coverage Word Frequency Asked Question Glossary Service Tips Warranty List of Accessories Scientech Technologies Pvt.
6 . an ultra compact mechanical design and an operating system with feature set which makes its studying a necessity. Mobile phone can be described. One of the main features of the trainer is its real time signals.ST2132 Introduction Scientech's model ST2132 Mobile Phone Trainer is a unique training equipment to understand the working of a mobile phone. a product designed to global standards & has a leading processor state of the art power system. and LED has been replaced with normal components instead of SMD for expansion and detailed study. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. We hope our attempt will help the user to understand the working operation of GSM mobile phone. The UI section of the mobile phone that's Vibrator. Mobile Phone Trainer ST2132 is the perfect product for today's global technical profession. The trainer provides 41 test points which gives a full view of the working of a mobile phone. Buzzer.
Hg. It is mandatory that service engineers use lead free solder wire and use the soldering irons upto (25 W) that reach a temperature of 450°C at the tip as the melting temperature of the unleaded solder is higher than the leaded solder. Ltd. Cd. Cr. 7 . Br compounds) in electric and electronic equipments. RoHS Directive concerns with the restrictive use of Hazardous substances (Pb. Scientech products are “Lead Free” and “Environment Friendly”.ST2132 Features • • • • • • • • • • • • Real Time Mobile Operation Expanded and Open Trainer Full understanding of Mobile Phone Working Provides study of all sections in Mobile Phone Tx/Rx frequency measurement 2G technology GMSK signal GSM Data Rate Detail study of User Interface Control Signals Detail study of SIM Operation Battery Identification and Charging Study Switched Faults CD containing Mobile Phone Working Presentation RoHS Compliance Scientech Products are RoHS Complied. Scientech Technologies Pvt.
ST2132 Technical Specifications Cellular System Rx Frequency Band Tx Frequency Band Output Power Channel Spacing Antenna Display On board Sections No. User interface: Buzzer.890 MHz GSM 900 890 ……915 MHZ +5… +33dBm/3. 100 to 240V. 50 ohms 84 x 48 pixels Antenna.. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Vibrator. 50. Charging Circuit. Ltd. Screen saver.6 Watts (Approximately) 1. 25 Nos. 41 Nos. of Switched Fault Features that can be Set Power Supply Power Consumption Fuse Dimension (mm) Weight : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : EGSM/GSM 900 EGSM 925 …. LEDs.960 MHz EGSM 880 ….5 Kg (Approximately). SMS etc.. Clock. SIM.960 MHz GSM 900 935 …. 8 .5 amps W 450 x H 113 x D 280. of Test Points No.2mW… 2 W 200 KHz Loop type. Logos. 2. Keypad.60 Hz 3. Ring tones.
If no network indications try SIM card of other service provider in the 900 MHz band. Vibrator mode doesn’t operate whenever the trainer is in charging ON mode. 9 . Avoid other mobile phones near to the trainer while performing experiments. Don’t put the battery other than supplied with the trainer else warranty void. Don’t keep the mains cord or charging ON for long period. Ltd. this may damage the Battery/trainer. Don’t connect the test probe unnecessary/much prior to the experiment. It may result in permanent damage. Keep intensity of LED at low for better battery performance. Don’t short any test point or switched faults. Don’t try or alter “Security” or Lock code options of the mobile phone trainer. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Remove the test probe in 4-5 seconds. Don’t leave the trainer open for a long time. Since moisture may damage.ST2132 Safety Rules • • • • • • • • • • • • • Handle carefully as you use your own mobile phone. The operation is similar to that of a NOKIA 3310/3315 model.
Dronsuth. The SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is a card that fits into your handset. Bell Laboratories introduced the idea of cellular communications in 1947 with the police car technology. Mobile Station (MS) : A Digital Mobile Phone and a SIM card make up the Mobile Station. By 1987.ST2132 Technology History Mobile Phone Patents : Dr Martin Cooper. Ltd. Richard W. it took cellular phone service 37 years to become commercially available. Charles N. A year later. John H. Mobile Station (MS) which is similar to a cordless phone with extra features. where the first 3 digits represent the country where the SIM is from. in a separate venture. This is a numeric string. Cooper made the first call on a portable cell phone in April 1973. AT&T and Bell Labs had constructed a prototype cellular system. In 1981. Consumer demand quickly outstripped the 1982 system standards.S. Cooper and his co-inventors are listed: Martin Cooper. Joel Engel. Motorola was the first to incorporate the technology into portable device that was designed for outside of a automobile use. The SIM contains all of your identification details. a former general manager for the systems division at Motorola. James J. By 1977. Mikulski.. Sangster . Mitchell. the first American commercial analog cellular service or AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) was made available in Chicago by Ameritech. An overview of GSM network GSM network : The GSM Network comprises three parts. the card will be rendered useless. if the card is tampered with. 10 . The other digits Scientech Technologies Pvt. Motorola and American Radio telephone started a second U. By 1982. However. the Base Station Controller (BSC) that controls multiple Base Transceiver Station's and then the rest of the network covered further below. such as your IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity. the slow-moving FCC finally authorized commercial cellular service for the USA. the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) that controls the connection with the Mobile Station. cellular telephone subscribers exceeded one million and the airways were crowded. Lynk Jr. However silicon is fragile and therefore. public trials of the new system were started in Chicago with over 2000 trial customers. Richardson. the first commercial cellular telephone system began operation in Tokyo. Roy A. He made the call to his rival. the next represent the operator in that specific country. Bell Labs head of research. Mikulski. A year later. cellular radio-telephone system test in the Washington/Baltimore area. Despite the incredible demand. In 1979. is considered the inventor of the first modern portable handset. The SIM microprocessor is based on a silicon chip which is designed to tolerate temperatures between -25°C and +70°C. physically or electronically. Albert J. John F. and will also withstand up to 85% humidity.
phone memories. The MSC has a relatively complex task. the MSC works with four databases (HLR. VLR. wherever they are and wherever they move to throughout the duration of each cell. Scientech Technologies Pvt. the BSC keeps a eye on each call and decides when to pass the call off to another BTS and to which one. It handles the communications with the MS via radio interface. The MSC generates all billing records and ensures that all usage is directed to the appropriate account. as unlike a conventional telephone exchange. pin numbers and international roaming information. A IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) card is the serial number of the GSM phone. A series of BTSs are connected to each Base Station Controller. the MSC is also the interface between the cellular network and the PSTN. when GSM subscribers make calls they could be anywhere within the network. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) : The Mobile Switching Center is the interface between the base station system and the switching subsystem of the mobile phone network. Ltd. Furthermore. Each of the databases has a separate job. The antenna can take on various forms. 11 . the services to which they have access and the locations where the subscriber was last registered. The Rest of the Network : Several BSCs are controlled by the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC). This situation becomes even more complex when two mobile subscribers wish to contact each other from two distant locations. billing information. Home Location Register (HLR) : The HLR is the central data base for all the subscribers which contain details on the identity of each subscriber. Base Station Controller (BSC) : The Base Station Controller manages multiple BTSs. The MSC must ensure that calls are routed through to those subscribers. EIR and the AUC) and together they manage the communications between Mobile Station user and the other network types. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) : The Base Transceiver Station consists of a radio transceiver with antenna that covers a single cell. It controls the allocation and release of radio channels and handovers between cells.ST2132 represent the subscriber’s identity in his home-network). a specific service area is allocated to each MSC. The SIM card contains a IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) number that identifies the user to the network along with other user and security information. SMS text messages. In order to simplify the subscriber management function. BTS are all connected together to allow you to move from one cell to another. The MSC has to control the switching of tariff to and from the subscribers within its service area which involves the co-ordination of all radio resources and the inter cell hand-off activities.
better technology means better battery life.ST2132 Once the Mobile Stations MSISDN has been used to identify the IMSI. Secret information that is held in the AUC and which is also contained within the SIM Card is used to perform a complex mathematical calculation. the HLR verifies the subscription records to ensure that the call can be delivered to the last known location of the Mobile Station. GMSC (Gateway MSC) is a gateway switch where the call is directed when setting up a call to a GSM user. You get up to twice as much talk time from each battery charge. • SMSC (SMS Center or Service Center). therefore reducing congestion in areas of dense population and high usage. Convenience : With digital. Some features are user authentication that prohibits unauthorized access. In comparison with analog there are also far fewer dropouts. and overall the quality is more like that of a fixed telephone. Scientech Technologies Pvt. • Outstanding Features Quality : With digital. the SMSC handled all the SMS messages that are sent. sound quality is sharp and clear. everything you say and send within the digital network is safe and secure. Ltd. The GMSC looks for the subscriber by interrogating the right HLR which then interrogates the VLR and routes the incoming call towards the MSC where the subscriber can be reached. encryption key distribution that guarantees the privacy of the call and caller identification restrictions that can prevent the delivery of the calling user’s number to the receiver. In addition the digital service allows more calls to be handled at any one time. Security : Unlike analog. The messages are sent on a data channel so you can receive them while on a call. Authentication occurs if the results of these two calculations agree. Visitor's Location Register (VLR) : The VLR is a database that is linked to an MSC and temporarily stares information about each Mobile Station within the area served by that MSC. Background sounds and static are vastly reduced and crossed-line conversations are also eliminated. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) : The EIR ensures that all Mobile Equipments are valid and authorized to function on the PLMN. compared with analog. Authentication Center (AUC) : The authentication center is used to validate the SIM Card being used by the Mobile Station. 12 .
you are able to use your mobile phone. ISD) Incoming . including bearer services and packet switched data at 64 K bit/s and above SIM enhancements 13 Scientech Technologies Pvt.Short Message Service .Allows you to keep track of call costs Cell Broadcast .Allows handsets to communicate with computers Mobile Fax Service . .Allows handsets to send.Notifies you of another call whilst on a call Mobile Data Services .Bar certain incoming calls (Useful if in another country) Global roaming .Allows you to send text messages to and from phones Multi Party Calling . Features : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Call Forwarding All Calls No Answer Engaged Unreachable Call Barring Outgoing .Talk to five other parties as well as yourself at the same time Call Holding .This facility allows you to see the telephone number of the incoming caller on our handset before answering Advice of Charge .Bar certain outgoing calls(e.g.Visit any other country with GSM and a roaming agreement and use your phone. Available by 1998 Upgrade and improvements to existing services Majority of the upgrade concerns data transmission. SMS . and number in other countries around the world that operate a GSM network.ST2132 Roaming : Roaming is one more feature of GSM technology. retrieve and receive faxes Calling Line Identity Service . With digital.Place a call on Hold Call Waiting .Allows you to subscribe to local news channels Mobile Terminating Fax .Another number you are issued with that receives faxes that you can then download to the nearest fax machine. Ltd.
6. AC Mode : When switch pressed trainer operates on AC & mains cord is a must for the supply. 4. 14 . located at the top right most corner. When/If the battery is low. Note : Switch Off the trainer before switching between the operating modes. trainer operates with battery supplied & charging facility functions normally. 3. Check the battery is received in proper condition. Ltd. DC Mode : In normal switch position. Insert SIM card of any 900MHz service provides in the SIM assembly. So physical presence of the battery in the battery assembly doesn’t have any effect. Switch ‘On’ the trainer by pressing the power ‘On/Off’ switch. The mode has to be selected prior to switching ON the trainer. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The trainer automatically disconnects the battery contacts when the mode is changed from DC to AC. Connect the mains cord and operate the charging switch located at the top right most corner below the power switch. Now. The charging ‘On/Off’ switch stops functioning in this mode. Note : Whenever the switch is operated ‘On/Off’ LED operates. 2. insert the battery so that the battery contacts and assembly terminal match. b. a.ST2132 Getting Started 1. Mode : This is an improved feature of ST2132. 5.
The phases will role 360 degrees at a rate of 67. 0s cause the same phase change in the opposite direction. FSK modulation where the bit rate is exactly four times the frequency shift is called MSK (minimum shift keying). If the carrier centre frequency is taken as a stationary phase reference. the phase will get a quarter of the way round the I/Q diagram or 90 degrees.3GMSK (Gaussian minimum shift keying). 1s and 0s are represented by shifting the RF carrier by plus or minus 67. MSK will effectively stay 67. Without the Gaussian filter.3GMSK is not phase modulation (i.708 KHz signal will cause a steady increase in phase. the 67. This slows down the rapid frequency transitions.708 revolutions per second.3 describes the bandwidth of the Gaussian filter with relation to the bit rate.708 KHz above the carrier centre frequency. information is not conveyed by absolute phase states. In GSM.833 Kbit/sec is chosen to be exactly four times the RF frequency shift. The bandwidth of 0. Its the frequency shift or change of phase state which conveys information. GMSK can be visualized from an I/Q diagram. 15 . the modulation spectrum is further reduced by applying a Gaussian premodulation filter. In one bit period (1/270. Two 1s causes a phase increase of 180 degrees. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 1s are seen as a phase increase of 90 degrees.ST2132 GMSK Modulation GSM uses a digital modulation format called 0. GSM use’s digital filters and I/Q or digital FM modulators to accurately generate the correct trajectory. In the case of GSM the data rate of 270.708 KHz. as in QPSK for example). The 0. The exact phase trajectory is very tightly controlled. GMSK is a special type of digital FM modulation. Modulation techniques which use two frequencies to represent one and zero are denoted FSK (frequency shift keying). three 1s 270 degrees and so on. which would otherwise spread energy into adjacent channels.e. if a constant stream of 1s is being transmitted. This has the effect of minimizing the modulation spectrum and improving channel efficiency. Ltd.833 KHz). 0.3 was chosen as a compromise between spectral efficiency and inter symbol interference. The GSM specification allows no more than 5 degrees rms and 20 degrees peak deviation form the ideal trajectory.
Ltd.ST2132 GMSK Figure 1 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 16 .
It is divided by four. When any call is received in mobile phone. Signal is made balance by transformer T501 and comes at pin no. otherwise further these frequencies can become reason of noise. VCO produces 3700-3840 MHz for GSM and 3610-3760 MHz for DCS 1800. which are input pins of GSM-RX of N500 RF IC (HAGAR IC).7 of Z501 through capacitor C547 receiving signal passes through band pass SAW (Surface acoustic wave) filter (925-960MHz) and is made out from pin 1. Signal obtained from amplifier gain is given to Band Pass SAW filter Z500. which is of loop type then to pin no. for GSM (local oscillation signal of 935 to 960 MHz) is obtained and by 2 for DCS 1800 PLL and dividers are in HAGAR IC.7 and given to balancing transformer T501. signal is made out from its one output pin no. J2 and J5 of IC N500 through signal transformer T502. C. This antenna switch makes function of switching of receiving. which is given to pin no. Many unwanted frequencies are amplified with the amplification receiving signals. Switching signals is given at its control pins from CPU for it. GSM-RX signal is made out from pin no. Signal obtained from filter is given to LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) V501.1 of Z500.4 of V501 is given to pin no.4 of antenna switch (Diplexer) (Z502) through capacitor C593. This VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) G500 produces separate local oscillation signals in GSM and DCS frequency band. amplification gain of LNA is controlled by it. Control voltage is given to amplifier from HAGAR IC N500. after that it Scientech Technologies Pvt. 17 . GSM receiving signal is mixed in this signal. Unwanted frequencies coming with GSM frequency bands are filtered by it and only required band frequencies are passed further. the receiving signal comes at antenna first. GSM and DCS frequency band. Ltd.14 of antenna switch. Mixing and Demodulation (conversion to LF) operation of receiving signal is made in HAGAR IC N500. A. Receiving Section Transmitting Section Base band Control/UI Section Receiver Section Receiver Section : The receiver is direct conversion dual band linear receive. Oscillation signal produced by VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) G500 is mixed in these signals for this operation. This signal is given to pin no. Band Pass Filter Z500 makes this function. B. Because this control voltage controls gain of amplifier in automatic way hence considered AGC (Automatic Gain Control). It is very essential to separate these frequencies.ST2132 Introduction to Mobile Section Description of block diagram : For understanding the basic circuit of any mobile phone it can be divided in following three sections: A. The balancing transformers make balancing from single ended receiving signal. this signal is amplified in IC.C9 and B9 of IC N500. Output level of receiver remains stable by it. transmitting. signal obtained from pin no.
it is given to speaker and sound is obtained. 890 to 915 MHz is obtained and mixed with transmitting I. the signal is of +33dBm approximately. This audio frequency signal is obtained from pin no. It has a gain control. A3 & B3 of audio frequency processing IC N100. which is given to audio signal COBBA IC N100. Ltd. After that it is made PCM code and digital signal is obtained. 18 . Encryption channel coding and modulation etc functions are made in COBBA IC and CPU. Oscillation signals 3520 to 3660 MHz in condition of GSM 900 frequency band. VCO module G500 generates local oscillation signals of two different values. Power amplifier produces a signal over 2W in GSM band. I/Q signals are serially transmitted from COBBA IC and given to transmitting modulation process in HAGAR IC N500 which can measured at (5) and (6). It also makes functions as interface for completing control functions of AFC. In this way A/D conversion.ST2132 is filtered and given to demodulator and made I/Q signal. This receiving I/Q signal is made out from pin numberG5 and G6 of IF IC N500 which can be viewed at (3) and (4). Transistor V101 connected from pin no. This is amplified by audio frequency amplifier. After the modulation. This transistor provides control voltage to microphone signal given by microphone is at first amplified in COBBA IC N100. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Q) signal. which is divided by four. This detected voltage is compared in error amplifier in HAGAR IC to a Tx voltage generated by COBBA IC. PAC and AGC etc CPU D300 has full control of all functions of this IC. Transmitter Section : At the time of transmitting microphone converts voice signal in to electric signal.D1 and D2 of COBBA IC N100. VCO signals are mixed with TX-IQ signal in HAGAR IC N500.D6 of this IC is a mic power supply controller transistor. Demodulation is completed digital to analog conversion and audio frequency amplification etc functions are made in it. Q (TX-1. which is controlled with a power control loop in HAGAR IC. fully charged the battery and keep the charging ‘On’. Directional coupler take a sample from the forward going power with certain ratio. Now this signal is given to Dual band directional coupler connected between PA and Antenna switch. Then the signal is given to Antenna switch and the signal is transmitted through antenna. This signal is given to pin no. Tx signal is converted to single ended by balance circuit (mutual coupler) and after filtering in 2500 (880…915Hz) the signal is amplified by pre-amplifier circuit and buffered out the final amplification is realized with dual band power amplifier. Audio frequency signal is obtained in this IC through a PCM signal. Note : Before performing the observation. Gain control range is over 35dBm. this signal is sent to central processing unit D300 for voice coding and channel coding at that place data stream is made which is sent back to audio processing IC N100 for GMSK modulation. Transmitter Section B. Signal output level at this stage is 5dBm Working system of VCO module G500 is controlled by PLL circuit made in HAGAR IC N500. These local oscillation signals are produced by local oscillation modules G-500. coding.
2. A similar Tx burst can be observed by connecting probe (5) & (6) respectively.ST2132 Experiment 1 Objective: Study of the Tx IQ/Rx IQ signals Procedure: 1. Connect two probe of CRO one at (3) & the other on (4) observe the Rx burst. Make a Call to the trainer or from the trainer Keep the Call ‘On’. Ltd. Signal figure shows an IQ Tx/Rx burst signal. 19 . Now connect the probe to (2) observe the signal in the Rx band. Figure 2 Scientech Technologies Pvt. • • • Connect the probe of spectrum analyzer at (1) and observe the signal in the Tx band. Insert the SIM and power ‘On’ the trainer. 3.
ST2132 Experiment 2 Objective: Observe signal constellation of GMSK signal Procedure : 1. Connect two probe of CRO one at (3) & the other on (4) observe the Rx burst signal figure shows an IQ Rx burst signal. Figure 3 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Make a call to the trainer. 20 . Ltd. 3. Receive the call and keep ‘On’. 2.
3. 21 .ST2132 Experiment 3 Objective: Study of the GSM data rate and GMSK encoded signal Procedure : 1. 6. Make a call to the trainer Connect the probe of the CRO at (5) or (6) Observe the signal as shown in figure a Expand the signal to set the eye pattern. 2. Expand the signal. Observe the GMSK encoded signal.95 x 5 x 10-6 = 67. Ltd. Figure (c) Figure 5 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure 4 F = 1/T = 1 /2.708 KHz (approximately) = 67 x 4 270 K bits/s GSM data rate 5. 4.
22 .ST2132 Figure (d) Figure (e) Figure 6 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
The detected voltage is compared in the error amplifier in HAGAR to a Txc voltage generated by COBBA. Receive the call and keep ‘On’. 2. power supply control. LED and memories flash/SRAM. Base band Control/UI Section : This section contain base band. checking them and controlling system. 3. sleeping state control etc. Ltd. Base Band Control A.e. battery voltage and standby charge. GSM_Rx and DCS_Rx. It has 50Ω Input and Output there is also again control with a power control loop in HAGAR. Make a call to the trainer. Vibrator. communication control. Scientech Technologies Pvt. CPU. It makes functions for completing all functions of this mobile. Now Connect two probe of CRO one at (5) & the other on (6) observe the Tx burst in X-Y mode figure shows the time constellation of the GMSK signal. CCONT IC. Charging IC. key board scanning and display control. This signal is rectified in Schottky diode and it produces a DC signal after filtering. Network/RF Section Antenna Switch : The switch is normally open to the two RX outlets i. All system control. Power Amplifier (PA) : PA consist a circuit of high frequency power amplifier. UI circuit such as Buzzer.ST2132 Experiment 4 Objective: Observe signal constellation of GMSK signal Procedure: 1. This is a dual band amplifier. power ‘On/Off’ control. It is a 16 pin module. field strength testing. The directional coupler takes a sample from the forward going power with certain ratio. If no control voltage is present at VC1 or VC2 the RX/TX switch will work as a diplexer and the GSM900 signal is pass to GSM_Rx and the GSM1800 signal to DCS_Rx. 23 .
24 .ST2132 Block Diagram of Power Amplifier Figure 7 VCTCXO: Voltage Controlled Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator. It produces a signal of 26MHz which is given to RF IC is after dividing the frequency by 2 it produces a signal of 13MHz which is used as system clock. Ltd. Note: Before performing the observation. fully charged the battery and keep the charging ‘On’. Scientech Technologies Pvt.
for GSM (local oscillation signal of 935 to 960 MHz) is obtained and by 2 for DCS 1800 PLL and dividers are in HAGAR IC. DTOS amplifier (differential to single ended) and BIQUAD. Switch ‘On’ the trainer with/without SIM. The Tx/Rx signals are mixed with low frequency after passing through dividers. 25 . VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) G500: Local oscillation signals are generated by the VCO module. Oscillation signals 3520 to 3660 MHz in condition of GSM 900 frequency band. It is divided by four. controlled through serial bus. While reception it generates 3700-3840 MHz for GSM and 3610-3760MHz for DCS 1800. Ltd. Observe the 26MHz signal Note: Remove the test probe as early as possible. HAGAR consists of PLL.ST2132 Experiment 5 Objective: Study of the system clock Procedure: 1. SDATA it provides AGC of the received signal. which is divided by four. The selectivity of channels is also done by HAGAR through control signal from CPU such as SENA. 2. since it may Hang the system or Restart. dividers. 890 to 915 MHz is obtained and for 1800 MHz it is 3420MHz -3570MHz which is divided by 2. RF IC (HAGAR IC): Its a ASIC and BGA soldered. Figure 8 Scientech Technologies Pvt.
reference divider. AFC is generated an 11 bit conventional DAC in COBBA. PLL is located in HAGAR RF-IC and is controlled via serial bus from COBBA-IC. SCLK (serial clock) for the bus and SENA1 is a latch enable. Output of the prescaler is fed to N. which produce the input to phase detector. VCTCXO is running at 26 MHz. N. SDATA is for data. generated by a VCOmodule (voltage controlled oscillator). Phase detector compares this signal to reference signal (400 KHz). phase detector and charge pump for the external loop filter. Loop filter defines step response of the PLL (settling time) and effects to stability of the loop filter defines steps response step response of the PLL (setting time) and effects to stability of the loop. which is a VCTCXO-module (Voltage Controlled Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator). VCTCXO is locked into frequency of the base station. Temperature effect is controlled with AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) voltage. which stores new data into dividers. which is divided with reference divider from VCTCXO output.ST2132 Frequency Synthesizer : VCO frequency is locked with PLL into stable frequency source. There are 64/65 (P/P +1) prescaler. Dividers are controlled via serial bus. which charges or discharges integrator capacitor in the loop filter depending on the phase of the measured frequency compared to reference frequency. Output of the phase detector is connected into charge pump. SHF local signal. is fed to prescaler. 26 . Other filter components are for sideband rejection. that’s why integrator capacitor has got a resistor for phase compensation. Loop filter filters out the pulse and generates DC voltage to VCO. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Prescaler is a dual modules divider. Ltd.and A divider.and A divider.
The audio control and processing are taken care by the COBBA-IC. The inputs can be taken from an internal microphone. a headset microphone or a hand free unit. The microphone signals from different sources are connected to separate inputs at the COBBA ASIC. Input for the microphone signals are differential type. COBBA performs digital to analog conversion of the receive signal. A slow speed digital to analog converter will provide automatic frequency control (AFC). 27 . DTMF and other audio tones are generated and encoded by the CPU and transmitted to COBBA IC for decoding. Audio Block Diagram Figure 9 Scientech Technologies Pvt. handling and processing the audio signals. COBBA is at any time connected to CPU (ASIC) with two interfaces. For transmit path COBBA perform analog to digital conversion of the ‘Transmit Amplifier Power Control Ramp’ and the In-phase and Quadrate signals. Input and output selection and gain control is performed inside the COBBA ASIC according to control messages the CPU. Ltd. one for transferring Tx and Rx data between CPU and COBBA and one for transferring codec Rx/Tx samples.ST2132 Experiment 6 Audio IC (COBBA IC) : Objective : Study of the working of Audio IC Theory : COBBA ASIC provides an interface between the base band and the RF-circuitry. which contains the audio codec and CPU. CPU contains MCU and DSP blocks.
The COBBA-IC generates the PCMDCLK clock. There is a RC-filter in AFC control line to reduce the noise from the converter.2 KHz. The interface consists of following signal: a PCM codec master clock (PCMDCLK). The COBBA-IC further divides the PCMDCLK by 125 to get a PCMSCLK signal 8. Ltd. AFC voltage is generated in COBBA with 11 bit DA converter. a codec transmit data line (PCMTX) and a codec receiver data line (PCMRX). so transceiver has got a stable frequency.ST2132 COBBA IC and CPU Communicate through a PCM Serial Interface. a frame synchronization signal to DSP (PCMSCLK). Scientech Technologies Pvt. which is supplied to DSP. fully charged the battery and keep the charging ‘On’. Note : Before performing the observation. AFC Function : AFC is used to lock the transceiver frequency to the frequency of the base station. 28 . The COBBA-IC also generates the PCMSCLK signal to DSP by dividing the PCMDCLK. They are AFC tracks base station frequency continuously.000 MHz and is generated by dividing the RFICIK 13 MHz by 13. The PCMDCLK frequency is 1.
Connect the probe of CRO to (8). Make a Call to the trainer or from the trainer. 3. 2.ST2132 Experiment 7 Objective: Study of Audio Signal Procedure: 1. Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure 10 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Figure below show the charges being observed. Ltd. 29 . Ask the person on the line to speak and observe the audio frequency changes.
If the handset is turned off and back on again it will take data of the SIM and search for the LAI it was in. all interface line raises to VSIM. This saves time by avoiding having to search the whole list of frequencies that it normally would. After processing in IC N201 SIM CLK (25).ST2132 Experiment 8 SIM Card : Objective : Study of the working of a SIM card in a GSM handset Theory : SIM is short for Subscriber Identity Module. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The development of SIM cards is as fast as everything else in the mobile phone business. SIM PWR signal obtained from pin D12 of CPU is made out and given to pin G6 of IC N201. The advantage of the small card is that it makes it possible for the manufacturer to build even smaller phones. SIM RST. In this way actual measuring of SIM card is also completed immediately after turning ‘On’ power. memory space for names and phone numbers and SMSs (short text messages). It contains some parameter of the user such as IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity). A12 of CPU. You can activate many different services on the SIM cards. power IC N201 makes function as interface between Central Processing Unit D300 and SIM card socket. B11 of CPU which is given to pin E7 of power IC N201. SIM card socket and V203. As shown in figure Among these. The SIM cards are becoming more and more sophisticated and more and more functions are being added and improved. Its on the SIM card that all personal facts are kept. SIM card detector signal is made out from pin K13 of CPU and given to pin B3 of power IC N201. SIM RST. In other words. The SIM card is the part of the phone that contains the real phone. SIM Clock (SIM CLK) is obtained from pin no. 30 . Description of SIM card circuit : SIM card circuit is made mainly by Central Processing Unit (CPU) D300. DATA A. There are many functions on the SIM cards like. Ltd. For detecting that SIM card is of 3V or 5V this complete function is completed within one second of turning ‘On’ power. There are two different sizes used for GSM phones. The phone itself has no phone number its kept on the SIM card. you can borrow almost any other GSM phone and insert your own SIM card and make calls as usual. SIM reset signal (SIM RST) is obtained from pin no. SIMCLK. (23). Power IC N201. The SIM is also a database – it stores network state information such as their current location areas identify (LAI). for example. The two SIM card sizes are standardized and are the same all over the GSM world. which is given to pin no. (24). The BSI line is connected to SIM card DETX line of CPU. SIM DATA is obtained at SIM Socket from this IC.D8 of power IC N201. When the power is switched ON with SIM inserted the BSI terminal is grounded by a resistor. 3V-SIM. The battery identification line is used also for battery removal detection. SIM I/O is made out from pin A11 of CPU and given to pin F6 of power IC N201. Power IC N201 gets all necessary SIM information from CPU D300. one is the same size as a credit card and the other is about the size of a stamp. The SIM card is Powered Down before the power is lost.
31 . Four diodes are connected to it. fully charged the battery and keep the charging On.ST2132 Block Diagram of SIM CARD Circuit Figure 11 In this way. V203 is protector. SIM Connector Electrical Specification Note: Before performing the observation. Ltd. After that this information is given again to CPU through IC N201 for next processing and then after this is sent to base station for registering. SIM Card Socket reads the information of SIM Card. Scientech Technologies Pvt.
Step 2 : Keep a watch on the LEDs CLK. Since SIM card is not present it falls it happens in less than 1 second. Scientech Technologies Pvt. connected at the SIM card terminal and connect the probe of the CRO to (25) Step 3 : The two LEDs will glow voltage will rise measured at (23). 32 . (24). Ltd.ST2132 Experiment 9 Objective : Study of the SIMCARD Detection (without SIM CARD) Procedure : Step 1 : Switch ‘On’ the trainer without SIM CARD. Sudden SIM card CLK rise & fall is observed. (25). VSIM.
after switching on the trainer that’s after registering to the network. Sample Observation Table : Pin 1 2 3 4 5 Name SIM Supply SIM RST SIM CLK SIM Supply SIM Data Measured parameter Voltage Voltage Frequency Voltage Voltage No. 33 . Ltd.2MHz (approximately). Scientech Technologies Pvt. Since SIM card need power continuously & CLK goes with in 6-8 sec approximately. 23 24 25 27 28 Observation Table : Pin 1 2 3 4 5 Name Measured parameter No. VSIM stays ON. A rise can be observed when there is a Tx/Rx of call or some function is accessed the clock of 3.ST2132 Experiment 10 Objective: SIM Detected Procedure : Step 1 : Insert the SIM card Step 2 : Switch ‘On’ the Trainer Step 3 : Observe the LEDs all two LEDs will glow RST.
3. Fault Insertion : Make the Pin 4 of switched fault (1) to ‘Off’.ST2132 Experiment 11 Insert the SIM Card and Switch ‘On’ the Trainer Objective : Study and Measure the CLK of the SIM CARD Procedure : 1. Ltd. 34 . So the result is failure to detect the SIM. it will not be there. Note : All the 6 terminals of the SIM card holds importance if any of the contact is absent then card will not be accepted and shows “INSERT SIM CARD”. 2. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Switch ‘On’ the trainer with SIM Connect the probe of the CRO to (25). “Insert SIM Card” appears on the screen Note : After fault insertion wait for 4 -5second. Observe the 3 MHz CLK. Again observe the CLK. Usually this occur when the SIM socket is bent/soiled or in loose contact with PCB or breakage of path from the CCONT IC and also CPU else dry soldering of the IC. Working principle : Since CLK is must for the card & the disconnection will break the path.
Ltd. the disconnection of which fails the detection of SIM card. Working principle : We already know that the SIM CARD is detected through loop formatted by the “Status” pin of the battery. Fault Insertion : Make the Pin 2 of switched fault 1 to ‘Off’. “Insert SIM CARD” appears on the screen. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 35 .ST2132 Experiment 12 Objective : Study of the SIM CARD detection (with SIM CARD) Procedure : Switch ‘On’ the trainer with SIM. Note : After fault insertion wait for 4-5 sec or press clear button ‘C’ on the keypad.
When Mobile is connected with charger then voltage is given to input pins A2 to A5 of charge control IC N200 through Fuse. generated by the CCONT. Ltd. PWM rate is 1 Hz which is given to Input pin F2 of charge controlled N200 For controlling operation of charger ‘On/Off’ made internally in N200. F200 and filter coil L202 Varistor.ST2132 Experiment 13 Charging : Objective : Study and Measure the charging phenomena in GSM handset Theory : Charging is allowed in any operating state ‘On/Off’. A3 of power IC N201 through voltage divider circuit made by resistance R 209 (47K) and R210 (4K7). The Energy-Management controls the charging current delivered from the charger to the battery. In this way when PWM signal Scientech Technologies Pvt. The battery voltage. 36 .e. power supply IC) controlled by the EM-software (Energy Management) running in the CPU. The battery voltage rise is limited by turning the Charging switch ‘Off’ when the battery voltage has reached.B5 of Power IC N201.5A Fuse in serial with CHRGR+ protects the phone against hazardous Charge current faults e. DC (charger) connector is physically integrated Block Diagram of Charging Circuit Figure 12 An internal 1. Charging current is monitored by measuring the voltage drop across a 22 Ohm resistor. Charging is controlled by a PWM input signal. temperature.g. size and current are measured by the CCONT (i. caused by ‘Pirates’ or defective chargers. In this condition charge voltage is given to pin no. The PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is controlled by the CPU and sent to the CCONT through a serial data bus. According to Control of CPU "PWM Charge Control Signal" is made out from pin no. In this way central processing unit gets information of connecting charge power with mobile.
The startup current provides initial charging to a phone with an empty battery. Start-up Charging : Block Diagram of Charging Circuit Figure 13 When a charger is connected. If charging is completed then Central Processing Unit sends Control information to power Module N201 for stopping PWM charge control pulse. When charger voltage becomes high then it is detected from Pin F4 of charging IC and is given to Pin G10 of CPU after making of its comparison its Controls the charging IC through V205. then it takes decision that value of voltage of battery is full or not. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. This information is also sent to CPU 300.F5 C6. the startup current is switched ‘Off’. the Charging is supplying a startup current minimum of 130mA to the phone.55V (3.0V (+/-0.ST2132 is at high level then charger switch turns "ON" and charge voltage (CHRGR +) given to pin A2 to A5 of charge Module N200 is made out from pin. The startup current is switched on again when the battery voltage has dropped 100mV (nominal). D6 of N200 through V205 for controlling charging operation and checking voltage level of battery. After that charge switch made in N200 is made cut off and charging of battery stops. In this condition CPU sends charge control signal (CHRG-CTRL) to pin C6. 37 . Startup circuit charges the battery until the battery voltage level reaches 3. When PWM signal is at Low Level then charge signal’s is made cut-off and charging of battery stops. Sampling voltage detected by it is given to Input pin B 1 of power IC N201. D6 of N200 and internal switch is sent for charging main battery through coil L201 and L513. In this condition of complete charging resistance R204 (OR22) makes function as charge detective resistance.75V maximum) before the program has taken control over the charging. If the battery voltage reaches 3. Charging mode is changed from startup charging to PWM charging that is controlled by the CPU software.1V) and the CCONT releases the PURX reset signal and program execution starts.
2v Lithium Battery" Size indication Kohm resistor (Rs) V Battery temperature indication Phone has a 100K (+-5%) pull up resistor. 1) Battery +Ve 2) BSI 3) Btemp 4) Ground Table : Battery Connector Electrical Specification Pin 1 2 Name Min VBATT 3. The newer battery types from the battery vendors are getting ‘better and better’. the Charging stops charging. Charging block diagram is shown in figure overleaf.8V) 2. B=4050+-30% Battery Ground is connected directly to V GND Kohm 38 4 GND 0 0 Scientech Technologies Pvt. The voltage divider is only active during charging which is controlled by a transistor activated by the CPU signal CHAR_CTRL. The Charging includes an overvoltage protection circuit (input pin VBAT). Battery Connector (X203) : The electrical specifications for the battery connector are shown in Table. This means that the difference between VLIM and the actually battery voltage is decreasing and the risk of Over voltage protection occur during a normal charge is likely to occur. A voltage divider (120R+3K3) on the VBAT input of the Charging is implemented to solve this problem. Battery package has a NTC pull down resistor 47KΩ +-5%@+25C. When CTIM is shorted (CCUT=’1’). which means that the charge voltage of a fully charged battery now is higher than when the VLIM threshold was specified. This is to minimize switching noise in the Audio circuits.2 56 3 BTEMP 0 51 130 1. SIM Card removal detection (Threshold is 2. Different cutoff voltages (VLIM1 or VLIM2) for two different battery types (Li or Ni) are selected by the CPU via Charging-input pin LIM.85 Unit V V Notes Battery voltage Battery size indication Phone has 150Kohm pull up resistor. Ltd.1 BSI 0 Max 5. The VBAT input voltage is connected through a 120R and 1µf capacitor acts as a filter to reduce influence of over voltage transients caused when connecting the charger.ST2132 The purpose of the capacitor on the CTIM pin is to reduce Output Current slew-rate of the Charging.4 "Nickel Battery" Size indication resistor (Rs) "4. The CTIMpin is also controlled by the CPU-signal CCUT.4V@VBB=2. . During detection of accessories the charging is stopped to prevent.2 2. which purpose is to protect the phone from damage caused by too high Battery voltage. that ‘high’ charge current will disturb the sensible A/D-measurement. It consists of four terminals.
The resistor value corresponds to a specific battery capacity. Pin 3 : Battery temperature (BTEMP) : The battery temperature is measured with a NTC inside the battery pack. if disconnected or improper input from this Pin will lead to “Not charging”. The BTEMP line inside transceiver has a 100k pull-up to VREF. The MCU can identify the battery by reading the BSI line DC-voltage level with a CCONT (N201) A/D-converter and this terminal is necessarily to switch ‘On’ the Handset when charger is connected. SIMCardDetX is a threshold detector. the BSI line has a 150K pull-up to VBB. Measured at (20) Pin 2 : Battery identification (BSI) : The battery type/size is indicated by a resistor inside the battery pack.7mm small in comparison to the supply contact and therefore it disconnects before the other contacts so that there is a delay between battery removal detection and supply power off. The BSI contact in the battery is made 0. The BSI line is connected to a SIMCardDetX line of CPU2. The MCU calculates the battery temperature by reading the BTEMP line DC-voltage level with a CCONT (N201) A/D-converter.8V (approximately) is measurable at the terminal (21). The battery removal detection is used as a trigger to power down the SIM card before the power is lost.ST2132 Pin 1 : Battery Voltage (VBATT) : This is the supply Pin of the battery. Different battery types are identified by a pull-down resistor inside the battery pack. The voltage available at this Pin is 3.6V (approximately) with charger connected and no battery load. This Pin holds importance while battery charging. This capacity value is related to the battery technology as different capacity values are achieved by using different battery technology. it supplies power to the system and also acts as a charging terminal. BSI connections for all battery types Figure 14 The battery identification line is used also for battery removal detection. And no battery load. Ltd. 39 . In the base band area of the transceiver. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2.
Measured at (22) Pin 4 : Ground (GND) : This pin is directly connected to ground.ST2132 Standard Battery BTEMP connection Figure 15 The voltage available at this Pin is 1. Ltd. Block Diagram of Battery Terminal Figure 16 Scientech Technologies Pvt.5V with charger connected and no battery load. 40 .
Make charging ‘Off’ 2. 41 . Varistor etc. 2. Remove battery 4. Switch ‘Off’ the trainer. This can be eliminated by heating and cleaning of PCB or else charging IC may be faulty.5V and to check charging voltage. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Measured at output (30). 3. Fault Insertion : Procedure : • • • • Switch ‘On’ the trainer with or without SIM Make the pin (3) of switched fault 2 ‘Off’. Now switch ‘On’ charging. Switch ‘On’ the charging. we have disconnect battery.9V will be present at input (29) Working Principal : The voltage present at (29) is circuit & IC input and CPU gets the information of charging connection. Working Principal : This is usually when any of the components in the input path goes faulty such as fuse. We already know that output voltage of charging IC is 3. Nothing Happens/No Indication When Charger Is Connected Measure the voltage at input (29) it will be 0V and hence no output. Ltd.ST2132 Charging experiments 1. Fault Insertion : Make the pin (1) of switched fault 2 ‘Off’. Note : When the battery is connected the (30) will show the battery voltage 0V 4.9V. Measure the voltage at output (31) it will be 0V and Measure the voltage at (30) it will be 0V but 6V . hence indication but no voltage at (31) that’s the input to the charging IC and hence no output. We already know that charging voltage is 6V . • Charging Indication But Battery Doesn’t Get Charged 1. we can measure at input (29). These usually happens when the charging IC that a BGA IC is dry soldered or due to dust. And switch ‘On’ the charging.6V. when charging ‘On’ and battery removed Procedure : Switch ‘On’ the trainer with / without SIM.
Switch ‘On’ charging 5. Scientech Technologies Pvt. This happens due to disconnection of path between power supply IC and battery temperature terminal or dry solder or improper data to IC. Switch ‘Off’ the trainer 3. Procedure : Switch ‘On’ the trainer with /without SIM Fault Insertion : Make the pin (3) of switched fault 1 ‘Off’. In case that the fault appears only from time to time.5V is present at battery temperature (22) with charging ‘On’ and battery disconnected. Switch ‘On’ the charging.temperature (22) it will be 0V. Switch ‘Off’ the charging 2. “Not Charging” Appears on the screen : 1.ST2132 3. especially check contact springs of connector X200 and battery-connector X203 if bent. We already know that 1. soiled or corroded. Working Principal : Since the temperature of battery being regularly verified by the PS IC while charging and if fails to perform it generates an error. Check voltages at B. 42 . Remove the battery 4. “Not Charging” and stop charging. if necessary clean them with an appropriate amount of IPA. Ltd. Also ensure that contactpads for connectors on PCB are not dirty. It should be checked whether the fault occurs only intermittently or if it is permanently impossible to charge the battery. faulty power supply IC or wrong battery.
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Crystal sections. It includes all the voltage regulators and feeds the power to the whole system. Ltd. There is a separate regulator for the SIM card. 43 . The battery feeds power directly to the CCONT IC.5 V reference voltage VREF to COBBA/ HAGAR.8V supply VCOBBA. COBBA digital parts and the LCD driver in the UI section.8V regulators providing power to the HAGAR. Block Diagram of Power Distributor Figure 17 CCONT includes also five additional 2. The base band digital parts are powered from the VBB regulator which provides 2. The heart of the power distribution is the CCONT.ST2132 Experiment 14 Power Supply : Objective : Study and Analyze the CCONT IC in a GSM Handset Theory : In normal operation. The VBB base band regulator feeds CPU and memories. The base band regulator is active always when the phone is powered on. The CCONT also supplies 5V for RF. Power Amplifier (PA) and UI (buzzer and LEDs for display/keyboard). These regulators are controlled by SW via the serial Bus GENSIO (1:0) from the CPU. A supply of 2V (Vcore) is supplied for the CPU. CCONT generates also a 1. The VREF voltage is also used as a reference to some of the CCONT A/D converters. Shows a block diagram of the power distribution. the base band is powered from the phone’s battery. Local Oscillator.8V base band supply. The COBBA analog parts are powered from a dedicated 2. The regulator is selectable between 3V and 5V and controlled by the SIMPwr line from CPU to CCONT.
Watchdog counter is reset internally to 32 sec. the WDCounter runs during that time. Watchdog output is disabled when WDDisX pin is tied low. at power up. though. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The CCONT IC acts as mediator between SIM & CPU. Battery charging is controlled by a PWM signal from the CCONT IC. The watchdog block inside CCONT contains a watchdog counter and some additional logic. Ltd.ST2132 The Power ‘On/Off’ key is connected to the PWRONX / WDDISX pin of the CCONT IC. The (RTC) Real Time Clock function is also integrated in the CCONT IC. 44 . which are used for controlling the power on and power ‘Off’ procedures of CCONT.
45 . 10 – 1. The 32 KHz sleep-clock is used as time source to a RTC block.ST2132 Experiment 15 Objective: Study and Measure the supplies generated by CCONT IC Procedure: 1.5 V 11 – 5V 12 – 2. The RTC is integrated in the CCONT.8 V 13 – 2.8 V 17 – 2.8 V 19 – 2. which is always running when the phone battery connected. a calendar and a timer with alarm and power ‘On/Off’.8 V Real Clock Time Real Time Clock : Requirements for a Real Time Clock (RTC) implementation are a basic clock (hours and minutes). calendar) are implemented with the MCU software.8 V 18 – 2. Ltd. because the CCONT already contains the power up/ down functions and a 32 KHz sleep-clock.g.function and miscellaneous calls.8 V 14 – 2. The RTC will contain only the time base and the alarm timer but all other functions (e. Switch ‘On’ the Trainer with SIM inserted. Scientech Technologies Pvt.8 V 15 – 2V 16 – 2.
46 . Keep the probe connected and switch ‘Off’ the trainer Observe the clock (Clock signal can be measured on a frequency counter 32. 3. Power Up and Power Down The phone is powered up by: A. 2. Ltd. 5. Switch ‘On’ the trainer Connect CRO to (9) Observe the clock. Once the battery is removed the time data will be lost and the trainer (mobile phone) asks to re-enter the time as soon as switch ‘On’. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Working Principal : Since the 32 KHz signal of the oscillator is used or time source of RTC. 4. The signal is generated by the oscillator as long as battery is connected and time will be running. For the reason some of the mobile phone brands has a rechargeable lithium Ion coin cell on the PCB itself. The CCONT recognizes the charge from the CHAR voltage and starts the power up procedure. Connecting a charger to the phone. 6.76 KHz) Remove the battery and the signal is lost.ST2132 Experiment 16 Objective: Study of the RTC Procedure: 1.
Experiment 17 Objective : Analyze the trainer (mobile phone) is partially ON when charger is connected. Procedure : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect the battery. Don’t switch ‘On’ the trainer. Switch ‘On’ the charging. Observe the charging indication on the LCD. Base band voltage 2.8V at (18) can be measured using a DMM.
A RTC interrupt. If the real time clock is set to alarm and the phone is switched ‘Off’, the RTC generates an interrupt signal. Which will power up the phone at the alarm set time (internal CCONT signal RTC PWR set to logic 1). The RTC interrupt signal is connected to the PURX line to give a power on signal to the CCONT just like the power key.
Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Experiment 18 Objective: Analyze that a mobile phone is powered ON at the alarm Set Time Procedure : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Switch ‘On’ the trainer with SIM. Press “Menu” button. Use scroll keys to until you get the option ‘Clock’. Press ‘Select’. You will get option ‘Alarm Clock’. Press the ‘Select’. If you have not set the time. It will ask to enter the current time. It asks for date which can escaped. Then “Set Alarm Time for 2 or 3 minutes duration from the current time. You should get a bell symbol in the display. Switch ‘Off’ the trainer (Don’t remove the battery). Now, wait for the current time to reach the alarm set time. On reaching the alarm set time, you will observe the trainer’s geting ‘On’. And you will hear the alarm ringing.
Power up with power switch (PWRONX) : When the power on switch is pressed the PWRONX signal will go low means grounded. CCONT will switch ‘On’ the CCONT digital section and VCTCXO, as was the case with the charge driven power up. If PWRONX is low when the 62 ms delay expires, PURX is release and SLEEP control goes to CPU. If PWRONX is not low when 62 ms expires, PURX will not be release, and CCONT will go to power ‘Off’ (digital section will sent power ‘Off’ signal to analog parts. Else the PURX is released). The CPU releases the system reset and start the execution. In normal operation, the execution continues from flash program memory. However if the MBUS line is pulled low during the power up the boot ROM starts a flash programming sequence and wait for prommer response through FBUS RX line.
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Experiment 19 Objective: Analyze power ‘On/Off’ (PWRONX) signal is triggered with low/grounded Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Connect the battery to the trainer. Take the short link provided Short the PWR point to ground for a second or two. Observe that trainer is switched ON.
Working Principal : Since the mobile phone is triggered when grounded and power up procedure will start. Power Down : The phone is powered down by : • • • While PWRONX / WDDISX signal to low/Ground. (The power key to hold for a more duration) Pressing the power key, that is monitored by the CPU, which starts the power down procedure. If the battery voltage is dropped below the operation limit, either by not charging it or by removing the battery.
The power down is controlled by the CPU. When the power key has been pressed long enough, or the battery voltage is dropped below the limit, the CPU initiates a power down procedure and disconnects the SIM power. Then the CPU outputs a system-reset signal and reset the DSP. If there is no charge connected the MCU writes a short delay to CCONT watchdog and resets itself. After the set delay the CCONT watchdog expires, which activates the PURX and all regulators are switched ‘Off’ and the phone is powered down by the CCONT.
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Experiment 20 Objective : Study the power ‘Off’ triggered by low signal (ground) Procedure : 1. 2. 3. 4. Switch ‘On’ trainer Take the short link. Short the PWR point (Blue color) to Ground point (Black color) hold for 3-4 seconds. Observe the trainer getting ‘Off’. Modes of Operation A. Acting Dead : If the phone is ‘Off’ or switched ‘Off’ and when the charger is connected, the phone is powered on enters a state called “acting dead”. To the user, the phone acts as if was switched ‘Off’. A battery-charging alert is given and a battery charging indication on the display is shown to acknowledge the user that the battery is being charged.
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The voltage regulators for the RF section are switched ‘Off’ and the VCTCXO power control. 2. C. Sleep Mode : In the sleep mode all the regulators are off sleep mode is activated by the CPU after CPU and DSP clocks have been switched ‘Off’.(14) in accordance with chart provided. scanning for channels. listening to a base station. There are several sub-states in the active mode depending on the phone is in burst reception. B. only the 32 KHz sleep clock oscillator in CCONT is running. 51 . Active Mode : In the active mode the phone is in normal operation. All the CCONT regulators are operating. and the flash is deep powered down during the sleep mode. Connect the battery Switch ‘On’ the trainer. burst transmission. VCTCXOPwr is set low.ST2132 Experiment 21 Objective : Analyze the acting dead mode Procedure : 1. The flash memory power down during input is connected to the ExSysResetX signal. observe the indication on the display. Voltage can be measured from (10). if DSP is working etc. transmitting and processing information. Ltd. 3. In this state. Scientech Technologies Pvt.
Ltd. The LED in mobile phone is of SMD type instead of traditional LED’s due to much compactness required and many mobile specifications. UI IC and LED. Switch ‘On’ the trainer with/without SIM. User Interface Section LED : LED: Light Emitting Diode. The LED circuit consists of CPU. The DC signal is made out from pin C12 of CPU whenever handset is switched ‘On/Off’. The LED’s are connected in parallel.ST2132 Experiment 22 Objective : Analyze the Sleep mode Procedure : 1. helps the user while performing function. 52 . Tx/Rx even a key is pressed depending on the menu features. 3. The signal obtained from the CPU is given to Pin 7 & 15 of UI IC. Varistors are connected for protection in addition resistors are connected for both (LED & Keypad) LED’s for intensity control. (Don’t disconnect the battery) Voltages from (10) to (19) will be 0V except the 32 KHz at (9) which can be observed with the help of a CRO or a voltage of 2V (approximately) can be observed. Now switch ‘Off’ after 2-3 seconds. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Block Diagram of LED Figure 18 The UI IC gives output for keypad/Display LED separately but simultaneously. The time duration for the LED is software controlled often menu driven. The anode of the LED’s is connected to VBAT. 2.
Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2.ST2132 Experiment 23 Objective: Verify and Analyze the intensity is Hardware control Procedure: 1. 3. Ltd. 53 . Power ON the mobile Trainer Vary the potentiometer to clock/anticlockwise Observe the intensity changes in the Display Section LED.
Display Led Not Glowing Fault Finding : Constant voltage of 2V at (40) Working principle : This is due to disconnection of path or faulty IC b) Procedure : 1. Ltd. Power ‘On’ the trainer 2.ST2132 Experiment 24 Objective: Study and Analyze the DC level of LED a) Procedure : 1. 54 . Scientech Technologies Pvt. Fault Insertion : Make the Pin (3) of switched fault 5 to ‘Off’ position. Note : We already know that for making LED glow at least we have to press any key. Measure the voltage at (40) & (41) with LED ‘On’. Measure the voltage at (41) with LED ‘On’ 1V (approximately). Fault Insertion : Make the Pin (4) of switched fault 5 to ‘Off’ position Partial LED Fault Finding : Constant voltage of 2V at (41) Working principle : This due to breakage between the LED’s or LED faulty.
55 . This is also called Vibra Alert Device. Vibrator pads are located on the PCB.19 of N400 IC.ST2132 Experiment 25 Vibrator: Objective: Study and Analyze the vibrator in a GSM Handset Theory: The vibrator driving circuit is similar to that of ringer circuit. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Operation of turning ‘On’ Vibrator is controlled by software. A vibra alerting device is similar to the DC motor. This signal is amplified in IC N400 and after amplification signal is made out from its pin no. V BATT supply is given at other tapping of this vibrator. Driving IC N400 and Vibrator M400. Vibrator Control Signal (VIBRA) is obtained from Pin G12 of CPU while there is an incoming call/software activated and is given to pin no. the vibrator is lifted up from the PCB similar to the Buzzer. Ltd. In the mobile phone it is used to generate a vibration signal for an incoming call. It is used for giving silent information to user for incoming calls.16 and given to vibrator M400 through R401. When an incoming call comes then this device gives its information to user by vibrating Block Diagram of Vibrator Control Circuit Figure 19 Circuit Description: This Vibrator Driving circuit is mainly made by CPU. In the mobile phone.
Switch PWM low level. Scientech Technologies Pvt.5 Unit V 2 2.2 Max 0. logic low PWM high level. Activate the vibrator from the menu.ST2132 Interface – CPU UI Switch Signal VIBRA_ PWM Vibra control signal from CPU Parameter PWM low level.9 mA V Hz 35 0. logic Low PWM high level. Ltd.5 2 22K 2. 56 . Vibrator doesn’t circuit operate in charging ‘On’ mode.85 180 V K ohms Note : a. logic high Current CPU Output Vibra PWM frequency PWM Duty Cycle (256 linear (steps) Vibra _CNT Vibra control signal in UI.5 % V 2 60 28 100 2. b. logic high Internal Pull down Resistor 16 0 Min 0 Type 0.
UI IC or disconnection of path else faulty Vibrator.ST2132 Experiment 26 Objective : Study and Measure the PWM signal of the Vibrator Procedure : 1. X : 2V/div. Y : 0. Give a Call to mobile phone trainer and keep on ringing or press ‘Menu’ and scroll with the help of up/down buttons until you find ‘Tone’ – select. Figure 20 Fault Insertion : Make the pin (2) of switched faults 5 to ‘Off’ position. Ltd. Working principle : Since PWM signal is must for the Vibrator. 3. PWM signal is observed. Since make/break phenomena rise/fall of the signal is obtained and vibrator will rotate. then ‘Ring Tone’– selects and scrolls a step up or down. 57 . Scientech Technologies Pvt. It is due to problem in the CPU. 2. And wait until you observe the vibrator rotating. Connect probe of the CRO to (39).5ms/div. No Vibration (Even After Menu Activation) Fault Finding : Observe the signal (39) it will not be there and hence no vibration.
Ringing Driving Control signal that’s a PWM signal is obtained from pin no. After amplification in this IC this signal is made out from pin no. (Marketing Target 105dB.ST2132 Experiment 27 Buzzer : Objective : Study and Analyze the Buzzer in a GSM Handset Theory : Alerting tones or melodies are generated by a buzzer.) Ringing driving circuit is mainly made by CPU. 58 . Second tapping of buzzer is connected with VBATT ring sound is obtained from buzzer. In tables shows the relevant specifications Block Diagram of Buzzer Control Circuit Figure 21 Scientech Technologies Pvt.6 and reaches at one tapping of buzzer. D9 of Central Processing Unit (CPU) and given to pin number 3 of IC N400. Ltd. Whenever there is an incoming call or message else ringing is software activated. Driving IC N400 and Buzzer.
9 2 1000 0 100 0.5 Unit V 2 2.ST2132 Interface – CPU and UI Switch Signal Buzzer_ PWM Buzzer control signal from CPU Parameter PWM low level. Ltd. logic high Current CPU Output Buzzer PWM frequency PWM Duty Cycle (256 linear (steps) Buzzer _CNT Buzzer control signal in UISwitch PWM low level.2 Unit N V mA Scientech Technologies Pvt. logic high Internal Pull down Resistor 2 60 28 100 2.5 2. 59 .6 0 90 Max 5. logic Low PWM high level. logic low 100 0 0 Min 0 Type 0.2 Max 0.85 180 V K ohms Interface – Ui IC and Buzzer Signal VBAT GND Buzzer Parameter Supply Voltage Ground Buzzer Average Current Min 3 Type 3.5 V mA Hz % V PWM high level.
Working principle : Since PWM signal is must for the Buzzer. PWM signal is observed. UI IC or disconnection of path else faulty buzzer.ST2132 Experiment 28 Objective : Study and measure the PWM signal of the Buzzer Procedure : 1. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Connect probe of the CRO to (38). it will not be there. Ltd. It is due to problem in the CPU. 60 . 2. No Ring Sound Fault Finding : Observe the signal. X : 2V/div Y : 20 µs/div Figure 22 Fault Insertion : Make the pin (1) of switched faults 5 to ‘Off’ position. Since make/break phenomena rise/fall of the signal is obtained and ring is heard. Give a Call to trainer by making an incoming call and keep on ringing same as vibrator.
which are connected to the Row-signals from the CPU. serial resistors of 1K are inserted between the Keypad Rows and the CPU.ST2132 Experiment 29 Keypad : Objective: Study of the Keypad of a GSM Handset Theory: The complete arrangement of Keypad is of key matrix type. Rows and Columns are connected to CPU interface. It has 16 keys and uses 4 rows and 5 columns. Ltd. Keypad Circuit: Clear Up 0 2 1 Down 6 5 4 9 8 7 3 # Soft-A * COL1 COL2 COL3 COL4 Block Diagram of Keypad Circuit Figure 23 Scientech Technologies Pvt. COL0 ROW0 ROW1 ROW2 ROW3 ROW4` ROW5 Note: Shaded portion not used. 61 . are sensible to ESD are protected by an ESD network. The ‘Keydots’. In addition.
All horizontal and vertical lines of key matrix are connected with different pins of CPU (D300). Pins of column of CPU are output pins and pins of Row are Input pins. Column (3) with pin D3 and Column (4) is connected with pin D2 of CPU. Power Key : It is connected between GND and CCONT pin E4 PWRONX / WDDISX. After that CPU gives instruction for operation according to function of pressed key. Ltd. In this key pad matrix column (0) is connected with pin C3 of CPU. In this way when we press any key then signal made out from column pin of CPU is obtained at row pin passing through the key.C4. Row (1) with Pin F2. Row (2) with pin F3. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Again Row (0) with pin F1 (This row is not used in circuit). row (3) with Pin F4 and row (4) is connected with pin E2 of CPU.ST2132 In this 16 keys are mounted in such a type between four horizontal rows and five vertical columns that each key connects with one horizontal row and vertical column. When any key is pressed then it shorts concerned horizontal row and vertical column. Column (2) with pin D4. CPU gets information by it that push key connected with which row pin and column pin is pressed. Power key active in low state and connected to Row (1). Row (5) which is connected with pin D3 of CPU is connected to pin (5) of LCD module. 62 . Column (1) with pin no.
5. 0. Note : Problems occurs in the keypad usually when the Handset is water dropped. 8 & SOFT-A are connected in the same row and by making the switched fault. Unable to Dial 1&2. Fault Insertion 4 : Make Pin (4) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. Unable To Dial 4. In most of the cases it is due to breaking of path and looses contact of ESD components / dry solder of CPU. Unable to Clear/ Some Keys are not working Working principle : As keys UP. Fault Insertion 3 : Make Pin (3) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. clear are connected in the same column Col (0). We have disconnected the path. 63 . For information cleaning with IPA and heating the PCB will do the job. disconnection of path / loose contact of ESD components / dry solder of CPU will make the keys to hang. 6 Working principle : Scientech Technologies Pvt. This will lead to jamming of entire row / column or sometimes individual key. exposed to moisture / dust.ST2132 Experiment 30 Objective : Study of the Row/Column configuration of Matrix Keypad We already know which row is connected with which column. Ltd. Fault Insertion 2 : Make Pin (2) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. 5. 1. Even scroll down is not working. Unable to scroll : Working principle : Since Up. 2 keys are connected in same column that’s column (1) Fault insertion 5 : Make Pin (5) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. Fault Insertion 1 : Make Pin (1) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. Unable to Access menu or call even some keys are not working : Working principle : As keys 2. Down & 3 Keys are connected in same Row (1). Working principle: Since Down.
unable to use clear. 7 and * Working principle : Since Clear. 9 keys are connected in same column matrix C (3). unable to use the 0. 5. 6. 4. 1. 7 and * are connected in same Row (4). 6. Unable To Dial 7. unable to access calls/ keys/ special function Working principle : Since keys 3. 64 . 4. 8.ST2132 Since 4. Ltd. 6 keys are connected in same column C (2) Fault Insertion 6 : Make Pin (6) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. 9 Working principle : Since 7. Fault Insertion 9 : Make Pin (9) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. 9 and # Working principle : Since keys 0. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 9 and # keys are connected in same Row (2). 8. 1. Fault Insertion 7 : Make Pin (7) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. Fault Insertion 8 : Make Pin (8) of switch fault 4 to ‘Off’ position. # and SOFT-A and * are connected in same column Col (4).
Block Diagram of LCD Module Figure 24 Pin Description of LCD module : Pin no. 2 (V Out) : This is filter pin of LCD module. temperature compensating circuit and low power control. 1 (RES) : This is reset input pin. Capacitors are placed on PCB. And voltage tripler output is available at this Pin. LCD reset signal (LCD RSTX) is given at this pin from pin no. Adhesive Conductive Film. . The connection method for the chip on glass is ACF. Driver doesn’t include CG-ROM. The LCD module is connected to the PCB with spring contacts. The display driver includes HW-reset. Driver includes 84x48 bit RAM memory that is used when some elements are created on display. At this pin two capacitors are connected in parallel. The display circuit includes LCD modules GD 47 (84 x 48 pixels) and 2 capacitors. This LCD module is made on the basis of “Chip-On Glass” (COG) technology. Ltd. CPU obtains data from memory according to that pressed button and gives to LCD module and that data displays at screen. Elements are created by software.ST2132 Experiment 31 LCD Module : Objective : Study and Analyze the LCD Module LCD module : One liquid crystal display (LCD) module is used in display section of mobile phone. This voltage can be check at (33) 65 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Pin no. A3 of CPU (D300). When any button is pressed in Mobile Phone then at first its information comes in CPU. voltage triple or quadruple which depends on temperature.
C6 of power supply module N201 is given at this pin. VBB (2. This is pin of LCD enable input.7 2. 8 [VDD] : This is positive supply pin of LCD module. LCD enable signal (LCD ENX) is given at this pin from this pin D1 of CPU (D300). Ltd.8 3. Pin no. Pin no. Pin no.3V 240µA Note : Switch ‘Off’ the charging for better performance.3xVBB 0.3xVBB 0. LCD Module Interface Pin Line Parameter Min Typical / Maximu Signal Nominal m 1-RES LCDRSTX Reset 0 0.3xVBB 0. 6 [SD IN] : This is Screen Data input pin of LCD module that data is given at this pin from pin B10 of CPU which has to display at screen.7xVB VBB B 7-SCLK SCLK Serial Clock input 0 4MHz 0 VBB 8-VDD VBB Supply Voltage 2. Scientech Technologies Pvt.3xVBB (ROW5) data flag input 0. fully charged the battery and keep the charging ‘On’. Pin no.8V) supply obtained from pin no. 5 (D/C) : This pin is display control pin and is connected with the pin D3 (ROW 5 LCD CD) of CPU. 66 .ST2132 Pin no.7xVB VBB B 5-D/C LCDCDX Control/display 0 0.7xVB VBB B 6-SDIN SDA Serial data input 0 0. 7 [SCLK] : Clock Pulse (SCLK) from pin A10 of CPU (D300) is given at this pin. 4 (SCE) : This pin is made ground. 3 (GND) : Pin no.7xVB VBB B 2-VOUT VOUT DC/DC voltage 6 9 converter output 3-GND GND Ground 0 4-SCE LCDCSX Chip Select Input 0 0. LCD Module Experiment : Note : Before performing the observation.
Procedure : Power ‘On’ the trainer with or without SIM. Else faulty display. 67 . Note : LCD display is that section in mobile phone which becomes defective more then all. Note : It may take within 1min – 3 min for fault No display : Figure 25 Measure the voltage at (32) and (33) it will be 0V. After that it should be observed that it’s all indicated data are correct and all paths should be checked or not so that it can be identified that fault is of main board or screen display.ST2132 Experiment 32 Objective : Study and Measure the reset pin in LCD Module We already know that Pin 1 is the reset Pin voltage available at this pin is 2. Ltd.8V can be check at (32). Working principle : This fault occurs usually due to loose contact between the PCB and the Display or spring connector of the display. When any fault is observed in display then at first loose contact should be check and spring contact of the LCD for bent or soiled and then supply of display module should be checked. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Fault Insertion : Make the pin 1 & 2 of switched fault (3) ‘Off’.
The Tripler output which was disconnected from the ground distributes the power in the LCD module and the result is dark screen.8V (approximately).ST2132 Experiment 33 Objective: Verify and Study the importance of the voltage Tripler in the LCD Module We already know that Pin 2 is the Tripler output hence voltage at (33) is 6V . Working principle : This usually happens when the Tripler output is not grounded due to break. The picture is visible by pixels when voltage is given. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Measure the voltage at (33) it will 6V . Fault Insertion : Make the pin (2) of switched fault (3) ‘Off’.8V only since it is generated in the display module internally and hence voltage Tripler. Dark Background and Blurring Image : Figure 26 By making the switched fault we have disconnected the pin from grounding. 68 . Ltd.
Misplaced Display : Figure 27 Measure the voltage at (37) it will be 0V. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Make the pin (3) of switched fault (3) ‘Off’. make it to loose control. Working principle : Since Pin 5 is control pin disconnection of path from CPU.ST2132 Experiment 34 Objective : Verify and Measure the control pin of the LCD Module Fault Insertion : We already know that Pin 5 is a Display control Pin voltage available at this pin is 2. Ltd. 69 .8V can be test at (37).
It is due to disconnection of path or etc. the information is retained without consuming any power. flash offers solid-state shock resistance. Flash memory is made in two forms: NOR flash and NAND flash. which size is 2 MB (1024K x 16 bit). (The names refer to the type of used in each storage cell. It has long erase and write times. Flash memory : D301 size is 2MB. but has a full address/data (memory) interface that allows random access to any location. This makes it suitable for storage of program code that needs to be infrequently updated. Its endurance is 10. Display Hanged : Figure 28 Working principle : Since clock is the heart beat without which the LCD fail to work. due to wear on the insulating oxide layer around the charge storage mechanism used to store data. In addition. Flash can operate at higher effective speeds when the systems using it and write to different locations at the same time.000 erase cycles. D0 to D15 is its 16 bits data lines.ST2132 Experiment 35 Objective : Study the clock pin of a LCD Module We already know that clock signal is measured at (36).) NOR flash is generally used in Cell phones. All types of flash memory wear after a certain number of erase operations. The CPU work (data) memory is static ram size is 1024 Kbits (64K x 16 bit). This means that if you turn ‘Off’ the power to the chip. Flash memory D301 has 16 data bits. We already know that pin 7 is a clock pin. Memory Memory : The CPU program code resides in an external flash program memory. Its a BGA soldering & a form of EEPROM that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one programming operation. and 20 addresses. The Bus Controlled (BUSC) section in the CPU decodes the chip select signals for the external memory devices and the system logic. Flash memory stores information on a silicon chip in a way that does not need power to maintain the information in the chip. These 16 bits data lines are fix base for interchanging its data with Scientech Technologies Pvt.000 to 100. Fault Insertion : Make the pin (4) of switched fault (3) ‘Off’. 70 . Ltd.
All retainable data is stored in the data memory flash when the phone is powered down. A0 to A19 is its 20 bits address Line. Ltd. Centre processing Unit (CPU) obtains information from flash memory. Mainly it completes functions of Data Buffing. during the power up phase of the flash to ensure that the device is power up in the correct state. This is low power consuming random memory and it is BGA soldering. The flash memory has a power down pin. Supply is given to this SRAM work memory from VBB voltage.ST2132 CPU. calculates it and make decode. 16 bits Address and D0 to D15 16 Bits data. The memory contents are lost when the base band voltage is switched ‘Off’. read only. After that makes control signal out for completing all functions on the basis of mutual support of all sections. When Data and Address have some problem then power ‘On’ of system is not made because of it or mobile not works in normal way. It is used for instructions. The power down pin is utilized in the system sleep mode by connecting the ExSysRestX to the flash power pin to minimize the flash power consumption during the sleep. It has A 1 to A 16. SRAM Memory : Temporary memory SRAM (static RAM) is also used its size is (1024K). Block Diagram of Memory Figure 29 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Instructed principle and saving out come obtained at the time of working of CPU. which is kept low. 71 .
A small. serial control interface for COBBA PCM Coded. where it is multiplied to 45. and small size. The CPU supplies a 13 MHz internal clock for the MCU and system logic blocks and 13 MHz clock for the DSP. sleep and Interrupt control) MFI (Interface to COBBA AD/DA Converters) CODER (Block encoding/decoding and A5 & A52 ciphering) AccIF (Accessory Interface) UIF (Keyboard interface. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principal.ST2132 CPU CPU : Central Processing Unit or MAD2WD1 (ASIC). This simplicity gives : • • • • • • • A high instruction throughput An excellent real-time interrupt response. with enhanced features) PUP (Parallel IO. 72 . and related decode mechanism are much simper than those of Complex Instrument Set Computer (CISC) designs. a system ASIC and a DSP. Input to HAGAR divider is from the 26 MHz VCXO frequency. which is generated by an internal ‘divider by 2’ circuit in the HAGAR RF-ASIC. Timing. Scientech Technologies Pvt. USART and PWM control unit for vibrator and buzzer The CPU operates from a 13 MHz system clock. Serial Port (connection to PCM) Timer DSP memory Texas Instruments DSP core with peripherals: BUSC ( Bus Controller for controlling accesses from ARM to API. System Logic and MCU external memories. cost-effective. The base band function are controlled by the CPU. both 8. ARM RISC processor with both 16-bit instructions set (THUMB mode) and 32-bit instruction set (ARM mode) The ARM7TDMI core is a member of the ARM family of general-purpose 32-bit microprocessors. The ARM family offers high performance for very low power consumption. LCD Driver and CCONT) SIMI (Sim Card interface. The RISC instrument set.5 MHz DSP clock (13MHz x 7/2). Ltd. which consist of a MCU.bit & 16-bit memories) System Logic : • • • • • • • CTSI (Clock. processor micro cell. API (Arm Port Interface memory) for MCU-DSP communication.
H1: These all supply pins of VBB (2. F3. Supply obtained from of IC N201 is given at these pins. Pin K7. ROW-4. G13.ST2132 The system clock is stopped in sleep-mode. Ltd. ROW-5. Pin B7. D11. ROW-1. 73 . B6. F4.8V). ROW-2. D10. G1. The sleep clock is active when there is a battery voltage available i. Pin Diagram of CPU D 300 Figure 30 Pin Description of CPU D300 : Pin F1. DSP and System Logic. ROW-3. CD. F2. Supply is obtained at these pins from pin B4 of IC N201. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Among these ROW-0 to 4 are used for key Matrix and ROW-5 is connected with LCD Module.e. G11. The CCONT provides a 32 KHz sleep clock for internal use and to the CPU. K4. K10. E1. E3 : These 6 pins of CPU D300 are pins of serially ROW-0. H10. always when the battery is connected. LCD. E2. M10. N4 : These all supply pins of V Core (2V). CPU supply voltages are VBB for I/O and VCORE for Internal functions as MCU. which is used for the sleep mode timing.
M6. L6.ST2132 Pin D4. N1. Pin C3. G4. . D5. K1. D3. M3. N9. J1. L9. N2. L7. Pin K6. D2 : These all pins of CPU are pin of column 0 to column-4. J12. G3. C2. whenever there is incoming call or menu activated. Ltd. L5.8 Volt 74 Scientech Technologies Pvt. L3. Test Points Test Points : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) 880 – 915 MHz Tx Signal 925 – 960 MHz Rx Signal Rx I Rx Q Tx I Tx Q For Future use Audio Signal 32. J4. J2. L2. L8. these pins are used in key Pad Matrix. D4. H2. M8. Pin G12 : Vibrator PWM signal is made out from this pin.5Volt 5 Volt 2. E10. N7. H3.8 Volt 2. K2. M4. Interchange of data between CPU and Memory is made through these pins. M7. L4. N8. N10. K3.8 Volt 2 Volt CPU 2.8 Volt 2.768 KHz clock/signal 1. M9. whenever there is incoming call or menu activated. Pin D9 : Buzzer PWM signal is made out from this pin.8 Volt 2. K5. F13. these are made earth. Pin N3. C4. M2. Pin C12 : Signal for LED is made out from this Pin. J10 : These all are ground pins. M1. N6. K9. L1. C9. L10 : These 16 pins of CPU D300 are pins of Data Line D0 to D15. G2 : These all pins of CPU D300 are pins of Address Line AD0 to AD21. H4.8 Volt 2. J3.
8V LCD CLK LCD Voltage Tripler 2.8 Volt + ve 3. pin 0.5Volt & off at 3.4Volt (approximately) 1.8V LCD Voltage 2.5V in AC mode SIM Supply Voltage 3 with SIM SIM RST 3 Volt SIM CLK 3.8V Buzzer PWM control signal Vibrator PWM control signal LED On at 2. Ltd.5Volt & off at 3.ST2132 (19) (20) (21) - 2.6V charging IC output 6. 75 .6 without battery with Battery 0 – 4 Volt (approximately) 5Volt in AC mode 2.5 without battery with Battery temp.9V charging circuit input. 3.6Volt LED On at 2.8Volt LCD Voltage Tripler output 6-8 Volt (Approximately) LCD Voltage 2.6Volt (22) - (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) - Scientech Technologies Pvt.9 Volts (approximately) 0V in AC mode 1.2 MHz SIM Ground SIM supply voltage (approximately) SIM Data 3Volt 6.9V charging IC input LCD RST 2.5without battery with Battery status pin 0.
Ltd.ST2132 Component Layout (For Information Only) Figure 31 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 76 .
2.708 KHz GSM data rate – 270.Escotel Haryana)GSM 900 Scientech Technologies Pvt.GSM 900/1800 4. 9. Rx frequency 935-960 MHz 1. Ltd.768 KHz SIM clock . Rx – 925-960 MHz Modulation .Andhra Pradesh Circle) GSM 900 • Bharti Mobile Ltd (AirTel . Bihar • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel) GSM 900 Delhi • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel . 4.GSM 900 • Idea Mobile Communications (Idea (Escotel) Haryana .GSM 900 5.City of Delhi).2 MHz VCO signal for Rx – 3700-3840 MHz divided by 4 VCO signal for Tx – 3520-3660 MHz divided by 4 VCTXO signal – 26 MHz divided by 2 System clock – 13 MHz Network Coverage GSM 900 MHz band service providers in India Tx frequency 890-915 MHz.Andhra Pradesh Circle). 7.833 Kbit/sec Clock frequency – 32.GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) RF carrier Shift .Haryana). 8. Andhra Pradesh • IDEA Cellular Limited (IDEA Cellular Limited .Gujarat . 3.City of Delhi).ST2132 Frequency List 1.GSM 900 2. 3. Gujarat • IDEA Cellular Limited (IDEA Cellular Limited . 10.Gujarat Circle)GSM 900 • Fascel Limited (Hutch-Gujarat .3. 6.GSM 900 • Hutchison Essar Telecom Limited (Hutch-Delhi . Haryana • Aircel Digilink India Ltd (Hutch-Haryana .+ 67. 77 . 5. GSM band 900MHz – Tx – 880-890 MHz.Gujarat Circle).
GSM 900 Karnataka • Bharti Mobile Ltd (AirTel .ST2132 6.Orissa).GSM 900 12.Himachal Pradesh Circle).Karnataka Circle).GSM 900 • Spice Communications Limited (Spice Telecom .GSM 900/1800 • IDEA Cellular Limited (IDEA Cellular Limited .Madhya Pradesh). 15.Maharashtra Circle).Punjab).GSM 900 9. 7. 14. Ltd.Karnataka).GSM 900 • BPL Mobile Communications Ltd (BPL MOBILE . 8.Jammu & Kashmir).Rajasthan).GSM 900 Kerala • Idea Mobile Communications (Idea (Escotel) Kerala .GSM 900 • Hutchison Max Telecom PVT Ltd (Orange .City of Bombay).GSM 900 Scientech Technologies Pvt.Maharashtra . Madhya Pradesh • IDEA Cellular Limited (IDEA Cellular Limited .GSM 900 11.Punjab).GSM 900 • BPL Cellular Limited (BPL USWEST Cellular (Kerala) .GSM 900 Punjab • Bharti Mobile Ltd (AirTel .City of Bombay). Maharashtra • BPL Cellular Limited (BPL USWEST Cellular (Maharashtra) .GSM 900 • Hexacom India Ltd (Oasis Cellular).Rajasthan). 10.GSM 900 • Spice Communications Limited (Spice Telecom .GSM 900 • Hexacom India Ltd (Oasis Cellular). 13.GSM 900 North east • Reliance Telecom Private Ltd (Reliance Telecom Private Ltd .GSM 900 • Aircel Digilink India Ltd (Hutch-Rajasthan .GSM 900 Jammu & Kashmir • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel . Himachal Pradesh • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel .Escotel Kerala).Maharashtra Circle). 78 .Kerala).North East)GSM 900 Orissa • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel . Rajasthan • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel .
GSM 900 • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel .Chennai.UP East).West Bengal).GSM 900 • BPL Cellular Limited (BPL USWEST Cellular (Tamil Nadu) . Ltd.GSM 900 • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel . Rx frequency is 925-960 MHz Scientech Technologies Pvt. West Bengal • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel .Tamilandu Circle).GSM 900 World 1.Tamil Nadu)GSM 900 • Bharti Cellular Ltd (AirTel . Uttar Pradesh • Idea Mobile Communications (Idea (Escotel) UP West .GSM 900 18. Thailand • Advanced Info Service PLC (AIS GSM) . Singapore • MobileOne Ltd .West Bengal).City of Madras). .Kolkata. India).GSM 900 • Hutchison Essar South Limited (Hutch.GSM 900 19.UP West).GSM 900 • Hutchison Telecom East Limited (Hutch-Kolkata .890MHz. (Aircel Cellular Ltd. All INDIA • Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (Cell One A&N).Uttar Pradesh (East).City of Calcutta). India).GSM 900/1800 • Singapore Telecom Mobile Pte Ltd (SingTel) .Escotel UP (West)GSM 900 • Aircel Digilink India Ltd (Hutch-UP East .GSM 900 MHz Malaysia • Celcom (Sdn Nnd) GSM • Maxis communications Berhad 900/1800MHz Note: Please note that some countries have EGSM 900 MHz band in that Tx frequency is 880 .GSM 900 • Aircel Limited (AIRCEL .ST2132 16. Tamilnadu • Aircel Cellular Ltd.GSM 900/1800 2. 79 . 3.GSM 900 17.GSM 900 • Hutchison Essar South Limited (Hutch .
we need the one with Samsung/Motorola. this is not to teach Nokia or Samsung. The compactness and SMD components are the first phase of problems. The concept is to give a working of GSM user end technology. The battery needs continuous charging when there is a Tx/Rx operation. Ans. Q. Why there is no software section in the trainer. Q. We are considering customer feedback for software section. if less it will lead no network. There is lot of scope for students to learn software many courses are being offered for J2ME. of test points in the network section/ there are only (dead) block diagram not live circuits in network section. Let us clear something first. Note : More Q’s will be added after feedback.ST2132 Frequently Asked Question Q. There is power loss because of the added expansion and test points. Ltd. Does the trainer operate at 900MHz only? Ans. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Why there is less No. Ans. and Symbian etc. NET. Ans. Then as GSM utilizes both TDMA and FDMA it makes the task more complicated. Q. Why does the trainer need continuous charging or why there is high power consumption? Ans. We have chosen Nokia because it is more popular and easy to explain/expand. But only the experiments concerning network section are limited to 900MHz band. Why you made it with Nokia. 80 . and sooner or later he/she will acquire knowledge from professional field. Whether it is of any make they have common GSM technology. Because the operation consumes more power. The trainer operates on both 900MHz & 1800MHz. The mobile phone should be in proper synchronization with the base station it shouldn’t be more/less. Where as there is no need of charging during other section experiments. If more then it affects the other users. Q.
while the solder cools and solidifies. In a BGA. BGAs do not have this problem. either in a re-flow oven heater. 81 . RF: Radio Frequency LCD: Liquid Crystal Display. As package pins got closer together. VCO: Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCTCXO: Voltage Controlled Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator PA: Power Amplifier COG: Chip on Glass Technology TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access Scientech Technologies Pvt. the danger of accidentally bridging adjacent pins with solder grew. which is a package with one face covered (or partly covered) with pins in a grid pattern. and with decreasing spacing between the pins. because the solder is factory-applied to the package in exactly the right amount. but this was causing difficulties for the soldering process. It is descended from the pin grid array (PGA). but stays semi-liquid. at the correct separation distance. allowing each ball to stay separate from its neighbors. The BGA is a solution to the problem of producing a miniature package for an integrated circuit with many hundreds of pins. ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit. COBBA: Common Base Band Analog. These pins are used to conduct electrical signals from the integrated circuit to the printed circuit board (PCB) it is placed on. Surface tension causes the molten solder to hold the package in alignment with the circuit board. The composition of the solder alloy and the soldering temperature are carefully choose so that the solder does not completely melt. Ltd. Pin grid arrays and dual-in-line surface mount (SOIC) packages were being produced with more and more pins. The assembly is then heated. The device is placed on a PCB that carries copper pads in a pattern that matches the solder balls. the pins are replaced by balls of solder stuck to the bottom of the package. causing the solder balls to melt.ST2132 Glossary BGA: A ball grid array is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. RTC: Real Time Clock.
Menu > Settings > Phone settings > Network selection > 1. b. b. Move a little bit closer to the Window / open the windows.2. c. Drop network. Solution: a. Check fuse. “Reconnect Charger” appear on the screen Solution: a. Try by switching ‘On/Off’ the trainer 3 -5 trainer with SIM inserted. d. Manual. f. “Not Charging” is displayed on the screen. 2.ST2132 Service Tips Important: The operation of ST2132 is similar to that of a Nokia 3310/3315 mobile phone. 3. Then switch ‘Off’ trainer c. 5. Process for changing it to manual is a. Problems: 1. No Network . Scientech Technologies Pvt. b. Check any of the pins of switched fault 1 & 2 are not in ‘Off’ position.No bars are observed on the screen. Try SIM of another 900 MHz service provider. Switch ‘Off’ charging b. Solution: ST2132 has been set to automatic network search option during calibration for ideal conditions. After searching a list of available networks is listed. c. Check mains cord is connected properly.network bars varies a lot. Again a bar with Requesting is displayed & network is selected. The phone starts Searching (a bar is displayed). Automatic (Select) --. e. After few second switch ‘On’ trainer and charging. Select the network of the SIM inserted. 82 . No charging indication after the charging is switched ‘On’. Ltd. 4. Solution: a.
Check pin 1 of Switched fault is not in off position. Connect the battery. Ltd.ST2132 Solution : a. No display on the screen. Solution : a. First confirm the trainer is ‘On’ by LED’s. d. Check the battery provided is supplied by us. Switch ‘On’ the Charging & wait for 3. Again insert the battery & switch ‘On’ the trainer. 7. Battery might be too low. Trainer gets ‘Off’ when Tx/Rx operation or as soon as switched ON. d. c. Solution : a. b. c. Scientech Technologies Pvt.5 minutes before switching ON the trainer Important : Do not open the trainer. b. 83 . Switch ‘Off’ charging & then trainers remove the battery. 6. b. Slightly press (use limited pressure) LCD Module to check for lose contacts. don’t switch ‘On’ trainer. Now switch ‘On’ the charging.
.. Head Phone...... Mains Cord .................. 1..... 1 No........................ 1 No.......... 2....................... 84 ........ serial number of the product and date of purchase etc........................... Optional Accessories : Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2 The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the type............... The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer 4 1.... Learning Material (CD) .............................. Battery Nokia.... 1 No... 3......... 2 Nos................. List of Accessories Patch Cord 16” ......... The customer resells the instrument to another party........ Use Switchable Probe 60Hz for Low Signal Location Area.............. The repair work will be carried out....................... Consumables like dry cell etc.. 1 No.................................................................... 4.................. Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument................ 1 No. if a) b) c) d) 3 The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the Learning Material The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed............................................................... The guarantee will become void.. provided the product is dispatched securely packed and insured..ST2132 Warranty 1 We guarantee this product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers...................................... ................. Ltd... are not covered under warranty........ 5..
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