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STUDENT AND TEACHER GUIDE TO RECYCLING USED OIL

STUDENT AND TEACHER GUIDE TO RECYCLING USED OIL TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Educator's Preface ..................................................................................................1 From Resource to waste .........................................................................................2 Glossary.................................................................................................................18 Test Bank ...............................................................................................................21 Lesson Plan Summaries and Lesson Plans for Middle School .......................................................................................................25 Lesson Plan Summaries and Lesson Plans for High School...........................................................................................................32 Lesson Plan Summaries and Lesson Plans for Driver's Education Classes ..................................................................................48 Changing the Oil in Your Car .............................................................................51 Bibliography .........................................................................................................66

Teachers Guide

EDUCATOR'S PREFACE

An Explanation of the Used Oil Problem.

This teacher's guide provides an overview of the used oil recycling process, the major steps from the formation of crude oil resources through used oil recovery. The main sections, followed by a brief summary, are listed below. 1. From Resource to Waste: reviews the crude oil cycle (exploration, drilling, refining, and use) and how virgin oil is converted into used oil. Disposal Practices: explores the environmental and economic issues of various disposal practices. From Waste to Resource: includes a discussion of the used oil recycling process from generation, collection, transportation, reclamation, and finally, reuse. Glossary: for relevant used oil recycling terms. Test Bank: photocopy masters with answers.

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Teachers Guide

FROM RESOURCE TO WASTE

The Oil Cycle Oil is a primary energy resource in developed nations. Although advances in technology have historically permitted the extraction of crude oil from regions previously considered inaccessible, the world oil resource and reserves are a limited natural resource. (A limited natural resource is one of finite quantity or one with an extended life cycle which requires specific physical conditions to permit its regeneration.) As a generalization, one might contrast the oxygen cycle to the oil cycle in order to better understand the time factor involved in the information of the oil resource. The oxygen cycle can be very short. Oxygen molecules are recycled daily through the process of photosynthesis, respiration, and absorption. In contrast, just the formation of crude oil takes place in geologic time, over hundreds of millions of years. Origins Current theory holds that oil was formed from the bodies of millions of marine plants and animals, especially plankton. As they died, they slowly drifted to the bottom of the shallow seas and were covered with inorganic sediments. After the bodies of these organisms decayed, they were compressed by the weight of overlying materials and heated by the geological activity of the earth. This process caused the remains of these organisms to undergo chemical changes. Very slowly, crude oil and gas were formed. Once oil was formed, it then moved through the layers of sedimentary rock until it became confined by nonporous layers forming oil traps. The crude oil we use today is obtained by drilling wells into these traps or pockets (Fig. 1). Oil is often found in conjunction with natural gas. Natural gas, which is less dense than crude oil, is generally removed from drilling sites first. Once the crude oil has been extracted from the ground, it can be separated into different components at an oil refinery.

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Teachers Guide

Figure 1 Oil Pocket Formation

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Teachers Guide

Exploration As geologists explore possible locations for oil deposits, they look for certain changes in the layers and makeup of the rock. Geologists identify likely areas in which oil may be found by creating vibrations using vibration mechanisms or even sonar. The resulting sound waves are measured as they move through the rock by sensitive instruments called seismophones. Seismophones are instruments similar to those used to detect earthquakes. Graphs of the differential rates of sound movement are then keyed to oil pockets or traps. Based on these indicator patterns, the geologist then can recommend where test wells should be drilled. Some of the test wells are wet productive wells. Wet wells used to be called gushers because the process of piercing the oil trap released pressure built up in the trap through the ages. The oil is then shot through the top of the well. Today, specialized valves prevent this explosive release. Hence, the loss of natural gas and crude oil is reduced as is pollution caused by oil spills around the drilling operations. This practice is both cost-effective for the oil mining companies and environmentally sound. Once oil has been discovered, multiple wells are sunk in the vicinity of the test well to determine the size of the deposit. Samples are taken, and the relative quality of the oil is determined. If the size of the deposit is large and development of the resource is considered to be cost-effective, large diameter wells are drilled into the trap. Some of the oil and natural gas discovered is under enough pressure to flow upward unassisted. The remaining oil must be pumped from the pocket. Steam and other chemicals may be injected into the wells to help force tightly bound oil out of the enclosing pocket. After crude oil is extracted from the ground, it is sent to an oil refinery where it is processed into different products.

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Teachers Guide

Refining Virgin Crude Crude oil is a mixture of many chemical compounds. At the refinery, it is separated into several components (Fig. 2). The first part of this process is called fractioning. During the fractioning process, the oil is heated in a tall tower. This causes molecules of different sizes and chemical characteristics to separate from each other. The lightest components rise to the top of the tower. These are called light ends and will be further processed to become solvents and fuels for automobiles and airplanes. The heaviest and most chemically complex of the crude oil components sink to the bottom of the tower and go on to become greases and asphaltic materials. The parts of the crude oil that are a little lighter than greases are used as lubricants. Once separated, chemicals are added depending on the oil's intended use. The oil is then packaged and marketed. One of the products we are most familiar with is engine lubrication oil. It has several functions. Oil lubricates moving parts, thus reducing friction which lessens the amount of heat that the engine forms. Oil also cleans the cylinders, and, at the same time, creates a seal between the piston rings and the cylinder wall so that when fuel is ignited in the cylinder, the force is directed down to the arm on the crankshaft instead of leaking between the cylinder wall and the piston. During normal engine operation, friction causes abrasion of metal surfaces. This produces super-fine particles and other debris which find their way into the oil. To remove this material, the oil is filtered as it works its way through the engine. Throughout this process, oil is exposed to extremely high temperatures (approximately 250 degrees F). This heat chemically breaks down the oil. As the oil breaks down, its effectiveness in reducing wear on the engine is slowly lost, and dirt and contaminants further hinder oil's effectiveness. This is why auto manufacturers suggest the oil should be drained out and replaced with new oil on a regular basis. To prolong the life of oil in today's high performance (and high temperature) engines, a number of materials are added to the refined oil. These additives figure heavily in the pollution caused by improper disposal of used engine oil.

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Figure 2. Separation of Crude Oil

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Used Motor Oil As motor oil is used in automobile engines, it picks up a number of additional components from engine wear (Fig. 3). This includes iron, steel, copper, lead, zinc, barium, cadmium, sulfur, water, dirt, and ash. Because of the additives and contaminants, used motor oil disposal can be more environmentally damaging than crude oil pollution. These additives and contaminants may cause both short-term and long-term effects if they are allowed to enter the environment through our waterways or soil. Engines leak oil if not properly maintained and repaired. This represents a significant addition to the improper disposal of oil. You may have noticed the darkened center areas on road lines or parking spaces. This darkening is due to the oil and other lubricants which have leaked out of the engines of cars and trucks. When it rains, much of this oil washes onto the soil surface and then into a water system, or directly into a storm sewer connected to a waterway. Once motor oil is drained from an engine, it is no longer clean because it has picked up materials, dirt particles, and other chemicals during engine operation. This lubricating oil is now classified as used oil. How Pennsylvanians choose to dispose of this used oil is the difference between environmental pollution and resource recovery.

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Figure 3a. How Engine Use Affects Oil

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Figure 3b. How Engine Use Affects Oil

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Teachers Guide

IMPACT OF DISPOSAL PRACTICES


Common Disposal Practices People who change their own oil from privately owned vehicles are called Do-It-Yourselfers (DIY). DIY now have a responsibility to properly dispose of the used oil. However, they seldom have facilities to store much of their used oil. Typical disposal methods include pouring it into the ground, spreading it over dirt roads, using it as weed-killer, putting it in household trash, or worst of all, pouring it directly into a waterway or down storm drains. To select the most appropriate method of used oil disposal the DIY should recognize that the volume of their used oil is only a small part of that generated by many DIY nationwide. DIY need to have an understanding of the components of used oil, environmental damage, economic impact, and the legal parameters of both proper and improper disposal practices. Scope of the Problem The amount of used oil generated in the U.S. is much higher than one might assume. Consider the following: 2.7 billion gallons (b.g.) of oil are sold annually in the United States 50% of this 2.7 b.g. is consumed (i.e. burned or leaked from the engine) The other 50%, or about 1.35 b.g., becomes used oil 31% of this used oil, or about 419 million gallons, never reaches a recycling program DIY drain about 220 million gallons of used oil from their cars, but less than 33 million gallons of this DIY-generated used oil is recycled

The amount of used oil produced and improperly disposed of each year in Pennsylvania is equally alarming. According to the Department of Environmental Protection, up to 9.5 million gallons of used motor oil may be disposed improperly by consumers who change their own oil.

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Teachers Guide

Environmental Issues Oil in any form is potentially harmful to the environment. Post-studies of oil spills indicate that it takes up to twenty years for an aquatic environment to return to a healthy condition. Once oil has been used by industry or the DIY, it has even more potential for environmental damage. In aquatic communities oil residue tends to settle on the bottom, coating the substrate and whatever organisms live there. When poured on the ground, oil can rapidly migrate through the soil. In both instances, bacteria, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates experience physiological stress. Oil film on water can reduce the penetration of light into the water and, consequently, reduce the rate of photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is reduced, oxygen production is also reduced. The oil film may also inhibit the movement of oxygen from the air through the surface of the water. The reduction of dissolved oxygen in the water stresses animals living in the water. Oil can clog respiratory (breathing) mechanisms and even be incorporated into the tissues of these organisms. These substances in the tissues of the organisms make them unfit for human consumption and, therefore, contribute to economic loss. If the contaminants are not incorporated into a human food source, they may be passed along the food chain, thereby contributing to environmental degradation.

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Teachers Guide

Figure 4. Used Oil Sources

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Teachers Guide

Some of the substances found in both virgin crude and refined oil can affect the nervous systems of living things. This reduces their ability to find food or reproduce. Some of the oil components (on the light end) evaporate into the air and/or dissolve into the water. Many of these light end compounds are known carcinogens and/or mutagens. Microscopically, oil compounds impinge on algae, bacteria, and plankton, the basis of the aquatic food chain. Larger organisms such as mammals and birds are the most dramatic victims of oil pollution because of their visibility and emotional appeal to humans. Feathers and fur become coated with oil and lose their ability to control body temperature. Death results from exposure or ingestion of the oil compounds via grooming. In ground, oil can rapidly percolate through the soil particles and create similar problems for soil microbes and macroscopic invertebrates. Eventually this oil may make its way into the water table or into a water body such as a lake. Used oil is a valuable resource. One definition for pollution is a resource out of place, and used oil certainly fits that description. The potential impact on our environment depends on how we manage this resource to make sure it is not out of place. To summarize, pollution can be defined as a resource in the wrong place or one that has not been completely used. Improper disposal of used oil is a source of significant pollution. The potential impact on our water and environment is serious. Of all petroleum related pollution in the U.S. including oil spills in coastal waterways, 62% is estimated to be runoff of used lubricating oil, much of which eventually works its way to the ocean environment.

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Teachers Guide

Economic Impact of Disposal Methods The energy saved by collecting and recycling used motor oil can help reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports. Although current crude oil prices have dropped in recent years, valuable energy reserves can be conserved by the use of fuel oil made from reclaimed motor oil. One gallon of used oil can be re-refined into 2-1/2 quarts of quality lubricating oil. In contrast, 42 gallons of crude oil must be refined to produce the same 2-1/2 quart volume (though many other products are derived from the 42 gallons of crude). In fact, recycling used oil could reduce petroleum imports by 25.5 million barrels of oil per year, saving 1.3 million barrels of oil per day or half the annual production of the Alaskan pipeline.

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Teachers Guide

FROM WASTE TO RESOURCE

Collection and Analysis There are a number of steps in the process of recycling used motor oil. First, the used motor oil should be brought to a used oil collection site. It is then transported to a used oil reprocessing center. The oil is tested for several types of contaminants including excess water, bottom sediments (which contain heavy metals from engine wear), and in some cases, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Used oil that fails this testing must receive special treatment before reprocessing, reuse, storage, or disposal. Used oil should not be mixed with other waste liquids. When hazardous wastes (such as engine antifreeze) are added to used oil, then the oil is considered to be hazardous waste.

Reprocessing At the used oil reprocessing center, the uncontaminated used oil is slowly heated. This separates small amounts of water from the oil. The water produced during this process is released to a wastewater treatment plant. Next, the oil is filtered and resold for use by various industries. One of the most frequent applications of this reclaimed oil in Pennsylvania is to fuel the high temperature furnaces used to melt asphalt for road construction. It is also used in drying ovens for mined clay in the production of landfill liner and cat litter. Many other options exist for reclaimed oil, including waste to energy power plants.

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Teachers Guide

ReRefining The oil may also be sent to a rerefiner. Used oil produced in several countries (Germany, Japan) and some states (New York and Alabama) is reprocessed using fractionating techniques very similar to those used in the refining of virgin crude. The big difference is that in fractionating used oil, fewer types of products are formed. The main products of rerefining are diesel fuel, high and low quality lubricants, and heavy fuel oils which are used in industrial burners. During the rerefining process, hazardous materials are separated out of the oil resource and sent to federally approved hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities. Safety-Kleen of East Chicago, Indiana, Interline Resources Corp. of Salt Lake City, Utah, Evergreen Oil in Newark, California and Lyondale in Houston, Texas are all producing rerefined motor oil that meets the rigid standards set by API and the automotive manufacterers. Rerefined motor oil can be used interchangeable with other motor oils without concern for any type of engine warranty infraction. In Pennsylvania, State and federal agencies including Postal Services utilize rerefined motor oil in regular automotive service maintenance.

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Teachers Guide

FROM AWARENESS TO ACTION

Student Action in the Community This activity is designed to help students identify and act on local environmental problems. Through facilitated discussion, direct your students to identify the following: Regional environmental problems. Local organizations involved in the environmental movement. Government agencies with jurisdiction over the issues. Have the students establish communication lines with respective concerned government officials. Arrange for guest speakers to talk about the respective problems and governmental sequences of paperwork and actions.

Establish Used Oil Recycling as a Priority Issue The instructor could arrange to have local government representatives, extension agents, local DEP agents solid waste recycling coordinators, or Pennsylvania Used Motor Oil Recycling Video in order to review a discussion of the benefits to be derived through informing the community of any new regulations or local proposals. This presentation should strongly suggest the feasibility of student action and leave the students with a desire to participate in a used oil recycling program. For a more detailed explanation of examples of how to establish and operate a public awareness campaign, see the Appendix materials.

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Teachers Guide

GLOSSARY
Abiotic: Pertaining to absence of life; factors independent of living organisms. Aquifer: An underground layer of rock that is sufficiently porous and permeable to store significant quantities of water. Bioconcentrate: To increase the concentration of a substance in one or more tissues of an organism. Biodegrade: Refers to the act of being readily decomposed by living organisms. Biomagnification: The increase in concentration of a substance as it moves up through the food chain. Biotic: Pertaining to life; ecological factors related to the interactions of living organisms. CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (1980). Superfund for clean-up of hazardous waste sites. CFR: Code of Federal Regulations. Community: An assemblage of plants and animals that interact to form an identifiable group within a biome. Consumer: Ecologically, an animal that consumes plants (primary consumer) or other animal (secondary consumer). Decomposer: An organism that breaks down organic wastes into simpler compounds. DEP: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (state). DIY: Do-it-Yourself, person who changes his/her own oil. Ecosystem: The interactions of living and non-living things within a given boundary. Enhanced Recovery: The injection of gases, water, or chemicals into an underground reservoir to build up pressure, causing the crude oil to migrate towards a well. EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency (federal). Federal Register: Agency regulations are published here biannually. If there is no change, these become official after six months.
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Teachers Guide

Fractionation: The distillation of crude petroleum, using heat or chemical catalysts, to separate the crude into different compounds. This process is also known as cracking. The resulting products are known as cuts or fractions. Hazardous Waste: Any liquid produce of human activity which has the potential to harm an organism. The legal categories include explosives, corrosives, and toxins. Hydrocarbon: A chemical compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon, such as gasoline and paraffin. Oil-Petroleum-Crude: A naturally occurring mixture of hydrogen and carbon compounds, found in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. Crude refers to unrefined petroleum. OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Includes countries of the Middle East, Africa, and South America. Population: All of the individuals of one species living in a given area. Producer: Ecologically, the photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organisms that produce the initial food in a food chain. RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976). This act initiated the cradle to grave tracking system for hazardous waste. Section 3012 states that the EPA must address the management of used oil, but not discourage the recovery or recycling of used oil. Recycling: To prepare used oil for reuse as a petroleum product by re- refining, reprocessing, or other means or to use used oil in a manner that substitutes for a petroleum product made from new oil. Reprocessing: The use of cleaning methods on used oil primarily to remove insoluble contaminants, making the oil suitable for further use; the methods may include settling, heating, dehydration, filtration, and/or centrifuging. Rerefining: The use of refining processes on used oil to produce high quality base stocks for lubricants or other petroleum products. Re-refining may include distillation, hydrotreating, or treatments employing acid, caustic, solvent, clay, or other chemicals. Reserve: A deposit of energy or minerals that is economically and geologically feasible to remove with current and foreseeable technology. Resource: Any source of raw materials or means of producing raw materials.

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Sanitary Landfill: Solid waste disposal site where refuse is disposed of and covered daily with a layer of dirt. Secured Landfill: Solid waste disposal site which is lined with clay and synthetic liners in an effort to prevent leakage. Seismic Technology: A process for locating oil deposits using soundwaves created by explosions either on the earth's surface or underground. The resulting sound waves are reflected back to seismographic instruments (similar to earthquake measurement devices) which create a picture of the underground geology and possible locations of oil traps. Species: A group of organisms that are able to interbreed with other members of the group, but are reproductively isolated; i.e., they are unable to breed with organisms outside of the group. Toxin: Any substance which has a harmful effect on an organism. Trap: A nonporous geological barrier, such as a rock, which holds the oil deposit at a fixed location. Used Oil: Any oil, including synthetic, which has been refined from crude oil and, as a result of use, storage, or handling, has become unsuitable for its original purpose due to the presence of impurities or loss of original properties, but which may be suitable for further use and is economically recyclable. Excluded from this definition are fuels, waxes, petrolatums, asphalts, and other petroleum products that are not generally considered to be oils.

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Teachers Guide

TEST BANK
1. 2. 3. What is the main energy resource used in the U.S. and other developed countries? It is thought that oil was formed from what? Over geologic time, crude oil became locked between layers of rock. This location is called a __________________. How do geologists locate oil traps? Oil which escapes from a well under its own pressure is called a _______________. Once removed from the ground, crude oil is sent to a _________. What happens at a refinery? Light end products of refining are further processed into what? Heavy end products of refining are further processed into what? What are some of the functions of engine oil? How does the oil in your car get dirty? Why do you need to change the oil in your car? What is a DIY? List some of the ways DIY dispose of their used oil. About how long does it take a shoreline environment to recover from an oil spill? How can an oil slick lower oxygen levels in the water? How does oil pollution harm large mammals and birds?
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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Teachers Guide

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

How are the light end compounds dangerous? What is the effect of oil in the food chain? What are some of the effects of oil on the ground? What is recycling? Why must used oil not be mixed with any other substance? What is reprocessed oil used for? What is rerefined oil used for? Why is rerefined oil hard to find in a store? Why should used oil be recycled?

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TEST ANSWERS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Oil. The bodies of marine plants and animals, especially plankton. It is called a trap. By using sound waves. It is called a gusher. It is sent to a refinery. The crude oil is processed into various products such as gasoline and engine oil. Solvents and fuels. To help in engine performance. Oil lubricates moving parts, cleans the engine, and forms a seal in the engine. Picks up dirt, debris, and metal particles from engine wear, is chemically changed under the high temperature and pressure inside the engine. Over time, as the oil becomes dirty, it can no longer do what it was designed to do lubrication, cleaning, etc. A do-it-yourselfer, a person who changes the oil in his/her car rather than having it done at a garage or service station. Pouring it onto the ground, pouring it down the drain or into storm sewers, dumping it in their trash, burning it, storing it, used as weed killer. Up to 20 years.

12.

13.

14.

15.

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16.

It can block the light and slow or stop photosynthesis which lowers the amount of oxygen in the water. It also stops diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere into the water. Feathers and fur become matted and lose their ability to insulate the animals against cold. Oil compounds may be eaten as the animals clean their bodies. Many are carcinogens (causes cancer) or mutagens (causes mutations). It may be absorbed into the tissues of organisms and then be eaten by humans. It can have an effect on soil bacteria and invertebrates, including worms and insects, and may also run off into nearby bodies of water. Reusing a waste product. If the oil is contaminated with a hazardous waste, then it must be specially treated. Industrial fuel. It can be used as a lubricating oil and be put back into engines. At this time, it is not economical to rerefine used oil; it is cheaper to refine virgin crude. To protect Pennsylvania's environment and limit the amount of oil we import.

17.

18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

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Teachers Guide

LESSON PLAN SUMMARIES

Middle School Lesson 1

Research, group activity to track oil cycle from formation through recycling

Middle School Lesson 2

Lab studying effects of used oil on a simulated environment

Middle School Lesson 3

Don't be fuelish

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Teachers Guide

MS-1

FROM THERE TO HERE FORMATION TO RECLAMATION


GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD Middle School Group Activity 50 minutes (one class period) Students will describe the oil cycle from its formation through the recycling process. Sealed oil specimens, student guide, and test materials. 1. Present specimen jars to students. 2. A sealed oil specimen will consist of used oil in a mason jar or baby food jar. The second specimen will comprise new motor oil in a mason or baby food jar. (Note: used oil samples can easily be obtained at service stations). 3. a) Elicit question: How do we get from there (formation) to (recycling)? 4. b) Respond: Today, here you will study and discover how we get from there to here. 5. Each group should receive one or two questions from the test materials. 6. The students will research answers to the questions. Answers can be found in the student guide, in addition to any available resources in the classroom or media center. 1. Small groups will present their findings to the class. 2. The teacher conducts a culminating discussion using the recycling process. Use the activity and test materials to reinforce the lesson concept. 1. Students will read student guide to learn each phase of the oil process. The student guide will reveal to the students how oil is made, how it is removed from the earth, processed, used, and recycled.
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EVALUATION

EXTENSIVE ACTIVITY

Teachers Guide

MS-2

EFFECTS OF USED OIL


GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD Middle School Lab 50 Minutes (one class period) Students will describe the effects of used motor oil on the environment Two 2-liter jars (clear), water, sand or soil, live plants, used motor oil or vegetable as alternative, and worksheets. 1. Distribute lab sheets. 2. Perform Experiment. Guidelines for experiment are found on the following page. 3. Record observations. 4. Discuss observations. 5. Turn in lab sheet.

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Teachers Guide

MS-2

GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENT


PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. Set two 2-liter jars on table. Fill each with water, sand, and plants. Develop and record hypothesis on lab sheet. In other words, what do you think will happen, and why? Drop used motor oil (one dropper full) onto water surface of one jar only. Label this jar A. Label the other jar B. Jar B will be the control jar. Observe and record on lab sheet. Create a disturbance on both jars (A + B) to stimulate natural movement on water (storms, boats, etc). Observe and record findings on lab sheet. Remove plants and sample of sand from each jar being careful to keep each separate from the other and avoiding contamination of one with the other. Observe and record results on lab sheet. Look, touch, and smell but DO NOT TASTE! Record results and conclusions based on hypothesis.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

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MS-2 EVALUATION 1. 2. Students complete the lab activity sheet and turn in for grading. Discussion question: From the experiment, what effect does improperly disposed used motor oil have on: a) plants, b) lake bottoms, c) drinking water, d) animals, e) food chains (webs)?

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

1.

Invent a method to separate and remove the used oil from the mini-environment. Research present used oil pollution clean-up procedures. Ask students to design laws to deal with the legal consequences for people who improperly dispose of used oil.

2. 3.

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MS-3

FROM AWARENESS TO ACTION DON'T BE FUELISH!


GRADE LEVEL TYPE OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD Middle School Group Activity Students will demonstrate awareness of the proper disposal of used oil. Teacher's guide, current periodicals, construction paper, scissors, crayons,tape recorder. 1. Discuss the importance of oil and how used oil, if not properly disposed, can affect the environment. Emphasize the importance of proper disposal and effective recycling methods. Gather class ideas on increasing public awareness. List suggestions on the board. You may want to include such strategies as bumper stickers, T-shirts, posters, billboards, buttons, electronic media spots of 15 to 30 seconds, etc. Suggest logos, songs, poems, etc. Divide class into groups or have each student work individually. Have each group/individual select one of the ideas from the board. Have the group develop their own recycling education and promotion program. Set time limit for work on projects. Students will present their materials to the entire class. Allow a specific time frame for presentations.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

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MS-3

EVALUATION

Discuss effectiveness of presentation. Instructor may grade accordingly.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

1. 2.

Conduct a letter writing campaign to governmental agencies. Conduct a demonstration with signs. This may be held on or off campus. Be sure to check regulations regarding student involvement. Attend county commission meeting. Props may be brought along. Again, check legalities concerning student involvement. Have students brainstorm ideas of how statutory codes should be written to regulate used oil disposal. (Refer to Pennsylvania Used Oil Recycling Act, Act 89 of 1982.

3.

4.

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LESSON PLAN SUMMARIES

High School Lesson 1 High School Lesson 2 High School Lesson 3

Class discussion on pollution and methods for used oil disposal Class discussion on oil pollution Reading assignments, question and answer, and review discussion on oil process.

High School Lab 1: High School Lab 2:

Simulation of oil spill and clean-up in natural ecosystem model Simulation of pollution persistence

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Teachers Guide

HS-1

CLASS DISCUSSION OF OIL DISPOSAL


GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD High School Group Activity 50 minutes (1 class period) Students will evaluate methods of used oil disposal. Worksheet, student guide.

1.

Students should be given a scenario in which a person has changed his/her oil and now has to dispose of 5 quarts of used oil. Students should provide options for disposal. Instructor should suggest recycling if students do not. For each method of disposal a list of pro and cons should be developed. List on worksheet. Instructors may need to guide students. Even some of the worst methods of disposal have convenience in their favor while recycling, the best method, is the most inconvenient. Students should rank order the methods from most to least effective, or most to least environmentally aware, or most to least economical.

2.

3.

4.

5.

EVALUATION EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

At instructor's discretion. Research and discuss articles gathered from periodicals dealing with oil and recycling as regards oil energy.

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Teachers Guide

HS-1 METHOD OF DISPOSAL PROS CONS

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Teachers Guide

HS-2

POLLUTION AND SOLUTION HAVE U AND I IN THEM.


GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES High School Group Activity 50 Minute (1 class period) Students will identify the segment of society largely responsible for used oil pollution. Student Guide

PREPARATION/ MATERIALS

METHOD

1. 2.

The definition of pollution is given to the student. Examples of oil in the environment are given. Students will determine whether or not each situation qualifies as pollution. Once the polluting scenarios are determined, a series of questions are discussed concerning each case: Who is responsible, who can fix the situation, and what can you do about the pollution?

3.

EVALUATION EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

At discretion of instructor. 1. Hypothesis some consequences of an oil spill on the riverfronts of Pennsylvania. Have students bring and share articles concerning oil pollution. Ask students to list some examples of pollution, such as the following:

2. 3.

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HS-2

IS IT POLLUTION?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The Exxon Valdez spills 11 million gallons of crude oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Crankcase oil floats on the surface of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. Oil floats on the ocean as a result of oil tankers rinsing out tanks with sea water. Oil floats on the ocean surface as a result of natural seeps from the ocean floor. Oil-coated foliage is in a storm water run-off canal. Used oil drained from an automobile and spread on dirt driveway as a dust suppressant. Crankcase oil is delivered to recycling station.

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? WHO CAN FIX THE SITUATION? WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT THESE?

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Teachers Guide

HS-3

RESOURCE TO REUSE

GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES

High School Student Worksheet 20-50 minutes (1 class period) Students will define and describe the process of resource exploitation through recycling relating to oil. Students will identify their role(s) in this process. Student information and question sheets included.

PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD

1. 2. 3. 4.

Students should read information sheets. Teacher may, at this point, lead class discussion. Students should use guide packet to find necessary information. Students should complete question sheets.

EVALUATION

Questions are completed and submitted for grade.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

None within this activity.

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Teachers Guide

HS-3

PETROLEUM: RESOURCE TO REUSE


Fossil fuels represent very important energy resources. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels and were formed millions of years ago from decaying organic matter. Because this process of changing organic matter to fossil fuels takes so long, these fuels are considered limited natural resources. Of the three fossil fuels, petroleum is the most versatile. As it is pumped from the ground as crude oil, it is a thick viscous liquid. This crude oil is refined to yield a variety of products. Other chemicals are extracted and used in the manufacture of medicines, plastics, polyester fabrics, fertilizers, and pesticides to name a few. Since petroleum is linked with so many products that we use, it is a very valuable resource, but it is limited, also. Some estimates of the oil reserves suggest that by the year 2015 we will have used all of our accessible oil supply. This depletion is occurring in three ways: destruction, dilution, and pollution. When gasoline is burned, it is no longer the same resource, so its potential to supply energy is destroyed. On roadways, many cars leak oil which will wash off during rains. The oil is still able to perform its functions of lubrication, but it is so diluted that it is not economical to recover it. Motor oil that is drained from the car is polluted from the residual effects of temperature and engine wear. In all three ways, the usefulness of the original resource is depleted. In order to slow this depletion, there are three possible methods: conservation, substitution, and recycling. Conserving oil, that is, reducing the amount we use in the first place, will, in turn, reduce depletion. Synthetic motor oils have been invented that can take the place of its petroleum counterpart. This substitution allows oil to be used for other purposes. But probably most cost- effective is the recycling of used motor oil. By removing the impurities, used oil may again be a source of fuel and lubricants. PA crude has a greater lube oil content 10 gallons/barrel. Recycling doesn't just slow the depletion of the resource, it also saves energy and reduces the pollution of land, water, and air. When the oil in a car is changed at a commercial facility, the oil is recycled. However, about 60% of the U.S. population would rather change car oil themselves. These do-it- yourselfers or DIY generate about 180 million gallons of waste oil each year in the U.S.

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Teachers Guide

HS-3 When a person pours the oil on the ground, it slowly seeps into the ground and can eventually enter the water table where it will contaminate the water. The ground water is connected to surface waters and many drinking water sources, but that is not the only way that oil can get into our water. It may leak from cars onto roads. It can then be washed off the roads into drainage systems by rain. Motor boats may also represent some of this water pollution. Used motor oil causes 40% of all inland waterways pollution in the U.S. Once oil is in the water, there are various effects. Humans can detect levels of 1 part per million (ppm) in water. When the level increases to 35 ppm, a visible slick can occur. At 50 ppm, physiological damage to higher organisms can occur. Oil on the water's surface can reduce the photosynthesis of the water plants. This would then reduce the amount of oxygen in the water. Oil can be consumed by some bacteria, and as these populations grow, oxygen is further depleted by their respiration. This depletion of dissolved oxygen in the water limits the higher life able to live in that water and may cause fish kills.

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Teachers Guide

HS-3

QUESTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Why is petroleum considered a nonrenewable resource? Name 3 ways you personally use petroleum products. Name 3 ways that a resource is depleted. Name 3 ways that resource depletion may be slowed. Describe how motor oil is depleted and how this depletion is slowed. At what concentration can oil be detected by humans visually? By taste? What are some environmental effects of oil in water? At what concentration does oil cause physiological damage? What is a DIY?

10. How much oil did DIY pour on the ground? Burn? Throw in the trash? And recycle? 11. If you changed your own oil, what would you do with it?

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.1

USED OIL: A RESOURCE OUT OF PLACE


GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES 9-12 Lab 100 minutes (2 class periods) 1. Students will infer the problems associated with containing and mitigating oil spills through the use of simulation models. Students will observe and record physical data associated with oil contamination of natural water bodies. Students will predict the short- and long-term hazards of used oil contamination of soil and groundwater. Students will apply proper disposal methods in the safe disposition of lab materials contaminated with oil or simulation fluids. Food coloring, absorbent material (cat litter, baking powder, talcum powder, plastic bag (for disposal), straight edge, medicine dropper, strainer or aquarium net, oil (used is preferable but unused is satisfactory), large bowl or container. Student lab and worksheets (included).

2.

3.

4.

PREPARATION/ MATERIALS

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.1 METHOD 1. Fill bowl with water. If temperature variable is a part of the experiment, record temperature of water. Add a few drops of food coloring and stir to mix with the water. Add a small amount of oil and observe. Record observations on worksheet. Use the straight edge to try to contain the spill in one area of the container. Record your observations. Very carefully place the cat litter onto the spill. Notice what is occurring and record your observations. Allow time for absorption to occur and then carefully remove the contaminated absorbent material by placing it in the plastic disposal bag. Repeat steps 5 & 6 with other absorbent materials and record your results in the chart on the lab sheet.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

NOTE: You may want to test your own ideas for absorbent materials in addition to those mentioned above. 8. Try collecting some of the oil using the medicine dropper. Describe your efforts and results. Place all contaminated materials in plastic bag for proper disposal.

9.

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.1 EVALUATION 1. 2. 3. 4. Teacher observation, interaction, and subjective evaluation. Written lab report including data sheet. Essay (class or home assignment). See extension activity. Objective test consisting of multiple choice and fill in the blank responses. During the next day or two, visit a paved parking lot in the vicinity of your school. The teacher's parking area, a church, or local store may be appropriate. Locate any drains or grates in the lot. If it happens to be raining (if not, pour out some water) notice flow patterns and collection areas in an effort to see where the oil is going. If possible, talk with the owner/manager and inquire about cleaning, maintenance, etc. Try to get a feel for how much oil is wasted in this manner and the effects of this loss. Students should write a short report on their observations and include personal impressions, accurate sketches of where the oil seems to be going, and any other pertinent data.

EXTENSION ACTIVITY

1.

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.2

POLLUTION NEVER GOES AWAY

GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES

High School Lab 50 minutes (1 class period) Students will demonstrate that pollution does not disappear but only changes form or location. The instructor should show how this relates to used oil. Four 100 ml beakers, one funnel, one piece of filter paper, water, 100 ml of rubbing or isopropyl alcohol, 20 ml of methylene blue dissolved in one liter of water, one tsp. (5 ml) of activated carbon or charcoal (fish tank charcoal), worksheets. 1. Fold filter paper in half and then in half again. Open filter to form a cone that fits snugly into the funnel. In one 100 ml beaker, combine 1 tsp. (5 ml) of charcoal and 20 ml of methylene blue solution. Swirl beaker gently until liquid is colorless (if solution does not clear, add one-half tsp. of charcoal). Transfer liquid and charcoal to the filter paper in the funnel. What can be deduced from observing the solution before and after the addition of the charcoal? What can be inferred about the charcoal at this point? pH could be checked in the various solutions. Methylene blue is not affected over the pH range of 1- 12.

PREPARATION/ MATERIALS

METHOD

2.

3.

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.2

4.

Allow all of the liquid to drain from the filter, then add 20 ml of water to the filter to rinse the charcoal. Allow all of the water to drain from the charcoal. Did the rinse water have any color? Transfer charcoal to the 100 ml beaker. Add 10 ml of alcohol to the beaker containing the charcoal. Swirl and decant the alcohol phase. Add 50 ml of alcohol to the beaker with the charcoal and swirl to mix the alcohol and the charcoal. Note the color of the liquid phase. There should be a light blue tinge in the liquid after a few minutes of mixing. This demonstrates that the methylene blue was absorbed into the charcoal.

5. 6. 7. 8.

EVALUATION MATERIALS

Student worksheet submitted for grade. Four 100 ml beakers, 1 funnel, 1 piece of filter paper to fit funnel, water, 100 ml of isopropyl alcohol, 20 ml of methylene blue solution, 1 tsp. (5 g) of activated charcoal (fish tank charcoal may be used).

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.2

PROCEDURE
1. Fold filter paper in half and then in half again. Open filter to form cone that fits into the funnel snugly. In one 100 ml beaker, combine the charcoal with the methylene blue solution. Gently swirl the beaker until the liquid is colorless. If the solution is not colorless at this point, add an additional 1/2 tsp. (2.5 g) of charcoal. Transfer the liquid and charcoal to the filter paper in the funnel. Check Conclusions question #1. Allow all of the liquid to drain from the filter. Next, add 20 ml of water to the filter to rinse the charcoal. Allow the water to drain from the charcoal. Check Conclusions question #2. Transfer charcoal to 100 ml beaker. Add 10 ml of isopropyl alcohol to the beaker with the charcoal. Swirl and decant the alcohol to the beaker with the charcoal.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Add 50 ml of isopropyl alcohol to the beaker with the charcoal and swirl again. 11. Complete remaining Conclusions questions.

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Teachers Guide

HS-LAB.2

CONCLUSIONS
1. a) What can be deduced from observing the solution before and after the addition of the charcoal?

b)

What can be inferred about the charcoal at this point? (pH may be checked in these solutions).

2.

Did the rinse water have any color?

3.

Describe what happened to the methylene blue from the beginning to the end of this investigation.

4.

How might your observations be applied to an oil spill?

5.

How might your observations be applied to oil poured onto the ground?

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Teachers Guide

LESSON PLAN SUMMARIES

Drivers Education 1 Drivers Education 2

Disposing Used Oil Changing Your Motor Oil

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Teachers Guide

DE-1

SAFETY AND DRIVER EDUCATION

GRADE LEVEL TYPE TIME OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD

Driver's Education Class Skills 1 class period Students will demonstrate acceptable used oil disposal procedures. Oil collection containers, local area map, phone book, student guide, (optional: driver's education vehicle) 1. Students should use phone book and map to identify local used oil collection sites. Students should state reasons for selecting a particular container for used oil. Students should demonstrate the process of collecting used oil from vehicle. (May be demonstrated on vehicle.) Students should explain why you shouldn't mix other substances with used oil.

2.

3.

4.

EVALUATION EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

Students should complete worksheet and submit for grade. Class may embark on field trip through garages, landfills, and/or collection sites to track loop of oil reuse.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 GRADE LEVEL TIME OBJECTIVES PREPARATION/ MATERIALS METHOD EVALUATION EXTENSION ACTIVITIES Driver's Education Class 1 class period Students will learn how to change motor oil An automobile and handouts

Students will learn to change oil and properly dispose of it. In class discussion. None

HOW TO CHANGE AND DISPOSE OF MOTOR OIL


When most people think of cars and oil at the same time, they usually think that oil is used to make gasoline or diesel fuel which supplies the power in a car's engine or perhaps of the crankcase oil that lubricates and cools the engine. But oil is used as more than a fuel and engine lubricant. Oil is used in the grease that lubricates the suspension and steering components; in brake fluid and power steering fluid; and in both automatic transmission fluid and manual transmission fluid. In fact, the asphalt used in road construction is a derivative of oil. You can see that oil is used extensively in the automobile industry. However, oil is a finite resource (e.g. once the earth is drained of oil, there is no more). Therefore, it is wise to use the remaining oil resources to their fullest extent. One way to do this is by recycling. The most commonly recycled oil product is motor (or crankcase) oil. Recycling used motor oil is something that everyone who owns a car, truck, van or motorcycle can do. (The word car is used in the following steps, but the instructions apply to almost all vehicles.) The following information will show you how to change and properly dispose your car's motor oil.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 CHANGING THE OIL IN YOUR CAR Before performing a task, one needs the proper tools to accomplish the job, any supplies used in the process, and instructions. Tools and supplies are listed below, followed by the appropriate steps. TOOLS owner's manual for the car in question (needed for providing information about the car, the appropriate type of motor oil, and the volume of motor oil required) box and wrench or rachet and socket (for removing the oil drain plug; make sure you use the correct size and type (metric or standard)) oil filter wrench for removing the oil filter; see Figure 1; the square hole is for attaching a rachet; you can also use an oil filter wrench that has a handle attached)

Band that grips filter

Hole for rachet

Figure 1. Band-type oil filter wrench.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 rags (for cleaning you and the tools and absorbing any small amount of oil that is spilled) old clothes (wear something that you can get dirty) ramps (for raising one end of the car) blocks of wood (to block the wheels to prevent the car from moving while it is on the ramps) large sheet of cardboard or creeper (used to make it easy for you to slide under the car and so you don't have to lie on the ground) catch pan or basin for the used oil (make sure it is clean because it is important that the used oil remain free from contaminants; be sure it will hold all the engine's oil see owner's manual for this information) small sheet of expanded metal (used to hold the oil filter over the catch pan opening to drain the oil from the filter) container that will hold all of the motor oil and is easy to carry (needed to take used motor oil to used oil disposal site; container must be absolutely clean to avoid contamination; recommendation: use a plastic 5-gallon bucket with a lid to avoid spillage; the extra volume will allow you to collect the oil from several oil changes)

SUPPLIES new motor oil (check owner's manual for correct viscosity and volume required) new oil filter (see oil filter guide where oil filters are sold so that correct filter is used)

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 INSTRUCTIONS 1. Put on your old clothes. You may want to wear a hat to keep your hair from getting dirty. Warm the engine's oil by running the engine for about fifteen minutes. This will make the oil flow quickly and help ensure that any gunk will flow out with the oil instead of staying in the engine where it doesn't belong. Drive car onto a hard, level surface. See Figures 2 and 3. Place the ramps at the front wheels if the engine is in front of the car, or place the ramps at the rear wheels if the engine is in the rear of the car. Be sure the ramps are pointed straight ahead (if you have a front-engine car) or straight behind (if you have a rear-engine car).

2.

3.

Figure 2. Side view of front-engine car and ramps.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2

Figure 3. Top view of front-engine car and ramps.

Note that Figure 3 shows the front tires centered on the ramps and that the ramps are parallel and pointed straight ahead. Have a person outside the car direct you up the ramps. Drive slowly, and keep this person in view at all times.

4.

When the car is at the top of the ramps, turn the engine off, and engage the parking brake. Block the wheels that are still on the ground to prevent the car from moving. See Figures 4 and 5 to get an idea where the drain plug and oil filter are for your type of car. The drain plug will probably look like a nut that is mounted flush with the oil pan.

5.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2

Figure 4. Underside of front-engine, front-wheel-drive car.

Figure 5. Underside of front-engine, rear-wheel-drive car.


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Teachers Guide

DE-2 Figure 6 shows the drain plug as if it were removed from the engine. Only the lower portion will be visible while it is attached to the engine. The oil pan is a sort of a collection box that is the lowest part of the engine. If using a sheet of cardboard, place it under the engine area so you can slide on it. If using a creeper, lie down on it. Slide under the car, and place the catch pan under the drain plug. Your car may have two drain plugs. If so, you want to drain the oil from one and then the other. See Figure 7 for an example of this type of oil pan. The hump is present to permit engine, frame, or transaxle components to be installed in that area.) If you still aren't sure where the drain plug is, check your owner's manual, or ask someone who is knowledgeable about cars. If it appears that oil is dripping from around the drain plug, the drain plug gasket may need to be replaced.

Figure 6. Drain plug from oil pan.

Figure 7. Side view of oil pan with two drain plugs. Oil pan must be drained from both drain plugs.

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Teachers Guide

6.

DE-2 Loosen the drain plug with the correct wrench or socket and rachet. You want to turn the drain plug counterclockwise to loosen it. Keep in mind that the oil will flow out through that drain hole when the plug is removed so be sure that the catch pan is correctly placed. Unscrew the plug with your hand. Be sure not to drop the drain plug into the catch pan because then you'll have to get it out. When all of the oil has flowed out of the engine from the drain hole, replace the drain plug(s). Tighten firmly but not too tightly. The next step is to loosen the oil filter. (Some people replace the oil filter at every other oil change, but it is recommended that the filter will probably contain up to a quart of dirty oil. Changing only the oil will simply dilute the dirty oil. More importantly, the filter will become clogged with dirt (this is, after all, its job) which will tend to plug the filter. When the filter becomes clogged, a valve in the engine will simply bypass it and allow oil to circulate through the engine without any filtering. This is not good for your engine. Like the drain plug, you want to turn the oil filter counterclockwise to loosen it. Note that the oil filter wrench works by gripping the sides of the filter. Therefore, make sure the inside of the oil filter wrench and the outside of the oil filter are clean. If the oil filter wrench grips the oil filter only when the oil filter is turned clockwise, turn the oil filter wrench upside down. You may need a special oil filter wrench if there is not enough room to rotate the oil filter wrench you have. If the oil filter is too hot to grip comfortably with your hands, place a rag around the filter or wear gloves. Keep in mind that the oil filter may have up to a quart of oil in it, so be sure not to spill the oil while removing the filter. Twist the oil filter off with your hands. Once the filter is removed, pour the filter oil into the drain pan. Place the sheet of expanded metal over your drain for 24 hours. This will ensure that all of the oil that can be drained from the filter will be drained. After 24 hours, put the old, empty filter into a bag and place in a trash can. Check to see that the oil filter gasket came off with the oil filter and is not still stuck on the engine. If this gasket remains on the engine, remove it. Otherwise, there will probably be leaks. The gasket will probably be a rubber ring. You can check the gasket of the new oil filter to see how it should appear.

7.

8.

9.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 10. Install the new oil filter according to the directions on the new oil filter box. You may wish to fill the new oil filter with oil before putting it on the engine as this will help reduce engine wear. This is not practical if the filter is mounted to the engine on its side or if the oil filter opening is pointing down. If you do fill the filter with oil before installing it, be sure to deduct the amount of oil added to the filter from the amount you add to the engine. For example, if your engine holds five quarts of oil and you added 3/4 of a quart of oil to the filter, you would add 4-1/4 quarts to the engine. 11. Put the correct amount and correct type of motor oil in the engine through the engine oil cap. If you don't know the correct amount or type of oil to add or where the engine oil cap is located, check your owner's manual. 12. Start the engine. The oil pressure light may come on or the oil pressure gauge may give a low reading. If this occurs, depress the accelerator pedal a little until the light goes off or the gauge reading improves. 13. Take a look under the engine to check for oil leaks. Should you see any oil that appears to be leaking, wipe it away to see if more oil appears. If more oil does appear, tighten the drain plug(s) or the bolts in the area of the leak. If oil is leaking from around the filter, check the old oil filter to see if its gasket was removed from the engine. Rethink your steps when you installed the oil filter to determine if you tighted it correctly. You don't want to overtighten the filter to stop any leaks. 14. Remove blocks, release parking brake, and back down ramps. 15. Stop engine, and check oil level with dipstick. If you don't know where the dipstick is or what the lines on the dipstick mean, check the owner's manual. You will have to wipe the oil from the dipstick and then place it back into its hole as far as it will go and, then check it again to get an accurate reading. The oil level should be at the full mark. Be sure this is done while the car is on a level surface.

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Teachers Guide

DE-2 16. Pour used motor oil from catch pan into easy-to-carry container. DO NOT PUT ANY OTHER SUBSTANCE INTO THIS CONTAINER; IT WILL CONTAMINATE THE OIL, THEREBY MAKING IT NON- RECYCLABLE !!! 17. Take the used motor oil to a used oil disposal site and pour oil into tank. If you don't know where to dispose of your used motor oil, call your county recycling coordinator or the Pennsylvania Recycling Hotline at (1- 800-346-4242), for information.

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Student Guide

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has chosen to recycle much of its waste, including used oil. This strategy will protect our fragile environment and, over the long term, work to secure a sound energy resource in the future. It is important that each citizen understand the whys and hows of used oil recycling. OIL AND ITS ORIGINS Oil is the primary energy resource in developed countries. It is a non- renewable resource, that is, one of limited quantity. Current theory holds that oil was formed from the bodies of marine plants and animals, especially plankton. As these organisms decayed on the bottom of pre-historic ocean floors, they were compressed under the weight of sediment and heated by geological activity. Over time, the chemicals in their bodies were changed to form crude oil. The oil moved as the continents and seas changed until it became confined to certain locations called traps. Today, geologists use sound waves to detect oil traps. Once a trap is located, a well is drilled and the oil is removed. Some of the oil will escape the trap under its own pressure (called a gusher), the rest of it must be pumped out. Once removed from the ground, this crude oil is sent to a refinery where it is processed into various products. At a refinery, this chemical soup of crude oil is separated by molecular weight into different compounds. The lightest compound (light ends) are further processed into solvents and fuels. The heavier compounds (heavy ends) are turned into greases and asphalt compounds. Compounds in the middle range become lubricants. Chemicals which aid in engine performance are added to the lubricants, which are then packaged and marketed. This motor oil has several functions. While the oil is doing its job in the engine, it is changed by heat and pressure. It also picks up fine metal particles from engine wear, dirt and dust from the air, and by-products from the combustion of gasoline. This is why, to ensure proper engine performance, you need to change your oil at regular intervals. People who change their own engine oil are referred to as Do-It-Yourselfers (DIY). DIY are seldom informed as to what to do with their used oil. In fact, more than 40% simply dump it on the ground, and another 21% put used oil into their household trash.
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Student Guide

USED OIL AND THE ENVIRONMENT Oil in any form can have an effect on our environment. Some studies have shown that after a shoreline oil spill, it may take up to 20 years for the environment to recover to its original condition. A film of oil on the surface of the water can block photosynthesis and slow the production of oxygen. The reduced oxygen supply then causes stress to the point of death in aquatic organisms. Large organisms such as mammals and birds are the most familiar victims of oil pollution because of their visibility and emotional appeal to humans. Feathers and furs stick together, become matted and lose their ability to insulate the animal against cold. Death may result from temperature shock or from the eating of oil as it is cleaned from their coats. Oil in the water can also affect organisms. Some of the light ends may evaporate into the air or dissolve into the water. Many of these compounds are carcinogens and/or mutagens. Oil can clog breathing structures or be absorbed into tissue and then passed along the food chain, even to humans who eat fish or shellfish. Microscopically, oil may harm bacteria or plankton, the basis of the food chain. Some of the oil spilled into an aquatic environment settles to the bottom, affecting the organisms living there.

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Student Guide

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Student Guide

On the ground, oil can have a powerful affect on organisms in the top soil layer, especially soil bacteria and invertebrates such as insects and worms. Again, the food chain base is affected. It is very likely the oil will run off into standing bodies of water or work its way down through the soil into the water table. RECLAIMING AND RECYCLING Recycling is environmentally and, in the long term, economically sound. It cannot change the fact that oil supplies are non-renewable, but it can extend the life of our limited supply. The first step in the oil recycling process is the DIYer. Most importantly, USED OIL MUST NOT BE MIXED WITH ANY OTHER MATERIAL. The oil should be taken to a collection center, by either the DIY or through some sort of curbside collection system. The oil is then transported to a re- processing center. There it is tested for contaminants, especially antifreeze and chlorine compounds which are considered hazardous wastes. If the oil is contaminated, the oil itself is considered hazardous waste and must be specially treated. If the oil is un-contaminated, it may be reclaimed or re-refined. Reclaimed oil is basically filtered and used as an industrial fuel. Asphalt companies frequently use it in their asphalt warming tanks. Re-refining is similar to the refining of crude oil, the major difference being that fewer products are produced from used oil. At this time, it is not cost effective to produce high quality motor lubrication oil from used oil because of all the performance additives involved and the low price of crude oil. The quality of re-refined used oil is equal to refined crude. As the cost of oil increases over time (because of limited supply), motor oil which has been rerefined should become more common. While the U.S. re-refines oil into diesel fuels and heavy fuel oils, some countries (Japan, Germany) have very active re- refining systems in place in an attempt to ease their dependence on imported oil.

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Student Guide

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Student Guide

DEFINITIONS
Learning these words is important to your understanding of used oil pollution. The words are listed in the order in which they appear in the main text of your student guide. plankton any free-floating organism living in a body of water. Most plankton are very small and unable to swim against water current under its own power. Includes both plants and animals. any solid material which settles to the bottom of a liquid having to do with land and rock formations in the earth's surface. These usually occur gradually over millions of years. raw, unrefined oil the process of burning the combined weight of all of the atoms in a molecule. do-it-yourselfers. Persons who change the oil in their car themselves rather than having a garage or service center do it for them. the surroundings, including all of the living and non-living factors

sediment geological crude oil combustion weight molecular DIY environment

photosynthesis a chemical reaction performed by plants using the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar molecules carcinogens recycling reprocessing hazardous waste rerefining any substance which causes physical mutations the process of reusing a waste material for used oil, a basic cleaning process to make the oil ready for further use. Methods may include heating, filtering, settling, and others. any waste material which can cause harm to organisms through explosive, poisonous, radioactive, etc. means the act of running the used oil through an expansive process similar to the original refining used in making the various products from crude oil

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Student Guide

USED OIL COLLECTING AND RECYCLING BIBLIOGRAPHY


American Petroleum Institute. 1988. Recycling Used Motor Oil: A Model Program. API Publication 1991, 3rd Edition. 35pp. Synopsis: Guide designed to help citizens' groups establish used oil collection stations in their communities and to encourage the do-it-yourselfer (DIY) to recycle his or her used oil. Information provided includes: 1) background information on the used motor oil problem, 2) brief description of some successful recycling programs, 3) procedures for organizing a used oil recycling program, 4) discussion of recycling program tasks, 5) state-by-state directory of used oil recycling coordinators, 6) samples of letters and publicity materials, and 7) table of used motor oil generation by state.

Arnold, Dana. September, 1989. The Lubricating Oils Guideline. Waste Age. 9:28-30. Synopsis: This article reviews the re-refining process of filtering motor oil.

Brinkman, D.W., Morris Gottlieb, and Katherine Koelbel. August 9, 1982. Used Motor Oil Poses Environmental Problem. Oil and Gas Journal: 163-165 Synopsis: Discussions of common disposal methods for used oil.

Brinkman, D.W., Fennelly & N. Superenant. 1982. The Fate of Hazardous Wastes in Used Oil Recycling. Manuscript submitted to Florida DER. Synopsis: While it is known that used lubricating oils often contain one or more of the EPA priority pollutants, and it can be shown that this contamination frequently is introduced after the oil has been taken out of service, very little documentation exists on what happens to these hazardous species when the used oil is dumped, burned raw, or recycled. GCA Corporation has been working under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs to:
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Student Guide

1) 2)

determine what hazardous contaminants tend to show up frequently in used oils, and experimentally demonstrate the fate of these contaminants under a number of scenarios. The scenarios under examination include dumping the used oil down the sewer, road oiling, open burning (no controls), reprocessing for fuel, and rerefining for use as lubricating oil base stock using several different methods. Fourteen used oils gathered from around the country were analyzed for priority pollutants and other contaminants. Four of these were combined and the composite spiked with additional contaminants of interest to form a standard oil. The standard oil was then sued in the experimental investigations of the various scenarios. In each case a mass balance approach was used to show where each contaminant emerged or was converted to something else. Because chemical analysis of the samples is still in progress, the results shown in this paper are not complete and some data may be subject to further verification and possible modification.

DER, Florida. February 1981. Florida Solid Waste Management Plan. Synopsis: This plan covers all solid waste which is defined in RCRA as: . . . any garbage; refuse; sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility; and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities; but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (86 STAT. 880), or source, special nuclear, or by-product material as defined by the Atomic Energy act of 1954, as amended (68 STAT. 923). Solid waste management objectives and policies that will guide the development of Florida's solid waste management program are given.

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Student Guide

DER, Florida. August 1985. Final Report: A Technical Study of Regulatory Options for Used Oil Management in Florida. Synopsis: Objectives of study: 1) 2) 3) statistically analyze available pollutant data for used oils and contrast levels from Florida samples versus national samples, compare the levels of pollutants in used oils to criteria established under Federal hazardous waste and toxic substance laws (RCRA and TSCA), characterize the generation, collection, transportation, recycling, chemical testing and end use controls for used oil.

DER, Florida. September 1985. Report to the Legislature: Used Oil Technical Study. Synopsis: Study was produced in response to mandate by the 1984 Legislature to sample used oil at representative facilities and to report on the need for regulation of end uses of used oil, requirements for chemical testing of collected used oil, additional reporting requirements on used oil containing excessive levels of contaminants, and lower registration thresholds. Study identified and assessed constituents of concern found in used oil samples; compared level of contaminants in Florida samples to national data, to criteria established under Federal hazardous waste and toxic substances control regulations; characterized the used oil management system in Florida; and evaluated regulatory options on reporting, chemical testing, and end use controls for used oil. Major recommendations for implementation of these goals are suggested.

DER, Florida. June 1986. Report to the Legislature: Used Oil Recycling Report. Synopsis: Used Oil Recycling Act sets forth prohibitions on certain used oil management practices. The act also requires the department to conduct a public education program, to establish a used oil information center, to register and collect annual reports from persons who transport or operate collection and recycling facilities for used oil in amounts greater than the set thresholds, and to submit an annual report on used oil recycling to the Legislature. Description on how the department has implemented the provisions of this act are given. Report is divided into three sections:

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1) 2) 3)

program development, program implementation, and analysis of effectiveness.

DER, Florida. December 1986. Report to the Legislature: Florida's Used Oil Recycling Program. Synopsis: Second annual report which describes how the department has implemented the statutory provisions of the Used Oil Recycling Act. Covers period from November 1985 to December 1986. Summarizes the department's public education and information program and its registration and reporting results, and its efforts at enforcing the act.

DER, Florida. December 1987. Report to the Legislature: Florida's Used Oil Recycling Program. Synopsis: Third annual report which describes how the department has implemented the statutory provisions of the Used Oil Recycling Act. Report summarizes new federal regulations on used oil, the Department's public education and information program, its registration and reporting results and its efforts at enforcing the act. An analysis of the act's effectiveness is given, along with recommendations for changes to the state's program designed to increase the collection and recycling of used oil in Florida.

DER, Florida. December 1988. Report to the Legislature: Florida's Used Oil Recycling Program. Synopsis: Sections 403.75 and 403.769 of the Florida Statutes (F.S.) prohibit improper used oil management practices, establishes a program of registration and reporting for used oil handlers, and requires the department to conduct a public education program about the proper collection and recycling of used oil. In June of 1988, the Legislature amended the Used Oil Recycling Act and added five new sections to it (sections 403.650 through 403.769). This report summarizes information on used oil collection and recycling, analyzes the effectiveness of this act, and makes recommendations for any necessary changes. It is the fourth report on used oil recycling and covers the period from January to December, 1988.

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DOE. 1978. How to set up a Used Oil Recycling Program in your Community. IN: Used Oil recycling kit. Synopsis: This manual provides basic facts, ideas, and sample tools necessary to start a community-wide used oil recycling program built around a central theme: CONSERVE OUR ENERGY, PRESERVE OUR ENVIRONMENT. The slogan being: RECYCLE USED OIL! More than 100 million gallons of valuable used lubricating oil are wasted by America's car owners who change their own oil annually. Much of this is disposed in an environmentally hazardous manner. Suggestions on the contents that should be included in each community's used oil information package are enclosed.

DOE. 1982. Program Guide to Used Oil Recycling. Synopsis: The purpose of this booklet is to provide information and sample tools necessary in starting a much needed community-wide used oil recycling program. In 1982, approximately 250 million gallons of valuable used lubricating oil was wasted by America's car owners who changed their own oil. Much of this was disposed of in an environmentally hazardous manner. This guide provides materials needed by a community to start a used oil recycling operation.

Eastep, D. 1981. More States Recover Oil. Recycling News 2 (1):2-3 Synopsis: Approximately 2.5 billion gallons of lubricating oil are sold in America each year; 1.2 billion for automobile use (60% to do-it- yourselfers) and 1.3 billion gallons for industrial use. It is estimated that 35% of automobile oil and about 50% of industrial oil is lost. Consumer reluctance is suggested as one reason that greater recovery has not been seen. Oil recovery programs initiate by states are seen as the best solution to recovery of this lost oil.

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EPA. July 1982. State Regulation of Waste Oil. Synopsis: This study presents how each U.S. state currently regulates waste oil handling. Information was gathered through telephone conversations with state officials and from reviewing and assessing each state's Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, and Air Quality Regulations. Each state is summarized and is presented in discrete topics that deal with: 1) agency and department organization, 2) regula- tory classification of waste oil, 3) regulation of waste oil handling, 4) regulation of oil spill cleanup, 5) enforcement of waste oil regulations, and 6) contacts.

EPA. August 1986. Memo: Information on Used Oil Recycling for Gas Stations and Other Vehicle Service Facilities. Synopsis: Vehicle maintenance produces about 700 million gallons of used oil annually. EPA prefers not to list used oil as a hazardous waste. Guidelines are suggested for pickup, storage, and disposal.

EPA. September 1988. How to Set Up a Local Used Oil Recycling Program (draft). Synopsis: About half of the oil used in the United States (approximately 600 million gallons) could be recycled to create new lubricating oil. The other half is lost in the engine. However, due to mismanagement of this used oil, it has become one of the nation's biggest, but least-recognized, pollution problems. It is estimated that about one-half of our potentially recyclable oil is discarded improperly, creating serious environmental problems. The manual presented here is intended to help local officials or civic groups set up programs to encourage do-it-yourselfers to recycle their motor oil and make sure that used oil throughout each community is handled safely and responsibly. A variety of issues are covered: step-by-step design of an appropriate program, costs and logistics of implementation, publicity, and organizing public and private groups. Many useful references and materials are also enclosed. These include: facts and figures on the problem itself, lists of state programs that can provide support, sample publicity materials, and guidance on how to assess the performance of a hauler or recycler.

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Heidenreich, P., J. Kearley, and G. Kenny. 1988. Waste Processing: Makes Good Energy. Civil Engineering 58(7): 60-61. Synopsis: The benefits of ridding solid waste streams of paper, bottles, cans, and heavy metal products are well known: smaller, safer and less expensive landfills, less toxic incinerator emissions and ashes, and conservation of resources. A fourth advantageincreased BTU values for waste-to-energy is less known, but may be the boost that both waste-to-energy and resource recovery industries are seeking. Results from DOE-sponsored research at the Nashville Thermal Transfer Corporations show BTU increases of up to 20% for waste stripped of aluminum, glass, and heavy metals. All but 8 states have some type of curbside recycling program, though some are as minimal as litter control bills and used oil recycling.

Joint Legislative Air and Water Pollution Control and Conservation Committee, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. February 1992. The Recycling and Regulation of Used Oil Synopsis: Discussion of how used motor oil is disposed of and in what quantities. Discussion of federal regulations relating to classifying used motor oil as a hazardous waste. EPA alternatives to classifying used motor oil. How used motor oil can be recycled and the economics of oil recycling. Recycling used motor oil if classified as hazardous or nonhazardous. Recycling used motor oil in Pennsylvania.

Kronfeld, A.M. 1989. Used Oil's Frightening Future. Waste Age 20 (7) :169- 174 Synopsis: U.S. Department of Commerce estimates that the U.S. generates an estimated 1.2 billion gallons of used oil each year, resulting from sales of more than 2.3 billion gallons of industrial and automotive oils. Of that amount, 570 million gallons is unaccounted for in terms of reuse or recycling. Do-it-yourselfers account for 200 million gallons of used oil annually of which 10% is recycled (i.e. 180 million gallons is being improperly disposed annually). Problems with recovery were listed, as well as what can be done to encourage this recovery to occur. Categorization of used oil as a non-hazardous or hazardous waste by EPA is investigated. An increase in regulations in waste oil recovery processes is foreseen as a deterrent to recycling which may, in turn, lead to further improper disposal.

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Males, E. 1987. A Slippery Beast: EPA's Evolving Used Oil Regulations. Lubricating Engineering PP. 162-166 Synopsis: Journal article dealing with the changing regulations involving the disposal of used oil. Describes the three-part regulatory program mandated by the EPA. Author advises that businesses involved in used oil collection, marketing, and recycling should become aware of the general framework of EPA's used oil program.

Mullins, C.J. 1992.Lead, Organics & Used Oil: Newest Data Shows No Problem Today. Econ March 1992: 22-23, 42-43. Synopsis: Discussion of previous studies that allege that lead was a major used motor oil contaminant. The author supplies data that shows that the vast majority of lead air emissions comes from burning gasoline in vehicles rather than burning used motor oil. Organic compounds in used motor oil can cause cancer and smog when unprocessed. However, these organic compounds break down into CO2 and water when burned. The author points out that where used motor oil is declared hazardous, DIY collection drops off dramatically.

Mullins, C.J. 1992.What Safety-Kleen Giveth, Safety-Kleen Taketh Away. Ohio Parts & Equipment February 1992: 1 Synopsis: Information regarding legalities when a supplier has oil picked up by Safety-Kleen. Includes discussion of lawsuit against BresLube (a Safety-Kleen subsidiary) in the city Sanitary District of East Chicago, Indiana, in which the district alleged that the refiner violated its industrial discharge permit 354 times since mid-1988. The district alleges that the company exceeded disposal limits for oil, grease, phenol, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and lead. Mullins, C.J. 1992. Is Your Pocket to Be Picked by Safety-Kleen? Ohio Parts & Equipment January 1992: 1 Synopsis: Listing of lawsuits filed against Safety-Kleen in 1991. Discussion of Safety-Kleen's Certificate of Assurance.

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Discussion of Safety-Kleen's marketing strategy which is to convince people (through what is thought to be misleading information) that used motor oil should not be burned due to claimed 100% emission of lead into air when used oil is burned.

Ramirez, Lee. December, 1990. Recycling Used Motor Oil - Keeping it Affordable. Solid Waste and Power. 12:65. Synopsis: This article reviews the used motor oil practices in Lubbock, Texas.

Reece, David. Oil: Life Blood of Hydraulic Systems. Waste Age. 12:89-94. Synopsis: This article reviews oil pressure as it affects performance.

Reindl, J. 1977. Waste Oil Recycling. J. Environmental Health 40 (1): 52-55. Synopsis: A survey of 8,500 service stations in Wisconsin in 1971 revealed that 37.4% of waste oil is used as a fuel, 33.8% is refined, 19.6% is used on farms, 7.1% is used in dust control, and most of the remainder is dumped on the ground. A mail survey to 100 truck and bus firms determined that about 75% of their waste oil was also reused or recycled, and about 25% was dumped. Although the effect of oil on the soil is under debate, tests show that a 1.1% waste oil contamination reduced plant yield by 30%, and a 2.2% contamination reduced plant yield by 53%. In fresh water, toxic effects of waste oil were noted at 310 parts per million (ppm); in a marine environment, 1 ppm was found to be toxic. Used oil can be re-refined for reuse as a lubricating oil or other use. Re-refining can return the oil to a quality equal to virgin oil. The proper disposal or recycling of waste oil has not received much attention in this country even though large quantities are involved and there are serious potential environmental problems involved in its handling. With the large increases in oil prices in the past 3 years, recycling is now feasible in many locations and the investigation of waste oil recycling is warranted.

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The Robert Sun Company. January 1992. Black Gold Waste Oil Recycling System Fact Pack Synopsis: Discussion of liability of waste oil generators and that even oil re- refining produces waste products. States that burning used motor oil for heat is least risky, safest, and most economical way for disposal. Remainder primarily deals with providing information regarding its waste oil heater.

South Africa save 7 million rand ($9 million) in Imported Oil. 1981. Environment 23(2): 24. Synopsis: South Africa could save 7 million rand ($9 million) in imported oil by recycling 130,000 tons of used motor oil per year, which is about one-third the country's requirements. The recycled oil, which can be used in cars, could be sold for at least 30% less than new oil, thus offering a substantial saving to consumers. The country's recycling plan may fail because garages refuse to stock the used oil and because of lack of public interest.

Thompson, C.J. & M.L. Whisman. 1977. Waste oil recycling - An idea whose time has come. NBS Special Publication. No. 488. pp. 57-60. Synopsis: Description of a research project to investigate refining used crankcase oil conducted for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration at the Bartlesville Energy Center (BERC) is given. Technology developed at BERC during this investigation can restore used oil to original quality using a vacuum-distillation procedure that depends upon a solvent pretreatment to reduce thermally activated coking and fouling precursors. Advantages of this method include the high yield of high-quality oil with essentially neutral by-products which can be easily disposed in an environmentally sound manner. Largely successful results have been gained from engine performance data on oils reclaimed with the BERC-developed technology and a commercially re-refined oil. Studies are described that define the hydrocarbon composition of typical re-refinery feedstocks for evaluation of geographical and seasonal differences. Plans are presented for future composition studies, increased inhouse processing capability, and the production of 1,000 gallons of reclaimed oil from the BERC process.

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Unknown. 1987. DOE Report Assesses Environmental Impact of Waste Oil Industry. J. Air Pollution Control Association. 37(7) : 780-781, 839-840. Synopsis: Most current methods of used oil and unused waste oil utilization and disposal create risks of contaminating air, water, or soil with substances that pose hazards to human animal, and plant life. Recent actions taken to regulate used oil may create severe constraints on those who generate, collect, and handle used oil, such that many of them may leave the market. This may lead to decreased availability of sound disposal options resulting in increased improper disposal of used oil. The U.S. EPA has tried several times to classify used oil as a hazardous waste. The rationale for proposing such a regulation was that its implementation would force more energy recovery through fuel reprocessing and lube oil re-fining. The release of 61128 million gallons per year of used oil into the environment would likely threaten ground and surface waters with oil contamination, thereby endangering drinking water supplies and aquatic life. Therefore, in its latest attempt to classify used oil as a hazardous waste, EPA concluded that such a listing would discourage recycling or reuse.

Unknown. 1988. Oil Recycles Target Do-it-Yourselfers. BioCycle 29(4) : 46- 47. Synopsis: The State of Alabama has a comprehensive program, Project ROSE whose primary functions are to assist do-it-yourself oil change in recycling efforts and to provide collection/recycling information to used oil generators, collectors, and recyclers. Three types of collection methods are used in state: curbside, Project ROSE collection centers that consist of service stations, garages, and automotive service centers, and drum placement. The curbside program has been found to be the best suited for metropolitan areas in which consistent garbage collection is provided. Most of the used oil collected is refined in some way and burned in industrial furnaces. Unknown. November, 1990. New Prospects for Old Oil. Waste Age. 11: 88- 92. Synopsis: This article explains that as oil prices rise, used oil products become more valuable.

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Versar, Inc. 1988. Final Report: Review of Curbside Used Oil Recycling Programs in the United States. EPA contract no. 68-01-7053; work assignment no. 67. Synopsis: An introduction about the background of used oil curbside recycling is given. This is followed by descriptions of various used oil recycling programs involving curbside pick-up that have been successfully implemented by communities throughout the U.S. A cost benefit analysis of this type of recycling program is listed.

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